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Sample records for characterizing openmp application

  1. Development of Mixed Mode MPI / OpenMP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Smith

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available MPI / OpenMP mixed mode codes could potentially offer the most effective parallelisation strategy for an SMP cluster, as well as allowing the different characteristics of both paradigms to be exploited to give the best performance on a single SMP. This paper discusses the implementation, development and performance of mixed mode MPI / OpenMP applications. The results demonstrate that this style of programming will not always be the most effective mechanism on SMP systems and cannot be regarded as the ideal programming model for all codes. In some situations, however, significant benefit may be obtained from a mixed mode implementation. For example, benefit may be obtained if the parallel (MPI code suffers from: poor scaling with MPI processes due to load imbalance or too fine a grain problem size, memory limitations due to the use of a replicated data strategy, or a restriction on the number of MPI processes combinations. In addition, if the system has a poorly optimised or limited scaling MPI implementation then a mixed mode code may increase the code performance.

  2. OpenMP for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  3. How Good is OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The OpenMP standard defines an Application Programming Interface (API for shared memory computers. Since its introduction in 1997, it has grown to become one of the most commonly used API's for parallel programming. But success in the market doesn't necessarily imply successful computer science. Is OpenMP a "good" programming environment? What does it even mean to call a programming environment good? And finally, once we understand how good or bad OpenMP is; what can we do to make it even better? In this paper, we will address these questions.

  4. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

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    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  5. A Multiprogramming Aware OpenMP Implementation

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    Vasileios K. Barekas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an OpenMP implementation suitable for multiprogrammed environments on Intel-based SMP systems. This implementation consists of a runtime system and a resource manager, while we use the NanosCompiler to transform OpenMP-coded applications into code with calls to our runtime system. The resource manager acts as the operating system scheduler for the applications built with our runtime system. It executes a custom made scheduling policy to distribute the available physical processors to the active applications. The runtime system cooperates with the resource manager in order to adapt each application's generated parallelism to the number of processors allocated to it, according to the resource manager scheduling policy. We use the OpenMP version of the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite in order to evaluate the performance of our implementation. In our experiments we compare the performance of our implementation with that of a commercial OpenMP implementation. The comparison proves that our approach performs better both on a dedicated and on a heavily multiprogrammed environment.

  6. Early Experiences Writing Performance Portable OpenMP 4 Codes

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    Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hernandez, Oscar R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the recently available directives in OpenMP 4 to parallelize a computational kernel using both the traditional shared memory approach and the newer accelerator targeting capabilities. In addition, we explore various transformations that attempt to increase application performance portability, and examine the expressiveness and performance implications of using these approaches. For example, we want to understand if the target map directives in OpenMP 4 improve data locality when mapped to a shared memory system, as opposed to the traditional first touch policy approach in traditional OpenMP. To that end, we use recent Cray and Intel compilers to measure the performance variations of a simple application kernel when executed on the OLCF s Titan supercomputer with NVIDIA GPUs and the Beacon system with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators attached. To better understand these trade-offs, we compare our results from traditional OpenMP shared memory implementations to the newer accelerator programming model when it is used to target both the CPU and an attached heterogeneous device. We believe the results and lessons learned as presented in this paper will be useful to the larger user community by providing guidelines that can assist programmers in the development of performance portable code.

  7. Extending OpenMP for NUMA Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bircsak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes extensions to OpenMP that implement data placement features needed for NUMA architectures. OpenMP is a collection of compiler directives and library routines used to write portable parallel programs for shared-memory architectures. Writing efficient parallel programs for NUMA architectures, which have characteristics of both shared-memory and distributed-memory architectures, requires that a programmer control the placement of data in memory and the placement of computations that operate on that data. Optimal performance is obtained when computations occur on processors that have fast access to the data needed by those computations. OpenMP -- designed for shared-memory architectures -- does not by itself address these issues. The extensions to OpenMP Fortran presented here have been mainly taken from High Performance Fortran. The paper describes some of the techniques that the Compaq Fortran compiler uses to generate efficient code based on these extensions. It also describes some additional compiler optimizations, and concludes with some preliminary results.

  8. OpenMP 4.5 Validation and Verification Suite

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    2017-12-15

    OpenMP, a directive-based programming API, introduce directives for accelerator devices that programmers are starting to use more frequently in production codes. To make sure OpenMP directives work correctly across architectures, it is critical to have a mechanism that tests for an implementation's conformance to the OpenMP standard. This testing process can uncover ambiguities in the OpenMP specification, which helps compiler developers and users make a better use of the standard. We fill this gap through our validation and verification test suite that focuses on the offload directives available in OpenMP 4.5.

  9. Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing - Towards Enhancing OpenMP for Manycore and Heterogeneous Nodes

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    Barbara Chapman

    2012-02-01

    OpenMP was not well recognized at the beginning of the project, around year 2003, because of its limited use in DoE production applications and the inmature hardware support for an efficient implementation. Yet in the recent years, it has been graduately adopted both in HPC applications, mostly in the form of MPI+OpenMP hybrid code, and in mid-scale desktop applications for scientific and experimental studies. We have observed this trend and worked deligiently to improve our OpenMP compiler and runtimes, as well as to work with the OpenMP standard organization to make sure OpenMP are evolved in the direction close to DoE missions. In the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing project, the HPCTools team at the University of Houston (UH), directed by Dr. Barbara Chapman, has been working with project partners, external collaborators and hardware vendors to increase the scalability and applicability of OpenMP for multi-core (and future manycore) platforms and for distributed memory systems by exploring different programming models, language extensions, compiler optimizations, as well as runtime library support.

  10. Performance Tuning of x86 OpenMP Codes with MAQAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthou, Denis; Charif Rubial, Andres; Jalby, William; Koliai, Souad; Valensi, Cédric

    Failing to find the best optimization sequence for a given application code can lead to compiler generated codes with poor performances or inappropriate code. It is necessary to analyze performances from the assembly generated code to improve over the compilation process. This paper presents a tool for the performance analysis of multithreaded codes (OpenMP programs support at the moment). MAQAO relies on static performance evaluation to identify compiler optimizations and assess performance of loops. It exploits static binary rewriting for reading and instrumenting object files or executables. Static binary instrumentation allows the insertion of probes at instruction level. Memory accesses can be captured to help tune the code, but such traces require to be compressed. MAQAO can analyze the results and provide hints for tuning the code. We show on some examples how this can help users improve their OpenMP applications.

  11. Overlapping Communication and Computation with OpenMP and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Machines comprised of a distributed collection of shared memory or SMP nodes are becoming common for parallel computing. OpenMP can be combined with MPI on many such machines. Motivations for combing OpenMP and MPI are discussed. While OpenMP is typically used for exploiting loop-level parallelism it can also be used to enable coarse grain parallelism, potentially leading to less overhead. We show how coarse grain OpenMP parallelism can also be used to facilitate overlapping MPI communication and computation for stencil-based grid programs such as a program performing Gauss-Seidel iteration with red-black ordering. Spatial subdivision or domain decomposition is used to assign a portion of the grid to each thread. One thread is assigned a null calculation region so it was free to perform communication. Example calculations were run on an IBM SP using both the Kuck & Associates and IBM compilers.

  12. A Proposal for User-defined Reductions in OpenMP

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    Duran, A; Ferrer, R; Klemm, M; de Supinski, B R; Ayguade, E

    2010-03-22

    Reductions are commonly used in parallel programs to produce a global result from partial results computed in parallel. Currently, OpenMP only supports reductions for primitive data types and a limited set of base language operators. This is a significant limitation for those applications that employ user-defined data types (e. g., objects). Implementing manual reduction algorithms makes software development more complex and error-prone. Additionally, an OpenMP runtime system cannot optimize a manual reduction algorithm in ways typically applied to reductions on primitive types. In this paper, we propose new mechanisms to allow the use of most pre-existing binary functions on user-defined data types as User-Defined Reduction (UDR) operators. Our measurements show that our UDR prototype implementation provides consistently good performance across a range of thread counts without increasing general runtime overheads.

  13. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  14. OpenMP parallelization of a gridded SWAT (SWATG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hou, Jinliang; Cao, Yongpan; Gu, Juan; Huang, Chunlin

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale, long-term and high spatial resolution simulation is a common issue in environmental modeling. A Gridded Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU)-based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWATG) that integrates grid modeling scheme with different spatial representations also presents such problems. The time-consuming problem affects applications of very high resolution large-scale watershed modeling. The OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) parallel application interface is integrated with SWATG (called SWATGP) to accelerate grid modeling based on the HRU level. Such parallel implementation takes better advantage of the computational power of a shared memory computer system. We conducted two experiments at multiple temporal and spatial scales of hydrological modeling using SWATG and SWATGP on a high-end server. At 500-m resolution, SWATGP was found to be up to nine times faster than SWATG in modeling over a roughly 2000 km2 watershed with 1 CPU and a 15 thread configuration. The study results demonstrate that parallel models save considerable time relative to traditional sequential simulation runs. Parallel computations of environmental models are beneficial for model applications, especially at large spatial and temporal scales and at high resolutions. The proposed SWATGP model is thus a promising tool for large-scale and high-resolution water resources research and management in addition to offering data fusion and model coupling ability.

  15. A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two important contributions. First, the paper investigates the performance implications of data placement in OpenMP programs running on modern NUMA multiprocessors. Data locality and minimization of the rate of remote memory accesses are critical for sustaining high performance on these systems. We show that due to the low remote-to-local memory access latency ratio of contemporary NUMA architectures, reasonably balanced page placement schemes, such as round-robin or random distribution, incur modest performance losses. Second, the paper presents a transparent, user-level page migration engine with an ability to gain back any performance loss that stems from suboptimal placement of pages in iterative OpenMP programs. The main body of the paper describes how our OpenMP runtime environment uses page migration for implementing implicit data distribution and redistribution schemes without programmer intervention. Our experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework and provide a proof of concept that it is not necessary to introduce data distribution directives in OpenMP and warrant the simplicity or the portability of the programming model.

  16. Issues Identified During September 2016 IBM OpenMP 4.5 Hackathon

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    Richards, David F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    In September, 2016 IBM hosted an OpenMP 4.5 Hackathon at the TJ Watson Research Center. Teams from LLNL, ORNL, SNL, LANL, and LBNL attended the event. As with the 2015 hackathon, IBM produced an extremely useful and successful event with unmatched support from compiler team, applications staff, and facilities. Approximately 24 IBM staff supported 4-day hackathon and spent significant time 4-6 weeks out to prepare environment and become familiar with apps. This hackathon was also the first event to feature LLVM & XL C/C++ and Fortran compilers. This report records many of the issues encountered by the LLNL teams during the hackathon.

  17. Benchmarking MILC code with OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Tamhankar, Sonali

    2001-01-01

    A trend in high performance computers that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of symmetric multi-processing (SMP) rather than the older paradigm of MPP. MPI codes that ran and scaled well on MPP machines can often be run on an SMP machine using the vendor's version of MPI. However, this approach may not make optimal use of the (expensive) SMP hardware. More significantly, there are machines like Blue Horizon, an IBM SP with 8-way SMP nodes at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that can only support 4 MPI processes per node (with the current switch). On such a machine it is imperative to be able to use OpenMP parallelism on the node, and MPI between nodes. We describe the challenges of converting MILC MPI code to using a second level of OpenMP parallelism, and benchmarks on IBM and Sun computers

  18. Experiences with OpenMP in tmLQCD

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    Deuzeman, A. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Kostrzewa, B. [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Urbach, C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). HISKP (Theory); Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    An overview is given of the lessons learned from the introduction of multi-threading using OpenMP in tmLQCD. In particular, programming style, performance measurements, cache misses, scaling, thread distribution for hybrid codes, race conditions, the overlapping of communication and computation and the measurement and reduction of certain overheads are discussed. Performance measurements and sampling profiles are given for different implementations of the hopping matrix computational kernel.

  19. Experiences with OpenMP in tmLQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuzeman, A.

    2013-11-01

    An overview is given of the lessons learned from the introduction of multi-threading using OpenMP in tmLQCD. In particular, programming style, performance measurements, cache misses, scaling, thread distribution for hybrid codes, race conditions, the overlapping of communication and computation and the measurement and reduction of certain overheads are discussed. Performance measurements and sampling profiles are given for different implementations of the hopping matrix computational kernel.

  20. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  1. Effective Vectorization with OpenMP 4.5

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    Huber, Joseph N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hernandez, Oscar R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lopez, Matthew Graham [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes how the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) model and its extensions in OpenMP work, and how these are implemented in different compilers. Modern processors are highly parallel computational machines which often include multiple processors capable of executing several instructions in parallel. Understanding SIMD and executing instructions in parallel allows the processor to achieve higher performance without increasing the power required to run it. SIMD instructions can significantly reduce the runtime of code by executing a single operation on large groups of data. The SIMD model is so integral to the processor s potential performance that, if SIMD is not utilized, less than half of the processor is ever actually used. Unfortunately, using SIMD instructions is a challenge in higher level languages because most programming languages do not have a way to describe them. Most compilers are capable of vectorizing code by using the SIMD instructions, but there are many code features important for SIMD vectorization that the compiler cannot determine at compile time. OpenMP attempts to solve this by extending the C++/C and Fortran programming languages with compiler directives that express SIMD parallelism. OpenMP is used to pass hints to the compiler about the code to be executed in SIMD. This is a key resource for making optimized code, but it does not change whether or not the code can use SIMD operations. However, in many cases critical functions are limited by a poor understanding of how SIMD instructions are actually implemented, as SIMD can be implemented through vector instructions or simultaneous multi-threading (SMT). We have found that it is often the case that code cannot be vectorized, or is vectorized poorly, because the programmer does not have sufficient knowledge of how SIMD instructions work.

  2. Composite materials processing, applications, characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials are used as substitutions of metals/traditional materials in aerospace, automotive, civil, mechanical and other industries. The present book collects the current knowledge and recent developments in the characterization and application of composite materials. To this purpose the volume describes the outstanding properties of this class of advanced material which recommend it for various industrial applications.

  3. RA radiological characterization database application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steljic, M.M; Ljubenov, V.Lj. . E-mail address of corresponding author: milijanas@vin.bg.ac.yu; Steljic, M.M.)

    2005-01-01

    Radiological characterization of the RA research reactor is one of the main activities in the first two years of the reactor decommissioning project. The raw characterization data from direct measurements or laboratory analyses (defined within the existing sampling and measurement programme) have to be interpreted, organized and summarized in order to prepare the final characterization survey report. This report should be made so that the radiological condition of the entire site is completely and accurately shown with the radiological condition of the components clearly depicted. This paper presents an electronic database application, designed as a serviceable and efficient tool for characterization data storage, review and analysis, as well as for the reports generation. Relational database model was designed and the application is made by using Microsoft Access 2002 (SP1), a 32-bit RDBMS for the desktop and client/server database applications that run under Windows XP. (author)

  4. Python for Development of OpenMP and CUDA Kernels for Multidimensional Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Zane W.; Davidson, Gregory G.; D'Azevedo, Ed F.; Evans, Thomas M.; Joubert, Wayne; Munro, John K. Jr.; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy; Vacaliuc, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Design of data structures for high performance computing (HPC) is one of the principal challenges facing researchers looking to utilize heterogeneous computing machinery. Heterogeneous systems derive cost, power, and speed efficiency by being composed of the appropriate hardware for the task. Yet, each type of processor requires a specific organization of the application state in order to achieve peak performance. Discovering this and refactoring the code can be a challenging and time-consuming task for the researcher, as the data structures and the computational model must be co-designed. We present a methodology that uses Python as the environment for which to explore tradeoffs in both the data structure design as well as the code executing on the computation accelerator. Our method enables multi-dimensional arrays to be used effectively in any target environment. We have chosen to focus on OpenMP and CUDA environments, thus exploring the development of optimized kernels for the two most common classes of computing hardware available today: multi-core CPU and GPU. Python s large palette of file and network access routines, its associative indexing syntax and support for common HPC environments makes it relevant for diverse hardware ranging from laptops through computing clusters to the highest performance supercomputers. Our work enables researchers to accelerate the development of their codes on the computing hardware of their choice.

  5. Execution Model of Three Parallel Languages: OpenMP, UPC and CAF

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    Ami Marowka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a qualitative evaluation of three state-of-the-art parallel languages: OpenMP, Unified Parallel C (UPC and Co-Array Fortran (CAF. OpenMP and UPC are explicit parallel programming languages based on the ANSI standard. CAF is an implicit programming language. On the one hand, OpenMP designs for shared-memory architectures and extends the base-language by using compiler directives that annotate the original source-code. On the other hand, UPC and CAF designs for distribute-shared memory architectures and extends the base-language by new parallel constructs. We deconstruct each language into its basic components, show examples, make a detailed analysis, compare them, and finally draw some conclusions.

  6. Performance monitoring and analysis of task-based OpenMP.

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    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available OpenMP, a typical shared memory programming paradigm, has been extensively applied in high performance computing community due to the popularity of multicore architectures in recent years. The most significant feature of the OpenMP 3.0 specification is the introduction of the task constructs to express parallelism at a much finer level of detail. This feature, however, has posed new challenges for performance monitoring and analysis. In particular, task creation is separated from its execution, causing the traditional monitoring methods to be ineffective. This paper presents a mechanism to monitor task-based OpenMP programs with interposition and proposes two demonstration graphs for performance analysis as well. The results of two experiments are discussed to evaluate the overhead of monitoring mechanism and to verify the effects of demonstration graphs using the BOTS benchmarks.

  7. Improving Security at Work with Software that Uses OpenMP

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    P. S. Polishuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A model of the offender and the list of major types of threats, the conditions for the realization of which are created by using the software that uses OpenMP is considered. A method for verification of software using OpenMP for the presence of vulnerabilities associated with multi-threaded execution is offered. We give basic algorithms and the system architecture that implements the proposed method. The results of testing the method on various programs, including those containing malicious code, as well as assessment of the possibilities of applying the method in different computing environments are given.

  8. Performance of a Code Migration for the Simulation of Supersonic Ejector Flow to SMP, MIC, and GPU Using OpenMP, OpenMP+LEO, and OpenACC Directives

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    C. Couder-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A serial source code for simulating a supersonic ejector flow is accelerated using parallelization based on OpenMP and OpenACC directives. The purpose is to reduce the development costs and to simplify the maintenance of the application due to the complexity of the FORTRAN source code. This research follows well-proven strategies in order to obtain the best performance in both OpenMP and OpenACC. OpenMP has become the programming standard for scientific multicore software and OpenACC is one true alternative for graphics accelerators without the need of programming low level kernels. The strategies using OpenMP are oriented towards reducing the creation of parallel regions, tasks creation to handle boundary conditions, and a nested control of the loop time for the programming in offload mode specifically for the Xeon Phi. In OpenACC, the strategy focuses on maintaining the data regions among the executions of the kernels. Experiments for performance and validation are conducted here on a 12-core Xeon CPU, Xeon Phi 5110p, and Tesla C2070, obtaining the best performance from the latter. The Tesla C2070 presented an acceleration factor of 9.86X, 1.6X, and 4.5X compared against the serial version on CPU, 12-core Xeon CPU, and Xeon Phi, respectively.

  9. Benchmarking and Evaluating Unified Memory for OpenMP GPU Offloading

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    Mishra, Alok [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Li, Lingda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kong, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chapman, Barbara [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, the latest OpenMP standard offers automatic device offloading capabilities which facilitate GPU programming. Despite this, there remain many challenges. One of these is the unified memory feature introduced in recent GPUs. GPUs in current and future HPC systems have enhanced support for unified memory space. In such systems, CPU and GPU can access each other's memory transparently, that is, the data movement is managed automatically by the underlying system software and hardware. Memory over subscription is also possible in these systems. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about how this mechanism will perform, and how programmers should use it. We have modified several benchmarks codes, in the Rodinia benchmark suite, to study the behavior of OpenMP accelerator extensions and have used them to explore the impact of unified memory in an OpenMP context. We moreover modified the open source LLVM compiler to allow OpenMP programs to exploit unified memory. The results of our evaluation reveal that, while the performance of unified memory is comparable with that of normal GPU offloading for benchmarks with little data reuse, it suffers from significant overhead when GPU memory is over subcribed for benchmarks with large amount of data reuse. Based on these results, we provide several guidelines for programmers to achieve better performance with unified memory.

  10. Innovative Language-Based & Object-Oriented Structured AMR Using Fortran 90 and OpenMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, C.; Balsara, D.

    1999-01-01

    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is an important numerical technique that leads to the efficient solution of many physical and engineering problems. In this paper, we describe how AMR programing can be performed in an object-oreinted way using the modern aspects of Fortran 90 combined with the parallelization features of OpenMP.

  11. Polymer Brushes: Synthesis, Characterization, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Rigoberto C.; Brittain, William J.; Caster, Kenneth C.; Rühe, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Materials scientists, polymer chemists, surface physicists and materials engineers will find this book a complete and detailed treatise on the field of polymer brushes, their synthesis, characterization and manifold applications. In a first section, the various synthetic pathways and different surface materials are introduced and explained, followed by a second section covering important aspects of characterization and analysis in both flat surfaces and particles. These specific surface initiated polymerization (SIP) systems such as linear polymers, homopolymers, block copolymers, and hyperbranched polymers are unique compared to previously reported systems by chemisorption or physisorption. They have found their way in both large-scale and miniature applications of polymer brushes, which is covered in the last section. Such 'hairy' surfaces offer fascinating opportunities for addressing numerous problems of both academic and, in particular, industrial interest: high-quality, functional or protective coatings, composite materials, surface engineered particles, metal-organic interfaces, biological applications, micro-patterning, colloids, nanoparticles, functional devices, and many more. It is the desire of the authors that this book will be of benefit to readers who want to "brush-up on polymers".

  12. OpenMP performance for benchmark 2D shallow water equations using LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Khairul; Rabbani, Hasbi; Gunawan, Putu Harry

    2018-03-01

    Shallow water equations or commonly referred as Saint-Venant equations are used to model fluid phenomena. These equations can be solved numerically using several methods, like Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), SIMPLE-like Method, Finite Difference Method, Godunov-type Method, and Finite Volume Method. In this paper, the shallow water equation will be approximated using LBM or known as LABSWE and will be simulated in performance of parallel programming using OpenMP. To evaluate the performance between 2 and 4 threads parallel algorithm, ten various number of grids Lx and Ly are elaborated. The results show that using OpenMP platform, the computational time for solving LABSWE can be decreased. For instance using grid sizes 1000 × 500, the speedup of 2 and 4 threads is observed 93.54 s and 333.243 s respectively.

  13. OpenMP Issues Arising in the Development of Parallel BLAS and LAPACK Libraries

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    C. Addison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense linear algebra libraries need to cope efficiently with a range of input problem sizes and shapes. Inherently this means that parallel implementations have to exploit parallelism wherever it is present. While OpenMP allows relatively fine grain parallelism to be exploited in a shared memory environment it currently lacks features to make it easy to partition computation over multiple array indices or to overlap sequential and parallel computations. The inherent flexible nature of shared memory paradigms such as OpenMP poses other difficulties when it becomes necessary to optimise performance across successive parallel library calls. Notions borrowed from distributed memory paradigms, such as explicit data distributions help address some of these problems, but the focus on data rather than work distribution appears misplaced in an SMP context.

  14. Position Paper: OpenMP scheduling on ARM big.LITTLE architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bessad , Louisa; Novo , David; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles; Torres , Lionel; Robert , Michel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Single-ISA heterogeneous multicore systems are emerging as a promising direction to achieve a more suitable balance between performance and energy consumption. However, a proper utilization of these architectures is essential to reach the energy benefits. In this paper, we demonstrate the ineffectiveness of popular OpenMP scheduling policies executing Rodinia benchmark on the Exynos 5 Octa (5422) SoC, which integrates the ARM big.LITTLE architecture.

  15. Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vargas-Félix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.

  16. Improvement and speed optimization of numerical tsunami modelling program using OpenMP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A.; Zaytsev, A.; Yalciner, A.; Kurkin, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently, the basic problem of tsunami modeling is low speed of calculations which is unacceptable for services of the operative notification. Existing algorithms of numerical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of tsunami waves are developed without taking the opportunities of modern computer facilities. There is an opportunity to have considerable acceleration of process of calculations by using parallel algorithms. We discuss here new approach to parallelization tsunami modeling code using OpenMP Technology (for multiprocessing systems with the general memory). Nowadays, multiprocessing systems are easily accessible for everyone. The cost of the use of such systems becomes much lower comparing to the costs of clusters. This opportunity also benefits all programmers to apply multithreading algorithms on desktop computers of researchers. Other important advantage of the given approach is the mechanism of the general memory - there is no necessity to send data on slow networks (for example Ethernet). All memory is the common for all computing processes; it causes almost linear scalability of the program and processes. In the new version of NAMI DANCE using OpenMP technology and multi-threading algorithm provide 80% gain in speed in comparison with the one-thread version for dual-processor unit. The speed increased and 320% gain was attained for four core processor unit of PCs. Thus, it was possible to reduce considerably time of performance of calculations on the scientific workstations (desktops) without complete change of the program and user interfaces. The further modernization of algorithms of preparation of initial data and processing of results using OpenMP looks reasonable. The final version of NAMI DANCE with the increased computational speed can be used not only for research purposes but also in real time Tsunami Warning Systems.

  17. Efficient Programming for Multicore Processor Heterogeneity: OpenMP versus OmpSs

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; ARM single-ISA heterogeneous multicore processors combine high-performance big cores with power-efficient small cores. They aim at achieving a suitable balance between performance and energy. How- ever, a main challenge is to program such architectures so as to efficiently exploit their features. In this paper, we study the impact on performance and energy trade-offs of single-ISA architecture according to OpenMP 3.0 and the OmpSs programming models. We consider differ...

  18. Algorithmic differentiation of pragma-defined parallel regions differentiating computer programs containing OpenMP

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Numerical programs often use parallel programming techniques such as OpenMP to compute the program's output values as efficient as possible. In addition, derivative values of these output values with respect to certain input values play a crucial role. To achieve code that computes not only the output values simultaneously but also the derivative values, this work introduces several source-to-source transformation rules. These rules are based on a technique called algorithmic differentiation. The main focus of this work lies on the important reverse mode of algorithmic differentiation. The inh

  19. Parallel processing implementation for the coupled transport of photons and electrons using OpenMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, Edgardo

    2016-05-01

    In this work the use of OpenMP to implement the parallel processing of the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the coupled transport for photons and electrons is presented. This implementation was carried out using a modified EGSnrc platform which enables the use of the Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 (VS2013) environment, together with the developing tools available in the Intel Parallel Studio XE 2015 (XE2015). The performance study of this new implementation was carried out in a desktop PC with a multi-core CPU, taking as a reference the performance of the original platform. The results were satisfactory, both in terms of scalability as parallelization efficiency.

  20. Parallelization of maximum likelihood fits with OpenMP and CUDA

    CERN Document Server

    Jarp, S; Leduc, J; Nowak, A; Pantaleo, F

    2011-01-01

    Data analyses based on maximum likelihood fits are commonly used in the high energy physics community for fitting statistical models to data samples. This technique requires the numerical minimization of the negative log-likelihood function. MINUIT is the most common package used for this purpose in the high energy physics community. The main algorithm in this package, MIGRAD, searches the minimum by using the gradient information. The procedure requires several evaluations of the function, depending on the number of free parameters and their initial values. The whole procedure can be very CPU-time consuming in case of complex functions, with several free parameters, many independent variables and large data samples. Therefore, it becomes particularly important to speed-up the evaluation of the negative log-likelihood function. In this paper we present an algorithm and its implementation which benefits from data vectorization and parallelization (based on OpenMP) and which was also ported to Graphics Processi...

  1. Analysis OpenMP performance of AMD and Intel architecture for breaking waves simulation using MPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, M. N. A.; Utomo, A.; Gunawan, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    Simulation of breaking waves by using Navier-Stokes equation via moving particle semi-implicit method (MPS) over close domain is given. The results show the parallel computing on multicore architecture using OpenMP platform can reduce the computational time almost half of the serial time. Here, the comparison using two computer architectures (AMD and Intel) are performed. The results using Intel architecture is shown better than AMD architecture in CPU time. However, in efficiency, the computer with AMD architecture gives slightly higher than the Intel. For the simulation by 1512 number of particles, the CPU time using Intel and AMD are 12662.47 and 28282.30 respectively. Moreover, the efficiency using similar number of particles, AMD obtains 50.09 % and Intel up to 49.42 %.

  2. Photocatalytic semiconductors synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume examines the different methods used for the synthesis of a great number of photocatalysts, including TiO2, ZnO and other modified semiconductors, as well as characterization techniques used for determining the optical, structural and morphological properties of the semiconducting materials. Additionally, the authors discuss photoelectrochemical methods for determining the light activity of the photocatalytic semiconductors by means of measurement of properties such as band gap energy, flat band potential and kinetics of hole and electron transfer. Photocatalytic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Characterization and Environmental Applications provide an overview of the semiconductor materials from first- to third-generation photocatalysts and their applications in wastewater treatment and water disinfection. The book further presents economic and toxicological aspects in the production and application of photocatalytic materials.

  3. Graphene optoelectronics synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    bin M Yusoff, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    This first book on emerging applications for this innovative material gives an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers high-end optoelectronics.The text focuses on potential as well as already realized applications, discussing metallic and passive components, such as transparent conductors and smart windows, as well as high-frequency devices, spintronics, photonics, and terahertz devices. Also included are sections on the fundamental properties, synthesis, and characterization of graphene. With its unique coverage, this book will be welcomed by materials scientists, solid-

  4. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  5. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  6. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  7. Getting More From Your Multicore: Exploiting OpenMP for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M. S.

    2008-08-01

    Motivated by the emergence of multicore architectures, and the reality that parallelism is rarely used for analysis in observational astronomy, we demonstrate how general users may employ tightly-coupled multiprocessors in scriptable research calculations while requiring no special knowledge of parallel programming. Our method rests on the observation that much of the appeal of high-level vectorized languages like IDL or MatLab stems from relatively simple internal loops over regular array structures, and that these loops are highly amenable to automatic parallelization with OpenMP. We discuss how ISIS, an open-source astrophysical analysis system embedding the slang numerical language, was easily adapted to exploit this pattern. Drawing from a common astrophysical problem, model fitting, we present beneficial speedups for several machine and compiler configurations. These results complement our previous efforts with PVM, and together lead us to believe that ISIS is the only general purpose spectroscopy system in which such a range of parallelism - from single processors on multiple machines to multiple processors on single machines - has been demonstrated.

  8. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, A. [TUV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. (Germany); Langenbuch, S. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  9. Experiences in the parallelization of the discrete ordinates method using OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, A.; Langenbuch, S.

    2003-01-01

    The method of Discrete Ordinates is in principle parallelizable to a high degree, since the transport 'mesh sweeps' are mutually independent for all angular directions. However, in the well-known production code Dort such a type of angular domain decomposition has to be done on a spatial line-byline basis, causing the parallelism in the code to be very fine-grained. The construction of scalar fluxes and moments requires a large effort for inter-thread or inter-process communication. We have implemented two different parallelization approaches in Dort: firstly, we have used a shared-memory model suitable for SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor) machines based on the standard OpenMP. The second approach uses the well-known Message Passing Interface (MPI) to establish communication between parallel processes running in a distributed-memory environment. We investigate the benefits and drawbacks of both models and show first results on performance and scaling behaviour of the parallel Dort code. (authors)

  10. TESLA GPUs versus MPI with OpenMP for the Forward Modeling of Gravity and Gravity Gradient of Large Prisms Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Couder-Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An implementation with the CUDA technology in a single and in several graphics processing units (GPUs is presented for the calculation of the forward modeling of gravitational fields from a tridimensional volumetric ensemble composed by unitary prisms of constant density. We compared the performance results obtained with the GPUs against a previous version coded in OpenMP with MPI, and we analyzed the results on both platforms. Today, the use of GPUs represents a breakthrough in parallel computing, which has led to the development of several applications with various applications. Nevertheless, in some applications the decomposition of the tasks is not trivial, as can be appreciated in this paper. Unlike a trivial decomposition of the domain, we proposed to decompose the problem by sets of prisms and use different memory spaces per processing CUDA core, avoiding the performance decay as a result of the constant calls to kernels functions which would be needed in a parallelization by observations points. The design and implementation created are the main contributions of this work, because the parallelization scheme implemented is not trivial. The performance results obtained are comparable to those of a small processing cluster.

  11. A heterogeneous computing accelerated SCE-UA global optimization method using OpenMP, OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guangyuan; He, Xiaoyan; Ding, Liuqian; Li, Jiren; Liang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2017-10-01

    The shuffled complex evolution optimization developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA) has been successfully applied in various kinds of scientific and engineering optimization applications, such as hydrological model parameter calibration, for many years. The algorithm possesses good global optimality, convergence stability and robustness. However, benchmark and real-world applications reveal the poor computational efficiency of the SCE-UA. This research aims at the parallelization and acceleration of the SCE-UA method based on powerful heterogeneous computing technology. The parallel SCE-UA is implemented on Intel Xeon multi-core CPU (by using OpenMP and OpenCL) and NVIDIA Tesla many-core GPU (by using OpenCL, CUDA, and OpenACC). The serial and parallel SCE-UA were tested based on the Griewank benchmark function. Comparison results indicate the parallel SCE-UA significantly improves computational efficiency compared to the original serial version. The OpenCL implementation obtains the best overall acceleration results however, with the most complex source code. The parallel SCE-UA has bright prospects to be applied in real-world applications.

  12. Characterization of the materials for functional application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duh, J.-G.

    1997-01-01

    The development of material products with extended performances has been equally pushed by the advancement of analysis techniques. Characterization of materials for functional application will be a challenge for further analytical methodology development. In this lecture, several characterization techniques will be outlined and emphasized with respect to special function applications as follows. 1. Phase analysis, crystallite size and microstrain of chemically synthesized ceramic powders in relation to phase transformation. 2. Microstructural evolution and reliability test in the solder joint of microelectronic package. The growth morphology of the intermetallic compound and its effects on the solder joint reliability will be highlighted and discussed. 3. Mechanical properties of thin films and metallized substrates, including adhesion strength, microhardness, scratch behavior, wear resistance. Special interest will be focused on the indentation-scratch deformation associated with the coating/substrate assembly. Employment of atomic force microscope in the evaluation of nano-tribology will also be probed. 4. Diffusion-related kinetics at interface by means of theoretical modelling and electron microanalysis. (author)

  13. Characterization of novel nanostructured materials for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauser, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a characterization of bulk- and surface properties of various (nanoscale) materials with respect to their possible use in applications. The main part of this work is dedicated to nanocrystalline Diamond films (NCD). Other materials include silicon nanoparticle films, gallium-, tungsten-, niobium- and hafnium-oxides as well as commercially available piercing materials. Diamond films of different surface terminations and morphologies were prepared and characterized, in order to realize surfaces with optimized properties for biological and medical applications. It was shown that properly terminated NCD Materials can be used as defined substrates for cell culture and cell-adhesion studies. In view of the use of NCD as coating for medical implants also in-vivo studies on the tissue attachment to differently terminated NCD surfaces were performed. NCD from chemical vapour deposition is a composite material which - in addition to diamond - also contains carbon species in grain boundaries. Thus - besides characterization of bulk properties (as hydrogen- and sp2 content or diamond grain size) - investigation of grain-boundary properties is important for the NCD-based applications presented within this thesis, including an electrochemical sensor, a thin-film acoustic resonator and a surface-plasmon- resonance based sensor. Thin films of silicon nanoparticles were studied by means of XPS-sputter depth profiling with respect to their behaviour under various oxidation conditions, such as exposure to ambient air or to oxygen plasma as well as upon electron irradiation under high-vacuum conditions. The investigation of gallium and tungsten oxides aims at their potential use as model catalysts. Besides a structural characterization, their oxidation and reduction behaviour was studied. Furthermore, a dendritic mixed-oxide system with an enhanced interface area could be prepared. Niobium and hafnium oxides are often used as dielectrics. It was the aim of the

  14. Nanocomposite Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Nguyen-Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of nanofillers into the organic coatings might enhance their barrier performance, by decreasing the porosity and zigzagging the diffusion path for deleterious species. Thus, the coatings containing nanofillers are expected to have significant barrier properties for corrosion protection and reduce the trend for the coating to blister or delaminate. On the other hand, high hardness could be obtained for metallic coatings by producing the hard nanocrystalline phases within a metallic matrix. This article presents a review on recent development of nanocomposite coatings, providing an overview of nanocomposite coatings in various aspects dealing with the classification, preparative method, the nanocomposite coating properties, and characterization methods. It covers potential applications in areas such as the anticorrosion, antiwear, superhydrophobic area, self-cleaning, antifouling/antibacterial area, and electronics. Finally, conclusion and future trends will be also reported.

  15. Background Characterization Techniques For Pattern Recognition Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Meg A.; Noah, Paul V.; Schroeder, John W.; Kessler, Bernard V.; Chernick, Julian A.

    1989-08-01

    The Department of Defense has a requirement to investigate technologies for the detection of air and ground vehicles in a clutter environment. The use of autonomous systems using infrared, visible, and millimeter wave detectors has the potential to meet DOD's needs. In general, however, the hard-ware technology (large detector arrays with high sensitivity) has outpaced the development of processing techniques and software. In a complex background scene the "problem" is as much one of clutter rejection as it is target detection. The work described in this paper has investigated a new, and innovative, methodology for background clutter characterization, target detection and target identification. The approach uses multivariate statistical analysis to evaluate a set of image metrics applied to infrared cloud imagery and terrain clutter scenes. The techniques are applied to two distinct problems: the characterization of atmospheric water vapor cloud scenes for the Navy's Infrared Search and Track (IRST) applications to support the Infrared Modeling Measurement and Analysis Program (IRAMMP); and the detection of ground vehicles for the Army's Autonomous Homing Munitions (AHM) problems. This work was sponsored under two separate Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs by the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), White Oak MD, and the Army Material Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground MD. The software described in this paper will be available from the respective contract technical representatives.

  16. Towards Accurate Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been engaged in hardware and software codesign activities for a number of years, indeed, it might be argued that prototyping of clusters as far back as the CPLANT machines and many large capability resources including ASCI Red and RedStorm were examples of codesigned solutions. As the research supporting our codesign activities has moved closer to investigating on-node runtime behavior a nature hunger has grown for detailed analysis of both hardware and algorithm performance from the perspective of low-level operations. The Application Characterization for Exascale (APEX) LDRD was a project concieved of addressing some of these concerns. Primarily the research was to intended to focus on generating accurate and reproducible low-level performance metrics using tools that could scale to production-class code bases. Along side this research was an advocacy and analysis role associated with evaluating tools for production use, working with leading industry vendors to develop and refine solutions required by our code teams and to directly engage with production code developers to form a context for the application analysis and a bridge to the research community within Sandia. On each of these accounts significant progress has been made, particularly, as this report will cover, in the low-level analysis of operations for important classes of algorithms. This report summarizes the development of a collection of tools under the APEX research program and leaves to other SAND and L2 milestone reports the description of codesign progress with Sandia’s production users/developers.

  17. Locality-Aware Task Scheduling and Data Distribution for OpenMP Programs on NUMA Systems and Manycore Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Muddukrishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation due to nonuniform data access latencies has worsened on NUMA systems and can now be felt on-chip in manycore processors. Distributing data across NUMA nodes and manycore processor caches is necessary to reduce the impact of nonuniform latencies. However, techniques for distributing data are error-prone and fragile and require low-level architectural knowledge. Existing task scheduling policies favor quick load-balancing at the expense of locality and ignore NUMA node/manycore cache access latencies while scheduling. Locality-aware scheduling, in conjunction with or as a replacement for existing scheduling, is necessary to minimize NUMA effects and sustain performance. We present a data distribution and locality-aware scheduling technique for task-based OpenMP programs executing on NUMA systems and manycore processors. Our technique relieves the programmer from thinking of NUMA system/manycore processor architecture details by delegating data distribution to the runtime system and uses task data dependence information to guide the scheduling of OpenMP tasks to reduce data stall times. We demonstrate our technique on a four-socket AMD Opteron machine with eight NUMA nodes and on the TILEPro64 processor and identify that data distribution and locality-aware task scheduling improve performance up to 69% for scientific benchmarks compared to default policies and yet provide an architecture-oblivious approach for programmers.

  18. An OpenMP Parallelisation of Real-time Processing of CERN LHC Beam Position Monitor Data

    CERN Document Server

    Renshall, H

    2012-01-01

    SUSSIX is a FORTRAN program for the post processing of turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data, which computes the frequency, amplitude, and phase of tunes and resonant lines to a high degree of precision. For analysis of LHC BPM data a specific version run through a C steering code has been implemented in the CERN Control Centre to run on a server under the Linux operating system but became a real time computational bottleneck preventing truly online study of the BPM data. Timing studies showed that the independent processing of each BPMs data was a candidate for parallelization and the Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) package with its simple insertion of compiler directives was tried. It proved to be easy to learn and use, problem free and efficient in this case reaching a factor of ten reductions in real-time over twelve cores on a dedicated server. This paper reviews the problem, shows the critical code fragments with their OpenMP directives and the results obtained.

  19. 基于OpenMP的电磁场FDTD多核并行程序设计%Design of electromagnetic field FDTD multi-core parallel program based on OpenMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忠亭; 张玉强; 崔巍

    2013-01-01

    探讨了基于OpenMP的电磁场FDTD多核并行程序设计的方法,以期实现该方法在更复杂的算法中应用具有更理想的性能提升。针对一个一维电磁场FDTD算法问题,对其计算方法与过程做了简单描述。在Fortran语言环境中,采用OpenMP+细粒度并行的方式实现了并行化,即只对循环部分进行并行计算,并将该并行方法在一个三维瞬态场电偶极子辐射FDTD程序中进行了验证。该并行算法取得了较其他并行FDTD算法更快的加速比和更高的效率。结果表明基于OpenMP的电磁场FDTD并行算法具有非常好的加速比和效率。%The method of the electromagnetic field FDTD multi-core parallel programm design based on OpenMP is dis-cussed,in order to implement ideal performance improvement of this method in the application of more sophisticated algorithms. Aiming at a problem existing in one-dimensional electromagnetic FDTD algorithm , its calculation method and process are described briefly. In Fortran language environment,the parallelism is achieved with OpenMP technology and fine-grained parallel way,that is,the parallel computation is performed only for the cycle part. The parallel method was verified in a three-dimensional transient electromagnetic field FDTD program for dipole radiation. The parallel algorithm has achieved faster speedup and higher efficiency than other parallel FDTD algoritms. The results indicate that the electromagnetic field FDTD parallel algorithm based on OpenMP has a good speedup and efficiency.

  20. Characterizing and Mitigating Work Time Inflation in Task Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Task parallelism raises the level of abstraction in shared memory parallel programming to simplify the development of complex applications. However, task parallel applications can exhibit poor performance due to thread idleness, scheduling overheads, and work time inflation – additional time spent by threads in a multithreaded computation beyond the time required to perform the same work in a sequential computation. We identify the contributions of each factor to lost efficiency in various task parallel OpenMP applications and diagnose the causes of work time inflation in those applications. Increased data access latency can cause significant work time inflation in NUMA systems. Our locality framework for task parallel OpenMP programs mitigates this cause of work time inflation. Our extensions to the Qthreads library demonstrate that locality-aware scheduling can improve performance up to 3X compared to the Intel OpenMP task scheduler.

  1. Application of geophysical methods for fracture characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Majer, E.L.; McEvilly, T.V.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Morrison, H.F.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1990-01-01

    One of the most crucial needs in the design and implementation of an underground waste isolation facility is a reliable method for the detection and characterization of fractures in zones away from boreholes or subsurface workings. Geophysical methods may represent a solution to this problem. If fractures represent anomalies in the elastic properties or conductive properties of the rocks, then the seismic and electrical techniques may be useful in detecting and characterizing fracture properties. 7 refs., 3 figs

  2. Synthesis, characterization and applications of graphene architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abhay Varghese

    Graphene, a two--dimensional sheet of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure, has garnered tremendous interest from the scientific community for its unique combination of properties. It has interesting electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties that scientists and engineers are trying to understand and harness to improve current products as well as focus on disruptive technologies that can be made possible by this next generation material. In this thesis the synthesis, characterization and applications of various graphene architectures were explored from the context of a bottom--up and top--down synthesis approach. The work is divided into three main chapters and each one deals with a unique architecture of graphene as well as its properties and an application to a real world problem. In Chapter 2, we focus on bottom--up synthesis of graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition. We then studied the wetting properties of graphene coated surfaces. More specifically the wetting properties of single and multilayer graphene films on flat and nanoscale rough surfaces are explored and the insights gained are used in improving heat transfer performance of copper surfaces. Single layer graphene, on certain flat surfaces, was shown to exhibit `wetting transparency' as a result of its sheer thinness and this property is of interest in various wetting related applications. Surface protection from corrosion and/or oxidation without change in wetting properties is tremendously useful in multiple fields and we looked to apply this property to dehumidification of copper surfaces. The short time scales results demonstrated that graphene indeed served to prevent oxidation of the surface which in turn promoted increased heat transfer co--efficients with respect to the oxidized copper surfaces. Closer inspection of the surface over long time scales however revealed that the oxide layer changed the wetting properties and this was detrimental

  3. Characterization of nanodiamonds for metamaterial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shalaginov, Mikhail; Naik, Gururaj; Ishii, Satoshi; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Smolyaninov, A N; Kochman, E; Shalaev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Several different types of nanodiamonds were characterized in order to find the best sample to be used in further experiments with metamaterials. In this work we present the results of optical analysis of aqueous suspensions containing nanodiamonds, SEM analysis of diamond particles dispersed on silicon substrates and measurements of photoluminescence from defects in nanodiamonds.

  4. Nanoparticles for intravascular applications: physicochemical characterization and cytotoxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matuszak, J.; Baumgartner, J.; Zaloga, J.; Juenet, M.; Da Silva, A.E.; Franke, D.; Almer, G.; Texier, I.; Faivre, D.; Metselaar, Josbert Maarten; Navarro, F.P.; Chauvierre, C.; Prassl, R.; Dézsi, L.; Urbanics, R.; Alexiou, C.; Mangge, H.; Szebeni, J.; Letourneur, D.; Cicha, I.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We report the physicochemical analysis of nanosystems intended for cardiovascular applications and their toxicological characterization in static and dynamic cell culture conditions. Methods: Size, polydispersity and ζ-potential were determined in 10 nanoparticle systems including liposomes,

  5. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  6. Cryogenic characterization of LEDs for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Jérôme; Philippon, Anne; How, Lip Sun; Delbergue, Audrey; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Cillierre, David; Danto, Pascale; Boutillier, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    In the frame of EUCLID project, the Calibration Unit of the VIS (VISible Imager) instrument must provide an accurate and well characterized light source for in-flight instrument calibration without noise when it is switched off. The Calibration Unit consists of a set of LEDs emitting at various wavelengths in the visible towards an integrating sphere. The sphere's output provides a uniform illumination over the entire focal plane. Nine references of LEDs from different manufacturers were selected, screened and qualified under cryogenic conditions. Testing this large quantity of samples led to the implementation of automated testing equipment with complete in-situ monitoring of optoelectronic parameters as well as temperature and vacuum values. All the electrical and optical parameters of the LED have been monitored and recorded at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. These results have been compiled in order to show the total deviation of the LED electrical and electro-optical properties in the whole mission and to select the best suitable LED references for the mission. This qualification has demonstrated the robustness of COTS LEDs to operate at low cryogenic temperatures and in the space environment. Then 6 wavelengths were selected and submitted to an EMC sensitivity test at room and cold temperature by counting the number of photons when LEDs drivers are OFF. Characterizations were conducted in the full frequency spectrum in order to implement solutions at system level to suppress the emission of photons when the LED drivers are OFF. LEDs impedance was also characterized at room temperature and cold temperature.

  7. Characterizing Orthostatic Tremor Using a Smartphone Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, Arjun; Fasano, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Orthostatic tremor is one of the few tremor conditions requiring an electromyogram for definitive diagnosis since leg tremor might not be visible to the naked eye. An iOS application (iSeismometer, ObjectGraph LLC, New York) using an Apple iPhone 5 (Cupertino, CA, USA) inserted into the patient's sock detected a tremor with a frequency of 16.4 Hz on both legs. The rapid and straightforward accelerometer-based recordings accomplished in this patient demonstrate the ease with which quantitative analysis of orthostatic tremor can be conducted and, importantly, demonstrates the potential application of this approach in the assessment of any lower limb tremor.

  8. Characterizing Energy per Job in Cloud Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thao Nguyen Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a major research focus in sustainable development and is becoming even more critical in information technology (IT with the introduction of new technologies, such as cloud computing and big data, that attract more business users and generate more data to be processed. While many proposals have been presented to optimize power consumption at a system level, the increasing heterogeneity of current workloads requires a finer analysis in the application level to enable adaptive behaviors and in order to reduce the global energy usage. In this work, we focus on batch applications running on virtual machines in the context of data centers. We analyze the application characteristics, model their energy consumption and quantify the energy per job. The analysis focuses on evaluating the efficiency of applications in terms of performance and energy consumed per job, in particular when shared resources are used and the hosts on which the virtual machines are running are heterogeneous in terms of energy profiles, with the aim of identifying the best combinations in the use of resources.

  9. Purification, characterization and application of laccase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    . E-mail: duran@iqm.unicamp.br. .... The elution profile was monitored at 280 nm. Amino acid analysis was performed ..... Enzyme applications in the textile industry. Rev Progr Coloration Rel Topics 30:41-44. Duran N, Rosa ...

  10. Characterizing Orthostatic Tremor Using a Smartphone Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balachandar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthostatic tremor is one of the few tremor conditions requiring an electromyogram for definitive diagnosis since leg tremor might not be visible to the naked eye.Phenomenology Shown: An iOS application (iSeismometer, ObjectGraph LLC, New York using an Apple iPhone 5 (Cupertino, CA, USA inserted into the patient’s sock detected a tremor with a frequency of 16.4 Hz on both legs.Educational Value: The rapid and straightforward accelerometer-based recordings accomplished in this patient demonstrate the ease with which quantitative analysis of orthostatic tremor can be conducted and, importantly, demonstrates the potential application of this approach in the assessment of any lower limb tremor. 

  11. Fabrication, characterization and applications of iron selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Raja Azadar, E-mail: hussainazadar@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Badshah, Amin [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lal, Bhajan [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Sukkur Institute of Business Administration (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    This review article presents fabrication of FeSe by solid state reactions, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor deposition, spray pyrolysis and chemical vapor transport. Different properties and applications such as crystal structure and phase transition, band structure, spectroscopy, superconductivity, photocatalytic activity, electrochemical sensing, and fuel cell activity of FeSe have been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Iron selenide can be synthesized by solid state reactions, chemical vapor deposition, solution chemistry routes, chemical vapor transport and spray pyrolysis. - Highlights: • Different fabrication methods of iron selenide (FeSe) have been reviewed. • Crystal structure, band structure and spectroscopy of FeSe have been discussed. • Superconducting, catalytic and fuel cell application of FeSe have been presented.

  12. Polymer nanocomposite processing, characterization, and applications 2013

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mago, G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available December 2013; Published 26 February 2014 Copyright © 2014 Gaurav Mago et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided... and theirmultifunctional applications. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2014, Article ID 403492, 2 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/403492 2 Journal of Nanomaterials Acknowledgments The editors would like to acknowledge the invited...

  13. Diatomite Ores: Origin, Characterization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    , S.S. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Diatomite is a sedimentary silica mineral that composed of the fossilized skeletal remains of the microscopic single-celled aquatic plants called diatoms. Over 10,000 species of these microscopic algae have been recognized, each with its own distinct morphology. Accordingly, diatomite is multifaceted and varies from microto macro-meter in size. Diatomite has many important industrial applications due to its unique properties. Its chemical constitution is approximately 85% insoluble silica; ac...

  14. Workload Characterization of CFD Applications Using Partial Differential Equation Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Workload characterization is used for modeling and evaluating of computing systems at different levels of detail. We present workload characterization for a class of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applications that solve Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). This workload characterization focuses on three high performance computing platforms: SGI Origin2000, EBM SP-2, a cluster of Intel Pentium Pro bases PCs. We execute extensive measurement-based experiments on these platforms to gather statistics of system resource usage, which results in workload characterization. Our workload characterization approach yields a coarse-grain resource utilization behavior that is being applied for performance modeling and evaluation of distributed high performance metacomputing systems. In addition, this study enhances our understanding of interactions between PDE solver workloads and high performance computing platforms and is useful for tuning these applications.

  15. EO-1 analysis applicable to coastal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Hsiao-hua K.; Misra, Bijoy; Hsu, Su May; Griffin, Michael K.; Upham, Carolyn; Farrar, Kris

    2003-09-01

    The EO-1 satellite is part of NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). It consists of three imaging sensors: the multi-spectral Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Hyperion and Atmospheric Corrector. Hyperion provides a high-resolution hyperspectral imager capable of resolving 220 spectral bands (from 0.4 to 2.5 micron) with a 30 m resolution. The instrument images a 7.5 km by 100 km land area per image. Hyperion is currently the only space-borne HSI data source since the launch of EO-1 in late 2000. The discussion begins with the unique capability of hyperspectral sensing to coastal characterization: (1) most ocean feature algorithms are semi-empirical retrievals and HSI has all spectral bands to provide legacy with previous sensors and to explore new information, (2) coastal features are more complex than those of deep ocean that coupled effects are best resolved with HSI, and (3) with contiguous spectral coverage, atmospheric compensation can be done with more accuracy and confidence, especially since atmospheric aerosol effects are the most pronounced in the visible region where coastal feature lie. EO-1 data from Chesapeake Bay from 19 February 2002 are analyzed. In this presentation, it is first illustrated that hyperspectral data inherently provide more information for feature extraction than multispectral data despite Hyperion has lower SNR than ALI. Chlorophyll retrievals are also shown. The results compare favorably with data from other sources. The analysis illustrates the potential value of Hyperion (and HSI in general) data to coastal characterization. Future measurement requirements (air borne and space borne) are also discussed.

  16. Characterizing Phage Genomes for Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casandra W. Philipson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance is increasing at alarming rates. The efficacy of phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics, has been demonstrated in emergency cases in the United States and in other countries, however remains to be approved for wide-spread use in the US. One limiting factor is a lack of guidelines for assessing the genomic safety of phage candidates. We present the phage characterization workflow used by our team to generate data for submitting phages to the Federal Drug Administration (FDA for authorized use. Essential analysis checkpoints and warnings are detailed for obtaining high-quality genomes, excluding undesirable candidates, rigorously assessing a phage genome for safety and evaluating sequencing contamination. This workflow has been developed in accordance with community standards for high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes as well as principles for ideal phages used for therapy. The feasibility and utility of the pipeline is demonstrated on two new phage genomes that meet all safety criteria. We propose these guidelines as a minimum standard for phages being submitted to the FDA for review as investigational new drug candidates.

  17. Biomimetic nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ana Maria Carmona-RibeiroBiocolloids Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Mimicking nature is a powerful approach for developing novel lipid-based devices for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, biomimetic assemblies based on natural or synthetic lipids by themselves or associated to silica, latex or drug particles will be discussed. In water, self-assembly of lipid molecules into supramolecular structures is fairly well understood. However, their self-assembly on a solid surface or at an interface remains poorly understood. In certain cases, hydrophobic drug granules can be dispersed in aqueous solution via lipid adsorption surrounding the drug particles as nanocapsules. In other instances, hydrophobic drug molecules attach as monomers to borders of lipid bilayer fragments providing drug formulations that are effective in vivo at low drug-to-lipid-molar ratio. Cationic biomimetic particles offer suitable interfacial environment for adsorption, presentation and targeting of biomolecules in vivo. Thereby antigens can effectively be presented by tailored biomimetic particles for development of vaccines over a range of defined and controllable particle sizes. Biomolecular recognition between receptor and ligand can be reconstituted by means of receptor immobilization into supported lipidic bilayers allowing isolation and characterization of signal transduction steps.Keywords: cationic lipid, phospholipids, bilayer fragments, vesicles, silica, polymeric particles, antigens, novel cationic immunoadjuvants, drugs

  18. Characterizing Phage Genomes for Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, Casandra W; Voegtly, Logan J; Lueder, Matthew R; Long, Kyle A; Rice, Gregory K; Frey, Kenneth G; Biswas, Biswajit; Cer, Regina Z; Hamilton, Theron; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A

    2018-04-10

    Multi-drug resistance is increasing at alarming rates. The efficacy of phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics, has been demonstrated in emergency cases in the United States and in other countries, however remains to be approved for wide-spread use in the US. One limiting factor is a lack of guidelines for assessing the genomic safety of phage candidates. We present the phage characterization workflow used by our team to generate data for submitting phages to the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for authorized use. Essential analysis checkpoints and warnings are detailed for obtaining high-quality genomes, excluding undesirable candidates, rigorously assessing a phage genome for safety and evaluating sequencing contamination. This workflow has been developed in accordance with community standards for high-throughput sequencing of viral genomes as well as principles for ideal phages used for therapy. The feasibility and utility of the pipeline is demonstrated on two new phage genomes that meet all safety criteria. We propose these guidelines as a minimum standard for phages being submitted to the FDA for review as investigational new drug candidates.

  19. Characterization of titanium alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reytier, M.; Kircher, F.; Levesy, B.

    2002-01-01

    Titanium alloys are employed in the design of superconducting magnet support systems for their high mechanical strength associated with their low thermal conductivity. But their use requires a careful attention to their crack tolerance at cryogenic temperature. Measurements have been performed on two extra low interstitial materials (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn ELI and Ti-6Al-4V ELI) with different thickness and manufacturing process. The investigation includes the tensile properties at room and liquid helium temperatures using smooth and notched samples. Moreover, the fracture toughness has been determined at 4.2 K using Compact Tension specimens. The microstructure of the different alloys and the various fracture surfaces have also been studied. After a detailed description of the experimental procedures, practical engineering characteristics are given and a comparison of the different titanium alloys is proposed for cryogenic applications

  20. Electrochemical characterization of hydrogels for biomimetic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peláez, L.; Romero, V.; Escalera, S.

    2011-01-01

    ) or a photoinitiator (P) to encapsulate and stabilize biomimetic membranes for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications. In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of the hydrogels used for membrane encapsulation. Specifically, we studied the crosslinked hydrogels by using...... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and we demonstrated that chemically crosslinked hydrogels had lower values for the effective electrical resistance and higher values for the electrical capacitance compared with hydrogels with photoinitiated crosslinking. Transport numbers were obtained using......〉 and 〈Pw〉 values than PEG‐1000‐DMA‐P and PEG‐400‐DA‐P hydrogels. In conclusion, our results show that hydrogel electrochemical properties can be controlled by the choice of polymer and type of crosslinking used and that their water and salt permeability properties are congruent with the use of hydrogels...

  1. Generation, Characterization and Applications of Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengzhong

    A contact-arc sputtering configuration has been adopted and optimized in order to generate fullerene-containing soot. Several stages of design improvements have made our equipment more effective in terms of yield and production rate. Upon modification of Wudl's Soxhlet separation procedure, we have been able to significantly speed up C_ {60} separation and higher fullerene enrichment. At least ten more separable HPLC peaks after C_ {84} have been observed for the first time. Preliminary laser desorption time of flight mass spectra suggest that our enriched higher fullerene sample possibly contains, C_{86}, C_{88}, C_ {90}, C_{92} , C_{94} and C _{96} in addition to the previously isolated smaller fullerenes C_ {60}, C_{70} , C_{76}, C _{78}(D_2), C_{78}(C_ {rm 2v}) and C_{84 }. Among these, C_{86 }, C_{88}, C_{92} show up for the first time in separable amounts and the controversial species --C_{94} appears present too. HPLC has been successfully used for high fullerene separation, pure C_{76}, C_{84} samples so far having been obtained. Fullerene decomposition (especially of higher fullerenes) in the column has been clearly identified. We defined HPLC peaks indicate that the oxidation process may follow certain "well defined" routes. A yellow epoxide band containing various oxides of C_{60 } has been extracted and characterized using mass spectrometry. Characterizations of pure C _{60} and C_{70 } include HPLC, mass spectrometry, vibrational IR and Raman spectroscopy, STM, TEM etc. Our Raman measurements completed the full assignment of C_{60 } fundamental modes and supplied more structural information on C_{70}. STM imaging supplied clear pictures of both C_ {60} and C_{70} molecular topologies. Especially for C _{70}, both the long and the short axes of the molecule have been clearly resolved. TEM observations involving imaging, diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy of crystalline C_{60} and C_{70} were performed. The room temperature lattice

  2. Biobased functional polyesters for coating applications: Synthesis, characterization and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordover, B.A.J.; Duchateau, R.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Ming, W.; Haveren, van J.; Es, van D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Thermosetting coating systems contain polyesters as binders. A crucial property of these polymers is their functionality. During coating application, the polyesters are cross-linked in situ, which means that each polymer chain needs a sufficient no. of reactive end-groups. Renewable monomers are

  3. Engineered Metallic Nanostructures: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohloul, Arash

    Metallic nanostructures have garnered a great deal of attention due to their fascinating optical properties, which differ from the bulk metal. They have been proven to exceed expectations in wide variety of applications including chemical and biological sensing. Nevertheless, high-throughput and low cost nanofabrication techniques are required to implant metallic nanostructures in widespread applications. With that vision, this thesis presents a versatile and reliable method for scalable fabrication of gold nanostructures. In this approach, a plasma-treated ordered array of polystyrene nanospheres acts as an initial mask. The key step in this process is the vapor-deposition of nickel as a sacrificial mask. Thereby, gold nanostructures are directly formed on the substrate through the nickel mask. This is an easy, powerful, and straightforward method that offers several degrees of freedom to precisely control the shape and size of nanostructures. We made a library of nanostructures including gold nanocrescents, double crescents, nanorings, and nanodisks with the ability to tune the size in the range of 150 to 650 nm. The fabricated nanostructures are highly packed and uniformly cover the centimeter scale substrate. The optical properties of metallic nanostructures were extensively studied by a combination of UV-Vis-NIR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, and correlation between optical response and geometrical parameters were investigated. In the next part of this thesis, highly sensitive surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) analysis was demonstrated on gold nanocrescent arrays. Theoretical modeling was confirmed that these substrates provide highly dense and strong hot-spots over the substrate, which is required for surface enhanced spectroscopic studies. Gold nanocrescent arrays exhibit highly tunable plasmon resonance to cover desired molecular vibrational bands. These substrates experimentally illustrated 3 orders of magnitude

  4. Automated quantitative micro-mineralogical characterization for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hoal, K.O.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Stammer, J.G.; Pietersen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ore and waste-rock material using automated quantitative micro-mineralogical techniques (e.g., QEMSCAN® and MLA) has the potential to complement traditional acid-base accounting and humidity cell techniques when predicting acid generation and metal release. These characterization techniques, which most commonly are used for metallurgical, mineral-processing, and geometallurgical applications, can be broadly applied throughout the mine-life cycle to include numerous environmental applications. Critical insights into mineral liberation, mineral associations, particle size, particle texture, and mineralogical residence phase(s) of environmentally important elements can be used to anticipate potential environmental challenges. Resources spent on initial characterization result in lower uncertainties of potential environmental impacts and possible cost savings associated with remediation and closure. Examples illustrate mineralogical and textural characterization of fluvial tailings material from the upper Arkansas River in Colorado.

  5. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year

  6. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  7. Instruction-level performance modeling and characterization of multimedia applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Scientific Computing Group; Cameron, K.W. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1999-06-01

    One of the challenges for characterizing and modeling realistic multimedia applications is the lack of access to source codes. On-chip performance counters effectively resolve this problem by monitoring run-time behaviors at the instruction-level. This paper presents a novel technique of characterizing and modeling workloads at the instruction level for realistic multimedia applications using hardware performance counters. A variety of instruction counts are collected from some multimedia applications, such as RealPlayer, GSM Vocoder, MPEG encoder/decoder, and speech synthesizer. These instruction counts can be used to form a set of abstract characteristic parameters directly related to a processor`s architectural features. Based on microprocessor architectural constraints and these calculated abstract parameters, the architectural performance bottleneck for a specific application can be estimated. Meanwhile, the bottleneck estimation can provide suggestions about viable architectural/functional improvement for certain workloads. The biggest advantage of this new characterization technique is a better understanding of processor utilization efficiency and architectural bottleneck for each application. This technique also provides predictive insight of future architectural enhancements and their affect on current codes. In this paper the authors also attempt to model architectural effect on processor utilization without memory influence. They derive formulas for calculating CPI{sub 0}, CPI without memory effect, and they quantify utilization of architectural parameters. These equations are architecturally diagnostic and predictive in nature. Results provide promise in code characterization, and empirical/analytical modeling.

  8. Understanding Application Behaviours for Android Security: A Systematic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Haipeng; Ryder, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to most existing research on Android focusing on specific security issues, there is little broad understanding of Android application run-time characteristics and their security implications. To mitigate this gap, we present the first dynamic characterization study of Android applications that targets such a broad understanding for Android security. Through lightweight method-level profiling, we have collected 33GB traces of method calls and inter-component communication (ICC) fro...

  9. OpenMP GNU and Intel Fortran programs for solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-S., Luis E.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Lončar, Vladimir; Vudragović, Dušan; Balaž, Antun

    2017-11-01

    We present Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) version of Fortran 90 programs for solving the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, optimized for use with GNU and Intel compilers. We use the split-step Crank-Nicolson algorithm for imaginary- and real-time propagation, which enables efficient calculation of stationary and non-stationary solutions, respectively. The present OpenMP programs are designed for computers with multi-core processors and optimized for compiling with both commercially-licensed Intel Fortran and popular free open-source GNU Fortran compiler. The programs are easy to use and are elaborated with helpful comments for the users. All input parameters are listed at the beginning of each program. Different output files provide physical quantities such as energy, chemical potential, root-mean-square sizes, densities, etc. We also present speedup test results for new versions of the programs. Program files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/y8zk3jgn84.2 Licensing provisions: Apache License 2.0 Programming language: OpenMP GNU and Intel Fortran 90. Computer: Any multi-core personal computer or workstation with the appropriate OpenMP-capable Fortran compiler installed. Number of processors used: All available CPU cores on the executing computer. Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 (2009) 1888; ibid.204 (2016) 209. Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Not completely. It does supersede previous Fortran programs from both references above, but not OpenMP C programs from Comput. Phys. Commun. 204 (2016) 209. Nature of problem: The present Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) Fortran programs, optimized for use with commercially-licensed Intel Fortran and free open-source GNU Fortran compilers, solve the time-dependent nonlinear partial differential (GP) equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in one (1d), two (2d), and three (3d) spatial dimensions for

  10. Application of Network Analysis for Characterizing Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of the application of network analytical techniques to identify and characterize modularity of service processes. Services can be conceptualized as systems of interrelated components which can be decomposed in order to achieve a modular design...

  11. Characterization of population exposure to organochlorines: A cluster analysis application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Guimarães (Raphael Mendonça); S. Asmus (Sven); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to show the results from a cluster analysis application in the characterization of population exposure to organochlorines through variables related to time and exposure dose. Characteristics of 354 subjects in a population exposed to organochlorine pesticides residues

  12. OpenMP Parallelization and Optimization of Graph-based Machine Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Understanding Application Data Movement Characteristics using Intel VTune Amplifier and Software Development Emulator tools, Intel Xeon Phi User Group...sured by a summation of the weights along the graph cut) for this problem. This is equivalent to assigning a scalar or vector value ui to each i th data...graph Laplacian [9]. By projecting all vectors onto this sub-eigenspace, the iteration step reduces to a simple coefficient update. 2.2 Semi-supervised

  13. Characterization of the QWN-conservation operator and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2016-01-01

    Based on the finding that the quantum white noise (QWN) conservation operator is a Wick derivation operator acting on white noise operators, we characterize the aforementioned operator by using an extended techniques of rotation invariance operators in a first place. In a second place, we use a new idea of commutation relations with respect to the QWN-derivatives. Eventually, we use the action on the number operator. As applications, we invest these results to study three types of Wick differential equations.

  14. Review on production, characterization and applications of microbial levan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Rapala; Reddy, Chinta H S S Sundhar; Siddartha, Gudimalla; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu

    2015-04-20

    Levan is a homopolymer of fructose naturally obtained from both plants and microorganisms. Microbial levans are more advantageous, economical and industrially feasible with numerous applications. Bacterial levans are much larger than those produced by plants with multiple branches and molecular weights ranging from 2 to 100 million Da. However levans from plants generally have molecular weights ranging from about 2000 to 33,000 Da. Microbial levans have wide range of applications in food, medicine, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and commercial industrial sectors. With excellent polymeric medicinal properties and ease of production, microbial levan appear as a valuable and versatile biopolymer of the future. The present article summarizes and discusses the most essential properties of bioactive microbial levan and recent developments in its production, characterization and the emerging applications in health and industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Colorimetric Characterization of Mobile Devices for Vision Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fez, Dolores; Luque, Maria José; García-Domene, Maria Carmen; Camps, Vicente; Piñero, David

    2016-01-01

    Available applications for vision testing in mobile devices usually do not include detailed setup instructions, sacrificing rigor to obtain portability and ease of use. In particular, colorimetric characterization processes are generally obviated. We show that different mobile devices differ also in colorimetric profile and that those differences limit the range of applications for which they are most adequate. The color reproduction characteristics of four mobile devices, two smartphones (Samsung Galaxy S4, iPhone 4s) and two tablets (Samsung Galaxy Tab 3, iPad 4), have been evaluated using two procedures: 3D LUT (Look Up Table) and a linear model assuming primary constancy and independence of the channels. The color reproduction errors have been computed with the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. There is good constancy of primaries but large deviations of additivity. The 3D LUT characterization yields smaller reproduction errors and dispersions for the Tab 3 and iPhone 4 devices, but for the iPad 4 and S4, both models are equally good. The smallest reproduction errors occur with both Apple devices, although the iPad 4 has the highest number of outliers of all devices with both colorimetric characterizations. Even though there is good constancy of primaries, the large deviations of additivity exhibited by the devices and the larger reproduction errors make any characterization based on channel independence not recommendable. The smartphone screens show, in average, the best color reproduction performance, particularly the iPhone 4, and therefore, they are more adequate for applications requiring precise color reproduction.

  16. Application of radiological imaging methods to radioactive waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessaro, Ana Paula Gimenes; Souza, Daiane Cristini B. de; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: aptessaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radiological imaging technologies are most frequently used for medical diagnostic purposes but are also useful in materials characterization and other non-medical applications in research and industry. The characterization of radioactive waste packages or waste samples can also benefit from these techniques. In this paper, the application of some imaging methods is examined for the physical characterization of radioactive wastes constituted by spent ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal beds stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Department of IPEN. These wastes are generated when the filter media of the water polishing system of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor is no longer able to maintain the required water quality and are replaced. The IEA-R1 is a 5MW pool-type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, and fission and activation products released from the reactor core must be continuously removed to prevent activity buildup in the water. The replacement of the sorbents is carried out by pumping from the filter tanks into several 200 L drums, each drum getting a variable amount of water. Considering that the results of radioanalytical methods to determine the concentrations of radionuclides are usually expressed on dry basis,the amount of water must be known to calculate the total activity of each package. At first sight this is a trivial problem that demanded, however some effort to be solved. The findings on this subject are reported in this paper. (author)

  17. Deriving a site characterization program from applicable regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, M.D.; Younker, J.L.; Alexander, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The process of deriving a site characterization program from the applicable regulations was approached by the DOE through the use of two basic organizing principles. One organizing principle is a hierarchical structure of questions about regulatory criteria related to the acquisition of site data. This set of questions is called an issues hierarchy, and it provides a topical organizing framework for developing a site characterization program. The second basic organizing principle used by the DOE and its contractors to develop a site characterization program is called performance allocation. For each issue in the issues hierarchy, a resolution strategy is developed. These strategies involve the identification of elements of the disposal system that are relevant to isolation and containment of waste or to radiological safety. It is then possible to identify performance measures and information needed from the site characterization program. This information, coupled with information about confidence in existing data and the confidence required in the data to be obtained, allows the development of testing strategies for field programs

  18. Nondestructive materials characterization with applications to aerospace materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Peter; Rokhlin, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    With an emphasis on aircraft materials, this book describes techniques for the material characterization to detect and quantify degradation processes such as corrosion and fatigue. It introduces readers to these techniques based on x-ray, ultrasonic, optical and thermal principles and demonstrates the potential of the techniques for a wide variety of applications concerning aircraft materials, especially aluminum and titanium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are evaluated. An introductory chapter describes the typical degradation mechanisms that must be considered and the microstructure features that have to be detected by NDE methods. Finally, some approaches for making lifetime predictions are discussed. It is suitable as a textbook in special training courses in advanced NDE and aircraft materials characterization.

  19. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  20. Synthesis, Properties Characterization and Applications of Various Organobismuth Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Luan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Organobismuth chemistry was emphasized in this review article due to the low price, low toxicity and low radioactivity characteristics of bismuth. As an environmentally-friendly class of organometallic compounds, different types of organobismuth compounds have been used in organic synthesis, catalysis, materials, etc. The synthesis and property characterization of many organobismuth compounds had been summarized. This review article also presented a survey of various applications of organobismuth compounds in organic transformations, as reagents or catalysts. The reactivity, reaction pathways and mechanisms of reactions with organobismuths were discussed. Less common and limiting aspects of organobismuth compounds were also briefly mentioned.

  1. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 μm particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed

  2. Tuned apatitic materials: Synthesis, characterization and potential antimicrobial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierascu, Irina; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Somoghi, Raluca; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Moanta, Adriana; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Damian, Celina Maria; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic antimicrobial materials can be viable for multiple applications (related to its use for new buildings with special requirements related to microbiological loading, such as hospital buildings and for consolidation of cultural heritage constructions); also the use of substituted hydroxyapatites for protection of stone artefacts against environmental factors (acidic rain) and biodeterioration it's an option to no longer use of toxic substances. This paper presents methods of synthesis and characterization of the material from the point of view of the obtained structures and final applications. The materials were characterized in terms of composition and morphology (using X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Surface area and pore size determination). Antimicrobial activity was tested against filamentous fungi strains and pathogenic bacteria strains, using both spot on lawn qualitative method (on agar medium) and serial microdilution quantitative method (in broth medium). Further, it was evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of the tested samples toward the most important microbial strains implicated in biofilm development, using crystal violet stained biofilms microtiter assay, followed by spectrophotometric quantitative evaluation.

  3. Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Nanobiomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, E.; Saglam, S.; Ates, H.; Korkusuz, F.; Saglam, N.

    2016-08-01

    The electrospinning method is employed in the production of porous fiber scaffolds, and the usage of electrospun scaffolds especially as drug carrier and bone reconstructive material such as implants is promising for future applications in tissue engineering. The number of publications has grown very rapidly in this field through the fabrication of complex scaffolds, novel approaches in nanotechnology, and improvements of imaging methods. Hence, characterization of these materials has also grown significantly important for getting satisfied and accurate results. This advantageous and versatile method is ideal for mimicking bone extracellular matrix, and many biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are preferred in the field of bone reconstruction. In this study, gelatin, gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and gelatin/PLLA/nHAp scaffolds were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These composite fibers showed clear and continuous morphology according to observation through a scanning electron microscope and their component analyses were also determined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analyses. These characterization experiments revealed the great effects of the electrospinning method for biomedical applications and have an especially important role in bone reconstruction and production of implant coating material.

  4. Morphological Characterization of Nanofibers: Methods and Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Širc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical applications such as wound dressing for skin regeneration, stem cell transplantation, or drug delivery require special demands on the three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Besides the biocompatibility and mechanical properties, the morphology is the most important attribute of the scaffold. Specific surface area, volume, and size of the pores have considerable effect on cell adhesion, growth, and proliferation. In the case of incorporated biologically active substances, their release is also influenced by the internal structure of nanofibers. Although many scientific papers are focused on the preparation of nanofibers and evaluation of biological tests, the morphological characterization was described just briefly as service methods. The aim of this paper is to summarize the methods applicable for morphological characterization of nanofibers and supplement it by the results of our research. Needleless electrospinning technique was used to prepare nanofibers from polylactide, poly(ε-caprolactone, gelatin, and polyamide. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the fiber diameters and to reveal eventual artifacts in the nanofibrous structure. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements were employed to measure the specific surface areas. Mercury porosimetry was used to determine total porosities and compare pore size distributions of the prepared samples.

  5. Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs. PMID:27649147

  6. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  7. Predictive Performance Tuning of OpenACC Accelerated Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Shahzeb; Feki, Saber

    2014-01-01

    , with the introduction of high level programming models such as OpenACC [1] and OpenMP 4.0 [2], these devices are becoming more accessible and practical to use by a larger scientific community. However, performance optimization of OpenACC accelerated applications usually

  8. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rogelio, E-mail: rogelio.castillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Ramírez, J. Ramón, E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Alonso, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Ed. 9, Lindavista, D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier, E-mail: javier.ortiz@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera México-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred.

  9. Prony's method application for BWR instabilities characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Rogelio; Ramírez, J. Ramón; Alonso, Gustavo; Ortiz-Villafuerte, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prony's method application for BWR instability events. • Several BWR instability benchmark are assessed using this method. • DR and frequency are obtained and a new parameter is proposed to eliminate false signals. • Adequate characterization of in-phase and out-of-phase events is obtained. • The Prony's method application is validated. - Abstract: Several methods have been developed for the analysis of reactor power signals during BWR power oscillations. Among them is the Prony's method, its application provides the DR and the frequency of oscillations. In this paper another characteristic of the method is proposed to determine the type of oscillations that can occur, in-phase or out-of-phase. Prony's method decomposes a given signal in all the frequencies that it contains, therefore the DR of the fundamental mode and the first harmonic are obtained. To determine the more dominant pole of the system a normalized amplitude W of the system is calculated, which depends on the amplitude and the damping coefficient. With this term, it can be analyzed which type of oscillations is present, if W of the fundamental mode frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is in-phase, if W of the first harmonic frequency is the greater, the type of oscillations is out-of-phase. The method is applied to several stability benchmarks to assess its validity. Results show the applicability of the method as an alternative analysis method to determine the type of oscillations occurred

  10. Characterization of Plasma Synthesized Vertical Carbon Nanofibers for Nanoelectronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.; Kaul, Anupama B.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the material characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) which are assembled into a three-dimensional (3D) configuration for making new nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) are employed to decipher the morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs at various locations along individual CNFs grown on silicon (Si) and refractory nitride (NbTiN) substrates, respectively. The measured characteristics suggest interesting properties of the CNF bodies and their capping catalyst nanoparticles, and growth mechanisms on the two substrates. Laser irradiation on the CNFs seems to cause thermal oxidation and melting of catalyst nanoparticles. The structural morphology and chemical compositions of the CNFs revealed in this study should aid in the applications of the CNFs to nanoelectronics and NEMS.

  11. Broadband diffuse optical characterization of elastin for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Beh, Joo Sin; Farina, Andrea; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola

    2017-10-01

    Elastin is a key structural protein of dynamic connective tissues widely found in the extracellular matrix of skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. It is responsible for a range of diseases related to aging of biological tissues. The optical characterization of elastin can open new opportunities for its investigation in biomedical studies. In this work, we present the absorption spectra of elastin using a broadband (550-1350nm) diffuse optical spectrometer. Distortions caused by fluorescence and finite bandwidth of the laser source on estimated absorption were effectively accounted for in measurements and data analysis and compensated. A comprehensive summary and comparison between collagen and elastin is presented, highlighting distinct features for its accurate quantification in biological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A.; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  13. Characterization of quartzite waste and their application on red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, M.P.; Vidal, F.W.H.; Vieira, C.M.F.; Ribeiro, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial waste into red ceramic have been used currently in the search for alternative raw materials, and also seeking for an environmentally friendly waste disposal that pollute. During the process of beneficiation of dimension stone, there are significant losses of material and waste generation, which have been placed inappropriately in nature, with no provision for use or reuse. The quartzite is geologically classified as a metamorphic rock composed almost entirely of quartz grains. The aim of this study is to characterize and evaluate the applicability of quartzite waste in the red ceramic. Incorporations were studied up to 40% by weight of waste in the ceramics body and the results indicated that the residue of quartz is a material with great potential to be used as a component in a red ceramic. (author)

  14. Application of the dynamic characterization of metals in automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aiuto, Fabio; De Caro, Daniele; Federici, Claudio; Tedesco, Michele M.; Ziggiotti, Alessandro; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the experimental methodology used by R&D EMEA - Global Materials Labs Department to test metals at high strain rate of 500 s-1. The implementation of dynamic results in commercial FEM Software LS - DYNA for crash simulation are presented. The effects of the strain rate on the tensile properties of metals, used in automotive field, are evaluated using results obtained from a direct tension split Hopkinson bar, built in collaboration with the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland DynaMat Lab. Finally the complete mechanical characterization of the Magnesium alloy AZ31B is presented, from static up to dynamic tests, showing its applications in FCA (Fiat Chrysler Automobiles), problems and future developments.

  15. Chitosan magnetic microspheres for technological applications: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podzus, P.E.; Daraio, M.E.; Jacobo, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major applications of chitosan and its many derivatives are based on its ability to bind strongly heavy and toxic metal ions. In this study chitosan magnetic microspheres have been synthesized. Acetic acid (1%w/v) solution was used as solvent for the chitosan polymer solution (2%w/v) where magnetite nanoparticles were suspended in order to obtain a stable ferrofluid. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linker. The magnetic characteristic of these materials allows an easy removal after use if is necessary. The morphological characterization of the microspheres shows that they can be produced in the size range 800-1100 μm. The adsorption of Cu(II) onto chitosan-magnetite nanoparticles was studied in batch system. A second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic data, leading to an equilibrium adsorption capacity of 19 mg Cu/g chitosan.

  16. Characterization of lithium batteries for application to photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Ortiz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This master's thesis addresses the characterization of four different types of Battery technologies; the li-ion, the LiFePO4, the lead crystal and the lead acid. Because these devices are used in electric applications, calculations were made to assess the capacities and energies of the batteries while at different discharges ratios in runs from 5 to 50 hours, which are the most common on the photovoltaic sector. Also, we observed the behavior of the batteries when put through a rise of temperature to measure the fluctuations in the voltage, capacity and energy. Tests were performed at constant power to observe the behavior of the discharge intensity. When making the comparisons of the capacity and the energy, the LiFePO4 battery proved to be the best and better behavior in the tests at constant discharge rates. (Author)

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Multiscale Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussami, Linda

    2010-07-01

    This thesis work brings fresh insights and improved understanding of nano scale materials through introducing new hybrid composites, 2D hexagonal in MCM-41 and 3D random interconnected structures of different materials, and application relevance for developing fields of science, such as fuel cells and solar cells. New types of porous materials and organometallic crystals have been prepared and characterized in detail. The porous materials have been used in several studies: as hosts to encapsulate metal-organic complexes; as catalyst supports and electrode materials in devices for alternative energy production. The utility of the new porous materials arises from their unique structural and surface chemical characteristics as demonstrated here using various experimental and theoretical approaches. New single crystal structures and arene-ligand exchange properties of f-block elements coordinated to ligand arene and halogallates are described in Paper I. These compounds have been incorporated into ordered 2D-hexagonal MCM-41 and polyhedral silica nano foam (PNF-SiO{sub 2}) matrices without significant change to the original porous architectures as described in Paper II and III. The resulting inorganic/organic hybrids exhibited enhanced luminescence activity relative to the pure crystalline complexes. A series of novel polyhedral carbon nano foams (PNF-C's) and inverse foams were prepared by nano casting from PNF-SiO{sub 2}'s. These are discussed in Paper IV. The synthesis conditions of PNF-C's were systematically varied as a function of the filling ratio of carbon precursor and their structures compared using various characterization methods. The carbonaceous porous materials were further tested in Paper V and VI as possible catalysts and catalyst supports in counter- and working electrodes for solar- and fuel cell applications

  18. Quantum dot nanoparticle conjugation, characterization, and applications in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Smita

    Quantum dot are semiconducting nanoparticles that have been used for decades in a variety of applications such as solar cells, LEDs and medical imaging. Their use in the last area, however, has been extremely limited despite their potential as revolutionary new biological labeling tools. Quantum dots are much brighter and more stable than conventional fluorophores, making them optimal for high resolution imaging and long term studies. Prior work in this area involves synthesizing and chemically conjugating quantum dots to molecules of interest in-house. However this method is both time consuming and prone to human error. Additionally, non-specific binding and nanoparticle aggregation currently prevent researchers from utilizing this system to its fullest capacity. Another critical issue that has not been addressed is determining the number of ligands bound to nanoparticles, which is crucial for proper interpretation of results. In this work, methods to label fixed cells using two types of chemically modified quantum dots are studied. Reproducible non-specific artifact labeling is consistently demonstrated if antibody-quantum dot conditions are less than optimal. In order to explain this, antibodies bound to quantum dots were characterized and quantified. While other groups have qualitatively characterized antibody functionalized quantum dots using TEM, AFM, UV spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and in some cases have reported calculated estimates of the putative number of total antibodies bound to quantum dots, no quantitative experimental results had been reported prior to this work. The chemical functionalization and characterization of quantum dot nanocrystals achieved in this work elucidates binding mechanisms of ligands to nanoparticles and allows researchers to not only translate our tools to studies in their own areas of interest but also derive quantitative results from these studies. This research brings ease of use and increased reliability to

  19. Characterization of orange oil microcapsules for application in textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, W.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.; Gisbert-Payá, J.; Wilson, K.; Roldo, L.

    2017-10-01

    The use of orange oil presents as an ecological alternative to chemicals, attracting the attention of the scientific community to the development of eco-friendly antimicrobials. The microencapsulation technology has been used for the application of orange oil to textiles, being an economically viable, fast and efficient method by combining core and shell materials, desirable perceptual and functional characteristics, responsible for properties related to the nature of the product and provides that the wall materials release the functional substances in a controlled manner, in addition to effectively protecting and isolating the core material from the external environment to prevent its volatilization and deterioration, increasing the stability of the oil, such as non-toxicity. Thus, to better exploit the properties of the orange essential oil applied to textile products this study presents a characterization of microcapsules of Melamine formaldehyde obtained by the interfacial polymerization method with variations of proportions of orange oil (volatile) with fixed oil Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCT) (non-volatile) to assist in the stability of the orange essential oil. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used as visualizing tool to characterize microparticles and surface morphology and thermal characteristics of microcapsules were premeditated by mean Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  20. Characterization of DBD plasma source for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchenbecker, M; Vioel, W [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, 37085 Goettingen (Germany); Bibinov, N; Awakowicz, P [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Kaemlimg, A; Wandke, D, E-mail: m.kuchenbecker@web.d, E-mail: Nikita.Bibinov@rub.d, E-mail: awakowicz@aept-ruhr-uni-bochum.d, E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.d [CINOGY GmbH, Max-Naeder-Str. 15, 37114 Duderstadt (Germany)

    2009-02-21

    The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source for biomedical application is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, plasma-chemical simulation and voltage-current measurements. This plasma source possesses only one electrode covered by ceramic. Human body or some other object with enough high electric capacitance or connected to ground can serve as the opposite electrode. DBD consists of a number of microdischarge channels distributed in the gas gap between the electrodes and on the surface of the dielectric. To characterize the plasma conditions in the DBD source, an aluminium plate is used as an opposite electrode. Electric parameters, the diameter of microdischarge channel and plasma parameters (electron distribution function and electron density) are determined. The gas temperature is measured in the microdischarge channel and calculated in afterglow phase. The heating of the opposite electrode is studied using probe measurement. The gas and plasma parameters in the microdischarge channel are studied at varied distances between electrodes. According to an energy balance study, the input microdischarge electric energy dissipates mainly in heating of electrodes (about 90%) and partially (about 10%) in the production of chemical active species (atoms and metastable molecules).

  1. Characterization Study of Accelerator for Application in Biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid-M; Muryono, H.

    2000-01-01

    The characterization of accelerator for application in biotechnology was studied. Accelerator is a machine to produce ion beam particles. Accelerator can be used for biotechnology experiments. Ion beam particles irradiation on the biological material will produced variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. In general, new varieties were found by hybridization method or mutation breeding method by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particles can be used for biological material irradiation to find variabilities of genetics and induced mutations. The high percentage of mutation rate and LET value by ion beam particles irradiation was found higher than by gamma rays irradiation. Ion beam particle irradiation can also be controlled and foewed to target in biological material. The characterization of accelerator needed for biotechnology experiments are types of accelerator (Tandem Van de Graff, AVF Cyclotron, Synchrotron, Rilac), types of ion particles (C, He, electron, Ar, Ne, Ni, Al, Xe and Au), range of energy (5 - 2.090 MeV), range of dose irradiation (10 - 250 Gy), range of ion current (0.02 - 20 nA), range of ion beam particles diameter (10 - 100 μm), range of LET value (300 - 1.800 keV/μm ) and irradiation time (5 - 30 seconds/samples). (author)

  2. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  3. Open Source Platform Application to Groundwater Characterization and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Falzone, S.; Lane, J. W., Jr.; Slater, L. D.; Robinson, J.; Hammett, S.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater characterization and monitoring commonly rely on the use of multiple point sensors and human labor. Due to the number of sensors, labor, and other resources needed, establishing and maintaining an adequate groundwater monitoring network can be both labor intensive and expensive. To improve and optimize the monitoring network design, open source software and hardware components could potentially provide the platform to control robust and efficient sensors thereby reducing costs and labor. This work presents early attempts to create a groundwater monitoring system incorporating open-source software and hardware that will control the remote operation of multiple sensors along with data management and file transfer functions. The system is built around a Raspberry PI 3, that controls multiple sensors in order to perform on-demand, continuous or `smart decision' measurements while providing flexibility to incorporate additional sensors to meet the demands of different projects. The current objective of our technology is to monitor exchange of ionic tracers between mobile and immobile porosity using a combination of fluid and bulk electrical-conductivity measurements. To meet this objective, our configuration uses four sensors (pH, specific conductance, pressure, temperature) that can monitor the fluid electrical properties of interest and guide the bulk electrical measurement. This system highlights the potential of using open source software and hardware components for earth sciences applications. The versatility of the system makes it ideal for use in a large number of applications, and the low cost allows for high resolution (spatially and temporally) monitoring.

  4. Implementation of Optical Characterization for Flexible Organic Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskarakis, A.; Logothetidis, S.

    One of the most rapidly evolving sectors of the modern science and technology is the flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) that are expected to significantly improve and revolutionize our everyday life. The FED application includes the generation of electricity by renewable sources (by organic photovoltaic cells - OPVs), power storage (thin film batteries), the visualization of information (by organic displays), the working and living environment (ambient lighting, sensors), safety, market (smart labels, radio frequency identification tags - RFID), textiles (smart fabrics with embedded display and sensor capabilities), as well as healthcare (smart sensors for vital sign monitoring), etc. Although there has been important progresses in inorganic-based Si devices, there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting), inorganic, and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit desirable properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods. The understanding of the organic material properties can lead to the fast progress of the functionality and performance of FEDs. The investigation of the optical properties of these materials can promote the understanding of the optical, electrical, structural properties of organic semiconductors and electrodes and can contribute to the optimization of the synthesis process and the tuning of their structure and morphology. In this chapter, we will describe briefly some of the advances toward the implementation of optical characterization methods, such as Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) from the infrared to the visible and ultraviolet spectral region for the study of materials (flexible polymer substrates, barrier layers, transparent electrodes) to be used for application in the fabrication of FEDs.

  5. Purification, Characterization and Application of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger CSTRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arotupin Daniel Juwon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The research was carried out to study the purification, characterization and application of polygalacturonase fromAspergillus niger CSTRF.Methodology and Results: The polygalacturonase (PG from the fungus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysed. The resulting fraction of the enzyme was further separated by molecular exclusion and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme was purified 28.19 fold with a yield of approximately 69 % following purificationwith SP C-50. It has a relative molecular weight of 79,430 daltons and markedly influenced by temperature, pH and substrate concentrations of reactions with optimum activity at 35 °C, pH 4.0 and 8 mg/mL respectively. The PG was heat stable over a broad range of temperatures. Line weaver-Burk plot for the apparent hydrolysis of pectin showed approximately Km value of 2.7 mg/mL. The activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+, while EDTA, PbCl2, HgCl2 and IAA were inhibitory. The ability of the purified enzyme to clarify fruit juice was also investigated.Conclusion, significance and impact of the study: This study revealed that polygalacturonase possesses properties for clarification of fruit juice and by extension bioprocessing applications.

  6. An application of an optimal statistic for characterizing relative orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jow, Dylan L.; Hill, Ryley; Scott, Douglas; Soler, J. D.; Martin, P. G.; Devlin, M. J.; Fissel, L. M.; Poidevin, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present the projected Rayleigh statistic (PRS), a modification of the classic Rayleigh statistic, as a test for non-uniform relative orientation between two pseudo-vector fields. In the application here, this gives an effective way of investigating whether polarization pseudo-vectors (spin-2 quantities) are preferentially parallel or perpendicular to filaments in the interstellar medium. For example, there are other potential applications in astrophysics, e.g. when comparing small-scale orientations with larger scale shear patterns. We compare the efficiency of the PRS against histogram binning methods that have previously been used for characterizing the relative orientations of gas column density structures with the magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky. We examine data for the Vela C molecular cloud, where the column density is inferred from Herschel submillimetre observations, and the magnetic field from observations by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope in the 250-, 350- and 500-μm wavelength bands. We find that the PRS has greater statistical power than approaches that bin the relative orientation angles, as it makes more efficient use of the information contained in the data. In particular, the use of the PRS to test for preferential alignment results in a higher statistical significance, in each of the four Vela C regions, with the greatest increase being by a factor 1.3 in the South-Nest region in the 250 - μ m band.

  7. APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Bergeron; Tom Blasingame; Louis Doublet; Mohan Kelkar; George Freeman; Jeff Callard; David Moore; David Davies; Richard Vessell; Brian Pregger; Bill Dixon; Bryce Bezant

    2000-03-01

    Reservoir performance and characterization are vital parameters during the development phase of a project. Infill drilling of wells on a uniform spacing, without regard to characterization does not optimize development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, especially carbonate reservoirs. These reservoirs are typically characterized by: (1) large, discontinuous pay intervals; (2) vertical and lateral changes in reservoir properties; (3) low reservoir energy; (4) high residual oil saturation; and (5) low recovery efficiency. The operational problems they encounter in these types of reservoirs include: (1) poor or inadequate completions and stimulations; (2) early water breakthrough; (3) poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout the reservoir as well as in the nearby well regions; (4) channeling of injected fluids due to preferential fracturing caused by excessive injection rates; and (5) limited data availability and poor data quality. Infill drilling operations only need target areas of the reservoir which will be economically successful. If the most productive areas of a reservoir can be accurately identified by combining the results of geological, petrophysical, reservoir performance, and pressure transient analyses, then this ''integrated'' approach can be used to optimize reservoir performance during secondary and tertiary recovery operations without resorting to ''blanket'' infill drilling methods. New and emerging technologies such as geostatistical modeling, rock typing, and rigorous decline type curve analysis can be used to quantify reservoir quality and the degree of interwell communication. These results can then be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations. The application of reservoir surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir ''pay'' zones

  8. Preparation, characterization and application of novel proton conducting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siwei

    Due to the immediate energy shortage and the requirement of environment protection nowadays, the efficient, effective and environmental friendly use of current energy sources is urgent. Energy conversion and storage is thus an important focus both for industry and academia. As one of the hydrogen energy related materials, proton conducting ceramics can be applied in solid oxide fuel cells and steam electrolysers, as well as high temperature hydrogen separation membranes and hydrogen sensors. For most of the practical applications, both high proton conductivity and chemical stability are desirable. However, the state-of-the-art proton conducting ceramics are facing great challenges in simultaneously fulfilling conductivity and stability requirements for practical applications. Consequently, understanding the properties for the proton conducting ceramics and developing novel materials that possess both high proton conductivity and enhanced chemical stability have both scientific and practical significances. The objective of this study is to develop novel proton conducting ceramics, either by evaluating the doping effects on the state-of-the-art simple perovskite structured barium cerates, or by investigating novel complex perovskite structured Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O 9-delta based proton conductors as potential proton conducting ceramics with improved proton conductivity and enhanced chemical stability. Different preparation methods were compared, and their influence on the structure, including the bulk and grain boundary environment has been investigated. In addition, the effects of microstructure on the electrical properties of the proton conducting ceramics have also been characterized. The solid oxide fuel cell application for the proton conducting ceramics performed as electrolyte membranes has been demonstrated.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hafnium oxide for luminescent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Mendoza, J.; Aguilar Frutis, M.A.; Flores, G. Alarcon; Garcia Hipolito, M.; Azorin Nieto, J.; Rivera Montalvo, T.; Falcony, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a material with a wide range of possible technological applications because it's chemical and physical properties such as high melting point, high chemical stability, high refraction index, high dielectric constant and hardness near to diamond in the tetragonal phase. The large energy gap and low phonon frequencies of the HfO 2 makes it appropriate as a host matrix for been doped with rare earth activators. Efficient luminescent materials find wide application in electroluminescent flat panel displays; color plasma displays panels, scintillators, cathode ray tubes, fluorescent lamps, lasers, etc. In recent years the study of luminescent materials based on HfO 2 has been intensified. Some groups have studied the optical properties of doped and undoped HfO 2 . In this contribution, Hafnium Oxide (HfO 2 ) films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The material was synthesized using chlorides as raw materials in deionised water as solvent and deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures from 300 deg C to 600 deg C. For substrate temperatures lower than 400 deg C, the deposited films are amorphous, while for substrate temperatures higher than 450 deg C, the monoclinic phase of HfO 2 appears. Scanning electron microscopy with microprobe analysis was use to observe the microstructure and obtain the chemical composition of the films; rough surfaces with spherical particles were appreciated. UV and low energy X Ray radiations were used in order to achieve the thermoluminescent characterization of the films as a function of the deposition temperature

  10. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  11. Energy materials. Advances in characterization, modelling and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Eldrup, M.; Hansen, N.; Juul Jensen, D.; Nielsen, E.M.; Nielsen, S.F.; Soerensen, B.F.; Pedersen, A.S.; Vegge, T.; West, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Energy-related topics in the modern world and energy research programmes cover the range from basic research to applications and structural length scales from micro to macro. Materials research and development is a central part of the energy area as break-throughs in many technologies depend on a successful development and validation of new or advanced materials. The Symposium is organized by the Materials Research Department at Risoe DTU - National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy. The Department concentrates on energy problems combining basic and applied materials research with special focus on the key topics: wind, fusion, superconductors and hydrogen. The symposium is based on these key topics and focus on characterization of materials for energy applying neutron, X-ray and electron diffraction. Of special interest is research carried out at large facilities such as reactors and synchrotrons, supplemented by other experimental techniques and modelling on different length scales that underpins experiments. The Proceedings contain 15 key note presentations and 30 contributed presentations, covering the abovementioned key topics relevant for the energy materials. The contributions clearly show the importance of materials research when developing sustainable energy technologies and also that many challenges remain to be approached. (BA)

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Phosphates for Photocatalytic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour

    2012-07-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant efficient and important source of renewable energy. The objective of this study is to develop highly efficient visible light responsive photocatalysts for overall water splitting. This is done by using silver or copper containing materials. Phosphate compounds have caught much attention due to their rigid structure, thermal stability and resistance to chemical attacks. Solid phosphates can be prepared by direct solid-state reaction between metal cations and phosphate anions at high temperatures. Double metal phosphates of the Nasion-type structure had shown further technological importance. It has been reported that well-crystallized double metal phosphate particles have excellent ordering and cationic conduction channels in the Nasicon framework. In this study, several Nasion-type structured materials have been synthesized by solid-state method (e.g. CuTi2(PO4)3 and AgTi2(PO4)3) heated up under different temperatures (400–1100C) in N2 or air atmosphere. These materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy and tested for photocatalytic applications. A new method for direct synthesis of photoelectrode on Ti Plate had been demonstrated. Further investigations on controlling the size and morphology for better performance of single and double metal phosphates will be done.

  14. Smart magnetic nanovesicles for theranostic application: Preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marianecci, C.; Rinaldi, F.; Carafa, M.; Ingallina, C.; Passeri, D.; Sorbo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Nano medicines are submicrometer-sized carrier materials designed to improve the biodistribution of systemically administered (chemo)therapeutic agents. By delivering pharmacologically active agents more effectively and more selectively to the pathological site nano medicines aim to improve the balance between the efficacy and the toxicity of systemic (chemo)therapeutic administrations. Nano medicine formulations have also been used for imaging applications and, in recent years, for theranostic approaches, that is, for systems and strategies in which disease diagnosis and therapy are combined. On the one hand, 'classical' drug delivery systems are being co-loaded with both drugs and contrast agents. Actually, nanomaterials with an intrinsic ability to be used for imaging purposes, such as iron-oxide–based magnetic nanoparticles (MNP s ), are increasingly being loaded with drugs or alone for combining disease diagnosis and therapy. In this study, non-ionic surfactant vesicles loaded with lipophilic and hydrophilic MNP s have been prepared. Vesicles have been characterized in terms of dimensions, ζ-potential, time stability, bilayer characteristics and overall iron content. The encouraging obtained results confirm that Tween 20 and Span 20 vesicles could be promising carriers for the delivery of hydrophilic and lipophilic MNPs, respectively, thereby prompting various opportunities for the development of suitable theranostic strategies. The analyzed formulations confirm the importance of surfactant chemical-physical characteristics in entrapping the MNPs of different polarity, highlighting the high versatility of niosomal bilayer and structure; property that make them so appealing among drug delivery nanocarriers.

  15. Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.

  16. Optical Characterization and Applications of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S.

    2005-03-01

    Recent advances in the dispersion and separation of single walled carbon nanotubes have led to new methods of optical characterization and some novel applications. We find that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the aggregation state of single-walled carbon nanotubes in solution or as solids with a range of varying morphologies. Carbon nanotubes experience an orthogonal electronic dispersion when in electrical contact that broadens (from 40 meV to roughly 80 meV) and shifts the interband transition to lower energy (by 60 meV). We show that the magnitude of this shift is dependent on the extent of bundle organization and the inter-nanotube contact area. In the Raman spectrum, aggregation shifts the effective excitation profile and causes peaks to increase or decrease, depending on where the transition lies, relative to the excitation wavelength. The findings are particularly relevant for evaluating nanotube separation processes, where relative peak changes in the Raman spectrum can be confused for selective enrichment. We have also used gel electrophoresis and column chromatography conducted on individually dispersed, ultrasonicated single-walled carbon nanotubes to yield simultaneous separation by tube length and diameter. Electroelution after electrophoresis is shown to produce highly resolved fractions of nanotubes with average lengths between 92 and 435 nm. Separation by diameter is concomitant with length fractionation, and nanotubes that have been cut shortest also possess the greatest relative enrichments of large-diameter species. The relative quantum yield decreases nonlinearly as the nanotube length becomes shorter. These findings enable new applications of nanotubes as sensors and biomarkers. Particularly, molecular detection using near infrared (n-IR) light between 0.9 and 1.3 eV has important biomedical applications because of greater tissue penetration and reduced auto-fluorescent background in thick tissue or whole blood media. Carbon nanotubes

  17. Synthesis and characterization of iron based nanoparticles for novel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Hafsa

    The work in this thesis has been focused on the fabrication and characterization of iron based nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology with the aim: (i) to investigate their properties for potential applications in MICR toners and biomedical field and (ii) to study finite size effects on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. For the biomedical applications, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide and hollow shell nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron organometallic compounds [Fe(CO)5] at high temperature. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles have been prepared in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Particle size and composition was controlled by varying the reaction parameters during synthesis. The as-made particles are hydrophobic and not dispersible in water. Water dispersibility was achieved by ligand exchange a with double hydrophilic diblock copolymer. Relaxometery measurements of the transverse relaxation time T2 of the nanoparticles solution at 3 Tesla confirm that the core/shell nanoparticles are an excellent MRI contrast agent using T2 weighted imaging sequences. In comparison to conventionally used iron oxide nanoparticles, iron/iron-oxide core/shell nanoparticles offer four times stronger T2 shortening effect at comparable core size due to their higher magnetization. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. Hollow nanostructures are composed of randomly oriented grains arranged together to make a shell layer and make an interesting class of materials. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control the magnetic properties. Owing to their hollow morphology, they can be used for the targeted drug delivery applications by filling the drug inside their cavity. For the magnetic toners applications, particles were synthesized by chemically reducing iron salt using sodium borohydride and then coated with polyethylene

  18. The development, characterization, and application of biomimetic nanoscale enzyme immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Nicholas R.

    The utilization of enzymes is of interest for applications such as biosensors and biofuel cells. Immobilizing enzymes provides a means to develop these applications. Previous immobilization efforts have been accomplished by exposing surfaces on which silica-forming molecules are present to solutions containing an enzyme and a silica precursor. This approach leads to the enzyme being entrapped in a matrix three orders of magnitude larger than the enzyme itself, resulting in low retention of enzyme activity. The research herein introduces a method for the immobilization of enzymes during the layer-by-layer buildup of Si-O and Ti-O coatings which are nanoscale in thickness. This approach is an application of a peptide-induced mineral deposition method developed in the Sandhage and Kroger groups, and it involves the alternating exposure of a surface to solutions containing the peptide protamine and then an aqueous precursor solution of silicon- or titanium-oxide at near-neutral pH. A method has been developed that enables in situ immobilization of enzymes in the protamine/mineral oxide coatings. Depending on the layer and mineral (silica or titania) within which the enzyme is incorporated, the resulting multilayer biocatalytic hybrid materials retain 20 -- 100% of the enzyme activity. Analyses of kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme, coupled with characterization of physical properties of the mineral-bearing layers (thickness, porosity, pore size distribution), indicates that the catalytic activities of the enzymes immobilized in the different layers are largely determined by substrate diffusion. The enzyme was also found to be substantially stabilized against heat-induced denaturation and largely protected from proteolytic attack. These functional coatings are then developed for use as antimicrobial materials. Glucose oxidase, which catalyzes production of the cytotoxic agent hydrogen peroxide, was immobilized with silver nanoparticles, can release

  19. Development and characterization of electron sources for diffraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casandruc, Albert

    2015-12-15

    The dream to control chemical reactions that are essential to life is now closer than ever to gratify. Recent scientific progress has made it possible to investigate phenomena and processes which deploy at the angstroms scale and at rates on the order femtoseconds. Techniques such as Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) are currently able to reveal the spatial atomic configuration of systems with unit cell sizes on the order of a few nanometers with about 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. Still, major advances are needed for structural interrogation of biological systems like protein crystals, which have unit cell sizes of 10 nanometers or larger, and sample sizes of less than one micrometer. For such samples, the performance of these electron-based techniques is now limited by the quality, in particular the brightness, of the electron source. The current Ph.D. work represents a contribution towards the development and the characterization of electron sources which are essential to static and time-resolved electron diffraction techniques. The focus was on electron source fabrication and electron beam characterization measurements, using the solenoid and the aperture scan techniques, but also on the development and maintenance of the relevant experimental setups. As a result, new experimental facilities are now available in the group and, at the same time, novel concepts for generating electron beams for electron diffraction applications have been developed. In terms of existing electron sources, the capability to trigger and detect field emission from single double-gated field emitter Mo tips was successfully proven. These sharp emitter tips promise high brightness electron beams, but for investigating individual such structures, new engineering was needed. Secondly, the influence of the surface electric field on electron beam properties has been systematically performed for flat Mo photocathodes. This study is very valuable especially for state

  20. Development and characterization of electron sources for diffraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandruc, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The dream to control chemical reactions that are essential to life is now closer than ever to gratify. Recent scientific progress has made it possible to investigate phenomena and processes which deploy at the angstroms scale and at rates on the order femtoseconds. Techniques such as Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) are currently able to reveal the spatial atomic configuration of systems with unit cell sizes on the order of a few nanometers with about 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. Still, major advances are needed for structural interrogation of biological systems like protein crystals, which have unit cell sizes of 10 nanometers or larger, and sample sizes of less than one micrometer. For such samples, the performance of these electron-based techniques is now limited by the quality, in particular the brightness, of the electron source. The current Ph.D. work represents a contribution towards the development and the characterization of electron sources which are essential to static and time-resolved electron diffraction techniques. The focus was on electron source fabrication and electron beam characterization measurements, using the solenoid and the aperture scan techniques, but also on the development and maintenance of the relevant experimental setups. As a result, new experimental facilities are now available in the group and, at the same time, novel concepts for generating electron beams for electron diffraction applications have been developed. In terms of existing electron sources, the capability to trigger and detect field emission from single double-gated field emitter Mo tips was successfully proven. These sharp emitter tips promise high brightness electron beams, but for investigating individual such structures, new engineering was needed. Secondly, the influence of the surface electric field on electron beam properties has been systematically performed for flat Mo photocathodes. This study is very valuable especially for state

  1. Optimized Characterization of Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinov, Dimitri; Wallig, Daniel; Bastian, Georg

    2012-06-01

    New developments in the field of thermoelectric materials bring the prospect of consumer devices for recovery of some of the waste heat from internal combustion engines closer to reality. Efficiency improvements are expected due to the development of high-temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG). In contrast to already established radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the temperature difference in automotive systems is not constant, and this imposes a set of specific requirements on the TEG system components. In particular, the behavior of the TEGs and interface materials used to link the heat flow from the heat source through the TEG to the heat sink must be examined. Due to the usage patterns of automobiles, the TEG will be subject to cyclic thermal loads, which leads to module degradation. Additionally, the automotive TEG will be exposed to an inhomogeneous temperature distribution, leading to inhomogeneous mechanical loads and reduced system efficiency. Therefore, a characterization rig is required to allow determination of the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of such high-temperature TEG systems. This paper describes a measurement setup using controlled adjustment of cold-side and warm-side temperatures as well as controlled feed-in of electrical power for evaluation of TEGs for application in vehicles with combustion engines. The temperature profile in the setup can be varied to simulate any vehicle usage pattern, such as the European standard driving cycle, allowing the power yield of the TEGs to be evaluated for the chosen cycle. The spatially resolved temperature distribution of a TEG system can be examined by thermal imaging. Hotspots or cracks on thermocouples of the TEGs and the thermal resistance of thermal interface materials can also be examined using this technology. The construction of the setup is briefly explained, followed by detailed discussion of the experimental results.

  2. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  3. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

    1997-12-31

    The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Superhydrophobic Sands in Desert Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Reihmer, Joel W.

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable supply of fresh water for the human population is a global concern. Intriguingly, about 70% of the total fresh water consumed in the world annually is claimed by agriculture alone; this fraction is even higher in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where natural regeneration of groundwater is the slowest. Thus, there is a serious need for innovative materials and technologies to enhance the efficiency water usage in agriculture. To this end, plastic mulches have been employed across the developed world to minimize evaporative loss of water from top-soils. While plastic mulches are inexpensive, they do require specialized farm machinery for installation and long processing times. On one hand, plastic mulches have proven to increase crop yields, but on the other their non-biodegradability poses serious environmental concerns. In response, development of low-cost bio-/photo-degradable artificial mulches remains an area of intense research. In this thesis, we report on a novel superhydrophobic material exploiting inexpensive simple components to reduce the amount of water required for irrigation in agriculture by suppressing evaporative losses from the top-soil. Our material consists of ordinary beach sand coated with < 20 nm thick layer of paraffin wax. We synthesized and extensively characterized our material and applied them as mulches for tomato and barley plants at the KAUST greenhouse. We found that when a ~5 mm thick layer of superhydrophobic sand was placed onto the top-soil in pots, it dramatically suppressed evaporative losses and significantly enhanced the yields. Our preliminary field-scale experiments with tomatoes and barley crops at the Hada Al Sham site corroborate these results. Our approach might find applications in desert agriculture and other fields and alleviate water stress in the MENA region.

  5. Information collection and analysis of geological characterization and evaluation technology and application to geological characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideki; Noda, Masaru; Nishikawa, Naohito; Sato, Shoko; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2003-03-01

    Tono Geoscience Center (TGC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has been conducting the Regional Groundwater Investigation and Mizunami Underground Laboratory (MIU) Project in order to develop investigation technologies and evaluation methods of geological environment. At present, towards the next progress reporting on research and development for geological disposal of HLW in Japan, based on the existing research and development results, the projects which are conducted by TGC are required for promoting smoothly and efficiently with regard to the current Japanese HLW program. According to such situation, for planning of the geological environment investigation and research at TGC and the next progress reporting, this study has investigated and summarizes overseas environmental impact assessments for final disposal, overseas site characterization and site selection, and overseas research plan of underground research laboratories. Based on the results of investigation, some technologies which have possibility to be applied to the MIU Project have been studied. Also overseas quality assurance programs have been investigated, and examples of the application of their concepts to MIU project have been considered. (author)

  6. Characterization of spray deposition and drift from a low drift nozzle for aerial application at different application altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  7. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems

  8. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  9. TXRF applications for semiconductor materials and process characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitz, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the past 30 years, the semiconductor industry has undergone a dramatic evolution in technology which now has become part of our daily lives. The density of transistors on a chip has grown exponentially, approximately doubling every 18 months or increasing 3200 times. Early chips from the 1970's had about 2300 components on them compared to 7.5 million on today's sophisticated microprocessors. It is an exhausting pace with no let up in sight. Traditional materials are no longer keeping pace. Smaller and smaller circuits require alternative materials and processes. New materials such as high k and low k dielectric are being evaluated to replace silicon dioxide both as a gate material and as an insulator. Copper wiring which has less resistance thereby increasing signal speed is well into manufacturing. Other technologies such as SOI (silicon on insulator) are good candidates to win the battle of speed and performance. To keep this pace of phenomenal creativity going, material characterization and process development needs novel and innovative techniques. The versatility of total reflection x-ray florescence (TXRF) makes it an ideal analytical instrument for research and development studies for ultra trace metal analysis. TXRF can easily measure the surfaces of thin metallic films, but also both low and high K dielectric materials for ultra trace contamination levels. The multiple element capability provides accurate quantitative data over a wide range of elements. Nontraditional elements such as argon which is easily trapped in films during the sputter deposition process are easily detected by TXRF. Advances in light element; Al, Na, Mg, are providing information that was very difficult and time consuming to obtain by other analytical techniques. TXRF analysis on wafers show aluminum contamination patterns from a brush clean study and an ion implanted, shallow doped study. The silicon wafer is the perfect carrier for a TXRF analysis- smooth and highly polished for

  10. Application of multi-thread computing and domain decomposition to the 3-D neutronics Fem code Cronos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the parallelization of the flux solver and the isotopic depletion module of the code, either using Message Passing Interface (MPI) or OpenMP. Thread parallelism using OpenMP was used to parallelize the mixed dual FEM (finite element method) flux solver MINOS. Investigations regarding the opportunity of mixing parallelism paradigms will be discussed. The isotopic depletion module was parallelized using domain decomposition and MPI. An attempt at using OpenMP was unsuccessful and will be explained. This paper is organized as follows: the first section recalls the different types of parallelism. The mixed dual flux solver and its parallelization are then presented. In the third section, we describe the isotopic depletion solver and its parallelization; and finally conclude with some future perspectives. Parallel applications are mandatory for fine mesh 3-dimensional transport and simplified transport multigroup calculations. The MINOS solver of the FEM neutronics code CRONOS2 was parallelized using the directive based standard OpenMP. An efficiency of 80% (resp. 60%) was achieved with 2 (resp. 4) threads. Parallelization of the isotopic depletion solver was obtained using domain decomposition principles and MPI. Efficiencies greater than 90% were reached. These parallel implementations were tested on a shared memory symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) cluster machine. The OpenMP implementation in the solver MINOS is only the first step towards fully using the SMPs cluster potential with a mixed mode parallelism. Mixed mode parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing interface between clusters with OpenMP implicit parallelism within a cluster

  11. Application of multi-thread computing and domain decomposition to the 3-D neutronics Fem code Cronos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragusa, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes des Reacteurs et de Modelisations Avancees (DEN/SERMA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the parallelization of the flux solver and the isotopic depletion module of the code, either using Message Passing Interface (MPI) or OpenMP. Thread parallelism using OpenMP was used to parallelize the mixed dual FEM (finite element method) flux solver MINOS. Investigations regarding the opportunity of mixing parallelism paradigms will be discussed. The isotopic depletion module was parallelized using domain decomposition and MPI. An attempt at using OpenMP was unsuccessful and will be explained. This paper is organized as follows: the first section recalls the different types of parallelism. The mixed dual flux solver and its parallelization are then presented. In the third section, we describe the isotopic depletion solver and its parallelization; and finally conclude with some future perspectives. Parallel applications are mandatory for fine mesh 3-dimensional transport and simplified transport multigroup calculations. The MINOS solver of the FEM neutronics code CRONOS2 was parallelized using the directive based standard OpenMP. An efficiency of 80% (resp. 60%) was achieved with 2 (resp. 4) threads. Parallelization of the isotopic depletion solver was obtained using domain decomposition principles and MPI. Efficiencies greater than 90% were reached. These parallel implementations were tested on a shared memory symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) cluster machine. The OpenMP implementation in the solver MINOS is only the first step towards fully using the SMPs cluster potential with a mixed mode parallelism. Mixed mode parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing interface between clusters with OpenMP implicit parallelism within a cluster.

  12. Smart materials-based actuators at the micronano-scale characterization, control, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Smart Materials-Based Actuators at the Micro/Nano-Scale: Characterization, Control, and Applications gives a state of the art of emerging techniques to the characterization and control of actuators based on smart materials working at the micro/nano scale. The book aims to characterize some commonly used structures based on piezoelectric and electroactive polymeric actuators and also focuses on various and emerging techniques employed to control them. This book also includes two of the most emerging topics and applications: nanorobotics and cells micro/nano-manipulation. This book: Provides both theoretical and experimental results Contains complete information from characterization, modeling, identification, control to final applications for researchers and engineers that would like to model, characterize, control and apply their own micro/nano-systems Discusses applications such as microrobotics and their control, design and fabrication of microsystems, microassembly and its automation, nanorobotics and thei...

  13. An FPGA Testbed for Characterizing and Mapping DOD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-27

    applications in engineering, artificial intelligence , robotics, etc. As GPUs have a massively parallel architecture with thousands of cores, applications...RC system processing elements must be able to consume/produce data at the highest possible data rates. If there are multiple memory banks , the number...memory banks and the function core for performing the specific application, and the plurality of memory banks coupled to each of the one or more digital

  14. Construction characterization and application of Flavivirus infectious clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    The topics in this thesis revolve around a group of plus-strand RNA viruses that belong to the Flavivirus genus, a general introduction of which is presented in Chapter 1. The experimental chapters in this thesis mainly focus on the construction and characterization of flavivirus infectious clones

  15. Food powders flowability characterization: theory, methods, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of food powders flowability is required for predicting powder flow from hoppers in small-scale systems such as vending machines or at the industrial scale from storage silos or bins dispensing into powder mixing systems or packaging machines. This review covers conventional and new methods used to measure flowability in food powders. The method developed by Jenike (1964) for determining hopper outlet diameter and hopper angle has become a standard for the design of bins and is regarded as a standard method to characterize flowability. Moreover, there are a number of shear cells that can be used to determine failure properties defined by Jenike's theory. Other classic methods (compression, angle of repose) and nonconventional methods (Hall flowmeter, Johanson Indicizer, Hosokawa powder tester, tensile strength tester, powder rheometer), used mainly for the characterization of food powder cohesiveness, are described. The effect of some factors preventing flow, such as water content, temperature, time consolidation, particle composition and size distribution, is summarized for the characterization of specific food powders with conventional and other methods. Whereas time-consuming standard methods established for hopper design provide flow properties, there is yet little comparative evidence demonstrating that other rapid methods may provide similar flow prediction.

  16. Characterization of complex networks : Application to robustness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamakovic, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the topological characterization of complex networks. It specifically focuses on those elementary graph measures that are of interest when quantifying topology-related aspects of the robustness of complex networks. This thesis makes the following contributions to the field of

  17. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has

  18. The characterization of weighted local hardy spaces on domains and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng-geng; Yang, Xiao-ming

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we give the four equivalent characterizations for the weighted local hardy spaces on Lipschitz domains. Also, we give their application for the harmonic function defined in bounded Lipschitz domains.

  19. Characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Yuzo; Takimoto, Taro; Kinoshita, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces academic researchers and professionals to the basic concepts and methods for characterizing interdependencies of multiple time series in the frequency domain. Detecting causal directions between a pair of time series and the extent of their effects, as well as testing the non existence of a feedback relation between them, have constituted major focal points in multiple time series analysis since Granger introduced the celebrated definition of causality in view of prediction improvement. Causality analysis has since been widely applied in many disciplines. Although most analyses are conducted from the perspective of the time domain, a frequency domain method introduced in this book sheds new light on another aspect that disentangles the interdependencies between multiple time series in terms of long-term or short-term effects, quantitatively characterizing them. The frequency domain method includes the Granger noncausality test as a special case. Chapters 2 and 3 of the book introduce an i...

  20. Small-Molecule Binding Aptamers: Selection Strategies, Characterization, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eRuscito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded, synthetic oligonucleotides that fold into 3-dimensional shapes capable of binding non-covalently with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. They are generated via an in vitro process known as the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, from which candidates are screened and characterized, and then applied in aptamer-based biosensors for target detection. Aptamers for small molecule targets such as toxins, antibiotics, molecular markers, drugs, and heavy metals will be the focus of this review. Their accurate detection is ultimately needed for the protection and wellbeing of humans and animals. However, issues such as the drastic difference in size of the aptamer and small molecule make it challenging to select, characterize, and apply aptamers for the detection of small molecules. Thus, recent (since 2012 notable advances in small molecule aptamers, which have overcome some of these challenges, are presented here, while defining challenges that still exist are discussed

  1. Mechanical Resonators for Material Characterization: Sensor Development and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casci Ceccacci, Andrea; Bosco, Filippo Giacomo

    The goals of this PhD project were to provide new approaches and developing new systems for material characterization, based on micro and nanomechanical sensors. Common issues that have shown to hinder large-scale integration of sensing techniques based on a micromechanical sensor are the readout......-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA), which is of high relevance in the biomedical research field. A second version of the system is currently under development, and it aims to increase the throughput of the system allowing to read out multiple microbridge arrays. For material characterization, spectroscopy analysis is often...... considered a benchmark technology. Conventional infrared spectroscopy approaches commonly require milligram amount of sample. Considering the frame of reference given by the overall aim of the project, mechanical sensors can be exploited to provide a unique tool for performing spectroscopy on a limited...

  2. Piezoelectric Transformer Characterization and Application of Electronic Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ray-Lee

    2001-01-01

    The characterization and modeling of piezoelectric transformers are studied and developed for use in electronic ballasts. By replacing conventional L-C resonant tanks with piezoelectric transformers, inductor-less piezoelectric transformer electronic ballasts have been developed for use in fluorescent lamps. The piezoelectric transformer is a combination of piezoelectric actuators as the primary side and piezoelectric transducers as the secondary side, both of which work in longitudinal o...

  3. Study on low frequency probe characterization for concrete application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohd Pauzi Ismail

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been widely used in metal and non-metal material. For non-metal material such as concrete, a probe emitting low frequency ultrasonic wave is applied. This paper describes the comparison between three custom made probes using same design and piezoelectric crystal. The only difference is the backing material, which comprise of three different materials. Characterization of each transducer is compared in order to understand the effects of backing material in the probe. (Author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of Sb2Se3 devices for memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shylashree, N.; Uma B., V.; Dhanush, S.; Abachi, Sagar; Nisarga, A.; Aashith, K.; Sangeetha B., G.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, A phase change material of Sb2Se3 was proposed for non volatile memory application. The thin film device preparation and characterization were carried out. The deposition method used was vapor evaporation technique and a thickness of 180nm was deposited. The switching between the SET and RESET state is shown by the I-V characterization. The change of phase was studied using R-V characterization. Different fundamental modes were also identified using Raman spectroscopy.

  5. NEW MICROWAVE-BASED MISSIONS APPLICATIONS FOR RAINFED CROPS CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-temporal/multi-sensor field experiment was conducted within the Soil Moisture Measurement Stations Network of the University of Salamanca (REMEDHUS in Spain, in order to retrieve useful information from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and upcoming Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R missions. The objective of the experiment was first to identify which radar observables are most sensitive to the development of crops, and then to define which crop parameters the most affect the radar signal. A wide set of radar variables (backscattering coefficients and polarimetric indicators acquired by Radarsat-2 were analyzed and then exploited to determine variables characterizing the crops. Field measurements were fortnightly taken at seven cereals plots between February and July, 2015. This work also tried to optimize the crop characterization through Landsat-8 estimations, testing and validating parameters such as the leaf area index, the fraction of vegetation cover and the vegetation water content, among others. Some of these parameters showed significant and relevant correlation with the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (R>0.60. Regarding the radar observables, the parameters the best characterized were biomass and height, which may be explored for inversion using SAR data as an input. Moreover, the differences in the correlations found for the different crops under study types suggested a way to a feasible classification of crops.

  6. Characterization of Developer Application Methods Used in Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, L. J. H.; Lopez, R.; Eisenmann, D.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is the most widely used inspection method for aviation components seeing use for production as well as an inservice inspection applications. FPI is a multiple step process requiring attention to the process parameters for each step in order to enable a successful inspection. A multiyear program is underway to evaluate the most important factors affecting the performance of FPI, to determine whether existing industry specifications adequately address control of the process parameters, and to provide the needed engineering data to the public domain. The final step prior to the inspection is the application of developer with typical aviation inspections involving the use of dry powder (form d) usually applied using either a pressure wand or dust storm chamber. Results from several typical dust storm chambers and wand applications have shown less than optimal performance. Measurements of indication brightness and recording of the UVA image, and in some cases, formal probability of detection (POD) studies were used to assess the developer application methods. Key conclusions and initial recommendations are provided.

  7. Characterization of a Robotic Manipulator for Dynamic Wind Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Semiconductor strain gages are attached to each beam. These strain-sensitive resistors , connected through a Wheatstone bridge, determine the strain in the beam...Aerdyanmic Performance and Particle Image Velocimetery of Piezo Acuated Biometric Manduca Sexta Engineered Wings Towards Design and Application of a

  8. Characterization of commercial supercapacitors for low temperature applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iwama, Etsuro; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Azais, Philippe; Brégeon, Laurent; Simon, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electrochemical characterizations at low temperature and floating tests have been performed on 600F commercial supercapacitor (SC) for acetonitrile (AN)-based and AN + methyl acetate (MA) mixed electrolytes. From −40 to +20 °C, AN electrolyte showed slightly higher capacitance than those of AN + MA mixed electrolytes (25 and 33 vol.% of MA). At −55 °C, however, AN electrolyte did not cycle at all, while MA mixed electrolyte normally cycled with a slight decrease in the...

  9. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  10. Modal analysis application for dynamic characterization of simple structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.J.; Belinco, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of a structure helps to foresee the vibrating behaviour under operating conditions. The modal analysis techniques offer a method to perform the dynamic characterization of a studied structure from the vibration modes of such structure. A hammer provided with a loaded cell to excite a wide frequency band and accelerometer and, on the basis of a measurement of the transfer function at different points, various simple structures were given with a dynamic structures analysis (of the type of Fourier's rapidly transformation) and the results were compared with those obtained by other methods. Different fields where these techniques are applied, are also enumerated. (Author)

  11. Application of physical and chemical characterization techniques to metallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Watson, S. S.; Stutzman, P. E.; Ferraris, C. F.; Peltz, M. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic studies have been carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to chemistry, including X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, were also employed. Results of these analyses will be used to shed light on the question: how does virgin powder change after being exposed to and recycled from one or more additive manufacturing build cycles? In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process

  12. Geostatistics for radiological characterization: overview and application cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desnoyers, Yvon

    2016-01-01

    The objective of radiological characterization is to find a suitable balance between gathering data (constrained by cost, deadlines, accessibility or radiation) and managing the issues (waste volumes, levels of activity or exposure). It is necessary to have enough information to have confidence in the results without multiplying useless data. Geo-statistics processing of data considers all available pieces of information: historical data, non-destructive measurements and laboratory analyses of samples. The spatial structure modelling is then used to produce maps and to estimate the extent of radioactive contamination (surface and depth). Quantifications of local and global uncertainties are powerful decision-making tools for better management of remediation projects at contaminated sites, and for decontamination and dismantling projects at nuclear facilities. They can be used to identify hot spots, estimate contamination of surfaces and volumes, classify radioactive waste according to thresholds, estimate source terms, and so on. The spatial structure of radioactive contamination makes the optimization of sampling (number and position of data points) particularly important. Geo-statistics methodology can help determine the initial mesh size and reduce estimation uncertainties. Several show cases are presented to illustrate why and how geo-statistics can be applied to a range of radiological characterization where investigated units can represent very small areas (a few m 2 or a few m 3 ) or very large sites (at a country scale). The focus is then put on experience gained over years in the use of geo-statistics and sampling optimization. (author)

  13. Optimization and Characterization of CMOS for Ultra Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive voltage scaling into the subthreshold operating region holds great promise for applications with strict energy budget. However, it has been established that higher speed superthreshold device is not suitable for moderate performance subthreshold circuits. The design constraint for selecting Vth and TOX is much more flexible for subthreshold circuits at low voltage level than superthreshold circuits. In order to obtain better performance from a device under subthreshold conditions, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the process and geometry parameters of a Si MOSFET at nanometer technology node. This paper calibrates the fabrication process parameters and electrical characteristics for n- and p-MOSFETs with 35 nm physical gate length. Thereafter, the calibrated device for superthreshold application is optimized for better performance under subthreshold conditions using TCAD simulation. The device simulated in this work shows 9.89% improvement in subthreshold slope and 34% advantage in ION/IOFF ratio for the same drive current.

  14. Recent advances on liposomal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Farshbaf, Masoud; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Mirahadi, Mozhdeh; Khalilov, Rovshan; Saghfi, Siamak; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2017-06-01

    Liposome is a new nanostructure for the encapsulation and delivery of bioactive agents. There are a lot of bioactive materials that could be incorporated into liposomes including cosmetics, food ingredients, and pharmaceuticals. Liposomes possess particular properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability; accompanied by their nanosize they have potential applications in nanomedicine, cosmetics, and food industry. Nanoliposome technology offers thrilling chances for food technologists in fields including encapsulation and controlled release of food ingredients, also improved bioavailability and stability of sensitive materials. Amid numerous brilliant new drug and gene delivery systems, liposomes provide an advanced technology to carry active molecules to the specific site of action, and now days, various formulations are in clinical use. In this paper, we provide review of the main physicochemical properties of liposomes, current methods of the manufacturing and introduce some of their usage in food nanotechnology as carrier vehicles of nutrients, enzymes, and food antimicrobials and their applications as drug carriers and gene delivery agents in biomedicine.

  15. Characterization and application of halloysite nanotubes in semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, Blessie; Sudario, Franck; Clemente, Richard; Millare, Jeremiah; Abad, Jojo

    2013-01-01

    The demand for low cost and reliable conductive die attach paste continues to increase because of the recent development in the semiconductor and electronics industry. Hybrid products with vertically and horizontally integrated components attach material with good electrical conductivity and excellent reliability. This has driven interest in polymers filled with silver particles that can deliver good performance and reliability at reduced cost. The challenge lies with the metal and polymer composition of the available die attach epoxies in the market with low Tg (glass transition temperature) and high CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) compared to other components. Adding Halloysite Nanotube (HNT) to make a silver-filled epoxy (SFE) nanocomposite by in-situ intercalation method, the desired electrical conductivity of the epoxy matrix can be achieved without compromising its adhesion strength which is suitable for semiconductor die attach application. A custom design of experiment was used to study the effects of HNT mixed at varying composition into the silver filled epoxy matrix. Test results based on ASTM, JEDEC and military standards indicated that the desirable electrical conductivity and shear strength applicable to semiconductor die attach application can be achieved at 3% to 6% HNT composition. There was a substantial increase in Tg from 219°C t 228°C and reduction in CTE from 117 to 76 ppm/°C. Exfoliated structures of embedded HNT in the cured polymer matrix were observed in the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) micrographs. Considering the electrical conductivity, adhesion strength, Tg and CTE, the HNT content of 3 to 6% is a good range to produce this material to attain good functionality and reliability. Combining HNT to make a silver filled epoxy-clay nanocomposite is highly feasible for semiconductor and electronics application. (author)

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles Featuring Polyzwitterionic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Biehl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last decades, magnetic nanoparticles (MNP have gained tremendous interest in different fields of applications like biomedicine (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, drug delivery, hyperthermia, but also more technical applications (e.g., catalysis, waste water treatment have been pursued. Different surfactants and polymers are extensively used for surface coating of MNP to passivate the surface and avoid or decrease agglomeration, decrease or modulate biomolecule absorption, and in most cases increase dispersion stability. For this purpose, electrostatic or steric repulsion can be exploited and, in that regard, surface charge is the most important (hybrid particle property. Therefore, polyelectrolytes are of great interest for nanoparticle coating, as they are able to stabilize the particles in dispersion by electrostatic repulsion due to their high charge densities. In this review article, we focus on polyzwitterions as a subclass of polyelectrolytes and their use as coating materials for MNP. In the context of biomedical applications, polyzwitterions are widely used as they exhibit antifouling properties and thus can lead to minimized protein adsorption and also long circulation times.

  17. Characterization of shallow trench isolation CMP process and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, ChunLei; Liu, JinBing; Liu, ZhengFang; Chen, Kuang Han; Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba; Ding, Hua; Li, Flora; Lee, Brian; Gower-Hall, Aaron; Chiu, Yang-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been a critical enabling technology in shallow trench isolation (STI), which is used in current integrated circuit fabrication process to accomplish device isolation. Excessive dishing and erosion in STI CMP processes, however, create device yield concerns. This paper proposes characterization and modeling techniques to address a variety of concerns in STI CMP. In the past, majority of CMP publications have been addressed on interconnect layers in backend- of-line (BEOL) process. However, the number of CMP steps in front-end-of-line (FEOL) has been increasing in more advanced process techniques like 3D-FinFET and replacement metal gate, as a results incoming topography induced by FEOL CMP steps can no longer be ignored as the topography accumulates and stacks up across multiple CMP steps and eventually propagating to BEOL layers. In this paper, we first discuss how to characterize and model STI CMP process. Once STI CMP model is developed, it can be used for screening design and detect possible manufacturing weak spots. We also work with process engineering team to establish hotspot criteria in terms of oxide dishing and nitride loss. As process technologies move from planar transistor to 3D transistor like FinFet and multi-gate, it is important to accurately predict topography in FEOL CMP processes. These incoming topographies when stacked up can have huge impact in BEOL copper processes, where copper pooling becomes catastrophic yield loss. A calibration methodology to characterize STI CMP step is developed as shown in Figure 1; moreover, this STI CMP model is validated from silicon data collected from product chips not used in calibration stage. Additionally, wafer experimental setup and metrology plan are instrumental to an accurate model with high predictive power. After a model is generated, spec limits and threshold to establish hotspots criteria can be defined. Such definition requires working closely with foundry

  18. Synthesis and characterization of powders calcium phosphate for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, D.M.P. de; Prants, W.T.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Gemelli, E., E-mail: daniellapinheiro@gmail.com, E-mail: w_prants@hotmail.com, E-mail: dem2nhac@joinville.udesc.br, E-mail: dma2ec@joinville.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2009-07-01

    Scientists of different areas research the bioceramics as new materials to substitute parts of the human body. The bioceramics of the calcium phosphate have the advantage present similar chemical composition to the structure of the bony apatite of the human skeleton. In this study, calcium phosphate powder was synthesized chemically using the solution of phosphorus pentoxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and calcium oxide (CaO) necessary for molar Ca/P =1.67. These works aim the study of different thermal treatments, physics and of the microstructure properties. For characterization the bony matrix were used the techniques of: X-ray diffraction (DRX); Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). (author)

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Acrylic Primer for Concrete Substrate Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study dealt with the properties of acrylic primer for concrete substrate using acrylic syrup, made from a methyl methacrylate monomer solution of terpolymers. Terpolymer systems consisting of methyl methacrylate (MMA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA, and methacrylic acid (MAA with different chemical composition ratios of MMA and 2-EHA were synthesized through bulk polymerization using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as initiator. The terpolymer composition is characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, DSC, TGA, and SEM. The glass transition temperature and the thermal stability increased with increasing amounts of MMA in the terpolymer backbone. The effect of chemical composition of terpolymers on physicomechanical properties of primer films was investigated. However, increasing the amount of MMA in terpolymer backbone increased tensile and contact angle of primer films while elongation at break, water absorption, and bond strength are decreased. In particular, the primer syrup containing 65% 2-EHA has good bonding strength with concrete substrate around 1.1 MPa.

  20. Plants and microbes assisted selenium nanoparticles: characterization and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-08-16

    Selenium is an essential trace element and is an essential component of many enzymes without which they become inactive. The Se nanoparticles of varying shape and size may be synthesized from Se salts especially selenite and selenates in presence of reducing agents such as proteins, phenols, alcohols and amines. These biomolecules can be used to reduce Se salts in vitro but the byproducts released in the environment may be hazardous to flora and fauna. In this review, therefore, we analysed in depth, the biogenic synthesis of Se nanoparticles, their characterization and transformation into t- Se, m-Se, Se-nanoballs, Se-nanowires and Se-hollow spheres in an innocuous way preventing the environment from pollution. Their shape, size, FTIR, UV-vis, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM images and XRD pattern have been analysed. The weak forces involved in aggregation and transformation of one nano structure into the other have been carefully resolved.

  1. Cellulose acetate propionate coated titanium: characterization and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of pure titanium and Ti coated with cellulose acetate propionate (CAP have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy X ray coupled with elemental microanalysis (SEM-EDS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Coating Ti surfaces with CAP ultrathin films reduced original surface roughness. Surface energy and wettability of CAP covered Ti surfaces pure Ti surfaces were similar. The adsorption of lysozyme (LYZ, an antibacterial protein, onto Ti and CAP-coated Ti surfaces has been studied by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The adsorption of LYZ was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction between protein hydrophobic residues and CAP propyl groups. Pure Ti and CAP coated Ti surfaces presented no cytotoxicity effect and proved to be adequate substrates for cell adhesion. The biocompatibility of CAP coated Ti surfaces was attributed to the surface enrichment in glucopyranosyl residues and short alkyl side groups.

  2. Elaboration and characterization of metallurgical silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbouche, M; Hajji, M; Krout, F; Ezzaouia, H

    2015-01-01

    There is a small quantity of participants in the global market of silicon, mainly from the developed countries. It should be noticed also that production of metallurgical silicon Mg-Si is among the most important steps to produce solar grade silicon and photovoltaic panels. Therefore, in this paper we focused on the growth of Mg-Si by carbothermal reduction of silica. An investigation was made using FT-IR characterization to study the effect of process conditions (temperature, atmosphere, duration) in Mg-Si production. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the produced Mg-Si. Based on these results, we established a pilot line production of metallurgical silicon at the 'CRTEn' in Tunisia

  3. Synthesis and characterization of powders calcium phosphate for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D.M.P. de; Prants, W.T.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Gemelli, E.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists of different areas research the bioceramics as new materials to substitute parts of the human body. The bioceramics of the calcium phosphate have the advantage present similar chemical composition to the structure of the bony apatite of the human skeleton. In this study, calcium phosphate powder was synthesized chemically using the solution of phosphorus pentoxide (P 2 O 5 ) and calcium oxide (CaO) necessary for molar Ca/P =1.67. These works aim the study of different thermal treatments, physics and of the microstructure properties. For characterization the bony matrix were used the techniques of: X-ray diffraction (DRX); Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). (author)

  4. Fabrication and characterization of ovalbumin films for wound dressing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, Mozhgan; Navaee, Fatemeh; Jalili–Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Faturechi, Rahim; Majidi, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    A great number of people suffer from burning injuries all around the world each year. Applying an appropriate wound dressing can promote new tissue formation, prevent losing water and inhibit invasion of infectious organisms. In this study, egg white with a long standing history, as a homemade remedy, was fabricated as a wound dressing for burn injuries. For this reason, ovalbumin films were cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mM) using three concentrations of ethanol. Physical–chemical characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas transmission rate (GTR), tensile mechanical tests, water uptake and degradation rate were performed on the samples. The sample with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol was considered as the optimized one with 417 kPa of ultimate tensile strength, 64% elongation at break and 230% water uptake. In addition, biological evaluations conducted by MTT and live/dead assay indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fibroblast cells were well spread on the sample with the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, modified ovalbumin can be applied as the base material for fabrication of wound dressing and skin care products. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin films were cross-linked by EDC with different concentrations. • Physical–chemical characterizations were performed on the samples. • Biological evaluations indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. • The optimized sample was considered with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol. • Modified ovalbumin can be applied as wound dressings and skin care products

  5. Fabrication and characterization of ovalbumin films for wound dressing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaee, Mozhgan; Navaee, Fatemeh [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili–Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Departments of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Faturechi, Rahim [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majidi, Mohammad [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bonakdar, Shahin, E-mail: sh_bonakdar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    A great number of people suffer from burning injuries all around the world each year. Applying an appropriate wound dressing can promote new tissue formation, prevent losing water and inhibit invasion of infectious organisms. In this study, egg white with a long standing history, as a homemade remedy, was fabricated as a wound dressing for burn injuries. For this reason, ovalbumin films were cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethyl aminopropyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) with different concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mM) using three concentrations of ethanol. Physical–chemical characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas transmission rate (GTR), tensile mechanical tests, water uptake and degradation rate were performed on the samples. The sample with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol was considered as the optimized one with 417 kPa of ultimate tensile strength, 64% elongation at break and 230% water uptake. In addition, biological evaluations conducted by MTT and live/dead assay indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fibroblast cells were well spread on the sample with the formation of filopodia. In conclusion, modified ovalbumin can be applied as the base material for fabrication of wound dressing and skin care products. - Highlights: • Ovalbumin films were cross-linked by EDC with different concentrations. • Physical–chemical characterizations were performed on the samples. • Biological evaluations indicated no sign of cyto-toxicity for all the samples. • The optimized sample was considered with 5 mM crosslinking agent at 70% ethanol. • Modified ovalbumin can be applied as wound dressings and skin care products.

  6. Application of environmental isotopes to characterize landfill gases and leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Baker, J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopes have been used to help characterize landfill gases and leachate for the purpose of identifying leachate and/or gas contamination in surrounding monitoring wells. Carbon isotopes (C-13/C-12 and C-14), hydrogen isotopes (H-3 and H-2/H-1) and oxygen isotopes (O-18/O-16) were used to characterize methane, carbon dioxide and leachate produced from two municipal landfills in northeastern Illinois. The isotopic results from the landfill-derived gases and leachate are compared to isotopic compositions of groundwater and gases from nearby monitoring wells. C-14 activity of landfill CH 4 is high compared to CH 4 normally found in subsurface sediments. For this study C-14 activities of the landfill methane range from 129--140 PMC. The C-14 of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the leachate samples also have relatively high activities, ranging from 126--141 PMC. The δC-13 and δD values for CH 4 from the landfills fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced by acetate-fermentation. The δC-13 of the CO 2 and the DIC are very positive, ranging from 8--14 per-thousand for CO 2 and 13--22 per-thousand for DIC. The δO-18 values of the leachates are similar to current meteoric water values, however, two of the leachate samples are significantly enriched in deuterium by approximately 65 per-thousand. Tritium values of the leachate water are generally higher than expected. For one landfill the tritium activity ranges from 227--338 TU, for the second landfill the tritium activity is approximately 1,300 TU. Compared to tritium levels in normal groundwater, these higher tritium values in the leachates indicate that this isotope has the potential to be an effective tracer for detecting leachate migration

  7. Development and Characterization of Reactive Triangulenium Chromophores for Bioconjugation Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bora, Ilkay

    and a novel, highly absorptive homotrimeric rotor. Non-rotating reference compounds were as well prepared and used in comparison. These probes can serve as molecular viscometers, whose lifetimes and emission intensity show a linear dependence on the viscosity of their surrounding medium. Thus, they are able...... to detect fluid viscosity on the microscopic scale and can potentially find application in mapping viscosity differences in cells and tissue. In collaboration with my partners, the photophysical properties and their performance as viscosity sensors were investigated....

  8. Fundamentals of silicon carbide technology growth, characterization, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction and up-to-date reference to SiC power semiconductor devices covering topics from material properties to applicationsBased on a number of breakthroughs in SiC material science and fabrication technology in the 1980s and 1990s, the first SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were released as commercial products in 2001.  The SiC SBD market has grown significantly since that time, and SBDs are now used in a variety of power systems, particularly switch-mode power supplies and motor controls.  SiC power MOSFETs entered commercial production in 2011, providing rugged, hig

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Microfilms for Microfluidic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yammani Venkat Subba; Raghavan, Aravinda Narayanan; Viswanathan, Meenakshi

    2016-10-01

    The ability to create patterns of piezo responsive material on smooth substrate is an important method to develop efficient microfluidic mixers. This paper reports the fabrication of Poly vinylidene fluoride microfilms using spin-coating on smooth glass surface. The suitable crystalline phases, surface morphology and microstructural properties of the PVDF films have been investigated. We found that films of average thickness 10μm, had average roughness of 0.13μm. These PVDF films are useful in microfluidic mixer applications.

  10. Remote Sensing Applications for Antrim Shale Fracture Characterization, Michigan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuskraa, Vello

    1997-01-01

    Advanced Research International (ARI) sent seven staff members to the 1997 International Coalbed Methane Symposium, held in Tuscaloosa, Alabama from May 12-17. ARI gave a short course on risk reduction strategies, including remote fracture detection, for coalbed methane exploration and development that was attended by about 25 coalbed methane industry professionals; and presented a paper entitled 'Optimizing coalbed methane cavity completion operations with the application of a new discrete element model.' We met with many potential clients and discussed our fracture detection services. China has vast coalbed methane resources, but is still highly dependent on coal-and wood-burning. This workshop, sponsored by the United Nations, was intended to help China develop its less-polluting energy reserves. ARI is successfully finding new applications for its fracture detection services. Coalbed methane exploration became an important market in this quarter, with the inception of a joint industry/government collaboration between ARI, Texaco and DOE to use remote fracture detection to identify areas with good potential for coalbed methane production in the Ferron Coal Trend of central Utah. Geothermal energy exploration is another emerging market for ARI, where fracture detection is applied to identify pathways for groundwater recharge, movement, and the locations of potential geothermal reservoirs. Ari continued work on two industry/government collaborations to demonstrate fracture detection to potential clients. Also completed the technical content layout for multimedia CD-ROM that describes our remote fracture detection services.

  11. Optimization and Characterization of CMOS for Ultra Low Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmal Kafeel, M.; Hasan, M.; Shah Alalm, M; Pable, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive voltage scaling into the subthreshold operating region holds great promise for applications with strict energy budget. However, it has been established that higher speed super threshold device is not suitable for moderate performance subthreshold circuits. The design constraint for selecting V_th and T_ox is much more flexible for subthreshold circuits at low voltage level than super threshold circuits. In order to obtain better performance from a device under subthreshold conditions, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the process and geometry parameters of a Si MOSFET at nanometer technology node. This paper calibrates the fabrication process parameters and electrical characteristics for n- and p-MOSFET s with 35 nm physical gate length. Thereafter, the calibrated device for super threshold application is optimized for better performance under subthreshold conditions using TCAD simulation. The device simulated in this work shows 9.89% improvement in subthreshold slope and 34% advantage I_on/I_off in ratio for the same drive current.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Willian, E-mail: willkopp@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Silva, Felipe A., E-mail: eq.felipe.silva@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Lima, Lionete N., E-mail: lionetenunes@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Masunaga, Sueli H., E-mail: sueli.masunaga@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Montana State University-MSU, 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Tardioli, Paulo W., E-mail: pwtardioli@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Giordano, Roberto C., E-mail: roberto@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M., E-mail: faraujo@df.ufscar.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g{sup −1}, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results.

  13. Single Crystals of Organolead Halide Perovskites: Growth, Characterization, and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-04-01

    With the soaring advancement of organolead halide perovskite solar cells rising from a power conversion efficiency of merely 3% to more than 22% shortly in five years, researchers’ interests on this big material family have been greatly spurred. So far, both in-depth studies on the fundamental properties of organolead halide perovskites and their extended applications such as photodetectors, light emitting diodes, and lasing have been intensively reported. The great successes have been ascribed to various superior properties of organolead halide hybrid perovskites such as long carrier lifetimes, high carrier mobility, and solution-processable high quality thin films, as will be discussed in Chapter 1. Notably, most of these studies have been limited to their polycrystalline thin films. Single crystals, as a counter form of polycrystals, have no grain boundaries and higher crystallinity, and thus less defects. These characteristics gift single crystals with superior optical, electrical, and mechanical properties, which will be discussed in Chapter 2. For example, organolead halide perovskite single crystals have been reported with much longer carrier lifetimes and higher carrier mobilities, which are especially intriguing for optoelectronic applications. Besides their superior optoelectronic properties, organolead halide perovskites have shown large composition versatility, especially their organic components, which can be controlled to effectively adjust their crystal structures and further fundamental properties. Single crystals are an ideal platform for such composition-structure-property study since a uniform structure with homogeneous compositions and without distraction from grain boundaries as well as excess defects can provide unambiguously information of material properties. As a major part of work of this dissertation, explorative work on the composition-structure-property study of organic-cation-alloyed organolead halide perovskites using their single

  14. Applicability of FTIR-spectroscopy for characterizing waste organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, E.

    2001-12-01

    State and development of waste organic matter were characterized by means of FTIR-spectroscopy. Due to the interaction of infrared light with matter energy is absorbed by chemical functional groups. Chemical preparation steps are not necessary and therefore this method offers a more holistic information about the material. The first part of experiments was focussed on spectra of different waste materials representing various stages of decomposition. Due to characteristics in the fingerprint- region the identity of wastes is provable. Heights of significant bands in the spectrum were measured and relative absorbances were calculated. Changes of relative absorbances indicate the development of organic matter during decomposition. Organic matter of waste samples was compared to organic matter originating from natural analogous processes (peat, soil). The second part of experiments concentrated on a composting process for a period of 260 days. Spectral characteristics of the samples were compared to their chemical, physical and biological data. The change of relative absorbances was reflected by conventional parameters. According to the development of the entire sample humic acids underwent a change as well. For practical use the method offers several possibilities: monitoring of a process, comparison of different processes, quality control of products originating from waste materials and the proof of their identity. (author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P.; Nijas, C.M.; Joy, P.A.; Joseph, Joseph M.; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Thachil, Eby T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe 3 O 4 particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics

  16. Preparation and characterization of flexible ferromagnetic nanocomposites for microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Teena; Kanoth, Bipinbal P. [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Nijas, C.M. [Department of Electronics, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India); Joy, P.A. [Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Joseph, Joseph M. [Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Kuthirummal, Narayanan, E-mail: kuthirummaln@cofc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Thachil, Eby T., E-mail: ethachil@gmail.com [Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Cochin, 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesised by co-precipitation method. • Nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in natural rubber through latex stage processing. • Mechanical properties and magnetic properties of composites improved with loading Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Imaginary part of permeability increases with nanoparticle loading improving the microwave absorption characteristics. • Infrared spectra reveal strong interaction between NR and iron oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (∼20 nm) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method with a view of developing flexible and easily processable ferromagnetic materials with high mouldability to be used as microwave absorbers. The nanoparticles prepared were incorporated into natural rubber through latex stage processing. This novel processing method gives better dispersion of particles in the rubber matrix. The composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, cavity perturbation, thermogravimetry (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). A notable improvement in the mechanical properties of composites was observed upon adding Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. Magnetic and microwave characteristics of the composites indicate the formation of a flexible ferromagnetic material with good microwave absorption characteristics.

  17. Characterization of commercial supercapacitors for low temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, E.; Taberna, P. L.; Azais, P.; Brégeon, L.; Simon, P.

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical characterizations at low temperature and floating tests have been performed on 600F commercial supercapacitor (SC) for acetonitrile (AN)-based and AN + methyl acetate (MA) mixed electrolytes. From -40 to +20 °C, AN electrolyte showed slightly higher capacitance than those of AN + MA mixed electrolytes (25 and 33 vol.% of MA). At -55 °C, however, AN electrolyte did not cycle at all, while MA mixed electrolyte normally cycled with a slight decrease in their capacitance. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the whole resistance for AN-based cells at -55 °C was found to be about 10,000 times higher than that of +20 °C, while a 40-fold increase in the cell resistance was obtained for the MA mixture between 20 and -55 °C. From the results of floating tests at 2.7 V and 60 °C for 1 month, the 25 vol.% MA mixture showed no change and slight decreased but stable capacitance.

  18. Nanorods of manganese oxides: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeheng; Zhang, Yuancheng; Zhang, Weixin; Wang, Xue; Qian, Yitai; Wen, Xiaogang; Yang, Shihe

    2006-03-01

    Single-crystalline nanorods of β-MnO 2, α-Mn 2O 3 and Mn 3O 4 were successfully synthesized via the heat-treatment of γ-MnOOH nanorods, which were prepared through a hydrothermal method in advance. The calcination process of γ-MnOOH nanorods was studied with the help of Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. When the calcinations were conducted in air from 250 to 1050 °C, the precursor γ-MnOOH was first changed to β-MnO 2, then to α-Mn 2O 3 and finally to Mn 3O 4. When calcined in N 2 atmosphere, γ-MnOOH was directly converted into Mn 3O 4 at as low as 500 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM were also used to characterize the products. The obtained manganese oxides maintain the one-dimensional morphology similar to the precursor γ-MnOOH nanorods. Further experiments show that the as-prepared manganese oxide nanorods have catalytic effect on the oxidation and decomposition of the methylene blue (MB) dye with H 2O 2.

  19. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antimicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics.

  20. Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium for dental applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enori Gemelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium was carried out in dry air to investigate the oxidation kinetics, the oxide structures and their properties. Oxidation kinetics were performed by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions between 300 and 750 °C for 48 hours and the oxide structures were studied by differential thermal analyses and X ray diffraction between room temperature and 1000 °C. The oxidation kinetic increases with temperature and is very fast in the initial period of oxidation, decreasing rapidly with time, especially up to 600 °C. Kinetic laws varied between the inverse logarithmic for the lower temperatures (300 and 400 °C and the parabolic for the higher temperatures (650, 700 and 750 °C. Evidences from X ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses showed that crystallization of the passive oxide film, formed at room temperature, into anatase occurs at about 276 °C. The crystallized oxide structure is composed of anatase between 276 and 457 °C, anatase and rutile sublayers between 457 and 718 °C, and a pure layer of rutile after 718 °C. Rockwell-C adhesion tests reveled that the oxide films formed up to 600 °C have a good adhesion. Vickers indentations on the oxidized surfaces showed that the hardness of the oxide film, measured at 600 and 650 °C, is approximately 9500 MPa. At these temperatures the surface roughness varied between 0.90 and 1.30 mm.

  1. Characterization of gallium-containing zeolites for catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Sanchez, M.

    2003-12-08

    The present study considers the synthesis, characterization, and catalytic evaluation of extra-framework gallium-containing zeolites. We focus on modification of zeolites by chemical vapor deposition of trimethylgallium on HZSM-5 and Mordenite zeolites. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the chemisorption and stability of TMG on HZSM-5 and HMOR zeolites. The effect of silylation is also addressed. Some theoretical calculations are also shown in this study to support part of the experimental results. In Chapter 3, the effect of oxidation and reduction treatments on these catalysts is investigated by FTIR, ICP and multinuclei NMR. In Chapter 4, the oxidation state and Ga coordination obtained during and after thermal treatment with H2 and O2 is analysed by X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) and IR analysis of CO adsorption. These results allow a better understanding of the catalytic behaviour of Ga-containing zeolites catalyst. Chapter 5 consists of two parts: one discusses the H2 activation over Ga/HZSM5 and Ga/MOR catalysts by H2/D2 isotopic exchange reaction, and the second part deals with the aromatization of n-heptane over the same catalysts.

  2. Application of FTIR spectroscopy to the characterization of archeological wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Mohamed; Kaal, Joeri; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Two archeological wood samples were studied by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. They originate from a shipwreck in Ribadeo Bay in the northwest of Spain and from a beam wood of an old nave of the Cathedral of Segovia in the central Spain. Principal component analysis was applied to the transposed data matrix (samples as columns and spectral bands as rows) of 43 recorded spectra (18 in the shipwreck and 25 in the beam wood). The results showed differences between the two samples, with a larger proportion of carbohydrates and smaller proportion of lignin in the beam than in the shipwreck wood. Within the beam wood, lignin content was significantly lower in the recent than the old tree rings (P=0.005). These variations can be attributed to species differences between the two woods (oak and pine respectively), with a mixture of guaiacyl and syringyl in hardwood lignin, whereas softwood lignin consists almost exclusively of guaiacyl moieties. The influence of environmental conditions on the FTIR fingerprint was probably reflected by enhanced oxidation of lignin in aerated conditions (beam wood) and hydrolysis of carbohydrates in submerged-anoxic conditions (shipwreck wood). Molecular characterization by analytical pyrolysis of selected samples from each wood type confirmed the interpretation of the mechanisms behind the variability in wood composition obtained by the FTIR-ATR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM), from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  4. Application of Patterson-function direct methods to materials characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a general description of the so-called Patterson-function direct methods (PFDM, from their origin to their present state. It covers a 20-year period of methodological contributions to crystal structure solution, most of them published in Acta Crystallographica Section A. The common feature of these variants of direct methods is the introduction of the experimental intensities in the form of the Fourier coefficients of origin-free Patterson-type functions, which allows the active use of both strong and weak reflections. The different optimization algorithms are discussed and their performances compared. This review focuses not only on those PFDM applications related to powder diffraction data but also on some recent results obtained with electron diffraction tomography data.

  5. Quantum entanglement in electron optics generation, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This monograph forms an interdisciplinary study in atomic, molecular, and quantum information (QI) science. Here a reader will find that applications of the tools developed in QI provide new physical insights into electron optics as well as properties of atoms & molecules which, in turn, are useful in studying QI both at fundamental and applied levels. In particular, this book investigates entanglement properties of flying electronic qubits generated in some of the well known processes capable of taking place in an atom or a molecule following the absorption of a photon. Here, one can generate Coulombic or fine-structure entanglement of electronic qubits. The properties of these entanglements differ not only from each other, but also from those when spin of an inner-shell photoelectron is entangled with the polarization of the subsequent fluorescence. Spins of an outer-shell electron and of a residual photoion can have free or bound entanglement in a laboratory.

  6. Solution growth, characterization and applications of zinc sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndukwe, I C [School of Physical Sciences, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State (Nigeria)

    1996-04-29

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates under varying deposition conditions using the electroless or solution growth technique. The film properties investigated include their transmittance/reflectance/absorbance spectra, bandgap, optical constants, and thicknesses. Films grown under certain parametric conditions were found to exhibit high transmittance (64-98%), low absorbance, and low reflectance in the ultraviolet (uv)/visible/near infrared (nir) regions up to 1.00 {mu}m. Those obtained under other conditions exhibited high transmittance (78-98%) and low absorbance (0.01-0.1) in the uv/visible regions but low transmittance (30-37) and high absorbance (0.56) in the nir region. These characteristics revealed their suitability for various solar device applications. Bandgap range E{sub g}=3.7-3.8 eV and thickness range t=0.07 - 0.73 {mu}m were obtained.

  7. Four contamination indexes for continental waters characterization. Formulation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A; Restrepo, R; Vina, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper four indices of contamination, which qualify different water aspects are presents. Such indices allow for an overall assessment of the environmental status of the water bodies. These indices have been derived from accumulative experiences in hydro biological monitoring in the Colombian Petroleum industry for six years. Multivariable statistics was used. The indices were developed based on legislation from several countries, in accordance with the concentration of the different parameters and water usages. This indices of contamination (ICO) are: ICOMI (mineralization), ICOMO (organics contamination), ICOSUS (suspended solids) and ICOTRO (trophic system). The indices are easy to estimate (mathematically and/or graphically) and allow the identification the type of environmental problem, existing as demonstrated with examples and the near to zero correlations found. Thanks to the minimum number of variables, the application of these indices also diminishes monitoring and evaluation costs. In view of the advantages above mentioned is worth considering integrating the indices in to the national legislation

  8. Low Dimensional Semiconductor Structures Characterization, Modeling and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Horing, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the first transistor in 1949, the world has experienced a technological revolution which has permeated most aspects of modern life, particularly over the last generation. Yet another such revolution looms up before us with the newly developed capability to control matter on the nanometer scale. A truly extraordinary research effort, by scientists, engineers, technologists of all disciplines, in nations large and small throughout the world, is directed and vigorously pressed to develop a full understanding of the properties of matter at the nanoscale and its possible applications, to bring to fruition the promise of nanostructures to introduce a new generation of electronic and optical devices. The physics of low dimensional semiconductor structures, including heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells, wires and dots is reviewed and their modeling is discussed in detail. The truly exceptional material, Graphene, is reviewed; its functionalization and Van der Waals interactions are included h...

  9. Nanodiamond preparation and surface characterization for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Ben J.; Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-02-01

    Nanodiamonds contain stable fluorescent emitters and hence can be used for molecular fluorescence imaging and precision sensing of electromagnetic fields. The physical properties of these emitters together with their low reported cytotoxicity make them attractive for biological imaging applications. The controlled application of nanodiamonds for cellular imaging requires detailed understanding of surface chemistry, size ranges and aggregation, as these can all influence cellular interactions. We compared these characteristics for graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds. Oxidation is generally used for surface functionalization, and was optimized by Thermogravimetric Analysis, achieved by 445+/-5°C heating in air for 5 hours, then confirmed via Raman and Infrared spectroscopies. Size ranges and aggregation were assessed using Atomic Force Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. Biocompatibility in breast cancer cell lines was measured using a proliferation assay. Heating at 445+/-5°C reduced the Raman signal of graphitic carbon (1575 cm-1) as compared to that of diamond (1332 cm-1) from 0.31+/-0.07 Raman intensity units to 0.07+/-0.04. This temperature was substantially below the onset of major mass loss (observed at 535+/-1°C) and therefore achieved cost efficiency, convenience and high yield. Graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds formed aggregates in water, with a mean particle size of 192+/-4nm and 166+/-2nm at a concentration of 66μg/mL. We then applied the graphitic and oxidized nanodiamonds to cells in culture at 1μg/mL and found no significant change in the proliferation rate (-5+/-2% and -1+/-3% respectively). Nanodiamonds may therefore be suitable for development as a novel transformative tool in the life sciences.

  10. Applications of the Raman spectroscopy in the materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez S, S.; Escobar A, L.; Camacho L, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The study field of the science and technology of surfaces and materials have been of primordial importance in the last years due to the impact that they have the knowledge that it generates in diverse areas. For this reason, the Mexican Society of Science and Technology of Surfaces and Materials has focused a good part of their investigation activities toward the materials science and technology development. Inside the investigation fields carried out by members of this Society, are the following: semiconductors, thin films, hard coatings, deposit techniques, plasmas, biomaterials, Ab-initio calculations, characterization techniques, photo-thermal properties, solar cells, nano science, magnetism, superconductivity and related topics. Among the techniques used for this purpose is the Raman Spectroscopy (Rs), which has demonstrated to be a powerful and versatile tool in the materials study. In the last three congresses that the Society has organized, an average of 42 works related with this topic have been presented, what gave the rule to prepare this book whose objective is on one hand diffusing part of the works that carry out different groups integrated with members of the Society that use the Rs like an important tool in its investigation work. A second objective is that it can serve like support to the students that begin to be involved, or that they are already involved, in topics where the Rs can have a decisive paper in the development of its projects. It is also expected that some of the topics included in the book are of utility for professors and researches that already uses the Rs, or that it can be of help for those who are beginning in this technique as alternative or like complementary analysis tool. (Author)

  11. Theory, Characterization and Applications of Infrared Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullager, Daniel B.

    electromagnetic response of one ternary material system, aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO), whose tuneable plasma frequency makes it ideal for HMM and thermal transfer applications. This study draws upon first principle calculations from the open literature utilizing a Hubbard-U corrected model for the non-local interaction of charge carriers in AZO crystalline systems. We present the first complete dielectric function of industrially produced AZO samples from DC to 30,000 cm -1 and conclude with an assessment of this material's suitability fo the applications described.

  12. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  13. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras M. Aldweri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymol blue (TB solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125–1 kGy and of 5–20 kGy, respectively. Keywords: Dose sensitivity, Radio-chromic dosimeter, Thymol blue, Absorbance, Concentrations

  14. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  15. Characterization of powdered fish heads for bone graft biomaterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteyaka, Mustafa Ozgür; Unal, Hasan Hüseyin; Bilici, Namık; Taşçı, Eda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the chemical composition, morphology and crystallography of powdered fish heads of the species Argyrosomus regius for bone graft biomaterial applications. Two sizes of powder were prepared by different grinding methods; Powder A (coarse, d50=68.5 µm) and Powder B (fine, d50=19.1 µm). Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The powder was mainly composed of aragonite (CaCO3) and calcite (CaCO3). The XRD pattern of Powder A and B matched standard aragonite and calcite patterns. In addition, the calcium oxide (CaO) phase was found after the calcination of Powder A. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed total mass losses of 43.6% and 47.3% in Powders A and B, respectively. The microstructure of Powder A was mainly composed of different sizes and tubular shape, whereas Powder B showed agglomerated particles. The high quantity of CaO and other oxides resemble the chemical composition of bone. In general, the powder can be considered as bone graft after transformation to hydroxyapatite phase.

  16. Mn-based nanostructured building blocks: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Huarac, Juan

    -up approaches towards the fabrication of different types of functional MBNs. Likewise, strategic procedures that advance the facile integration of these self-assembled nanostructures with carbon-based and magnetic/optical materials, chalcogenides, oxides, and ferroics are widely analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, we present the attractive peculiarities of three versatile MBN systems (bridging the gap between their advantageous properties and the lack of methods for their fabrication): single-crystal saw-like MnS NRs, and single-crystal MnS NWs conformally coated with carbon; doped rare-earth manganite NCs, and carbon NTs conformally coated with doped rare-earth manganite; and ZnS:Mn NPs, and Fe3O4/ZnS:Mn NCs. Concerning the applicative significance, the main features of these three systems obtained by our method are suitable to advance direct applications in nanotechnology. In this regard, this work represents a step ahead in the following areas: i) alternative anode materials to enhance the capacity and cycling performance of low-drain, long-life, low-cost, high-energy density light-weight and safer lithium-ion batteries; ii) promising luminescent materials to improve the optoelectronic performance of visible light emitters; iii) new elements for field-effect transistors that outperform the transport properties of conventional carbon-based channels; iv) bifunctional materials exhibiting optical response sensitive to external magnetic fields vital for DMS; v) novel types of nanocantilevers useful for nanosensors and nanotweezers; vi) unique multiferroics materials that exhibit magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature for spintronics; vii) potential core-shell materials showing stress-free and protective carbon shells for shock-resistance semiconductors; and viii) high-quality ceramics useful as starting materials to deposit films by pulsed laser deposition, sputtering and thermal evaporation techniques.

  17. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujian; Lenaghan, Scott C; Xia, Lijin; Burris, Jason N; Stewart, C Neal; Zhang, Mingjun

    2013-02-01

    Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix) have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  18. Characterization of physicochemical properties of ivy nanoparticles for cosmetic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yujian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring nanoparticles isolated from English ivy (Hedera helix have previously been proposed as an alternative to metallic nanoparticles as sunscreen fillers due to their effective UV extinction property, low toxicity and potential biodegradability. Methods This study focused on analyzing the physicochemical properties of the ivy nanoparticles, specifically, those parameters which are crucial for use as sunscreen fillers, such as pH, temperature, and UV irradiation. The visual transparency and cytotoxicity of ivy nanoparticles were also investigated comparing them with other metal oxide nanoparticles. Results Results from this study demonstrated that, after treatment at 100°C, there was a clear increase in the UV extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles caused by the partial decomposition. In addition, the UVA extinction spectra of the ivy nanoparticles gradually reduced slightly with the decrease of pH values in solvents. Prolonged UV irradiation indicated that the influence of UV light on the stability of the ivy nanoparticle was limited and time-independent. Compared to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, ivy nanoparticles showed better visual transparency. Methylthiazol tetrazolium assay demonstrated that ivy nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the other two types of nanoparticles. Results also suggested that protein played an important role in modulating the three-dimensional structure of the ivy nanoparticles. Conclusions Based on the results from this study it can be concluded that the ivy nanoparticles are able to maintain their UV protective capability at wide range of temperature and pH values, further demonstrating their potential as an alternative to replace currently available metal oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen applications.

  19. Dynamic characterization of satellite assembly for responsive space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenas, David; Macknelly, David; Mullins, Josh; Wiest, Heather; Park, Gyuhae

    2013-01-01

    The rapid deployment of satellites for responsive space surveillance applications is hindered by the need to flight-qualify their components and the resulting mechanical assembly. Conventional methods for qualification testing of satellite components are costly and time consuming. Furthermore, full-scale vehicles must be subjected to simulated launch loads during testing, and this harsh testing environment increases the risk of damage to satellite components during qualification. This work focuses on replacing this potentially destructive testing procedure with a non-destructive structural health monitoring (SHM)-based technique while maintaining the same level of confidence in the testing procedure's ability to qualify the satellite for flight. We focus on assessing the performance of SHM techniques to replace the high-cost qualification procedure and to localize faults introduced by improper assembly. The goal of this work is to create a dual-use system that can both assist in the process of qualifying the satellite for launch, as well as provide continuous structural integrity monitoring during manufacture, transport, launch and deployment. SHM techniques were applied on a small-scale structure representative of a responsive satellite. The test structure consisted of an extruded aluminum space-frame covered with aluminum shear plates assembled using bolted joints. Multiple piezoelectric transducers were bonded to the test structure and acted as combined actuators and sensors. Piezoelectric active-sensing based techniques, including measurements of low-frequency global frequency response functions and high-frequency wave propagation techniques, were employed. Using these methods in conjunction with finite element modeling, the dynamic properties of the test structure were established and areas of potential damage could be identified and localized. A procedure for guiding the effective placement of the sensors and actuators is also outlined. (paper)

  20. Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismiller, Michael

    Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were

  1. Particle and particle systems characterization small-angle scattering (SAS) applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gille, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Small-angle scattering (SAS) is the premier technique for the characterization of disordered nanoscale particle ensembles. SAS is produced by the particle as a whole and does not depend in any way on the internal crystal structure of the particle. Since the first applications of X-ray scattering in the 1930s, SAS has developed into a standard method in the field of materials science. SAS is a non-destructive method and can be directly applied for solid and liquid samples. Particle and Particle Systems Characterization: Small-Angle Scattering (SAS) Applications is geared to any scientist who might want to apply SAS to study tightly packed particle ensembles using elements of stochastic geometry. After completing the book, the reader should be able to demonstrate detailed knowledge of the application of SAS for the characterization of physical and chemical materials.

  2. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-02-18

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  3. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu T. Nguyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  4. Application of positron annihilation to the characterization of polymer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yu, R.S.; Ito, Y.; Kondo, K.; Shantarovich, V.

    2005-01-01

    -7. The high resolution of CDBS can be used for the study of the interaction of positrons with core electrons of the constituent atoms and the information is useful to investigate the minute elements in samples: thus CDBS can be used as the minute chemical-analysis. The information of the momentum distribution of core electrons is also useful to study the bond structures: i.e., pi and sigma bonds. In this talk, the application of CDBS and PALS to polymer will be discussed.

  5. Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Weston Lewis

    This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications in Catalysis of Polyoxometalate/Zeolite Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Lefebvre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the synthesis, characterization and catalytic applications of polyoxometalates/zeolites composites is given. The solids obtained by direct synthesis of the polyoxometalate in the presence of the zeolite are first described with their applications in catalysis. Those obtained by a direct mixing of the two components are then reviewed. In all cases, special care is taken in the localization of the polyoxometalate, inside the zeolite crystal, in mesopores or at the external surface of the crystals, as deduced from the characterization methods.

  7. The synthesis, characterization, and application of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Ronald J.

    that they make up such a small percentage of the overall material. However, in nanoscale systems, the surface layers become much more involved in the determination of the overall behavior of the system as they are no longer a small percentage of the overall system, and cannot be ignored. A third investigation looks at magnetodielectric coupling that occurs in bulk Mn3O4 as a result of spin-lattice coupling with the lattice and the long-range magnetic order that develops in the system at low temperature. The motivation to study this bulk system becomes evident to the general theme of this dissertation when one asks the question, can this long-range order (extending over many unit cells of the lattice) occur in nanoscale systems (where only a few unit cells of material are present)? Preliminary data suggests that these long-range orders that occur in the bulk are not feasible in the nanoscale material. Finally, as consumer driven technology grows, the need for a single material that can be altered for use in a wide variety of applications becomes increasingly more evident. It is with this motivation that the author investigates the ability to tune the blocking temperature of an Fe3O4 nanoparticle system through cobalt doping, effectively changing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the system. The author finds that up to small cobalt concentrations, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy was able to be linearly increased by increasing the amount of cobalt in the system, thus providing a nanoparticle system whose blocking temperature is effectively tunable. In addition to this tuning using the cobalt doping to change the anisotropy, it was found that altering the size of the nanoparticles was also an effective way to controllably tune the blocking temperature of a nanoparticle system. In addition to the author's main research aimed at this dissertation, the author provides a small outline of some work that was done outside of the scope of his dissertation research. It is

  8. Design, Microfabrication and Characterization of a Power Delivery System for new Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARUSO Massimo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, microfabrication and characterization of a wireless power delivery system capable of driving a surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW for biomedical applications. The system consists of two planar, spiral-square microcoils, which have been geometrically optimized in order to maximize the quality factor Q. The integration of the SAW - microcoil system into artificial implant sites will allow a real-time biofilm growth monitoring and treatment, providing countless advantages to the related medical applications.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Powders for Biomedical Applications by Plasma Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Sasidharan Pillai, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This PhD work mainly focus on the synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphate powders for plasma spray coating. The preparation of high temperature phase stabilized βTCP and HA/βTCP powders for plasma spray coating applications has been the topic of investigation. Nowadays plasma sprayed coatings are widely used for biomedical applications especially in the dental and orthopaedic implantation field. Previously Ti based alloys were widely used for the orthopaedic and dental implant ap...

  10. Characterization of a Compton suppression system and the applicability of Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.; Landsberger, S.; Welch, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Compton suppression system (CSS) has been thoroughly characterized at the University of Texas' Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL). Effects of dead-time, sample displacement from primary detector, and primary energy detector position relative to the active shield detector have been measured and analyzed. Also, the applicability of Poisson counting statistics to Compton suppression spectroscopy has been evaluated. (author)

  11. Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Mi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Husan Chang; Jung-Hun Seo; Huilong Zhang; Sang June Cho; Nader Behdad; Zhenqiang Ma; Chunhua Yao; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2016-01-01

    Wood pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film is a novel recyclable and biodegradable material. We investigated the microwave dielectric properties of the epoxy coated-CNF thin film for potential broad applications in flexible high speed electronics. The characterizations of dielectric properties were carried out in a frequency range of 1–10 GHz. The dielectric...

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Kingon, Angus; Scanning Probe Microscopy : Characterization, Nanofabrication and Device Application of Functional Materials

    2005-01-01

    As the characteristic dimensions of electronic devices continue to shrink, the ability to characterize their electronic properties at the nanometer scale has come to be of outstanding importance. In this sense, Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) is becoming an indispensable tool, playing a key role in nanoscience and nanotechnology. SPM is opening new opportunities to measure semiconductor electronic properties with unprecedented spatial resolution. SPM is being successfully applied for nanoscale characterization of ferroelectric thin films. In the area of functional molecular materials it is being used as a probe to contact molecular structures in order to characterize their electrical properties, as a manipulator to assemble nanoparticles and nanotubes into simple devices, and as a tool to pattern molecular nanostructures. This book provides in-depth information on new and emerging applications of SPM to the field of materials science, namely in the areas of characterisation, device application and nanofabrica...

  13. Implementing the PM Programming Language using MPI and OpenMP - a New Tool for Programming Geophysical Models on Parallel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2015-04-01

    PM (Parallel Models) is a new parallel programming language specifically designed for writing environmental and geophysical models. The language is intended to enable implementers to concentrate on the science behind the model rather than the details of running on parallel hardware. At the same time PM leaves the programmer in control - all parallelisation is explicit and the parallel structure of any given program may be deduced directly from the code. This paper describes a PM implementation based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and Open Multi-Processing (OpenMP) standards, looking at issues involved with translating the PM parallelisation model to MPI/OpenMP protocols and considering performance in terms of the competing factors of finer-grained parallelisation and increased communication overhead. In order to maximise portability, the implementation stays within the MPI 1.3 standard as much as possible, with MPI-2 MPI-IO file handling the only significant exception. Moreover, it does not assume a thread-safe implementation of MPI. PM adopts a two-tier abstract representation of parallel hardware. A PM processor is a conceptual unit capable of efficiently executing a set of language tasks, with a complete parallel system consisting of an abstract N-dimensional array of such processors. PM processors may map to single cores executing tasks using cooperative multi-tasking, to multiple cores or even to separate processing nodes, efficiently sharing tasks using algorithms such as work stealing. While tasks may move between hardware elements within a PM processor, they may not move between processors without specific programmer intervention. Tasks are assigned to processors using a nested parallelism approach, building on ideas from Reyes et al. (2009). The main program owns all available processors. When the program enters a parallel statement then either processors are divided out among the newly generated tasks (number of new tasks number of processors

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites ZnO / polypyrrole for anti corrosive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenca, D.P.; Bouchonneau, N.; Vieira, M.R.S.; Alves, K.G.B.; Melo, C.P. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of metal oxides and conductive polymers have been investigated as alternative additives in corrosion protection of oxidizable metals. In this hybrid nanocomposites work Polypyrrole-ZnO were synthesized and characterized as a potential application as industrial paint anti corrosive additive. The different steps of the synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites are described. The nanocomposites were obtained from the emulsion polymerization of aqueous solutions of pyrrole and sodium dodecyl sulfate containing ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in the mass. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission, dynamic light scattering, diffraction of X-rays and techniques of infrared spectroscopy. From the characterization techniques, it was possible to determine the average size of nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnO-Polypyrrole. The peaks in the diffraction pattern of X-rays observed in the nanocomposite were the same as in ZnO, confirming the presence of ZnO in the composite. (author)

  15. Characterization of dielectric properties of nanocellulose from wood and algae for electrical insulator applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, David; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2015-05-07

    Cellulose is one of the oldest electrically insulating materials used in oil-filled high-power transformers and cables. However, reports on the dielectric properties of nanocellulose for electrical insulator applications are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the dielectric properties of two nanocellulose types from wood, viz., nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and algae, viz., Cladophora cellulose, for electrical insulator applications. The cellulose materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas and moisture sorption isotherms, helium pycnometry, mechanical testing, and dielectric spectroscopy at various relative humidities. The algae nanocellulose sample was more crystalline and had a lower moisture sorption capacity at low and moderate relative humidities, compared to NFC. On the other hand, it was much more porous, which resulted in lower strength and higher dielectric loss than for NFC. It is concluded that the solid-state properties of nanocellulose may have a substantial impact on the dielectric properties of electrical insulator applications.

  16. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  18. O impacto da paralelização com OpenMP no desempenho e na qualidade das soluções de um Algoritmo Genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Gressler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O Problema do Roteamento de Veículos (PRV é um problema combinatório de difícil solução, aplicável tanto para logística de empresas de transporte quanto para melhor ocupação das vias públicas. Resolvê-lo testando todas as combinações possíveis (método de força bruta torna-se inviável à medida que o problema escala, pois demanda um tempo de computação muito grande. Os Algoritmos Genéticos (AG são meta-heurísticas capazes de encontrar soluções em um tempo computacional aceitável. Entretanto, mesmo os AG podem demandar um elevado tempo de processamento, dependendo das configurações utilizadas. Com a evolução das arquiteturas computacionais e a difusão das arquiteturas multicore, o uso da programação multithread torna-se uma alternativa para reduzir o tempo envolvido na solução de problemas combinatórios. Este artigo objetiva acelerar a resolução do PRV por meio da paralelização do AG com OpenMP, que é um padrão amplamente difundido para programação multithread. Nossos resultados atingiram um speedup acima de 2, utilizando 4 threads em um processador quadcore. Esse ganho está limitado à forma como o AG está implementado. Além do impacto no desempenho do AG também comprovou-se que o uso do OpenMP não afeta a qualidade das soluções. Adicionalmente, o uso do OpenMP permitiu que o AG encontrasse melhores soluções devido ao aumento do número de evoluções computadas num mesmo intervalo de tempo.

  19. Frequency-shift vs phase-shift characterization of in-liquid quartz crystal microbalance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagut, Y. J.; Garcia, J. V.; Jimenez, Y.; Arnau, A.; March, C.; Montoya, A.

    2011-01-01

    The improvement of sensitivity in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) applications has been addressed in the last decades by increasing the sensor fundamental frequency, following the increment of the frequency/mass sensitivity with the square of frequency predicted by Sauerbrey. However, this sensitivity improvement has not been completely transferred in terms of resolution. The decrease of frequency stability due to the increase of the phase noise, particularly in oscillators, made impossible to reach the expected resolution. A new concept of sensor characterization at constant frequency has been recently proposed. The validation of the new concept is presented in this work. An immunosensor application for the detection of a low molecular weight contaminant, the insecticide carbaryl, has been chosen for the validation. An, in principle, improved version of a balanced-bridge oscillator is validated for its use in liquids, and applied for the frequency shift characterization of the QCM immunosensor application. The classical frequency shift characterization is compared with the new phase-shift characterization concept and system proposed.

  20. Physico-chemical characterization of functionalized polypropylenic fibers for prosthetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Magnacca, Giuliana; D'Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Piacenza, Giacomo; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna

    2012-08-01

    Polypropylene (PP) fibers can be manufactured to form nets which can find application as prosthesis in hernioplasty. One of the most important problem to deal with when nets are applied in vivo consists in the reproduction of bacteria within the net fibers intersections. This occurs right after the application of the prosthesis, and causes infections, thus it is fundamental to remove bacteria in the very early stage of the nets application. This paper deals with the physico-chemical characterization of such nets, pre-treated by atmospheric pressure plasma dielectric barrier discharge apparatus (APP-DBD) and functionalized with an antibiotic drug such as chitosan. The physico-chemical characterization of sterilized nets, before and after the functionalization with chitosan, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, drop shape analysis (DSA), X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). The aim of the work is to individuate a good strategy to characterize this kind of materials, to understand the effects of polypropylene pre-treatment on functionalization efficiency, to follow the materials ageing in order to study the effects of the surface treatment for in vivo applications.

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of functionalized polypropylenic fibers for prosthetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Magnacca, Giuliana; D’Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Piacenza, Giacomo; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) fibers can be manufactured to form nets which can find application as prosthesis in hernioplasty. One of the most important problem to deal with when nets are applied in vivo consists in the reproduction of bacteria within the net fibers intersections. This occurs right after the application of the prosthesis, and causes infections, thus it is fundamental to remove bacteria in the very early stage of the nets application. This paper deals with the physico-chemical characterization of such nets, pre-treated by atmospheric pressure plasma dielectric barrier discharge apparatus (APP-DBD) and functionalized with an antibiotic drug such as chitosan. The physico-chemical characterization of sterilized nets, before and after the functionalization with chitosan, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, drop shape analysis (DSA), X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). The aim of the work is to individuate a good strategy to characterize this kind of materials, to understand the effects of polypropylene pre-treatment on functionalization efficiency, to follow the materials ageing in order to study the effects of the surface treatment for in vivo applications.

  2. Phosphates based pigments for new anti-corrosion application: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tbib, B.; Eddya, M.; El-Hami, K.

    2018-02-01

    Our study focused on pyrophosphates SrZn1-xMxP2O7 using four series by substituting M with manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and copper (Cu). They were prepared by reaction in the solid state at 1000 °C for 24 hours and then characterized by X-ray diffraction, which showed that the obtained products are pure. The characterization by UV-visible spectroscopy was used to explain the color of the obtained materials and the optical properties showing the optical energy gap and disorder of these materials. Potential application could be done using the new anti-corrosion pigments based on phosphates.

  3. Stochastic Characterization of Communication Network Latency for Wide Area Grid Control Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameme, Dan Selorm Kwami [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guttromson, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report characterizes communications network latency under various network topologies and qualities of service (QoS). The characterizations are probabilistic in nature, allowing deeper analysis of stability for Internet Protocol (IP) based feedback control systems used in grid applications. The work involves the use of Raspberry Pi computers as a proxy for a controlled resource, and an ns-3 network simulator on a Linux server to create an experimental platform (testbed) that can be used to model wide-area grid control network communications in smart grid. Modbus protocol is used for information transport, and Routing Information Protocol is used for dynamic route selection within the simulated network.

  4. Applications of in situ cosmogenic nuclides in the geologic site characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosse, J.C.; Harrington, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The gradual buildup of rare isotopes from interactions between cosmic rays and atoms in an exposed rock provides a new method of directly determining the exposure age of rock surfaces. The cosmogenic nuclide method can also provide constraints on erosion rates and the length of time surface exposure was interrupted by burial. Numerous successful applications of the technique have been imperative to the complete surface geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high level nuclear waste repository. In this short paper, we summarize the cosmogenic nuclide method and describe with examples some the utility of the technique in geologic site characterization. We report preliminary results from our ongoing work at Yucca Mountain

  5. Advancements in Particle Analysis Procedures and their Application to the Characterization of Reference Materials for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Admon, U.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Dzigal, N.; Vogt, K.S.; Halevy, I.; Boblil, E.; Elkayam, T.; Weiss, A.

    2015-01-01

    Two approaches may be employed in the preparation of Reference Materials (RMs) for use in micro analytical techniques: placement of characterized micro artefacts in bulk materials and characterization of certain classes of individual particles in existing materials. In November 2013, a collaborative project was launched with the aim of adding information about such individual particles in existing RMs. The motivation behind this project was to investigate and characterize micro-artefacts present in certain commercially available RM, making them available and fit for use in safeguards and several other nuclear applications. The implementation and development of new techniques for particle characterization in bulk materials are also part of this project. The strategy for that approach includes the following steps: 1. Sample preparation: Dispersion of particles on stubs and planchets by an in-house shock-wave device. 2. Particle-of-Interest identification and characterization: (a) Fission Track (FT) route: Mosaic imaging of detectors containing FT stars; Applying automatic pattern recognition and localization of FT stars in detectors; Using Laser Micro-Dissection (LMD) for retrieval of individual particles; Preparation of sampled particles for SEM observation and other analytical techniques. (b) Alpha Track (αT) route: Direct particle identification and localization using position sensitive detectors (instrumental auto-radiography). (c) The advanced SEM route: Integration of analytical SEM techniques for characterization of individual particles of interest: EDS, mass spectrometry, FIB, micro-Raman. Preliminary results of the ongoing efforts will be reported. Utilization of these hyphenated techniques and instruments represents an innovative approach to particle characterization for Safeguards applications. (author)

  6. Communication Characterization and Optimization of Applications Using Topology-Aware Task Mapping on Large Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreepathi, Sarat [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    On large supercomputers, the job scheduling systems may assign a non-contiguous node allocation for user applications depending on available resources. With parallel applications using MPI (Message Passing Interface), the default process ordering does not take into account the actual physical node layout available to the application. This contributes to non-locality in terms of physical network topology and impacts communication performance of the application. In order to mitigate such performance penalties, this work describes techniques to identify suitable task mapping that takes the layout of the allocated nodes as well as the application's communication behavior into account. During the first phase of this research, we instrumented and collected performance data to characterize communication behavior of critical US DOE (United States - Department of Energy) applications using an augmented version of the mpiP tool. Subsequently, we developed several reordering methods (spectral bisection, neighbor join tree etc.) to combine node layout and application communication data for optimized task placement. We developed a tool called mpiAproxy to facilitate detailed evaluation of the various reordering algorithms without requiring full application executions. This work presents a comprehensive performance evaluation (14,000 experiments) of the various task mapping techniques in lowering communication costs on Titan, the leadership class supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  8. Single step synthesis, characterization and applications of curcumin functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Rohit; Gupta, Prachi; Dziubla, Thomas; Hilt, J. Zach, E-mail: zach.hilt@uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been well known for their applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, targeted drug delivery, etc. The surface modification of these magnetic nanoparticles has been explored extensively to achieve functionalized materials with potential application in biomedical, environmental and catalysis field. Herein, we report a novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers, using a simple coprecipitation technique. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) molecule. - Graphical abstract: Novel single step curcumin coated magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles without any additional linkers for medical, environmental, and other applications. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel and versatile single step methodology for developing curcumin functionalized magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is reported. • The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. • The developed MNPs were employed in a cellular application for protection against an inflammatory agent, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

  9. Synthesis and characterization of magnesium doped cerium oxide for the fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumari, Monika; Kumar, Mintu; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide has attained much attentions in global nanotechnology market due to valuable application for catalytic, fuel additive, and widely as electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cell. Doped cerium oxide has large oxygen vacancies that allow for greater reactivity and faster ion transport. These properties make cerium oxide suitable material for SOFCs application. Cerium oxide electrolyte requires lower operation temperature which shows improvement in processing and the fabrication technique. In our work, we synthesized magnesium doped cerium oxide by the co-precipitation method. With the magnesium doping catalytic reactivity of CeO_2 was increased. Synthesized nanoparticle were characterized by the XRD and UV absorption techniques.

  10. Characterization of New-Generation Silicon Photomultipliers for Nuclear Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonders Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photomultipliers have received a great deal of interest recently for use in applications spanning a wide variety of fields, including nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. For nuclear-related applications, the ability of silicon photomultipliers to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays using pulse shape discrimination when coupled with certain organic scintillators is a characteristic of utmost importance. This work reports on progress characterizing the performance of twenty different silicon photomultipliers from five manufacturers with an emphasis on pulse shape discrimination performance and timing. Results are presented on pulse shape discrimination performance as a function of overvoltage for 6-mm x 6-mm silicon photomultipliers, and the time response to stilbene is characterized for silicon photomultipliers of three different sizes. Finally, comparison with a photomultiplier tube shows that some new-generation silicon photomultipliers can perform as well as photomultiplier tubes in neutron-gamma ray discrimination.

  11. Characterization of New-Generation Silicon Photomultipliers for Nuclear Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonders, Marc A.; Chichester, David L.; Flaska, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers have received a great deal of interest recently for use in applications spanning a wide variety of fields, including nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. For nuclear-related applications, the ability of silicon photomultipliers to discriminate neutrons from gamma rays using pulse shape discrimination when coupled with certain organic scintillators is a characteristic of utmost importance. This work reports on progress characterizing the performance of twenty different silicon photomultipliers from five manufacturers with an emphasis on pulse shape discrimination performance and timing. Results are presented on pulse shape discrimination performance as a function of overvoltage for 6-mm x 6-mm silicon photomultipliers, and the time response to stilbene is characterized for silicon photomultipliers of three different sizes. Finally, comparison with a photomultiplier tube shows that some new-generation silicon photomultipliers can perform as well as photomultiplier tubes in neutron-gamma ray discrimination.

  12. Application of vacuum technology during nuclear fuel fabrication, inspection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Vacuum technology plays very important role during various stages of fabrication, inspection and characterization of U, Pu based nuclear fuels. Controlled vacuum is needed for melting and casting of U, Pu based alloys, picture framing of the fuel meat for plate type fuel fabrication, carbothermic reduction for synthesis of (U-Pu) mixed carbide powder, dewaxing of green ceramic fuel pellets, degassing of sintered pellets and encapsulation of fuel pellets inside clad tube. Application of vacuum technology is also important during inspection and characterization of fuel materials and fuel pins by way of XRF and XRD analysis, Mass spectrometer Helium leak detection etc. A novel method of low temperature sintering of UO 2 developed at BARC using controlled vacuum as sintering atmosphere has undergone successful irradiation testing in Cirus. The paper will describe various fuel fabrication flow sheets highlighting the stages where vacuum applications are needed

  13. Application of thermometric methods for detection and characterization of leakages in embankment dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Y.L.; Cunat, P.; Fry, J.J. [EDF, Grenoble (France); Faure, Y.H. [LTHE, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The earliest possible detection of leakages in dikes is essential. Distributed temperature measurements using fibre optics allow the monitoring of large sections of the dike with a high spatial and temperature resolution. This paper presented the application of thermometric methods for detection and characterization of leakage in embankment dams. After a brief description of the system used, its application on a controlled experimental site and an EDF industrial site instrumented with fibre optics was presented. The instrumentation is complemented by installation of local temperature and pressure sensors in the piezometers for complete characterization of the detected leakages. The analysis of the results data clearly allowed detecting the leakages. The vertical location, intensity and location of the detected leakages were also identified. It was found that thermometry is potentially very powerful for detecting leaks and as a diagnostic tool.

  14. Application of Micro-XRF for Nuclear Materials Characterization and Problem Solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, Christopher G.; Tandon, Lav; Martinez, Patrick T.; Decker, Diana L.; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) used for >> 20 years To date MXRF has been underutilized for nuclear materials (NM) spatially-resolved elemental characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX much more common for NM characterization at a micro scale. But MXRF fills gap for larger 10's microns to cm 2 scales. Will present four interesting NM applications using MXRF. Demonstrated unique value of MXRF for various plutonium applications. Although SEM has much higher resolution, MXRF clearly better for these larger scale samples (especially non-conducting samples). MXRF useful to quickly identify insoluble particles in Pu/Np oxide. MXRF vital to locating HEPA filter Pu particles over cm 2 areas which were then extracted for SEM morphology and particle size distribution analysis. MXRF perfect for surface swipes which are far too large for practical SEM imaging, and loose residue would contaminate SEM vacuum chamber. MXRF imaging of ER Plutonium metal warrants further studies to explore metal elemental heterogeneity.

  15. On the importance of identifying, characterizing, and predicting fundamental phenomena towards microbial electrochemistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, César Iván

    2014-06-01

    The development of microbial electrochemistry research toward technological applications has increased significantly in the past years, leading to many process configurations. This short review focuses on the need to identify and characterize the fundamental phenomena that control the performance of microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs). Specifically, it discusses the importance of recent efforts to discover and characterize novel microorganisms for MXC applications, as well as recent developments to understand transport limitations in MXCs. As we increase our understanding of how MXCs operate, it is imperative to continue modeling efforts in order to effectively predict their performance, design efficient MXC technologies, and implement them commercially. Thus, the success of MXC technologies largely depends on the path of identifying, understanding, and predicting fundamental phenomena that determine MXC performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  17. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Ferroelectric crystals for photonic applications including nanoscale fabrication and characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Grilli, Simonetta

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of ferroelectric domain engineering and characterization at micron- and nano-scale dimensions and periods. The book collects the results obtained in the last years by world scientific leaders in the field, thus providing a valid and unique overview of the state of the art and also a view to future applications of those engineered materials in the field of photonics.

  19. Status report on dosimetry benchmark neutron field development, characterization, and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Grundl, J.A.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Farrar, H. IV.

    1977-01-01

    The report attempts to present a brief, but comprehensive review of the status and future directions of benchmark neutron field development, characterization and application in perspective with two major objectives of reactor dosimetry: (1) fuel fission rate and burn-up passive monitoring, and (2) correlation of materials irradiation damage effects and projection to commercial power plants. The report focuses on the Light Water Reactor and Fast Breeder Reactor program needs

  20. Application of TZERO calibrated modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry to characterize model protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badkar, Aniket; Yohannes, Paulos; Banga, Ajay

    2006-02-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using T(ZERO) modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) as a novel technique to characterize protein solutions using lysozyme as a model protein and IgG as a model monoclonal antibody. MDSC involves the application of modulated heating program, along with the standard heating program that enables the separation of overlapping thermal transitions. Although characterization of unfolding transitions for protein solutions requires the application of high sensitive DSC, separation of overlapping transitions like aggregation and other exothermic events may be possible only by use of MDSC. A newer T(ZERO) calibrated MDSC model from TA instruments that has improved sensitivity than previous models was used. MDSC analysis showed total, reversing and non-reversing heat flow signals. Total heat flow signals showed a combination of melting endotherms and overlapping exothermic events. Under the operating conditions used, the melting endotherms were seen in reversing heat flow signal while the exothermic events were seen in non-reversing heat flow signal. This enabled the separation of overlapping thermal transitions, improved data analysis and decreased baseline noise. MDSC was used here for characterization of lysozyme solutions, but its feasibility for characterizing therapeutic protein solutions needs further assessment.

  1. Characterization of karak clay from pakistan for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, L.A.; Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.; Sayeg, I.J.; Carvalho, F.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Clay, the most important, plentiful, and low cost naturally occurring mineral, is widely used in variety of industrial application including Pharmaceutical and cosmetic. Clay is the fine grained aluminosilicate mineral which shows the property of plasticity at appropriate water content, and becomes hard upon drying. In Pakistan there are different types of clay but till now neither of them properly identified nor characterize for specific industrial application. The objective of this work is to characterize Karak clay for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications collected from deposit located at Shagai region, District Karak, Pakistan. The clay was characterized through Xray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), trace elemental Analysis, Microbiological analysis, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and swelling assays according to European, United States of America and Brazilian Pharmacopeias. Bulk Chemical analysis shows that the Aluminum oxide and silica oxide are present in large quantity which was confirmed by XRD that this sample has montmorillonite as a major while illite and kaolinite as minor clay minerals. Quartz of small quantity was also found as a non-clay mineral. After analyzing the results for sample it was concluded that the clay is a strong candidate for cosmetic purposes. (author)

  2. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Performance Modeling of Hybrid MPI/OpenMP Scientific Applications on Large-scale Multicore Cluster Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore clusters: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and Blue Gene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore clusters because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyro kinetic Toroidal Code in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore clusters. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore clusters. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Computer modeling characterization, and applications of Gallium Arsenide Gunn diodes in radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El- Basit, Wafaa Abd; El-Ghanam, Safaa Mohamed; Kamh, Sanaa Abd El-Tawab [Electronics Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Maksood, Ashraf Mosleh; Soliman, Fouad Abd El-Moniem Saad [Nuclear Materials Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    The present paper reports on a trial to shed further light on the characterization, applications, and operation of radar speed guns or Gunn diodes on different radiation environments of neutron or γ fields. To this end, theoretical and experimental investigations of microwave oscillating system for outer-space applications were carried out. Radiation effects on the transient parameters and electrical properties of the proposed devices have been studied in detail with the application of computer programming. Also, the oscillation parameters, power characteristics, and bias current were plotted under the influence of different γ and neutron irradiation levels. Finally, shelf or oven annealing processes were shown to be satisfactory techniques to recover the initial characteristics of the irradiated devices.

  5. Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao

    Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing. For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer

  6. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Ramgopal Rao, V; Pant, Prita; Mukherji, Soumyo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m -1 respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m -1 ) -1 and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  7. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Ramgopal Rao, V [Centre for Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Pant, Prita [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Mukherji, Soumyo, E-mail: seenapradeep@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: rrao@ee.iitb.ac.in [Department of Biosciences and Bio-engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-07-22

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m{sup -1} respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m{sup -1}){sup -1} and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  8. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Pant, Prita; Mukherji, Soumyo; Rao, V Ramgopal

    2011-07-22

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m(-1) respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m(-1))(-1) and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Water-Based Nano-fluids for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.C.; Forrest, E.; Hu, L.W.; Buongiorno, J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate water-based nano-fluids for nuclear applications, preparation and characterization has been performed for nano-fluids being considered for MIT's nano-fluid heat transfer experiments. Three methods of generating these nano-fluids are available: creating them from chemical precipitation, purchasing the nano-particles in powder form and mixing them with the base fluid, and direct purchase of prepared nano-fluids. Characterization of nano-fluids includes colloidal stability, size distribution, concentration, and elemental composition. Quality control of the nano-fluids to be used for heat transfer testing is crucial; an exact knowledge of the fluid constituents is essential to uncovering mechanisms responsible for heat transport enhancement. Testing indicates that nano-fluids created by mixing a liquid with nano-particles in powder form are often not stable, although some degree of stabilization is obtainable with pH control and/or surfactant addition. Some commercially available prepared nano-fluids have been found to contain unacceptable levels of impurities and/or include a different weight percent of nano-particles compared to vendor specifications. Tools utilized to characterize and qualify nano-fluids for this study include neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Preparation procedures and characterization results for selected nano-fluids will be discussed in detail. (authors)

  10. Applicability of slug interference testing of hydraulic characterization of contaminated aquifer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A.; Swanson, L.C.

    1993-10-01

    Aquifer test methods available for characterizing hazardous waste sites are sometimes restricted because of problems with disposal of contaminated groundwater. These problems, in part, have made slug tests a more desirable method of determining hydraulic properties at such sites. However, in higher permeability formations (i.e., transmissivities ≥ 1 x 10 -3 m 2 /s), slug test results often cannot be analyzed and give, at best, only a lower limit for transmissivity. A need clearly exists to develop test methods that can be used to characterize higher permeability aquifers without removing large amounts of contaminated groundwater. One hydrologic test method that appears to hold promise for characterizing such sites is the slug interference test. To assess the applicability of this test method for use in shallow alluvial aquifer systems, slug interference tests have been conducted, along with more traditional aquifer testing methods, at several Hanford multiple-well sites. Transmissivity values estimated from the slug interference tests were comparable (within a factor of 2 to 3) to values calculated using traditional testing methods, and made it possible to calculate the storativity or specific yield for the intervening test formation. The corroboration of test results indicates that slug interference testing is a viable hydraulic characterization method in transmissive alluvial aquifers, and may represent one of the few test methods that can be used in sensitive areas where groundwater is contaminated

  11. Performance characterization of active fiber-composite actuators for helicopter rotor blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and potential application of phenolic acid grafted chitosan: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan (phenolic acid-g-chitosan) in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application. In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan. The structural characterization of phenolic acid-g-chitosan can be determined by several instrumental methods. The physicochemical properties of chitosan are greatly altered after grafting. As compared with chitosan, phenolic acid-g-chitosan exhibits enhanced antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Notably, phenolic acid-g-chitosan shows potential applications in many fields as coating agent, packing material, encapsulation agent and bioadsorbent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials with Charge Density Waves: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongur Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two-dimensional (2D charge density wave (CDW materials have attracted extensive interest due to potential applications as high performance functional nanomaterials. As other 2D materials, 2D CDW materials are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into layers of single unit cell thickness. Although bulk CDW materials have been studied for decades, recent developments in nanoscale characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities allowing applications such as oscillators, electrodes in supercapacitors, energy storage and conversion, sensors and spinelectronic devices. In this review, we first outline the synthesis techniques of 2D CDW materials including mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, chemical vapor transport (CVT, chemical vapor deposition (CVD, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and electrochemical exfoliation. Then, the characterization procedure of the 2D CDW materials such as temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are reviewed. Finally, applications of 2D CDW materials are reviewed.

  14. Self-discharge analysis and characterization of supercapacitors for environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hengzhao; Zhang, Ying

    2011-10-01

    A new approach is presented to characterize the variable leakage resistance, a parameter in the variable leakage resistance model we developed to model supercapacitors used in environmentally powered wireless sensor network applications. Based on an analysis of the supercapacitor terminal behavior during the self-discharge, the variable leakage resistance is modeled as a function of the supercapacitor terminal voltage instead of the self-discharge time, which is more practical for an environmentally powered wireless sensor node. The new characterization approach is implemented and validated using MATLAB Simulink with a 10 F supercapacitor as an example. In addition, effects of initial voltages and temperatures on the supercapacitor self-discharge rate and the variable leakage resistance value are explored.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of alumina application in support of zeolite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused in process applications using zeolite membrane. The physicochemical properties of the support have a strong effect on the quality of zeolite membrane. This work is to synthesize and characterize alumina for use as a support for zeolite membrane. In this work was synthesized α-alumina: 40% alumina, 0.2% for PABA, 0.5% oleic acid and 59.3% ethyl alcohol. The mixture was ground in ball mill and placed in an oven for 24 hours at 60 °C, allowed to stand for 24h. The pressing was performed with 4 tons. The pressed material was subjected to sintering at 1400 °C/hour. The samples were characterized by EDX, XRD and SEM. The results for the media by XRD showed that they are crystalline and pure. By EDX was observed that the supports consist essentially of alumina. (author)

  16. Fabrication and surface characterization of photopatterned encapsulated micromagnets for microrobotics and microfluidics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Leachman, William; Kershaw, Joe

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, encapsulated micromagnets with magnetic core surrounded by pure SU-8 were fabricated utilizing multilayer photolithography with a middle NdFeB magnetic composite layer. Various geometries of micromagnets were fabricated with high density magnetic core and high resolution features, showing magnetically response while still being biocompatible and chemically resistant and making them suitable for a wide range of microrobotics and microfluidics applications. Especially, crescent and C-channel micromagnets showed potential of microtransportation devices because of their interior reservoirs. Surface characterization of the micromagnets was conducted using closed-form solutions derived from the general biplanar surface characterization method. The fabrication method was evaluated and the process errors were found less than 1%.

  17. Carbazole Containing Copolymers: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Reversible Holographic Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Mailhot-Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbazolic copolymers have been developed to be used in reversible holographic recording. This paper describes a complete analysis, from synthesis of the material to its applications, together with the corresponding characterizations. The investigated materials were photosensitive copolymers obtained from carbazolylalkylmethacrylates (CEM and octylmethacrylate (OMA. A detailed investigation was undertaken involving infrared spectroscopy and NMR techniques, 1H, 13C, COSY, and HSQC, in order to establish the chemical structure and the composition of the copolymers. Holographic recording characteristics were investigated with one- and two-layer photothermoplastic carriers. The two-layer carrier contains separate photosensitive and thermoplastic layers and gives the best holographic response. The surface of microstructured samples has been characterized by atomic force microscopy analysis. It is shown that via a photothermoplastic recording process, it is possible to record and read holograms practically in real time (~3 s with a diffraction efficiency of 10% and a spatial resolution higher than 1000 mm−1.

  18. Application of empirical mode decomposition method for characterization of random vibration signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyamartana Parman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of finite measured signals is a great of importance in dynamical modeling and system identification. This paper addresses an approach for characterization of measured random vibration signals where the approach rests on a method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD. The applicability of proposed approach is tested in one numerical and experimental data from a structural system, namely spar platform. The results are three main signal components, comprising: noise embedded in the measured signal as the first component, first intrinsic mode function (IMF called as the wave frequency response (WFR as the second component and second IMF called as the low frequency response (LFR as the third component while the residue is the trend. Band-pass filter (BPF method is taken as benchmark for the results obtained from EMD method.

  19. Application of an eddy current technique to steam generator U-bend characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, W.E.; de la Pintiere, L.; Narita, S.; Bergander, M.J.

    1982-04-01

    Eddy current nondestructive testing techniques are used widely throughout the utility industry for the early detection of tube damage in critical power plant components such as steam generators. In this project, the application of an eddy current technique for the characterization of U-bend transitions in the first row tubing in Westinghouse 51 Series Steam Generators has been investigated. A method has been developed for detection of the opposite transition in the U-bend and for defining its severity. Investigation included two different types of U-bend transitions. Using the developed eddy current method for U-bend characterization, on-site inspection was performed on all tubes in the first row in four 51 Series steam generators in Power Plant Unit No. 2 and in one 51 Series steam generator in Power Plant Unit No. 1. The advantages and limitations of the developed method as well as the recommendations for further investigations are included

  20. Carbon nanotube/platinum nanoparticle nanocomposites: preparation, characterization and application in electro oxidation of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinke, Adir H.; Zarbin, Aldo J. G.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of different platinum nanoparticle/ carbon nanotube nanocomposite samples are described along with the application of these nanocomposites as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Samples were prepared by a biphasic system in which platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are synthesized in situ in contact with a carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion. Variables including platinum precursor/CNT ratio, previous chemical treatment of carbon nanotubes, and presence or absence of a capping agent were evaluated and correlated with the characteristic of the synthesized materials. Samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified by the nanocomposite samples and evaluated as electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation. Current densities of 56.1 and 79.8/104.7 mA cm -2 were determined for the oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. (author)

  1. Isolation, Characterization, and Environmental Application of Bio-Based Materials as Auxiliaries in Photocatalytic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Palma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable alternative substrates for advanced applications represent an increasing field of research that attracts the attention of worldwide experts (in accordance with green chemistry principles. In this context, bio-based substances (BBS isolated from urban composted biowaste were purified and characterized. Additionally, these materials were tested as auxiliaries in advanced oxidizing photocatalytic processes for the abatement of organic contaminants in aqueous medium. Results highlighted the capability of these substances to enhance efficiency in water remediation treatments under mild conditions, favoring the entire light-driven photocatalytic process.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria for the Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Niraj; Dasgupta, Sumita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Gupta, Smita

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, a biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated, screened and identified. Further, various fermentation conditions (such as pH (5-10), incubation period (24-96h) and incubation temperature (20-60 °C) were optimized for maximum production of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized by measuring emulsification index, foaming characteristics, rhamnolipid detection, interfacial tension between water and oil and stability against pH and temperature for its potential application in oil recovery process. The additional oil recovery for two different sand, sand1 and sand2, was found to be 49% and 38%, respectively.

  3. Applicability of petroleum horizontal drilling technology to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranson, C.

    1992-09-01

    Horizontal wells have the potential to become an important tool for use in characterization, remediation and monitoring operations at hazardous waste disposal, chemical manufacturing, refining and other sites where subsurface pollution may develop from operations or spills. Subsurface pollution of groundwater aquifers can occur at these sites by leakage of surface disposal ponds, surface storage tanks, underground storage tanks (UST), subsurface pipelines or leakage from surface operations. Characterization and remediation of aquifers at or near these sites requires drilling operations that are typically shallow, less than 500-feet in depth. Due to the shallow nature of polluted aquifers, waste site subsurface geologic formations frequently consist of unconsolidated materials. Fractured, jointed and/or layered high compressive strength formations or compacted caliche type formations can also be encountered. Some formations are unsaturated and have pore spaces that are only partially filled with water. Completely saturated underpressured aquifers may be encountered in areas where the static ground water levels are well below the ground surface. Each of these subsurface conditions can complicate the drilling and completion of wells needed for monitoring, characterization and remediation activities. This report describes some of the equipment that is available from petroleum drilling operations that has direct application to groundwater characterization and remediation activities. A brief discussion of petroleum directional and horizontal well drilling methodologies is given to allow the reader to gain an understanding of the equipment needed to drill and complete horizontal wells. Equipment used in river crossing drilling technology is also discussed. The final portion of this report is a description of the drilling equipment available and how it can be applied to groundwater characterization and remediation activities

  4. Mechanical characterization of Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy for biomedical application hot swaged and aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Sinara Borborema; Rezende, Monica Castro; Almeida, Luiz Henrique de, E-mail: sinara@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Dille, Jean [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Mei, Paulo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Baldan, Renato; Nunes, Carlos Angelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2015-07-01

    Beta titanium alloys were developed for biomedical applications due to the combination of its mechanical properties including low elasticity modulus, high strength, fatigue resistance, good ductility and with excellent corrosion resistance. With this perspective a metastable beta titanium alloy Ti-12Mo-13Nb was developed with the replacement of both vanadium and aluminum from the traditional alloy Ti-6Al-4V. This paper presents the microstructure, mechanical properties of the Ti-12Mo-13Nb hot swaged and aged at 500 deg C for 24 h under high vacuum and then water quenched. The alloy structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. The results show a microstructure consisting of a fine dispersed α phase in a β matrix and good mechanical properties including low elastic modulus. The results indicate that Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy can be a promising alternative for biomedical application. (author)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric hydrogel containing caffeine for cosmeceutical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Tiago C.; Oliveira, Maria José A.; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine, a substance with belongs to the group of methylxanthines, is alkaloids that penetrate in the human epidermis but is not easily absorbed into the bloodstream. With a dermatological active substance, it exerts action on the subcutaneous adipose tissue causing adipocyte lipolysis through the inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of caffeine in a polymeric hydrogel matrix, for possible cosmeceutical applications. The hydrogels were cross-linked and sterilized by Cobalt-60 source gamma irradiation. In the characterization, were used thermogravimetry (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was possible to observe by SEM the presence of crystals in the hydrogel sample. The DSC experiment confirmed a crystallinity of the sample and that caffeine is not degraded by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy. The results were satisfactory, allowing a new investigations that certify the benefits of its application. (author)

  6. Characterization of piezoelectric materials for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing for ultra-low frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad Nouroz; Seethaler, Rudolf; Alam, M Shahria

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are used extensively in a number of sensing applications ranging from aerospace industries to medical diagnostics. Piezoelectric materials generate charge when they are subjected to strain. However, since measuring charge is difficult at low frequencies, traditional piezoelectric sensors are limited to dynamic applications. In this research an alternative technique is proposed to determine static strain that relies upon the measurement of piezoelectric capacitance and resistance using piezoelectric sensors. To demonstrate the validity of this approach, the capacitance and resistance of a piezoelectric patch sensor was characterized for a wide range of strain and temperature. The study shows that the piezoelectric capacitance is sensitive to both strain and temperature while the resistance is mostly dependent on the temperature variation. The findings can be implemented to obtain thermally compensated static strain from piezoelectric sensors, which does not require an additional temperature sensor. (paper)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric hydrogel containing caffeine for cosmeceutical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Tiago C.; Oliveira, Maria José A.; Lugão, Ademar B., E-mail: tiagocesar-13@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Caffeine, a substance with belongs to the group of methylxanthines, is alkaloids that penetrate in the human epidermis but is not easily absorbed into the bloodstream. With a dermatological active substance, it exerts action on the subcutaneous adipose tissue causing adipocyte lipolysis through the inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Based on these considerations, the objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of caffeine in a polymeric hydrogel matrix, for possible cosmeceutical applications. The hydrogels were cross-linked and sterilized by Cobalt-60 source gamma irradiation. In the characterization, were used thermogravimetry (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was possible to observe by SEM the presence of crystals in the hydrogel sample. The DSC experiment confirmed a crystallinity of the sample and that caffeine is not degraded by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy. The results were satisfactory, allowing a new investigations that certify the benefits of its application. (author)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles obtained by precipitation in inverse microemulsion for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puca Pacheco, Mercedes; Guerrero Aquino, Marco; Tacuri Calanchi, Enrique; Lopez Campos, Raul G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the preparation of nanoparticles of magnetite by methods of precipitation in inverse microemulsions and the conventional method 'Chemical Co-precipitation' is reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanoparticles obtained by the method of precipitation in inverse microemulsion showed a superparamagnetic behavior and had a particle average diameter of 9 nm, while by the conventional method 'Chemical Co-precipitation' were 17 nm. In addition, other benefits observed in the application of the method of precipitation in inverse microemulsion with regard to the conventional method is that it allowed obtaining spheroidal magnetite nanoparticles, monodisperse and with magnetic and chemical properties which might have better results in medical applications. (author)

  9. Characterization of an aluminum-filled polyamide powder for applications in selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoli, Alida; Moriconi, Giacomo; Pauri, Marco Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Solid free-form fabrication (SFF) techniques use layer-based manufacturing to create physical objects directly from computer-generated models. Using an additive approach to manufacture shapes, SFF systems join liquid, powder or sheet materials. Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a SFF technique by which parts are built layer-by-layer offering the key advantage of the direct manufacturing of functional parts. In SLS, a laser beam is traced over the surface of a tightly compacted powder made of thermoplastic material. In this paper is characterized a new aluminum-filled polyamide powder developed for applications in SLS. This material is promising for many applications that require a metallic look of the part, good finishing properties, high stiffness and higher part quality

  10. Characterization of SPAD Array for Multifocal High-Content Screening Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Tsikouras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current instruments used to detect specific protein-protein interactions in live cells for applications in high-content screening (HCS are limited by the time required to measure the lifetime. Here, a 32 × 1 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD array was explored as a detector for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM in HCS. Device parameters and characterization results were interpreted in the context of the application to determine if the SPAD array could satisfy the requirements of HCS-FLIM. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using a known fluorescence standard; and the recovered fluorescence lifetime matched literature reported values. The design of a theoretical 32 × 32 SPAD array was also considered as a detector for a multi-point confocal scanning microscope.

  11. The Automatic Parallelisation of Scientific Application Codes Using a Computer Aided Parallelisation Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierotheou, C.; Johnson, S.; Leggett, P.; Cross, M.; Evans, E.; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Frumkin, M.; Yan, J.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The shared-memory programming model is a very effective way to achieve parallelism on shared memory parallel computers. Historically, the lack of a programming standard for using directives and the rather limited performance due to scalability have affected the take-up of this programming model approach. Significant progress has been made in hardware and software technologies, as a result the performance of parallel programs with compiler directives has also made improvements. The introduction of an industrial standard for shared-memory programming with directives, OpenMP, has also addressed the issue of portability. In this study, we have extended the computer aided parallelization toolkit (developed at the University of Greenwich), to automatically generate OpenMP based parallel programs with nominal user assistance. We outline the way in which loop types are categorized and how efficient OpenMP directives can be defined and placed using the in-depth interprocedural analysis that is carried out by the toolkit. We also discuss the application of the toolkit on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks and a number of real-world application codes. This work not only demonstrates the great potential of using the toolkit to quickly parallelize serial programs but also the good performance achievable on up to 300 processors for hybrid message passing and directive-based parallelizations.

  12. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  13. Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for the characterization of commercial high performance materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, M.

    2000-09-01

    The industry today offers an uncounted number of high performance materials, that have to meet highest standards. Commercial high performance materials, though often sold in large quantities, still require ongoing research and development to keep up to date with increasing needs and decreasing tolerances. Furthermore, a variety of materials is on the market that are not fully understood in their microstructure, in the way they react under application conditions, and in which mechanisms are responsible for their degradation. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical method that is now in commercial use for over 30 years. Its main advantages are the very high detection sensitivity (down to ppb), the ability to measure all elements with isotopic sensitivity, the ability of gaining laterally resolved images, and the inherent capability of depth-profiling. These features make it an ideal tool for a wide field of applications within advanced material science. The present work gives an introduction into the principles of SIMS and shows the successful application for the characterization of commercially used high performance materials. Finally, a selected collection of my publications in reviewed journals will illustrate the state of the art in applied materials research and development with dynamic SIMS. All publications focus on the application of dynamic SIMS to analytical questions that stem from questions arising during the production and improvement of high-performance materials. (author)

  14. Mechanical characterization of bucky gel morphing nanocomposite for actuating/sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, Ali Kadkhoda; Woldesenbet, Eyassu; Jin, Yoonyoung

    2012-01-01

    Since the demonstration of the bucky gel actuator (BGA) in 2005, a great deal of effort has been exerted to develop novel applications for this electro-active morphing nanocomposite. This three-layered bimorph nanocomposite can be easily fabricated, operated in air and driven with a few volts. The BGA with improved mechanical strength is an excellent candidate for application in macro- to micro-scale smart structures with actuating and sensing capabilities. However, developing new applications requires identifying and understanding the effective design parameters and mechanical properties, respectively. There has been limited published studies on the mechanical properties of BGA. In this study, the effect of three parameters—layer thickness, carbon nanotube type and weight fraction of components—on the mechanical properties was investigated. Samples were characterized via nano-indentation and DMA. The BGA composed of 22 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes and 45 wt% ionic liquid exhibited the highest hardness, adhesion, viscosity, and elastic and storage moduli. This study revealed the important role of the carbon nanotube type on BGA adhesion. Samples made with multi-walled carbon nanotubes had the lowest adhesion, which is a required factor in applications such as microfluidics. (paper)

  15. Development and characterization of thermal responsivehydrogel films for biomedical sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Barriguete, Jesús Eduardo; Isoshima, Takashi; Bucio, Emilio

    2018-04-01

    Two flexible stimuli-responsive hydrogel films were elaborated as biomedical sensor application. The hydrogel systems were contained in glass moulds and synthesized using gamma radiation at a dose rate of 10.1 kGy h‑1, and absorbed dose of 50 kGy. The poly(NIPAAm) with a low critical solution temperature (LCST) close to the human body temperature, was employed as the principal component for the responsive materials. The addition of dimethyl acrylamide (DMAAm) for hydrophilic effect, methyl methacrylate (MMA) for mechanical property, and ethoxyethyl methacrylate (EEM) for mechanical property, modified the thermo dynamic transition point, obtaining viable responsive films with LCST of 36 °C and 39 °C. The samples were characterized by DSC to analyse the LCST, FT-IR to characterize the functional groups of the resulting films, AFM to examine the surface morphology, and swelling measurement to support the flexibility. Responsive ‘intelligent’ films with thermo sensitivity, biocompatibility, resistance, and conformableness are important to the development of flexible polymers for the application of biological sensor, smart membranes, or flexible electronics.

  16. Characterization of PDMS samples with variation of its synthesis parameters for tunable optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Josimar; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; González-García, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays the elastomer known as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Sylgard 184), due to its physical properties, low cost and easy handle, have become a frequently used material for the elaboration of optical components such as: variable focal length liquid lenses, optical waveguides, solid elastic lenses, etc. In recent years, we have been working in the characterization of this material for applications in visual sciences; in this work, we describe the elaboration of PDMSmade samples, also, we present physical and optical properties of the samples by varying its synthesis parameters such as base: curing agent ratio, and both, curing time and temperature. In the case of mechanical properties, tensile and compression tests were carried out through a universal testing machine to obtain the respective stress-strain curves, and to obtain information regarding its optical properties, UV-vis spectroscopy is applied to the samples to obtain transmittance and absorbance curves. Index of refraction variation was obtained through an Abbe refractometer. Results from the characterization will determine the proper synthesis parameters for the elaboration of tunable refractive surfaces for potential applications in robotics.

  17. Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS): formulation development, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Bandopadhyay, Shantanu; Kapil, Rishi; Singh, Ramandeep; Katare, O

    2009-01-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) possess unparalleled potential in improving oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Following their oral administration, these systems rapidly disperse in gastrointestinal fluids, yielding micro- or nanoemulsions containing the solubilized drug. Owing to its miniscule globule size, the micro/nanoemulsifed drug can easily be absorbed through lymphatic pathways, bypassing the hepatic first-pass effect. We present an exhaustive and updated account of numerous literature reports and patents on diverse types of self-emulsifying drug formulations, with emphasis on their formulation, characterization, and systematic optimization strategies. Recent advancements in various methodologies employed to characterize their globule size and shape, ability to encapsulate the drug, gastrointestinal and thermodynamic stability, rheological characteristics, and so forth, are discussed comprehensively to guide the formula-tor in preparing an effective and robust SEDDS formulation. Also, this exhaustive review offers an explicit discussion on vital applications of the SEDDS in bioavailability enhancement of various drugs, outlining an overview on myriad in vitro, in situ, and ex vivo techniques to assess the absorption and/ or permeation potential of drugs incorporated in the SEDDS in animal and cell line models, and the subsequent absorption pathways followed by them. In short, the current article furnishes an updated compilation of wide-ranging information on all the requisite vistas of the self-emulsifying formulations, thus paving the way for accelerated progress into the SEDDS application in pharmaceutical research.

  18. Characterization and environmental evaluation of Atikokan coal fly ash for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeheyis, M.B.; Shang, J.Q.; Yanful, E.K. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-09-15

    Coal fly ash from thermal power generating stations has become a valuable byproduct in various commercial and environmental applications due to its cementitious, alkaline, and pozzolanic properties. It is used as a raw material in cement production, and also as a replacement for cement in concrete production. This study provided physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterizations of fresh and landfilled coal fly ash from a thermal generation station in Ontario. Fly ash behaviour under various environmental conditions was examined. Tests were conducted to characterize fly ash acid neutralization capacity and heavy metal sorption capacity. The study showed that fresh and landfilled fly ash samples showed significant variations in morphology, mineralogy, and chemical composition. X-ray diffraction studies demonstrated that weathering of the fly ash caused the formation of secondary minerals. The study also showed that the heavy metals from both fresh and landfilled fly ash samples were below leachate criteria set by the provincial government. It was concluded that both fresh and landfilled fly ash are suitable for various environmental and engineering applications. 55 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  19. Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Gimzewski, James K; Stieg, Adam Z

    2012-01-01

    A general method based on the combination of electrostatic force microscopy with thermal cycling of the substrate holder is presented for direct, nanoscale characterization of the pyroelectric effect in a range of materials and sample configurations using commercial atomic force microscope systems. To provide an example of its broad applicability, the technique was applied to the examination of natural tourmaline gemstones. The method was validated using thermal cycles similar to those experienced in ambient conditions, where the induced pyroelectric response produced localized electrostatic surface charges whose magnitude demonstrated a correlation with the iron content and heat dissipation of each gemstone variety. In addition, the surface charge was shown to persist even at thermal equilibrium. This behavior is attributed to constant, stochastic cooling of the gemstone surface through turbulent contact with the surrounding air and indicates a potential utility for energy harvesting in applications including environmental sensors and personal electronics. In contrast to previously reported methods, ours has a capacity to carry out such precise nanoscale measurements with little or no restriction on the sample of interest, and represents a powerful new tool for the characterization of pyroelectric materials and devices. (paper)

  20. The application of GIS and remote sensing technologies for site characterization and environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durfee, R.C.; McCord, R.A.; Dobson, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental cleanup and restoration of hazardous waste sites are major activities at federal facilities around the US. Geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies are very useful computer tools to aid in site characterization, monitoring, assessment, and remediation efforts. Results from applying three technologies are presented to demonstrate examples of site characterization and environmental assessment for a federal facility. The first technology involves the development and use of GIS within the comprehensive Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) to integrate facility data, terrain models, aerial and satellite imagery, demographics, waste area information, and geographic data bases. The second technology presents 3-D subsurface analyses and displays of groundwater and contaminant measurements within waste areas. In the third application, aerial survey information is being used to characterize land cover and vegetative patterns, detect change, and study areas of previous waste activities and possible transport pathways. These computer technologies are required to manage, analyze, and display the large amounts of environmental and geographic data that must be handled in carrying out effective environmental restoration

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro-Paloma, Jessica; Al-Shannaq, Refat; Fernández, Ana Inés; Farid, Mohammed M

    2015-12-26

    A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM) was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample) and Micronal ® DS 5008 X (BASF) samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES) capacities were 111.73 J·g -1 and 99.3 J·g -1 for M-2 and Micronal ® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus ( E ), load at maximum displacement ( P m ), and displacement at maximum load ( h m ), concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC's emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC's generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal ® DS 5008 X.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Use in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Giro-Paloma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparing and characterizing microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCM was developed. A comparison with a commercial MPCM is also presented. Both MPCM contained paraffin wax as PCM with acrylic shell. The melting temperature of the PCM was around 21 °C, suitable for building applications. The M-2 (our laboratory made sample and Micronal® DS 5008 X (BASF samples were characterized using SEM, DSC, nano-indentation technique, and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Both samples presented a 6 μm average size and a spherical shape. Thermal energy storage (TES capacities were 111.73 J·g−1 and 99.3 J·g−1 for M-2 and Micronal® DS 5008 X, respectively. Mechanical characterization of the samples was performed by nano-indentation technique in order to determine the elastic modulus (E, load at maximum displacement (Pm, and displacement at maximum load (hm, concluding that M-2 presented slightly better mechanical properties. Finally, an important parameter for considering use in buildings is the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC’s. This characteristic was studied at 65 °C by CG-MS. Both samples showed VOC’s emission after 10 min of heating, however peaks intensity of VOC’s generated from M-2 microcapsules showed a lower concentration than Micronal® DS 5008 X.

  3. Artificial neural network application in isotopic characterization of radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important aspects to the development of the nuclear technology is the safe management of the radioactive waste arising from several stages of the nuclear fuel cycles, as well as from production and use of radioisotope in the medicine, industry and research centers. The accurate characterization of this waste is not a simple task, given to its diversity in isotopic composition and non homogeneity in the space distribution and mass density. In this work it was developed a methodology for quantification and localization of radionuclides not non homogeneously distributed in a 200 liters drum based in the Monte Carlo Method and Artificial Neural Network (RNA), for application in the isotopic characterization of the stored radioactive waste at IPEN. Theoretical arrangements had been constructed involving the division of the radioactive waste drum in some units or cells and some possible configurations of source intensities. Beyond the determination of the detection positions, the respective detection efficiencies for each position in function of each cell of the drum had been obtained. After the construction and the training of the RNA's for each developed theoretical arrangement, the validation of the method were carried out for the two arrangements that had presented the best performance. The results obtained show that the methodology developed in this study could be an effective tool for isotopic characterization of radioactive wastes contained in many kind of packages. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of titanium oxide/bismuth sulfide nanorods for solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, M.; Rincon, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work is showed the synthesis and characterization of titanium oxide/bismuth sulfide nanowires hetero-junctions for solar cells applications. Conductive glass substrates (Corning 25 x 75 mm) were coated with a thin layer of sol-gel TiO2 and used as substrates for the subsequent deposition of bismuth sulfide nanorods (BN). TiO2 films (∼400 nm) were deposited with a semiautomatic immersion system with controlled immersion/withdraw velocity, using titanium isopropoxide as the titania precursor [1]. For BN synthesis and deposition, the solvo-thermal method was used, introducing air annealed TiO2-substrates in the autoclave. The typical bilayer TiO2/BN hetero-junction was 600 nm thick. The synthesized materials (powders and films) were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Anatase was the crystalline phase of TiO2, while bismuth sulfide nanotubes show a diffraction pattern characteristic of bismuthinite distorted by the preferential growth of some planes [2-4]. The optoelectronic characterization of TiO2/NB hetero-junctions was compared with hetero-junctions obtained by sensitizing TiO2 with chemically deposited bismuth sulfide films. Bismuth sulfide nanowires are 2µm long and 70nm wide (aspect ratio L/D = 43), while chemically deposited bismuth sulfide have L/D = 1, therefore the effect of particle size evaluation and geometry in the photosensitization phenomena will be discussed in the context of new materials for solar-cells applications. (Full text)

  5. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, F.; Picca, R.A.; Sportelli, M.C.; Cioffi, N.; Sannino, A.; Pollini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag 2 O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. - Highlights: • Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications. • Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution. • Flax fabrics were characterized from a biological and surface chemical point of view. • Scaling up of the process was confirmed

  6. Complex layered materials and periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures: Concepts, characterizations, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallaei, Hossein

    The main objective of this dissertation is to characterize and create insight into the electromagnetic performances of two classes of composite structures, namely, complex multi-layered media and periodic Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures. The advanced and diversified computational techniques are applied to obtain their unique propagation characteristics and integrate the results into some novel applications. In the first part of this dissertation, the vector wave solution of Maxwell's equations is integrated with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization method to provide a powerful technique for characterizing multi-layered materials, and obtaining their optimal designs. The developed method is successfully applied to determine the optimal composite coatings for Radar Cross Section (RCS) reduction of canonical structures. Both monostatic and bistatic scatterings are explored. A GA with hybrid planar/curved surface implementation is also introduced to efficiently obtain the optimal absorbing materials for curved structures. Furthermore, design optimization of the non-uniform Luneburg and 2-shell spherical lens antennas utilizing modal solution/GA-adaptive-cost function is presented. The lens antennas are effectively optimized for both high gain and suppressed grating lobes. The second part demonstrates the development of an advanced computational engine, which accurately computes the broadband characteristics of challenging periodic electromagnetic band-gap structures. This method utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique with Periodic Boundary Condition/Perfectly Matched Layer (PBC/PML), which is efficiently integrated with the Prony scheme. The computational technique is successfully applied to characterize and present the unique propagation performances of different classes of periodic structures such as Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS), Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) materials, and Left-Handed (LH) composite media. The results are

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Determan, Michael Duane [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-12-17

    The central theme of this thesis work is to develop new block copolymer materials for biomedical applications. While there are many reports of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic [19-21] and crosslinked hydrogel materials [22], the development of an in situ gel forming, pH responsive pentablock copolymer is a novel contribution to the field, Figure 1.1 is a sketch of an ABCBA pentablock copolymer. The A blocks are cationic tertiary amine methacrylates blocked to a central Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. In addition to the prerequisite synthetic and macromolecular characterization of these new materials, the self-assembled supramolecular structures formed by the pentablock were experimentally evaluated. This synthesis and characterization process serves to elucidate the important structure property relationships of these novel materials, The pH and temperature responsive behavior of the pentablock copolymer were explored especially with consideration towards injectable drug delivery applications. Future synthesis work will focus on enhancing and tuning the cell specific targeting of DNA/pentablock copolymer polyplexes. The specific goals of this research are: (1) Develop a synthetic route for gel forming pentablock block copolymers with pH and temperature sensitive properties. Synthesis of these novel copolymers is accomplished with ATRP, yielding low polydispersity and control of the block copolymer architecture. Well defined macromolecular characteristics are required to tailor the phase behavior of these materials. (2) Characterize relationship between the size and shape of pentablock copolymer micelles and gel structure and the pH and temperature of the copolymer solutions with SAXS, SANS and CryoTEM. (3) Evaluate the temperature and pH induced phase separation and macroscopic self-assembly phenomenon of the pentablock copolymer. (4) Utilize the knowledge gained from first three goals to design and formulate drug delivery formulations based on the multi

  8. OBTAINING HYSTERESIS LOOPS AT LOW FREQUENCY FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MATERIALS TO BE USED IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Arshad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The promising development of magnetic sensors in biomedical field demands an appropriate level of understanding of the magnetic properties of the materials used in their fabrication. To date only few of the types of magnetic materials are encountered where their magnetic properties, characterization techniques and magnetization behavior are yet to be explored more suitably in the light of their applications. This research work studies the characterization of materials by using a cost effective and simple circuit consisting of inductive transducer and an OP-AMP as a voltage integrator. In this approach the circuit was simulated using PSPICE and experiments have been conducted to achieve the desired results. The simulation and experimental results are obtained for three test materials namely iron, steel and plastic. The novelty lies in applying the simple circuit for material testing and characterization via obtaining simulation results and validating these results through experiment. The magnetic properties in low external magnetic field are studied with materials under test. The magnetization effect of a magneto-inductive sensor is detected in low frequency range for different magnetic core materials. The results have shown magnetization behaviour of magnetic materials due to the variation of permeability and magnetism. The resulted hysteresis loops appeared to have different shapes for different materials. The magnetic hysteresis loop found for iron core demonstrated a bigger coercive force and larger reversals of magnetism than these of steel core, thus obtaining its magnetic saturation at a larger magnetic field strength. The shape of the hysteresis loop itself is found to be varying upon the nature of the material in use. The resulted magnetization behaviors of the materials proved their possible applicability for use in sensing devices. The key concern of this work is found upon selecting the appropriate magnetic materials at the desired

  9. Synthesis and characterization of magneto-rheological (MR fluids for MR brake application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhau K. Kumbhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magneto rheological (MR fluid technology has been proven for many industrial applications like shock absorbers, actuators, etc. MR fluid is a smart material whose rheological characteristics change rapidly and can be controlled easily in presence of an applied magnetic field. MR brake is a device to transmit torque by the shear stress of MR fluid. However, MR fluids exhibit yield stress of 50–90 kPa. In this research, an effort has been made to synthesize MR fluid sample/s which will typically meet the requirements of MR brake applications. In this study, various electrolytic and carbonyl iron powder based MR fluids have been synthesized by mixing grease as a stabilizer, oleic acid as an antifriction additive and gaur gum powder as a surface coating to reduce agglomeration of the MR fluid. MR fluid samples based on sunflower oil, which is bio-degradable, environmentally friendly and abundantly available have also been synthesized. These MR fluid samples are characterized for determination of magnetic, morphological and rheological properties. This study helps identify most suitable localized MR fluid meant for MR brake application.

  10. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Jae, E-mail: kimsangj@jejunu.ac.kr [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  11. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Jay K; Neupane, Dharmendra; Nepal, Bishal; Mikhaylov, Vasilii; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2018-03-16

    Nanoporous gold (np-Au), because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  12. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Bhattarai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous gold (np-Au, because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  13. Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Proanthocyanidins-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhai Biao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts is one of the more promising approaches for obtaining environmentally friendly nanomaterials for biological applications and environmental remediation. In this study, proanthocyanidins-functionalized gold nanoparticles were synthesized via a hydrothermal method. The obtained gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements. UV-Vis and FTIR results indicated that the obtained products were mainly spherical in shape, and that the phenolic hydroxyl of proanthocyanidins had strong interactions with the gold surface. TEM and XRD determination revealed that the synthesized gold nanoparticles had a highly crystalline structure and good monodispersity. The application of proanthocyanidins-functionalized gold nanoparticles for the removal of dyes and heavy metal ions Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ in an aqueous solution was investigated. The primary results indicate that proanthocyanidins-functionalized gold nanoparticles had high removal rates for the heavy metal ions and dye, which implies that they have potential applications as a new kind of adsorbent for the removal of contaminants in aqueous solution.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of novel dual-responsive nanogels and their application as drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinrong; Qi, Tingting; Liao, Jinfeng; Fan, Min; Luo, Feng; Li, He; Qian, Zhiyong

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a temperature/pH dual-response nanogel based on NIPAm, MAA, and PEGMA was synthesized via emulsion polymerization and characterized by 1H-NMR, FT-IR, TEM and DLS. By introducing a novel initiator, through which PEG-AIBN-PEG was synthesized, it was revealed that the PEG segments from PEG-AIBN-PEG with a dosage of initiator had a significant influence over the macro-state and stability of the nanogels. In order to optimize the feeding prescription for better application as a drug delivery system, the effect of the co-monomer contents on the response to stimuli (temperature and pH value) and cytotoxicity of the nanogels has been studied in detail. The results demonstrated that the responsiveness, reversibility and volume phase transition critical value of the nanogels could be controlled by adjusting the feeding ratio of the co-monomers in the synthesis process. MTT assay results revealed that nanogels with appropriate compositions showed good biocompatibility and relatively low toxicity. Most importantly, by studying the drug loading behavior, it was found that the dimensions of the drug molecules had a considerable influence on the drug loading efficiency and loading capacity of the nanogels, and that the mechanism by which drug molecule sizes influence the drug loading behavior of nanogels needs further investigation. The results indicated that such PNMP nanogels might have potential applications in drug delivery and other medical applications, but that the drug loading mechanism must be further developed.

  15. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p 3/2 ) and Cu(2p 1/2 ) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Biomass-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Chaldun, Elsy Rahimi; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid; Fikriyyah, Anti Khoerul; Subhan, Achmad; Ghozali, Muhammad; Purwasasmita, Bambang Sunendar

    2018-07-01

    In this study, carbon-based advanced materials for lithium-ion battery applications were prepared by using soybean waste-based biomass material, through a straightforward process of heat treatment followed by chemical modification processes. Various types of carbon-based advanced materials were developed. Physicochemical characteristics and electrochemical performance of the resultant materials were characterized systematically. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that the activated carbon and graphene exhibits wrinkles structures and porous morphology. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) revealed that both activated carbon and graphene-based material exhibited a good conductivity. For instance, the graphene-based material exhibited equivalent series resistance value of 25.9 Ω as measured by EIS. The graphene-based material also exhibited good reversibility and cyclic performance. Eventually, it would be anticipated that the utilization of soybean waste-based biomass material, which is conforming to the principles of green materials, could revolutionize the development of advanced material for high-performance energy storage applications, especially for lithium-ion batteries application.

  17. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, S.; Koble, T.D.; Lemaitre, P. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics.

  18. Construction and characterization of a pure protein hydrogel for drug delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Xu, ZhaoKang; Yang, XiaoFeng; He, YanHao; Lin, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Injectable hydrogels have a variety of applications, including regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery. In this paper, we reported on a pure protein hydrogel based on tetrameric recombinant proteins for the potential drug delivery application. This protein hydrogel was formed instantly by simply mixing two recombinant proteins (ULD-TIP1 and ULD-GGGWRESAI) through the specific protein-peptide interaction. The protein hydrogel was characterized by rheology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vitro cytotoxicity test indicated that the developed protein hydrogel had no apparent cytotoxicity against L-929 cells and HCEC cells after 48h incubation. The formed protein hydrogels was gradually degraded after incubation in phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH=7.4) for a period of 144h study, as indicated by in vitro degradation test. Encapsulation of model drug (sodium diclofenac; DIC) were achieved by simple mixing of drugs with hydrogelator and the entrapped drugs was almost completely released from hydrogels within 24h via a diffusion manner. As a conclusion, the simple and mild preparation procedure and good biocompatibility of protein hydrogel would render its good promising candidate for drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices for Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich Justin

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for electron field emission (FE) cathodes in integrated FE devices. These nanostructured carbon materials possess exceptional properties and their synthesis can be thoroughly controlled. Their integration into advanced electronic devices, including not only FE cathodes, but sensors, energy storage devices, and circuit components, has seen rapid growth in recent years. The results of the studies presented here demonstrate that the CNT field emitter is an excellent candidate for next generation vacuum microelectronics and related electron emission devices in several advanced applications. The work presented in this study addresses determining factors that currently confine the performance and application of CNT-FE devices. Characterization studies and improvements to the FE properties of CNTs, along with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) design and fabrication, were utilized in achieving these goals. Important performance limiting parameters, including emitter lifetime and failure from poor substrate adhesion, are examined. The compatibility and integration of CNT emitters with the governing MEMS substrate (i.e., polycrystalline silicon), and its impact on these performance limiting parameters, are reported. CNT growth mechanisms and kinetics were investigated and compared to silicon (100) to improve the design of CNT emitter integrated MEMS based electronic devices, specifically in vacuum microelectronic device (VMD) applications. Improved growth allowed for design and development of novel cold-cathode FE devices utilizing CNT field emitters. A chemical ionization (CI) source based on a CNT-FE electron source was developed and evaluated in a commercial desktop mass spectrometer for explosives trace detection. This work demonstrated the first reported use of a CNT-based ion source capable of collecting CI mass spectra. The CNT-FE source demonstrated low power requirements, pulsing

  20. Synthesis and characterization of polyglycerols dendrimers for applications in tissue engineering biological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, E.D.; Queiroz, A.A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over the last twenty years is the growing development in the manufacture of synthetic scaffold in tissue engineering applications. These new materials are based on polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD's). PGLD's are highly functional polymers with hydroxymethyl side groups, fulfill all structural prerequisites to replace poly(ethylene glycol)s in medical applications. Furthermore, since these materials are based on naturally occurring compounds that degrades over time in the body and can be safely excreted. The objective of this work was the synthesis, physicochemical, biological characterization of HPGL's with potential use as scaffolds in tissue engineering. HPGL's with oligomeric cores, of diglycerol triglycerol and tetraglycerol was used. Theoretical and Experimental Simulation Details: The synthesis of PGLD procedures involves the etherification of glycerol through anionic polymerization of glycidol. The PGLD's were characterized by chromatographic techniques (SEC and HPLC), spectroscopic (FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C - NMR) electrochemical (zeta potential) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) techniques. The structure- activity relationships (SAR's) of compound prototype and its analogs were studied to determine the generation number (G) of the molecule responsible for the biological activity on the adhesion and cell proliferation process. A detailed study of the structure of PGLD's of G=0-4 was performed using the Hyperchem 7. 5 and Gromacs 4 software packages. The biocompatibility studies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy (EPF) technique after PGLD (G=0-4) blood contact. The overall electro-negativity/total charge density, dipole moment, frontier orbital's (HOMO - LUMO) and electrostatic potential maps (EPM) were calculated. The most stable form of the resulting compounds was determined by estimating the hydration energy and energy conformation. Results and Discussion: The techniques SEM and EPF

  1. Advanced imaging as a novel approach to the characterization of membranes for microfiltration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Milagro

    The primary objectives of my dissertation were to design, develop and implement novel confocal microscopy imaging protocols for the characterization of membranes and highlight opportunities to obtain reliable and cutting-edge information of microfiltration membrane morphology and fouling processes. After a comprehensive introduction and review of confocal microscopy in membrane applications (Chapter 1), the first part of this dissertation (Chapter 2) details my work on membrane morphology characterization by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the implementation of my newly developed CLSM cross-sectional imaging protocol. Depth-of-penetration limits were identified to be approximately 24 microns and 7-8 microns for mixed cellulose ester and polyethersulfone membranes, respectively, making it impossible to image about 70% of the membrane bulk. The development and implementation of my cross-sectional CLSM method enabled the imaging of the entire membrane cross-section. Porosities of symmetric and asymmetric membranes with nominal pore sizes in the range 0.65-8.0 microns were quantified at different depths and yielded porosity values in the 50-60% range. It is my hope and expectation that the characterization strategy developed in this part of the work will enable future studies of different membrane materials and applications by confocal microscopy. After demonstrating how cross-sectional CLSM could be used to fully characterize membrane morphologies and porosities, I applied it to the characterization of fouling occurring in polyethersulfone microfiltration membranes during the processing of solutions containing proteins and polysaccharides (Chapter 3). Through CLSM imaging, it was determined where proteins and polysaccharides deposit throughout polymeric microfiltration membranes when a fluid containing these materials is filtered. CLSM enabled evaluation of the location and extent of fouling by individual components (protein: casein and polysaccharide

  2. Characterization of bacterial functional groups and microbial activity in microcosms with glyphosate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Sofia; Bonetto, Mariana; Baigorria, Tomas; Pegoraro, Vanesa; Ortiz, Jimena; Faggioli, Valeria; Conde, Belen; Cazorla, Cristian; Boccolini, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a worldwide used herbicide as c. 90% of transgenic crops are tolerant to it. Microbial degradation of glyphosate molecule in soil is considered the most important process that determines its persistence in the environment. However, the impact of this herbicide on target groups of soil biota remains poorly understood. Our objective was to characterize the abundance of bacterial groups and global microbial activity, under controlled conditions with application of increasing doses of glyphosate. A bioassay was carried out in microcosms using an agricultural soil (Typic Argiudoll) with registered history of glyphosate application from National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA, EEA Marcos Juarez, Argentina). Glyphosate of commercial formulation (74.7%) was used and the following treatments were evaluated: Soil without glyphosate (control), and Soil with doses equivalent to 1.12 and 11.2 kg ai ha-1. Microbiological parameters were estimated at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after herbicide application by counting heterotrophic, cellulolytic, nitrogen fixing (N), and nitrifying bacteria; and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial biomass (C-BM). The N cycle related bacteria showed greater sensitivity to glyphosate with significant increases in abundance. On the other hand the C cycle parameters were strongly conditioned by the time elapsed since the application of the herbicide, as did the MR. The FDA declined with the highest dose, while the C-BM was not affected. Therefore, we conclude that in the studied experimental conditions glyphosate stimulated bacterial growth (i.e. target abundances) representing a source of N, C and nutrients. On the other hand, enzymatic activity (FDA) decreased when glyphosate was applied in the highest dose, whereas, it had no effect on the MR nor C-BM, which could be attributable to the organic matter content of the soil. However, future research in field conditions is necessary, for

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate/titanium oxide for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delima, S.A.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Souza, J.C.P.; Gemelli, E., E-mail: sarahamindelima@hotmail.com, E-mail: dem2nhac@joinville.udesc.br, E-mail: souzajulio@joinville.udesc.br, E-mail: gemelli@joinville.udesc.br [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2009-07-01

    The nanostructured bioceramics of calcium phosphate are current themes of research and they are becoming important as bone matrix in regeneration of tissues in orthopedic and dental applications. Nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate, reinforced with nanometric particles of titanium oxide, silica oxide and alumina oxid ealpha, are being widely studied because they offer new microstructures, nanostructures and interconnected microporosity with high superficial area of micropores that contribute to osteointegration and osteoinduction processes. This study is about the synthesis of nanocomposites powders of calcium phosphate reinforced with 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% in volume of titanium oxide and its characterization through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Dilatometry. (author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of polyurethane plasticizer for flexible packaging applications: Natural oils affirmed access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Mekewi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing bio-renewable feedstock for polyurethane (PU manufacturing and polymer industry as a whole has become highly desirable for both economic and environmental reasons. In this work castor oil (CO and palm olein (PO polyols were synthesized and partially used as renewable feedstock for the manufacturing of polyurethane plasticizing resin for printing ink applications. The chemical structure of the prepared polyols and polyurethanes were characterized using IR spectra and GPC and their solubility in common solvents was tested. As well, properties such as flexibility, mechanical properties, optical properties, heat seal and freeze resistance of these prepared printing inks were determined. The results indicated that the prepared printing inks from 50% synthesized polyurethane have high thermal stability, adhesion and excellent freeze resistance. The net technical properties of the new ink formulations are relatively comparable to the printing ink prepared from standard polyurethane plasticizer.

  5. Characterization of hydrothermally synthesized SnS nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Birendra Kumar; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, SnS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method using stannous chloride and thiourea as tin (Sn) and sulfur (S) precursor respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit orthorhombic structure. Average particles size was calculated using Scherrer's formula and found to be 23 nm. FESEM image shows that the as-prepared nanoparticles are in plate like structure. Direct optical band gap (Eg) of as-synthesized nanoparticles was calculated through UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement and found to be 1.34 eV, which is near to optimum need for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV). Thus this SnS, narrowband gap semiconductor material can be applied as an alternative absorber material for solar cell application.

  6. Development of IR Contrast Data Analysis Application for Characterizing Delaminations in Graphite-Epoxy Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havican, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop infrared (IR) flash thermography application based on use of a calibration standard for inspecting graphite-epoxy laminated/honeycomb structures. Background: Graphite/Epoxy composites (laminated and honeycomb) are widely used on NASA programs. Composite materials are susceptible for impact damage that is not readily detected by visual inspection. IR inspection can provide required sensitivity to detect surface damage in composites during manufacturing and during service. IR contrast analysis can provide characterization of depth, size and gap thickness of impact damage. Benefits/Payoffs: The research provides an empirical method of calibrating the flash thermography response in nondestructive evaluation. A physical calibration standard with artificial flaws such as flat bottom holes with desired diameter and depth values in a desired material is used in calibration. The research devises several probability of detection (POD) analysis approaches to enable cost effective POD study to meet program requirements.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate/titanium oxide for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delima, S.A.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Souza, J.C.P.; Gemelli, E.

    2009-01-01

    The nanostructured bioceramics of calcium phosphate are current themes of research and they are becoming important as bone matrix in regeneration of tissues in orthopedic and dental applications. Nanocomposite powders of calcium phosphate, reinforced with nanometric particles of titanium oxide, silica oxide and alumina oxid ealpha, are being widely studied because they offer new microstructures, nanostructures and interconnected microporosity with high superficial area of micropores that contribute to osteointegration and osteoinduction processes. This study is about the synthesis of nanocomposites powders of calcium phosphate reinforced with 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% in volume of titanium oxide and its characterization through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG) and Dilatometry. (author)

  8. Production and characterization of ceramics for armor application; Producao e caracterizacao de ceramicas para blindagem balistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.T.; Lopes, C.M.A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Mecanica-Aeronautica; Assis, J.M.K.; Melo, F.C.L., E-mail: cmoniz@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The fabrication of devices for ballistic protection as bullet proof vests and helmets and armored vehicles has been evolving over the past years along with the materials and models used for this specific application. The requirements for high efficient light-weight ballistic protection systems which not interfere in the user comfort and mobility has driven the research in this area. In this work we will present the results of characterization of two ceramics based on alumina and silicon carbide. The ceramics were produced in lab scale and the specific mass, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure, Vickers hardness, flexural resistance at room temperature and X-ray diffraction were evaluated. Ballistic tests performed in the selected materials showed that the ceramics present armor efficiency. (author)

  9. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured titanium carbide for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paviter; Singh, Harwinder; Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Akshay, E-mail: akshaykumar.tiet@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Material Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology,, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140 406 Punjab (India); Kumar, Manjeet [Department of Materials Engineering, Defense Institute of Advanced Technology (DU), Pune-411 025 (India); Bala, Rajni [Department of Mathematics Punjabi University Patiala-147 002 Punjab (India)

    2016-04-13

    Titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reaction of titanium and acetone at 800 °C. This method is relatively low temperature synthesis route. It can be used for large scale production of TiC. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA) techniques. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase TiC. XRD analysis confirmed that the particles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 13 nm. DTA analysis shows that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications.

  11. Optimization and Characterization of High Velocity Oxy-fuel Sprayed Coatings: Techniques, Materials, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Oksa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work High Velocity Oxy-fuel (HVOF thermal spray techniques, spraying process optimization, and characterization of coatings are reviewed. Different variants of the technology are described and the main differences in spray conditions in terms of particle kinetics and thermal energy are rationalized. Methods and tools for controlling the spray process are presented as well as their use in optimizing the coating process. It will be shown how the differences from the starting powder to the final coating formation affect the coating microstructure and performance. Typical properties of HVOF sprayed coatings and coating performance is described. Also development of testing methods used for the evaluation of coating properties and current status of standardization is presented. Short discussion of typical applications is done.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Composite Carbon-Geopolymers for Precast Panel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Afifah Kharisma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of carbon (C particles as filler (aggregate in the production of geopolymers functional composite for possible precast panel application. Geopolymers was synthesized through alkali activation of metakaolin added with carbon particles relative to the mass of metakaolin. The mixture was cured at 70°C for 2 hours and the resulting composites were stored in open air for 28 days. The bulk density and the apparent porosity of the composites were measured by using Archimedes method. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by using thermal conductivity measurement and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The microstructure characterization of the samples were performed by using x-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS.

  13. In-focal-plane characterization of excitation distribution for quantitative fluorescence microscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Klaus; Brülisauer, Martina; ćaǧin, Emine; Bertsch, Dietmar; Lüthi, Stefan; Heeb, Peter; Stärker, Ulrich; Bernard, André

    2017-06-01

    The applications of fluorescence microscopy span medical diagnostics, bioengineering and biomaterial analytics. Full exploitation of fluorescent microscopy is hampered by imperfections in illumination, detection and filtering. Mainly, errors stem from deviations induced by real-world components inducing spatial or angular variations of propagation properties along the optical path, and they can be addressed through consistent and accurate calibration. For many applications, uniform signal to noise ratio (SNR) over the imaging area is required. Homogeneous SNR can be achieved by quantifying and compensating for the signal bias. We present a method to quantitatively characterize novel reference materials as a calibration reference for biomaterials analytics. The reference materials under investigation comprise thin layers of fluorophores embedded in polymer matrices. These layers are highly homogeneous in their fluorescence response, where cumulative variations do not exceed 1% over the field of view (1.5 x 1.1 mm). An automated and reproducible measurement methodology, enabling sufficient correction for measurement artefacts, is reported. The measurement setup is equipped with an autofocus system, ensuring that the measured film quality is not artificially increased by out-of-focus reduction of the system modulation transfer function. The quantitative characterization method is suitable for analysis of modified bio-materials, especially through patterned protein decoration. The imaging method presented here can be used to statistically analyze protein patterns, thereby increasing both precision and throughput. Further, the method can be developed to include a reference emitter and detector pair on the image surface of the reference object, in order to provide traceable measurements.

  14. Application and assessment of multiscale bending energy for morphometric characterization of neural cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Roberto Marcondes; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    1997-05-01

    The estimation of the curvature of experimentally obtained curves is an important issue in many applications of image analysis including biophysics, biology, particle physics, and high energy physics. However, the accurate calculation of the curvature of digital contours has proven to be a difficult endeavor, mainly because of the noise and distortions that are always present in sampled signals. Errors ranging from 1% to 1000% have been reported with respect to the application of standard techniques in the estimation of the curvature of circular contours [M. Worring and A. W. M. Smeulders, CVGIP: Im. Understanding, 58, 366 (1993)]. This article explains how diagrams of multiscale bending energy can be easily obtained from curvegrams and used as a robust general feature for morphometric characterization of neural cells. The bending energy is an interesting global feature for shape characterization that expresses the amount of energy needed to transform the specific shape under analysis into its lowest energy state (i.e., a circle). The curvegram, which can be accurately obtained by using digital signal processing techniques (more specifically through the Fourier transform and its inverse, as described in this work), provides multiscale representation of the curvature of digital contours. The estimation of the bending energy from the curvegram is introduced and exemplified with respect to a series of neural cells. The masked high curvature effect is reported and its implications to shape analysis are discussed. It is also discussed and illustrated that, by normalizing the multiscale bending energy with respect to a standard circle of unitary perimeter, this feature becomes an effective means for expressing shape complexity in a way that is invariant to rotation, translation, and scaling, and that is robust to noise and other artifacts implied by image acquisition.

  15. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maria Helena; Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C.; Neves, Juliana S.; Mansur, Herman S.; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. ► A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. ► The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. ► The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. ► The purify collagen has shown potential use as a biomaterial in tissue engineering.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nano fibers for its application in the adsorption of toxic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico L, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The production of carbon nano fibers (CNF's) by diverse techniques as the electric arc, laser ablation, or chemical deposition in vapor phase, among other, they have been so far used from final of the 90's. However, the synthesis method by discharge Glow arc of alternating current and high frequency developed by Pacheco and collaborators, is a once alternative for its obtaining. In the plasma Application Laboratory (LAP) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (INlN) it was designed and manufactured a reactor of alternating current and high frequency that produces a Glow arc able to synthesize carbon nano fibers. Its were carried out nano fibers synthesis with different catalysts to different proportions and with distinct conditions of vacuum pressure and methane flow until obtaining the best nano fibers samples and for it, this nano structures were characterized by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Raman spectrometry and EDS spectrometry. Once found the optimal conditions for the nano fibers production its were contaminated with NO 2 toxic gas and it was determined if they present adsorption, for it was used the thermal gravimetric analysis technique. This work is divided in three parts, in the first one, conformed by the chapters 1, at the 3, they are considered the foundations of the carbon nano fibers, their history, their characteristics, growth mechanisms, synthesis techniques, the thermal gravimetric analysis principles and the adsorption properties of the nano fibers. In the second part, consistent of the chapters 4 and 5, the methodology of synthesis and characterization of the nano fibers is provided. Finally, in third part its were carried out the activation energy calculation, the adsorption of the CNF's is analyzed and the conclusions are carried out. The present study evaluates the adsorption of environmental gas pollutants as the nitrogen oxides on carbon nano fibers at environmental or near conditions. Also

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Ethyl Cellulose-Based Polymeric Calcium(II) Hydrogen Phosphate Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Faruq; Arfin, Tanvir; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.

    2018-03-01

    The present report deals with the synthesis, characterization and testing of an ethyl cellulose-calcium(II) hydrogen phosphate (EC-CaHPO4) composite, where a sol-gel synthesis method was applied for the preparation of the composite so as to test its efficacy towards the electrochemical, biological, and adsorption related applications. The physical properties of the composite were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet- visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. On testing, the mechanical properties indicated that the composite is highly stable due to the cross-linked rigid framework and the enhanced interactions offered by the EC polymer supported for its binding very effectively. In addition, the conductivity of EC-CaHPO4 is completely governed by the transport mechanism where the electrolyte concentration has preference towards the adsorption of ions and the variations in the conductivity significantly affected the material's performance. We observed an increasing order of KCl > NaCl for the conductivity when 1:1 electrolytes were applied. Further, the material was tested for its usefulness towards the purification of industrial waste waters by removing harmful metal ions from the samples collected near the Aligarh city, India where the data indicates that the material has highest affinity towards Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. Finally, the biological efficiency of the material was confirmed by means of testing the antibacterial activity against two gram positive (staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two gram negative bacteriums (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Patoea dispersa). Thus, from the cumulative study of outcomes, it indicates that the EC-CaHPO4 composite found to serve as a potential smart biomaterial due to its efficiency in many different applications that includes the electrical conductivity, adsorption capability, and antimicrobial activity.

  18. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  20. Tamoxifen-loaded lecithin organogel (LO) for topical application: Development, optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amit; Singh, Bhupinder; Raza, Kaisar; Wadhwa, Sheetu; Katare, Om Prakash

    2013-02-28

    Lecithin organogels (LOs) are semi-solid systems with immobilized organic liquid phase in 3-D network of self-assembled gelators. This paper attempts to study the various attributes of LOs, starting from selection of materials, optimization of influential components to LO specific characterization. After screening of various components (type of gelators, organic and aqueous phase) and construction of phase diagrams, a D-optimal mixture design was employed for the systematic optimization of the LO composition. The response surface plots were constructed for various response variables, viz. viscosity, gel strength, spreadability and consistency index. The optimized LO composition was searched employing overlay plots. Subsequent validation of the optimization study employing check-point formulations, located using grid search, indicated high degree of prognostic ability of the experimental design. The optimized formulation was characterized for morphology, drug content, rheology, spreadability, pH, phase transition temperatures, and physical and chemical stability. The outcomes of the study were interesting showing high dependence of LO attributes on the type and amount of phospholipid, Poloxamer™, auxillary gelators and organic solvent. The optimized LO was found to be quite stable, easily applicable and biocompatible. The findings of the study can be utilized for the development of LO systems of other drugs for the safer and effective topical delivery. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational methods for 2D materials: discovery, property characterization, and application design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J T; Singh, A K; Dong, Z; Zhuang, H; Revard, B C; Rijal, B; Ashton, M; Linscheid, A; Blonsky, M; Gluhovic, D; Guo, J; Hennig, R G

    2017-11-29

    The discovery of two-dimensional (2D) materials comes at a time when computational methods are mature and can predict novel 2D materials, characterize their properties, and guide the design of 2D materials for applications. This article reviews the recent progress in computational approaches for 2D materials research. We discuss the computational techniques and provide an overview of the ongoing research in the field. We begin with an overview of known 2D materials, common computational methods, and available cyber infrastructures. We then move onto the discovery of novel 2D materials, discussing the stability criteria for 2D materials, computational methods for structure prediction, and interactions of monolayers with electrochemical and gaseous environments. Next, we describe the computational characterization of the 2D materials' electronic, optical, magnetic, and superconducting properties and the response of the properties under applied mechanical strain and electrical fields. From there, we move on to discuss the structure and properties of defects in 2D materials, and describe methods for 2D materials device simulations. We conclude by providing an outlook on the needs and challenges for future developments in the field of computational research for 2D materials.

  2. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qian; Gang, Grace J; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Thawait, Gaurav; Demehri, Shadpour; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies. (paper)

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of the novel, regular mesoporous materials MCM-41 and MCM-48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R

    1995-07-01

    In the application of zeolites to catalytic cracking of heavy oil fractions the need of regular solids with large pore sizes has become very obvious. The scope of this thesis was to synthesize and characterize the novel mesoporous materials MCM-41 and MCM-48 with the major emphasis laid on MCM-41. MCM-41 materials with bulk Si/Al ratios of 4, 9, 18 and {infinity} were synthesized and characterized by XRD and HREM. The catalytic cracking behaviour of Al-containing MCM-41 materials was investigated by pulse reactor studies using decalin as model feed and by Micro Activity Tests using atmospheric residue or n-hexadecane as feed. Aluminium containing MCM-41 was found to be active for the cracking of heavy oil fractions. Purely siliceous MCM-41 materials with pore sizes ranging from 18 Aa to 40 Aa were synthesized and their properties studied by means of NMR spectroscopy. The MCM-48, which is a cubic member of the M41S family with a three dimensional pore system, was studied by means of a combination of X-ray powder diffraction and HREM technique. 210 refs., 76 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Characterization of 3D joint space morphology using an electrostatic model (with application to osteoarthritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Thawait, Gaurav; Gang, Grace J.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Reigel, Thomas; Brown, Tyler; Corner, Brian; Demehri, Shadpour; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-02-01

    Joint space morphology can be indicative of the risk, presence, progression, and/or treatment response of disease or trauma. We describe a novel methodology of characterizing joint space morphology in high-resolution 3D images (e.g. cone-beam CT (CBCT)) using a model based on elementary electrostatics that overcomes a variety of basic limitations of existing 2D and 3D methods. The method models each surface of a joint as a conductor at fixed electrostatic potential and characterizes the intra-articular space in terms of the electric field lines resulting from the solution of Gauss’ Law and the Laplace equation. As a test case, the method was applied to discrimination of healthy and osteoarthritic subjects (N = 39) in 3D images of the knee acquired on an extremity CBCT system. The method demonstrated improved diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC > 0.98) compared to simpler methods of quantitative measurement and qualitative image-based assessment by three expert musculoskeletal radiologists (AUC = 0.87, p-value = 0.007). The method is applicable to simple (e.g. the knee or elbow) or multi-axial joints (e.g. the wrist or ankle) and may provide a useful means of quantitatively assessing a variety of joint pathologies.

  5. Electrochemical and AFM Characterization of G-Quadruplex Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences are able to form G-quadruplexes, being involved in important biological processes and representing smart self-assembling nanomaterials that are increasingly used in DNA nanotechnology and biosensor technology. G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors have received particular attention, since the electrochemical response is particularly sensitive to the DNA structural changes from single-stranded, double-stranded, or hairpin into a G-quadruplex configuration. Furthermore, the development of an increased number of G-quadruplex aptamers that combine the G-quadruplex stiffness and self-assembling versatility with the aptamer high specificity of binding to a variety of molecular targets allowed the construction of biosensors with increased selectivity and sensitivity. This review discusses the recent advances on the electrochemical characterization, design, and applications of G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors in the evaluation of metal ions, G-quadruplex ligands, and other small organic molecules, proteins, and cells. The electrochemical and atomic force microscopy characterization of G-quadruplexes is presented. The incubation time and cations concentration dependence in controlling the G-quadruplex folding, stability, and nanostructures formation at carbon electrodes are discussed. Different G-quadruplex electrochemical biosensors design strategies, based on the DNA folding into a G-quadruplex, the use of G-quadruplex aptamers, or the use of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes, are revisited. PMID:29666699

  6. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an In Silico Cell Physiology lab for Bio Sensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A ul; Rokkam, M; De Carlo, A R; Wereley, S T; Wells, H W; McLamb, W T; Roux, S J; Irazoqui, P P; Porterfield, D M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of an In Silico cell physiology biochip for measuring Ca 2+ ion concentrations and currents around single cells. This device has been designed around specific science objectives of measuring real time multidimensional calcium flux patterns around sixteen Ceratopteris richardii fern spores in microgravity flight experiments and ground studies. The sixteen microfluidic cell holding pores are 150 by 150 μm each and have 4 Ag/AgCl electrodes leading into them. An SU-8 structural layer is used for insulation and packaging purposes. The In Silico cell physiology lab is wire bonded on to a custom PCB for easy interface with a state of the art data acquisition system. The electrodes are coated with a Ca 2+ ion selective membrane based on ETH-5234 ionophore and operated against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Initial characterization results have shown Nernst slopes of 30mv/decade that were stable over a number of measurement cycles. While this work is focused on technology to enable basic research on the Ceratopteris richardii spores, we anticipate that this type of cell physiology lab-on-a-chip will be broadly applied in biomedical and pharmacological research by making minor modifications to the electrode material and the measurement technique. Future applications include detection of glucose, hormones such as plant auxin, as well as multiple analyte detection on the same chip

  7. Fabrication, Characterization, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional BiFeO3 Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dimensional BiFeO3 nanostructures (e.g., nanocrystals, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoislands have received considerable attention due to their novel size-dependent properties and outstanding multiferroic properties at room temperature. In recent years, much progress has been made both in fabrications and (microstructural, electrical, and magnetic in characterizations of BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures. An overview of the state of art in BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures is presented. First, we review the fabrications of high-quality BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures via a variety of techniques, and then the structural characterizations and physical properties of the BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures are summarized. Their potential applications in the next-generation magnetoelectric random access memories and photovoltaic devices are also discussed. Finally, we conclude this review by providing our perspectives to the future researches of BiFeO3 low-dimensional nanostructures and some key problems are also outlined.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of FeMnO3 microspheres as potential material for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Ramachandran, S. P.; Ravi, G.; Ganesh, V.; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, uniform iron manganese trioxide (FeMnO3) microspheres were characterized as electrode for supercapacitor applications. The microspheres were synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of different molar ratios of sucrose. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the obtained microsphere has body-centered lattice structure of space group 1213(199). The Raman peak observed at 640 cm-1 might be attributed to the stretching mode of vibration of Mn-O bonds perpendicular to the direction of MnO6 octahedral double chains. The photoluminescence peak at the 536 nm corresponded to Fe2+ ions in FeMnO3 lattice point of body-centered cubic structure. The characteristic strong infrared (IR) bands observed at 669 cm-1 corresponded to Fe-O stretching. The electrochemical characterization of the obtained FeMnO3 products could be understood by carrying out cyclic voltammeter, electroimpedance spectra, and galvanostatic charging and discharge studies in a three-cell setup that demonstrates the exceptional specific capacitance of 773.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and 763.4 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1.

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy in Characterizing Cell Mechanics for Biomedical Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Dang, Dan; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-09-01

    Cell mechanics is a novel label-free biomarker for indicating cell states and pathological changes. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a powerful tool for quantifying the mechanical properties of single living cells in aqueous conditions. The wide use of AFM in characterizing cell mechanics in the past two decades has yielded remarkable novel insights in understanding the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer, showing the huge potential of cell mechanics for practical applications in the field of biomedicine. In this paper, we reviewed the utilization of AFM to characterize cell mechanics. First, the principle and method of AFM single-cell mechanical analysis was presented, along with the mechanical responses of cells to representative external stimuli measured by AFM. Next, the unique changes of cell mechanics in two types of physiological processes (stem cell differentiation, cancer metastasis) revealed by AFM were summarized. After that, the molecular mechanisms guiding cell mechanics were analyzed. Finally the challenges and future directions were discussed.

  10. Development of new materials from waste electrical and electronic equipment: Characterization and catalytic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, J P; Freitas, P E; Almeida, L D; Rosmaninho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) represent an important environmental problem, since its composition includes heavy metals and organic compounds used as flame-retardants. Thermal treatments have been considered efficient processes on removal of these compounds, producing carbonaceous structures, which, together with the ceramic components of the WEEE (i.e. silica and alumina), works as support material for the metals. This mixture, associated with the metals present in WEEE, represents promising systems with potential for catalytic application. In this work, WEEE was thermally modified to generate materials that were extensively characterized. Raman spectrum for WEEE after thermal treatment showed two carbon associated bands. SEM images showed a metal nanoparticles distribution over a polymeric and ceramic support. After characterization, WEEE materials were applied in ethanol steam reforming reaction. The system obtained at higher temperature (800°C) exhibited the best activity, since it leads to high conversions (85%), hydrogen yield (30%) and H 2 /CO ratio (3,6) at 750°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950 0 C (1562 to 1742 0 F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required

  12. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J; Caliste, D; Fernandez, B; Eon, D; Härtwig, J; Barbay, C; Mer-Calfati, C; Tranchant, N; Arnault, J C; Lafford, T A; Baruchel, J

    2017-04-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc. ) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of chitosan-PVP-nanocellulose composites for in-vitro wound dressing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, R; Basha, S Khaleel; Kumari, V Sugantha

    2017-12-01

    Biocompatible Chitosan/Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone)/Nanocellulose (CPN) composites were successfully prepared by solution casting method. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectra. TEM images revealed the average particle size of the nanocellulose is 6.1nm. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the composites was decreased with increasing concentration of nanocellulose. The CPN composites were characterized for physical properties like Thickness, Barrier properties and mechanical testing. Water vapor and oxygen permeability evaluations indicated that CPN composite could maintain a moist environment over wound bed. The nanocomposite showed enhanced swelling, blood compatibility and antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity of the composite has been analyzed in normal mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The results have shown the CPN3% composite shows a high level of antibacterial property when compared to the other composites. The biological study suggests that CPN3% composite may be a potential candidate as a wound healing material for biomedical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyethyleneimine-modified superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for lipase immobilization: Characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoobi, Mehdi; Motevalizadeh, Seyed Farshad; Asadgol, Zahra; Forootanfar, Hamid; Shafiee, Abbas; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically separable nanospheres consisting of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and succinated PEI grafted on silica coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) were prepared and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were then applied for physical adsorption or covalent attachment of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase (TLL) via glutaraldehyde or hexamethylene diisocyanate. The reusability, storage, pH and thermal stabilities of the immobilized enzymes compared to that of free lipase were examined. The obtained results showed that the immobilized lipase on MNPs@PEI-GLU was the best biocatalyst which retained 80% of its initial activity after 12 cycles of application. The immobilized lipase on the selected support (MNPs@PEI-GLU) was also applied for the synthesis of ethyl valerate. Following 24 h incubation of the immobilized lipase on the selected support in n-hexane and solvent free media, the esterification percentages were 72.9% and 28.9%, respectively. - Graphical abstract: A schematic of the preparation of PEI- and succinated PEI-grafted Fe 3 O 4 MNPs (MNPs@PEI) and the immobilization of lipase by covalent bonding and adsorption. - Highlights: • Functionalized polyethylenimine-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized. • The prepared supports were fully characterized by various analysis methods. • Lipase was immobilized on the nanostructures by adsorption and covalent attachment. • Immobilized lipase produced ethyl valerate in solvent free medium

  15. Growth and Characterization of III-V Semiconductors for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    The research goal was to achieve a fundamental understanding of the physical processes occurring at the surfaces and interfaces of epitaxially grown InGaAs/GaAs (100) heterostructures. This will facilitate the development of quantum well devices for infrared optical applications and provide quantitative descriptions of key phenomena which impact their performance. Devices impacted include high-speed laser diodes and modulators for fiber optic communications at 1.55 micron wavelengths and intersub-band lasers for longer infrared wavelengths. The phenomenon of interest studied was the migration of indium in InGaAs structures. This work centered on the molecular beam epitaxy reactor and characterization apparatus donated to CAU by AT&T Bell Laboratories. The material characterization tool employed was secondary ion mass spectrometry. The training of graduate and undergraduate students was an integral part of this program. The graduate students received a thorough exposure to state-of-the-art techniques and equipment for semiconductor materials analysis as part of the Master''s degree requirement in physics. The undergraduates were exposed to a minority scientist who has an excellent track record in this area. They also had the opportunity to explore surface physics as a career option. The results of the scientific work was published in a refereed journal and several talks were presented professional conferences and academic seminars.

  16. Novel Application of Micro-Computerized Tomography for Morphologic Characterization of the Murine Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Marisol; Huang, Gene O; Lamb, Dolores J

    2017-12-01

    The murine penis model has enriched our understanding of anomalous penile development. The morphologic characterization of the murine penis using conventional serial sectioning methods is labor intensive and prone to errors. To develop a novel application of micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) with iodine staining for rapid, non-destructive morphologic study of murine penis structure. Penises were dissected from 10 adult wild-type mice and imaged using micro-CT with iodine staining. Images were acquired at 5-μm spatial resolution on a Bruker SkyScan 1272 micro-CT system. After images were acquired, the specimens were washed of any remaining iodine and embedded in paraffin for conventional histologic examination. Histologic and micro-CT measurements for all specimens were made by 2 independent observers. Measurements of penile structures were made on virtual micro-CT sections and histologic slides. The Lin concordance correlation coefficient demonstrated almost perfect strength of agreement for interobserver variability for histologic section (0.9995, 95% CI = 0.9990-0.9997) and micro-CT section (0.9982, 95% CI = 0.9963-0.9991) measurements. Bland-Altman analysis for agreement between the 2 modalities of measurement demonstrated mean differences of -0.029, 0.022, and -0.068 mm for male urogenital mating protuberance, baculum, and penile glans length, respectively. There did not appear to be a bias for overestimation or underestimation of measured lengths and limits of agreement were narrow. The enhanced ability offered by micro-CT to phenotype the murine penis has the potential to improve translational studies examining the molecular pathways contributing to anomalous penile development. The present study describes the first reported use of micro-CT with iodine staining for imaging the murine penis. Producing repeated histologic sections of identical orientation was limited by inherent imperfections in mounting and tissue sectioning, but this was

  17. Application of artificial intelligence to characterize naturally fractured zones in Hassi Messaoud Oil Field, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouahed, Abdelkader Kouider; Mazouzi, Amine [Sonatrach, Rue Djenane Malik, Hydra, Algiers (Algeria); Tiab, Djebbar [Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd Street, SEC T310, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    In highly heterogeneous reservoirs classical characterization methods often fail to detect the location and orientation of the fractures. Recent applications of Artificial Intelligence to the area of reservoir characterization have made this challenge a possible practice. Such a practice consists of seeking the complex relationship between the fracture index and some geological and geomechanical drivers (facies, porosity, permeability, bed thickness, proximity to faults, slopes and curvatures of the structure) in order to obtain a fracture intensity map using Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network. This paper shows the successful application of Artificial Intelligence tools such as Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. A 2D fracture intensity map and fracture network map in a large block of Hassi Messaoud field have been developed using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic. This was achieved by first building the geological model of the permeability, porosity and shale volume using stochastic conditional simulation. Then by applying some geomechanical concepts first and second structure directional derivatives, distance to the nearest fault, and bed thickness were calculated throughout the entire area of interest. Two methods were then used to select the appropriate fracture intensity index. In the first method well performance was used as a fracture index. In the second method a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was built. Using this FIS, static and dynamic data were coupled to reduce the uncertainty, which resulted in a more reliable Fracture Index. The different geological and geomechanical drivers were ranked with the corresponding fracture index for both methods using a Fuzzy Ranking algorithm. Only important and measurable data were selected to be mapped with the appropriate fracture index using a feed forward Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). The neural network was then used to obtain a fracture intensity

  18. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of a 3D Positive ion detector and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Pitchaikannu; Sureka, Chandrasekaran Senbagavadivoo

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing interest to experimentally evaluate the track structure induced by ionizing particles in order to characterize the radiobiological quality of ionizing radiation for applications in radiotherapy and radiation protection. To do so, a novel positive ion detector based on the multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) technology has been proposed previously, which works under the principle of ion induced impact ionization. Based on this, an upgraded 3D positive ion detector was fabricated in order to improve its efficiency and use it for various applications. To improve the efficiency of the detector, cathodes with different insulators (Bakelite plate and Steatite Ceramics) and conducting layers (ITO, FTO, and Gold coated cathode) were studied under various gaseous media (methane, nitrogen, and air) using Am-241, Co-60, Co-57, Na-22, Cs-137, and Ba-133 sources. From this study, it is confirmed that the novel 3D positive ion detector that has been upgraded using gold as strip material, tungsten (87%) coated copper (13%) as the core wire, gold coated ceramic as cathode, and thickness of 3.483 mm showed 9.2% efficiency under methane medium at 0.9 Torr pressure using an Am-241 source. It is also confirmed that when the conductivity of the cathode and thickness of the detector is increased, the performance of the detector is improved significantly. Further, the scope of the detector to use in the field of radiation protection, radiation dosimetry, gamma spectrometry, radiation biology, and oncology are reported here.

  20. Preliminary characterization of a single photon counting detection system for CT application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Carpentieri, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Delogu, P.; Panetta, D.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the capability of a single photon counting acquisition system based on the Medipix2 read-out chip for Computed Tomography (CT) applications in Small Animal Imaging. We used a micro-focus X-ray source with a W anode. The detection system is based on the Medipix2 read-out chip, bump-bonded to a 1 mm thick silicon pixel detector. The read-out chip geometry is a matrix of 256x256 cells, 55 μmx55 μm each. This system in planar radiography shows a good detection efficiency (about 70%) at the anode voltage of 30 kV and a good spatial resolution (MTF=10% at 16.8 lp/mm). Starting from these planar performances we have characterized the system for the tomography applications with phantoms. We will present the results obtained as a function of magnification with two different background medium compositions. The effect of the reconstruction algorithm on image quality will be also discussed

  1. Characterization of a new beta titanium alloy, Ti–12Mo–3Nb, for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.B.; Panaino, J.V.P.; Santos, I.D.; Araujo, L.S.; Mei, P.R.; Almeida, L.H. de; Nunes, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper focused on the development of Ti–12Mo–3Nb alloy for it to be used as a bone substitute. ► The alloy show good mechanical properties and exhibit spontaneous passivity. ► The Ti–12Mo–3Nb alloy can be a promising alternative for biomedical application. - Abstract: In recent years, different beta titanium alloys have been developed for biomedical applications with a combination of mechanical properties including a low Young's modulus, high strength, fatigue resistance and good ductility with excellent corrosion resistance. From this perspective, a new metastable beta titanium Ti–12Mo–3Nb alloy was developed with the replacement of both vanadium and aluminum from the traditional Ti–6Al–4V alloy. This paper presents the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the Ti–12Mo–3Nb alloy heat-treated at 950 °C for 1 h. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction and by scanning electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature. Corrosion tests were performed using Ringer's solution at 25 °C. The results showed that this alloy could potentially be used for biomedical purposes due to its good mechanical properties and spontaneous passivation.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Alexander

    Nanomaterials have been of keen research interest, owing to their exciting and unique properties (e.g. optical, magnetic, electronic, and mechanical). These properties allow nanomaterials to have many applications in areas of medicine, alternative energy, catalysis, and information storage. In particular, one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials are highly advantageous, owing to the inherent anisotropic nature, which allows for effective transport and study of properties on the nanoscale. More specifically, 1D metal oxide nanomaterials are of particular interest, owing to their high thermal and chemical stability, as well as their intriguing optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. Herein, we will investigate the synthesis and characterization of vanadium oxide, lithium niobate and chromium oxide. We will explore the methodologies utilized for the synthesis of these materials, as well as the overall properties of these unique nanomaterials. Furthermore, we will explore the application of titanium dioxide nanomaterials as the electron transport layer in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), with an emphasis on the effect of the nanoscale morphology on the overall device efficiency.

  3. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  4. The characterization of HG10MNN and an evaluation of suitability for use in naval applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawxhurst, K.L.; Westerberg, J.M., E-mail: m166918@usna.edu; Woertz, J.C., E-mail: woertz@usna.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • HG10MNN alloy showed good strength, hardness and ductility compared to NAB. • In air, four point bending fatigue tests suggest an endurance limit between 8 and 10 ksi. • As compared to NAB, HG10MNN has excellent casting and corrosion behavior. - Abstract: An initial mechanical evaluation and standard material characterization were conducted for the stainless steel alloy HG10MNN in order to evaluate its use in naval and marine applications. HG10MNN is a newly developed stainless steel designed for improved resistance to mechanical and thermal fatigue. This material could eventually replace the Nickel–Aluminum–Bronze (NAB) currently used in many naval propulsion systems, however, additional testing is required to validate the alloy's performance characteristics. Although stainless steels are commonly used in marine applications, there is insufficient HG10MNN documentation to permit its use in naval ship design. This investigation also involved an evaluation of castability and machinability to determine whether the material could be formed into the complex shapes required in a modern naval construction. Initial results showed that the alloy exhibits a fully austenitic microstructure in the as-cast condition, while maintaining acceptable mechanical properties and superior castability as compared to NAB.

  5. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges are widely used for clinical applications, including ophthalmic surgical treatments, wound healing and tissue engineering. There is, however, a lack of sufficient data on the mechanical properties of PVA sponges. In this study, a biomechanical method is used to characterize the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain as well as the swelling ratio of a fabricated PVA sponge (P-sponge) and it is compared with two commercially available PVA sponges (CENEFOM and EYETEC). The results indicate that the elastic modulus of the P-sponge is 5.32% and 13.45% lower than that of the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, while it bears 4.11% more and 10.37% less stress compared to the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, respectively. The P-sponge shows a maximum strain of 32% more than the EYETEC sponge as well as a 26.78% higher swelling ratio, which is a significantly higher absorbency compared to the CENEFOM. It is believed that the results of this study would help for a better understanding of the extension, rupture and swelling mechanism of PVA sponges, which could lead to crucial improvement in the design and application of PVA-based materials in ophthalmic and plastic surgeries as well as wound healing and tissue engineering.

  6. Growth and characterization of ammonium nickel-cobalt sulfate Tutton's salt for UV light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santunu; Oliveira, Michelle; Pacheco, Tiago S.; Perpétuo, Genivaldo J.; Franco, Carlos J.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained a set of sample crystals of the family of Tutton's salt comprise in the isomorphic series with general chemical formula (NH4)2NixCo(1-x) (SO4)2·6H2O, by employing growth from solutions by slow evaporation technique. The samples crystals were characterized by ICP-AES, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. This type of material has been studied because of its physical and chemical properties not yet understood and they have potential technological applications. Chemical analysis of the samples by ICP-AES method allowed us to investigate the efficiency of the method of growth used. Thermogravimetric analysis provides the information about the thermal stability of the obtained crystals for high temperature applications, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis at ambient and high temperature reveals the structural quality and structural change of the samples respectively. We have used Raman spectroscopy in the range 100-4000 cm-1 and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 400-4000 cm-1 to understand the internal vibrational mode of the octahedral complexes [Ni(H2O)6]2+ and [Co(H2O)6]2+, SO42- and NH4+ tetrahedra. The transmittance of our mixed ammonium nickel cobalt sulfate hexahydrate (ACNSH) crystals is 75% in the UV region, which indicates that they are ideal to use in UV light filters and UV sensors.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of joined silicon carbide cylindrical components for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, H. E.; Deck, C. P.; Gutierrez, O.; Jacobsen, G. M.; Back, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    The use of silicon carbide (SiC) composites as structural materials in nuclear applications necessitates the development of a viable joining method. One critical application for nuclear-grade joining is the sealing of fuel within a cylindrical cladding. This paper demonstrates cylindrical joint feasibility using a low activation nuclear-grade joint material comprised entirely of β-SiC. While many papers have considered joining material, this paper takes into consideration the joint geometry and component form factor, as well as the material performance. Work focused specifically on characterizing the strength and permeability performance of joints between cylindrical SiC-SiC composites and monolithic SiC endplugs. The effects of environment and neutron irradiation were not evaluated in this study. Joint test specimens of different geometries were evaluated in their as-fabricated state, as well as after being subjected to thermal cycling and partial mechanical loading. A butted scarf geometry supplied the best combination of high strength and low permeability. A leak rate performance of 2 × 10-9 mbar l s-1 was maintained after thermal cycling and partial mechanical loading and sustained applied force of 3.4 kN, or an apparent strength of 77 MPa. This work shows that a cylindrical SiC-SiC composite tube sealed with a butted scarf endplug provides out-of-pile strength and permeability performance that meets light water reactor design requirements.

  8. Boron-doped diamond electrode: synthesis, characterization, functionalization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, conductive diamond electrodes for electrochemical applications have been a major focus of research and development. The impetus behind such endeavors could be attributed to their wide potential window, low background current, chemical inertness, and mechanical durability. Several analytes can be oxidized by conducting diamond compared to other carbon-based materials before the breakdown of water in aqueous electrolytes. This is important for detecting and/or identifying species in solution since oxygen and hydrogen evolution do not interfere with the analysis. Thus, conductive diamond electrodes take electrochemical detection into new areas and extend their usefulness to analytes which are not feasible with conventional electrode materials. Different types of diamond electrodes, polycrystalline, microcrystalline, nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline, have been synthesized and characterized. Of particular interest is the synthesis of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films by chemical vapor deposition on various substrates. In the tetrahedral diamond lattice, each carbon atom is covalently bonded to its neighbors forming an extremely robust crystalline structure. Some carbon atoms in the lattice are substituted with boron to provide electrical conductivity. Modification strategies of doped diamond electrodes with metallic nanoparticles and/or electropolymerized films are of importance to impart novel characteristics or to improve the performance of diamond electrodes. Biofunctionalization of diamond films is also feasible to foster several useful bioanalytical applications. A plethora of opportunities for nanoscale analytical devices based on conducting diamond is anticipated in the very near future.

  9. Radio Characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks for Judo Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peio Lopez-Iturri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the characterization of the radio channel for ISM 2.4GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs for judo applications is presented. The environments where judo activity is held are usually complex indoor scenarios in terms of radiopropagation due to their morphology, the presence of humans and the electromagnetic interference generated by personal portable devices, wireless microphones and other wireless systems used by the media. For the assessment of the impact that the topology and the morphology of these environments have on electromagnetic propagation, an in-house developed 3D ray-launching software has been used in this study. Time domain results as well as estimations of received power level have been obtained for the complete volume of a training venue of a local judo club’s facilities with a contest area with the dimensions specified by the International Judo Federation (IJF for international competitions. The obtained simulation results have been compared with measurements, which have been carried out deploying ZigBee-compliant XBee Pro modules at presented scenario, using approved Judogis (jacket, trousers and belt. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an in-house human body computational model. Such analysis has allowed the design and development of an in house application devoted to monitor the practice of judo, in order to aid referee activities, training routines and to enhance spectator experience.

  10. Pectin methylesterase of Datura species, purification, and characterization from Datura stramonium and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Pandey, Bindu; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Verma, Praveen Chandra

    2013-10-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) involved in de-esterification of pectin and have applicability in food, textiles, wines, pulp, and paper industries. In the present study, we compared PME activity of different parts of 3 Datura species and found that fruit coat showed maximum PME activity followed by leaf and seed. PME from leaves of D. stramonium (DsPME) was purified and characterized. DsPME showed optimum activity at 60 °C and pH 9 in the presence of 0.3 M NaCl. DsPME was stable at 70 °C and retained more than 40% activity after 60 min of incubation. However, enzyme activity completely abolished at 80 after 5 min of incubation. It follows Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Km and Vmax with citrus pectin were 0.008 mg/ml and 16.96 µmol/min, respectively. DsPME in combination with polygalactourenase (PGA) increased the clarity of orange, apple, pomegranate and pineapple juices by 2.9, 2.6, 2.3, and 3.6 fold, respectively in comparison to PGA alone. Due to very high de-esterification activity, easy denaturation and significant efficacy in incrementing clarification of fruit juice makes DsPME useful for industrial application.

  11. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  12. Photo-physical characterization of fluorophore Ru(bpy32+ for optical biosensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Sciuto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied absorption, emission and lifetime of the coordination compound tris(2,2′-bipyridylruthenium(II fluorophore (Ru(bpy32+ both dissolved in water solutions and dried. Lifetime measurements were carried out using a new detector, the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM, which is more sensitive and physically much smaller than conventional optical detectors, such as imager and scanner. Through these analyses and a morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy, revealed its usability for sensor applications, in particular, as dye in optical DNA-chip technology, a viable alternative to the conventional CY5 fluorophore. The use of Ru(bpy32+ would solve some of the typical disadvantages related to Cy5’s application, such as self-absorption of fluorescence and photobleaching. In addition, the Ru(bpy32+ longer lifetime may play a key role in the definition of new optical DNA-chip. Keywords: Tris(2,2′-bipyridylruthenium(II, Fluorophore, Spectroscopy, Lifetime measurements, SiPM, TEM

  13. The characterization of HG10MNN and an evaluation of suitability for use in naval applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawxhurst, K.L.; Westerberg, J.M.; Woertz, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HG10MNN alloy showed good strength, hardness and ductility compared to NAB. • In air, four point bending fatigue tests suggest an endurance limit between 8 and 10 ksi. • As compared to NAB, HG10MNN has excellent casting and corrosion behavior. - Abstract: An initial mechanical evaluation and standard material characterization were conducted for the stainless steel alloy HG10MNN in order to evaluate its use in naval and marine applications. HG10MNN is a newly developed stainless steel designed for improved resistance to mechanical and thermal fatigue. This material could eventually replace the Nickel–Aluminum–Bronze (NAB) currently used in many naval propulsion systems, however, additional testing is required to validate the alloy's performance characteristics. Although stainless steels are commonly used in marine applications, there is insufficient HG10MNN documentation to permit its use in naval ship design. This investigation also involved an evaluation of castability and machinability to determine whether the material could be formed into the complex shapes required in a modern naval construction. Initial results showed that the alloy exhibits a fully austenitic microstructure in the as-cast condition, while maintaining acceptable mechanical properties and superior castability as compared to NAB.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of electro-explosive magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakina, O. V.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Korovin, M. S.; Fomenko, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays there are new magnetic nanostructures based on bioactive metals with low toxicity and high efficiency for a wide range of biomedical applications including drugs delivery, antimicrobial drugs design, cells' separation and contrasting. For such applications it is necessary to develop highly magnetic particles with less than 100 nm in size. In the present study magnetic nanoparticles Fe, Fe3O4 and bimetallic Cu/Fe with the average size of 60-90 nm have been synthesized by electrical explosion of wire in an oxygen or argon atmosphere. The produced nanoparticles have been characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray phase analysis, and nitrogen thermal desorption. The synthesized particles have shown antibacterial activity to gram-positive (S. aureus, MRSA) and gramnegative (E. coli, P. aeruginosa) bacteria. According to the cytological data Fe, Fe3O4 and Cu/Fe nanoparticles have effectively inhibited viability of cancer cell lines Neuro-2a and J774. The obtained nanoparticles are promising for new antimicrobial drugs and antitumor agents' development.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites and its water treatment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yijie; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Ming; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Hongjun

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology for water disinfection application gains increasing attention. Diatomite is one kind of safe natural material, which has been widely used as absorbent, filtration agents, mineral fillers, especially in water treatment industry. Nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites were developed in this publication with a facile, effective in-situ reduction method. The as-prepared nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites demonstrated amazing antibacterial properties to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The corresponding property has been characterized by UV-vis absorbance, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the detailed bacteria killing experiments further displayed that 0.5 g of the nanosilver diatomite could kill >99.999% of E. Coli within half an hour time. And the silver leaching test demonstrated that the concentrations of silver in the filtered water under varies pH environment were below the limit for silver level of WHO standard. Considering the low price of natural diatomite, it is believed that the nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites have potential application in water purification industry due to its excellent antimicrobial property.

  16. [Micro-droplet characterization and its application for amino acid detection in droplet microfluidic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huiling; Dong, Libing; Tu, Ran; Du, Wenbin; Ji, Shiru; Wang, Qinhong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the droplet microfluidic system attracts interests due to its high throughput and low cost to detect and screen. The picoliter micro-droplets from droplet microfluidics are uniform with respect to the size and shape, and could be used as monodispensed micro-reactors for encapsulation and detection of single cell or its metabolites. Therefore, it is indispensable to characterize micro-droplet and its application from droplet microfluidic system. We first constructed the custom-designed droplet microfluidic system for generating micro-droplets, and then used the micro-droplets to encapsulate important amino acids such as glutamic acid, phenylalanine, tryptophan or tyrosine to test the droplets' properties, including the stability, diffusivity and bio-compatibility for investigating its application for amino acid detection and sorting. The custom-designed droplet microfluidic system could generate the uniformed micro-droplets with a controllable size between 20 to 50 microm. The micro-droplets could be stable for more than 20 h without cross-contamination or fusion each other. The throughput of detection and sorting of the system is about 600 micro-droplets per minute. This study provides a high-throughput platform for the analysis and screening of amino acid-producing microorganisms.

  17. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  18. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin loaded PLA-Hyperbranched polyglycerol electrospun blend for wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Govindaraj; Pappuru, Sreenath; Chakraborty, Debashis; Maya Nandkumar, A; Chand, Dillip Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed to develop curcumin (Cur) incorporated electrospun nanofibers of a blend of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) for wound healing applications. Both the polymers are synthesized and fabricated by electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Electrospun scaffolds (PLA/HPG/Cur) exhibits very high hydrophilicity, high swelling and drug uptake and promotes better cell viability, adhesion and proliferation when compared to PLA/Cur electrospun nanofibers. Biodegradation study revealed that the morphology of the nanofibers were unaffected even after 14days immersion in Phosphate Buffered Saline. In vitro scratch assay indicates that migration of the cells in the scratch treated with PLA/HPG/Cur is complete within 36h. These results suggest that PLA/HPG/Cur nanofibers can be a potential wound patch dressing for acute and chronic wound applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spin and Optical Characterization of Defects in Group IV Semiconductors for Quantum Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brendon Charles

    This thesis is focused on the characterization of highly coherent defects in both silicon and diamond, particularly in the context of quantum memory applications. The results are organized into three parts based on the spin system: phosphorus donor electron spins in silicon, negatively charged nitrogen vacancy color centers in diamond (NV-), and neutrally charged silicon vacancy color centers in diamond (SiV0). The first part on phosphorus donor electron spins presents the first realization of strong coupling with spins in silicon. To achieve this, the silicon crystal was made highly pure and highly isotopically enriched so that the ensemble dephasing time, T2*, was long (10 micros). Additionally, the use of a 3D resonator aided in realizing uniform coupling, allowing for high fidelity spin ensemble manipulation. These two properties have eluded past implementations of strongly coupled spin ensembles and have been the limiting factor in storing and retrieving quantum information. Second, we characterize the spin properties of the NV- color center in diamond in a large magnetic field. We observe that the electron spin echo envelope modulation originating from the central 14N nuclear spin is much stronger at large fields and that the optically induced spin polarization exhibits a strong orientation dependence that cannot be explained by the existing model for the NV- optical cycle, we develop a modification of the existing model that reproduces the data in a large magnetic field. In the third part we perform characterization and stabilization of a new color center in diamond, SiV0, and find that it has attractive, highly sought-after properties for use as a quantum memory in a quantum repeater scheme. We demonstrate a new approach to the rational design of new color centers by engineering the Fermi level of the host material. The spin properties were characterized in electron spin resonance, revealing long spin relaxation and spin coherence times at cryogenic

  20. Characterization of diffraction gratings scattering in uv and ir for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sakina; Kuperman-Le Bihan, Quentin; Etcheto, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    The use of Bidirectional Scatter Distribution Function (BSDF) in space industry and especially when designing telescopes is a key feature. Indeed when speaking about space industry, one can immediately think about stray light issues. Those important phenomena are directly linked to light scattering. Standard BSDF measurement goniophotometers often have a resolution of about 0.1° and are mainly working in or close to the visible spectrum. This resolution is far too loose to characterize ultra-polished surfaces. Besides, wavelength range of BSDF measurements for space projects needs to be done far from visible range. How can we measure BSDF of ultra-polished surfaces and diffraction gratings in the UV and IR range with high resolution? We worked on developing a new goniophometer bench in order to be able to characterize scattering of ultra-polished surfaces and diffraction gratings used in everyday space applications. This ten meters long bench was developed using a collimated beam approach as opposed to goniophotometer using focused beam. Sources used for IR characterization were CO2 (10.6?m) and Helium Neon (3.39?m) lasers. Regarding UV sources, a collimated and spatially filtered UV LED was used. The detection was ensure by a photomultiplier coupled with synchronous detection as well as a MCT InSb detector. The so-built BSDF measurement instrument allowed us to measure BSDF of ultra-polished surfaces as well as diffraction gratings with an angular resolution of 0.02° and a dynamic of 1013 in the visible range. In IR as well as in UV we manage to get 109 with same angular resolution of 0.02°. The 1m arm and translation stages allows us to measure samples up to 200mm. Thanks to such a device allowing ultra-polished materials as well as diffraction gratings scattering characterization, it is possible to implement those BSDF measurements into simulation software and predict stray light issues. This is a big help for space industry engineers to apprehend stray light

  1. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  2. Characterization, Modeling and Application of Aerobic Granular Sludge for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    Recently extensive studies have been carried out to cultivate aerobic granular sludge worldwide, including in China. Aerobic granules, compared with conventional activated sludge flocs, are well known for their regular, dense, and strong microbial structure, good settling ability, high biomass retention, and great ability to withstand shock loadings. Studies have shown that the aerobic granules could be applied for the treatment of low- or high-strength wastewaters, simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and decomposition of toxic wastewaters. Thus, this new form of activate sludge, like anaerobic granular sludge, could be employed for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters in near future. This chapter attempts to provide an up-to-date review on the definition, cultivation, characterization, modeling and application of aerobic granular sludge for biological wastewater treatment. This review outlines some important discoveries with regard to the factors affecting the formation of aerobic granular sludge, their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their microbial structure and diversity. It also summarizes the modeling of aerobic granule formation. Finally, this chapter highlights the applications of aerobic granulation technology in the biological wastewater treatment. It is concluded that the knowledge regarding aerobic granular sludge is far from complete. Although previous studies in this field have undoubtedly improved our understanding on aerobic granular sludge, it is clear that much remains to be learned about the process and that many unanswered questions still remain. One of the challenges appears to be the integration of the existing and growing scientific knowledge base with the observations and applications in practice, which this paper hopes to partially achieve.

  3. Thermomechanical characterization of joints for blanket and divertor application processed by electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Wolfgang; Lorenz, Julia; Konys, Jürgen; Basuki, Widodo; Aktaa, Jarir

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electroplating is a relevant technology for brazing of blanket and divertor parts. • Tungsten, Eurofer and steel joints successfully fabricated. • Reactive interlayers improve adherence and reduce failure risks. • Qualification of joints performed by thermo-mechanical testing and aging. • Shear strength of joints comparable with conventionally brazing of steels. - Abstract: Fusion technology requires in the fields of first wall and divertor development reliable and adjusted joining processes of plasma facing tungsten to heat sinks or blanket structures. The components to be bonded will be fabricated from tungsten, steel or other alloys like copper. The parts have to be joined under functional and structural aspects considering the metallurgical interactions of alloys to be assembled and the filler materials. Application of conventional brazing showed lacks ranging from bad wetting of tungsten up to embrittlement of fillers and brazing zones. Thus, the deposition of reactive interlayers and filler components, e.g. Ni, Pd or Cu was initiated to overcome these metallurgical restrictions and to fabricate joints with aligned mechanical behavior. This paper presents results concerning the joining of tungsten, Eurofer and stainless steel for blanket and divertor application by applying electroplating technology. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization by shear testing were performed to analyze the joints quality and application limits in dependence on testing temperature between room temperature and 873 K and after thermal aging of up to 2000 h. The tested interlayers Ni and Pd enhanced wetting and enabled the processing of reliable joints with a shear strength of more than 200 MPa at RT.

  4. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie

    2017-12-13

    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  5. Meta-analysis methods for combining multiple expression profiles: comparisons, statistical characterization and an application guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lun-Ching; Lin, Hui-Min; Sibille, Etienne; Tseng, George C

    2013-12-21

    As high-throughput genomic technologies become accurate and affordable, an increasing number of data sets have been accumulated in the public domain and genomic information integration and meta-analysis have become routine in biomedical research. In this paper, we focus on microarray meta-analysis, where multiple microarray studies with relevant biological hypotheses are combined in order to improve candidate marker detection. Many methods have been developed and applied in the literature, but their performance and properties have only been minimally investigated. There is currently no clear conclusion or guideline as to the proper choice of a meta-analysis method given an application; the decision essentially requires both statistical and biological considerations. We performed 12 microarray meta-analysis methods for combining multiple simulated expression profiles, and such methods can be categorized for different hypothesis setting purposes: (1) HS(A): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in all studies, (2) HS(B): DE genes with non-zero effect sizes in one or more studies and (3) HS(r): DE gene with non-zero effect in "majority" of studies. We then performed a comprehensive comparative analysis through six large-scale real applications using four quantitative statistical evaluation criteria: detection capability, biological association, stability and robustness. We elucidated hypothesis settings behind the methods and further apply multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and an entropy measure to characterize the meta-analysis methods and data structure, respectively. The aggregated results from the simulation study categorized the 12 methods into three hypothesis settings (HS(A), HS(B), and HS(r)). Evaluation in real data and results from MDS and entropy analyses provided an insightful and practical guideline to the choice of the most suitable method in a given application. All source files for simulation and real data are available on the author's publication website.

  6. A complete characterization of the (m,n-cubes and combinatorial applications in imaging, vision and discrete geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Khoshnoudirad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to provide a complete characterization of a (m,n-cube. The latter are the pieces of discrete planes appearing in Theoretical Computer Science, Discrete Geometry and Combinatorics. This characterization in three dimensions is the exact equivalent of the preimage for a discrete segment as it has been introduced by McIlroy. Further this characterization, which avoids the redundancies, reduces the combinatorial problem of determining the cardinality of the (m,n-cubes to a new combinatorial problem consisting of determining the volumic regions formed by the crossing of planes. This work can find applications in Imaging, Vision, and pattern recognition for instance.

  7. Production and characterization of monodisperse uranium particles for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Environmental sampling is a very effective measure to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Generally, samples are taken as swipe samples on cotton. These swipes contain minute quantities of particulates which have an inherent signature of their production and release scenario. These inspection samples are assessed for their morphology, elemental composition and their isotopic vectors. Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in determining the isotopic ratios of uranium. Method validation and instrument calibration with well-characterized quality control (QC)-materials, reference materials (RMs) and certified reference materials (CRMs) ensures reliable data output. Currently, the availability of suitable well defined microparticles containing uranium and plutonium reference materials is very limited. Primarily, metals, oxides and various uranium and plutonium containing solutions are commercially available. Therefore, the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Services (SGAS) cooperates with the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH in a joint task entitled ''Production of Particle Reference Materials''. The work presented in this thesis has been partially funded by the IAEA, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) through the ''Joint Program on the Technical Development and Further Improvement of IAEA Safeguards between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the IAEA''. The first step towards monodisperse microparticles was the development of pure uranium oxide particles made from certified reference materials. The focus of the dissertation is (1) the implementation of a working setup to produce monodisperse uranium oxide particles and (2) the characterization of these particles towards the application as QC-material. Monodisperse uranium oxide particles were produced by spray pyrolysis. It was demonstrated that the particle size can be

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyglycerols dendrimers for applications in tissue engineering biological

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, E.D.; Queiroz, A.A.A. de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Over the last twenty years is the growing development in the manufacture of synthetic scaffold in tissue engineering applications. These new materials are based on polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD's). PGLD's are highly functional polymers with hydroxymethyl side groups, fulfill all structural prerequisites to replace poly(ethylene glycol)s in medical applications. Furthermore, since these materials are based on naturally occurring compounds that degrades over time in the body and can be safely excreted. The objective of this work was the synthesis, physicochemical, biological characterization of HPGL's with potential use as scaffolds in tissue engineering. HPGL's with oligomeric cores, of diglycerol triglycerol and tetraglycerol was used. Theoretical and Experimental Simulation Details: The synthesis of PGLD procedures involves the etherification of glycerol through anionic polymerization of glycidol. The PGLD's were characterized by chromatographic techniques (SEC and HPLC), spectroscopic (FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C - NMR) electrochemical (zeta potential) and thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) techniques. The structure- activity relationships (SAR's) of compound prototype and its analogs were studied to determine the generation number (G) of the molecule responsible for the biological activity on the adhesion and cell proliferation process. A detailed study of the structure of PGLD's of G=0-4 was performed using the Hyperchem 7. 5 and Gromacs 4 software packages. The biocompatibility studies were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy (EPF) technique after PGLD (G=0-4) blood contact. The overall electro-negativity/total charge density, dipole moment, frontier orbital's (HOMO - LUMO) and electrostatic potential maps (EPM) were calculated. The most stable form of the resulting compounds was determined by estimating the hydration energy and energy conformation. Results and

  9. Synthesis, characterization and application in biomedicine of a novel chondroitin sulfate based hydrogel and bioadhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehin, Iossif

    Clinically, there exists a need for adhesive biomaterials. There is room to improve upon what is currently on the market as it is either too toxic, lacks the required adhesive strength and/or lacks the desired degradation properties. The general goals of this thesis all focused on designing a biomaterial which would improve upon these shortcomings while at the same time allow for modifications to meet the needs for the specific application of interest. To accomplish this task, it was important to choose the appropriate composition and crosslinking chemistry which will allow the most flexibility. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was chosen as the principle component of the hydrogel because it is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in almost all tissues in the body. Many variants of CS exist with each one possessing unique biological activity allowing for tight control over these properties of the material. To modulate cell migration through the adhesive, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or blood was used as the second constituent. The former made the scaffold act as a cell barrier while the ladder could be used in varying concentrations to modulate cell adhesion and migration into the biomaterial. Also, the CS and blood components are both biodegradable and degradation can be controlled using various methods. While the constituents were chosen to allow flexibility in the biological activity and cell migration into the scaffold, the crosslinking chemistry was chosen to allow control over the mechanical properties as well as to increase tissue adhesion. By functionalizing the carboxyl groups of the GAG with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), the resulting chondroitin sulfate succinimidyl succinate (CS-NHS) molecule could react with primary amines on polymers to form a hydrogel as well as the primary amines on proteins comprising tissue to anchor the hydrogel to the tissue. The material has been characterized and optimized for several applications. The applications described here

  10. The Application of Fractal and Multifractal Theory in Hydraulic-Flow-Unit Characterization and Permeability Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Yao, G.; Cai, J.

    2017-12-01

    Pore structure characteristics are important factors in influencing the fluid transport behavior of porous media, such as pore-throat ratio, pore connectivity and size distribution, moreover, wettability. To accurately characterize the diversity of pore structure among HFUs, five samples selected from different HFUs (porosities are approximately equal, however permeability varies widely) were chosen to conduct micro-computerized tomography test to acquire direct 3D images of pore geometries and to perform mercury injection experiments to obtain the pore volume-radii distribution. To characterize complex and high nonlinear pore structure of all samples, three classic fractal geometry models were applied. Results showed that each HFU has similar box-counting fractal dimension and generalized fractal dimension in the number-area model, but there are significant differences in multifractal spectrums. In the radius-volume model, there are three obvious linear segments, corresponding to three fractal dimension values, and the middle one is proved as the actual fractal dimension according to the maximum radius. In the number-radius model, the spherical-pore size distribution extracted by maximum ball algorithm exist a decrease in the number of small pores compared with the fractal power rate rather than the traditional linear law. Among the three models, only multifractal analysis can classify the HFUs accurately. Additionally, due to the tightness and low-permeability in reservoir rocks, connate water film existing in the inner surface of pore channels commonly forms bound water. The conventional model which is known as Yu-Cheng's model has been proved to be typically not applicable. Considering the effect of irreducible water saturation, an improved fractal permeability model was also deduced theoretically. The comparison results showed that the improved model can be applied to calculate permeability directly and accurately in such unconventional rocks.

  11. Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Wallin, K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic K Jc values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for K Jc data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent K Jc data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic K Jc database and the ASME lower bound K Ic curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of K Jc with respect to K Ic in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for K Jc data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Production and characterization of Lemna minor bio-char and its catalytic application for biogas reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C.; Garceau, Nathaniel; T-Raissi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass - Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on production, characterization and catalytic application of bio-char is reported in this paper. The yield of bio-char was determined as a function of L. minor pyrolysis temperature and sweep gas flow rate. It was found that the pore development during L. minor pyrolysis was not significant and the changes in the reaction conditions (temperature and sweep gas flow rate) did not alter markedly the textural characteristics and BET surface area of the bio-char produced. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of L. minor and different bio-char samples in inert (helium) and oxidative (air) media showed substantial differences in their TG/DTG patterns. A comparison of scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of L. minor, bio-char and ash indicated that the basic structural features of L. minor remained intact and were not affected by thermolysis. The inorganic ash content of L. minor derived bio-char is significantly higher than that of typical terrestrial (plant) biomass. The energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of L. minor ash showed that it mostly consisted of silica, and small quantities of Na, K and Ca compounds. The treatment of bio-char with CO 2 at 800 °C increased its BET surface area. It was found that CO 2 -treated bio-char exhibited appreciable initial catalytic activity in biogas reforming. -- Highlights: ► New data on characterization of bio-chars derived from Lemna minor are presented. ► Effect of pyrolysis operational parameters on bio-char properties is determined. ► Basic skeletal structure of Lemna minor leaflets does not change during pyrolysis. ► Bio-chars show an appreciable initial catalytic activity for biogas reforming.

  13. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-01-01

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site's 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  14. Synthesis and characterization of functionalized methacrylates for coatings and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemper, Bianca Sadicoff

    The research presented in this dissertation involves the design of polymers for biomaterials and for coatings applications. The development of non-wettable, hard UV-curing, or reactive coatings is discussed. The biomaterials section involves the syntheses of linear and star-like polymers of the functionalized monomer poly(propylene glycol) monomethacrylate (PPGM) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) (Chapter II). Its copolymerization with a perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate monomer (1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate) and the syntheses of linear and star-like amphiphilic copolymers containing the fluorinated monomer and poly(ethyleneglycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) are discussed in Chapter III. The four-arm amphiphilic block copolymer obtained showed unique associative properties leading to micellization in selective solvents. Chapter IV includes research involving the design of films with low surface energy by incorporating fluorine into the polymer. The synthesis, characterization and polymerization of a perfluoroalkylether-substituted methacrylic acid (C8F7) are discussed, and the properties of coatings obtained after its photopolymerization on different substrates are evaluated to confirm formation of low-surface energy polymeric coatings. Subsequently, hard coatings based on methyl (alpha-hydroxymethyl)acrylate (MHMA) were prepared via photopolymerization using UV-light. Firstly, mechanistic investigations into the photopolymerization behavior of (alpha-hydroxymethyl)acrylates (RHMA's) are reported (Chapter V). RHMA derivatives were photopolymerized with various multifunctional acrylates and methacrylates and the effect of crosslinker type and degree of functionality on photopolymerization rates and conversions was investigated. Then, in Chapter VI the synthesis of a series of new crosslinkers is described and their photopolymerization kinetics was investigated in bulk. The effect of these novel crosslinkers on the

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1,2 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,3,4 Mohd Zobir Hussein,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6 Thomas J Webster6,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Kingdom of Jordan; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs; finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g-1, respectively. Amp was loaded at 8

  16. News and views from the attosecond generation, characterization and applications frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzallas, P.; Kalpouzos, C.; Kruse, J.; Skatzakis, E.; Charalambidis, D.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We report on recent results in the generation, characterization and applications of energetic attosecond pulse trains and ultra-broad coherent XUV continua: 1) Generation: 1a) We report experimental results confirming contribution of both long and short trajectories in on-axis harmonic generation before, at and after an atomic gas jet, i.e. under three different phase matching conditions. The contribution of both trajectories is manifested through their interference leading to a modulated harmonic (and side band) yield as a function of the driving intensity. 1b) We report the generation of sub-fs pulse trains at the 40 μJ pulse energy level from laser surface plasma, measured through 2 nd order intensity volume autocorrelation (2 nd order IVAC). 2) Characterization: We present comparative studies between RABITT and 2 nd order IVAC in on axis harmonic generation before, at and after an atomic gas jet. We find that the two techniques give fairly different results that are compatible with the differently weighted but unavoidable presence of the long and short trajectory in the generation process in all three phase matching conditions. We show that the relative contributions of the two trajectories can be estimated through RABITT measurements, while spatiotemporal mean pulse durations can be extracted from 2 nd order IVAC traces. 3) Applications: 3a) We present time resolved VUV spectroscopy of ultrafast dynamics in molecular ethylene. 3b) We present time resolved XUV spectroscopy at the 1 fs temporal scale and ultra-broad band XUV Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in a manifold of doubly excited autoionizing and inner-shell Auger decaying states excited simultaneously through a coherent broadband XUV continuum. Acknowledgments. This work is supported in part by the European Community's Human Potential Program under contract MTKD-CT-2004-517145 (X-HOMES), the Ultraviolet Laser Facility (ULF) operating at FORTH-IESL (contract PHRI

  17. Biopolymeric receptor for peptide recognition by molecular imprinting approach—Synthesis, characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lav Kumar; Singh, Monika; Singh, Meenakshi

    2014-01-01

    The present work is focused on the development of a biocompatible zwitterionic hydrogel for various applications in analytical chemistry. Biopolymer chitosan was derivatized to obtain a series of zwitterionic hydrogel samples. Free amino groups hanging on the biopolymeric chain were reacted with γ-butyrolactone to quaternize the N-centers of polymeric chain. N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide acts as a crosslinker via Michael-type addition in the subsequent step and facilitated gelation of betainized chitosan. These biopolymeric hydrogel samples were fully characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra, SEM and XRD. Hydrogels were further characterized for their swelling behavior at varying parameters. The extent of swelling was perceived to be dictated by solvent composition such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. This valuable polymeric format is herein chosen to design an artificial receptor for dipeptide ‘carnosine’, which has adequate societal significance to be analytically determined, by molecular imprinting. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (carnosine) and the imprinted polymer led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up carnosine from aqueous solution quantitatively. Thus prepared MIPs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM providing evidence for the quality and quantity of imprinted gels. The binding studies showed that the MIP illustrated good recognition for carnosine as compared to non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). Detection limit was estimated as 3.3 μg mL −1 . Meanwhile, selectivity experiments demonstrated that imprinted gel had a high affinity to carnosine in the presence of close structural analogues (interferrants). - Highlights: • Development of a biocompatible zwitterionic hydrogel • A series of chitosan-derived zwitterionic hydrogel samples • Polymeric

  18. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Processing of Copper, Indium, and Gallium Dithiocarbamates for Energy Conversion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, S. A.; Duffy, N. V.; Hepp, A. F.; Cowen, J. E.; Hoops, M. D.; Brothrs, S. M.; Baird, M. J.; Fanwick, P. E.; Harris, J. D.; Jin, M. H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Ten dithiocarbamate complexes of indium(III) and gallium(III) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and melting point. Each complex was decomposed thermally and its decomposition products separated and identified with the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Their potential utility as photovoltaic materials precursors was assessed. Bis(dibenzyldithiocarbamato)- and bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(S2CN(CH2C6H5)2)2 and Cu(S2CN(C2H5)2)2 respectively, have also been examined for their suitability as precursors for copper sulfides for the fabrication of photovoltaic materials. Each complex was decomposed thermally and the products analyzed by GC/MS, TGA and FTIR. The dibenzyl derivative complex decomposed at a lower temperature (225-320 C) to yield CuS as the product. The diethyl derivative complex decomposed at a higher temperature (260-325 C) to yield Cu2S. No Cu containing fragments were noted in the mass spectra. Unusual recombination fragments were observed in the mass spectra of the diethyl derivative. Tris(bis(phenylmethyl)carbamodithioato-S,S'), commonly referred to as tris(N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamato)indium(III), In(S2CNBz2)3, was synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1(bar) with two molecules per unit cell. The material was further characterized using a novel analytical system employing the combined powers of thermogravimetric analysis, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to investigate its potential use as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of thin film materials for photovoltaic applications. Upon heating, the material thermally decomposes to release CS2 and benzyl moieties in to the gas phase, resulting in bulk In2S3. Preliminary spray CVD experiments indicate that In(S2CNBz2)3 decomposed on a Cu substrate reacts to produce

  20. Applicability of reflection seismic measurements in detailed characterization of crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sireni, S.

    2011-03-01

    Posiva carried out a seismic survey in the access tunnel of the underground research facility ONKALO in 2009. The survey contributes the detailed characterization of the bedrock in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this work was to examine the geophysical and geological properties of the chosen tunnel intersections to clarify the important characteristics for reflection generation, and evaluate applicability of this survey for characterization of crystalline bedrock. The seismic result consists of 24 projected amplitude images in 12 different angles. The size of an image is 260*300 m. The amount of digitized reflectors is over 100 and all of them could not be included in this work. The study was limited to 14 intersections that were considered important: brittle fault intersections, tunnel-crosscutting fractures, or lithological contacts. Presence of a brittle fault zone or a tunnel-crosscutting fracture limits the suitable bedrock volume for depositing the nuclear fuel canisters, and wide lithological contacts are a common source of reflection. The seismic data was compared to the existing geological, hydrogeological and geophysical data got from the pilot holes and the tunnel. The most important characteristics were fractures: orientation, fillings, and thickness of the fillings, alteration and water leakage. Geophysically interesting was density, seismic velocities and their products: acoustic impedance and synthetic seismograms. Calculated acoustic impedances showed some differences between cases, but they did not indicate the presence of a reflector. The most common cause of reflector was undulating slickensided, highly altered, tunnel-crosscutting fracture that had thick fracture-fillings and water present. Water was included five times in interpreted reflectors. Also few reflectors were connected to varying mineralogy. Few problematic cases occurred, where a geological feature and a reflection did not correlate, and three of the cases with

  1. CdTe and CdSe quantum dots: synthesis, characterizations and applications in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, Thi Dieu Thuy; Tran, Thi Kim Chi; Pham, Thu Nga; Nguyen, Quang Liem; Nguyen, Duc Nghia; Dinh, Duy Khang

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the results of the whole work including the synthesis of highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs), characterizations and testing applications of them in different kinds of sensors. Concretely, it presents: (i) the successful synthesis of colloidal CdTe and CdSe QDs, their core/shell structures with single- and/or double-shell made by CdS, ZnS or ZnSe/ZnS; (ii) morphology, structural and optical characterizations of the synthesized QDs; and (iii) testing examples of QDs as the fluorescence labels for agricultural-bio-medical objects (for tracing residual pesticide in agricultural products, residual clenbuterol in meat/milk and for detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in breeding farms). Overall, the results show that the synthesized QDs have very good crystallinity, spherical shape and strongly emit at the desired wavelengths between ∼500 and 700 nm with the luminescence quantum yield (LQY) of 30–85%. These synthesized QDs were used in fabrication of the three testing fluorescence QD-based sensors for the detection of residual pesticides, clenbuterol and H5N1 avian influenza virus. The specific detection of parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at a content as low as 0.05 ppm has been realized with the biosensors made from CdTe/CdS and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS QDs and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs conjugated with 2-amino-8-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid were fabricated that enable detection of diazotized clenbuterol at a content as low as 10 pg ml −1 . For detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus, fluorescence biosensors using CdTe/CdS QDs bound on the surface of chromatophores extracted and purified from bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum were prepared and characterized. The specific detection of H5N1 avian influenza virus in the range of 3–50 ng μl −1 with a detection limit of 3 ng μL −1 has been performed based on the antibody-antigen recognition. (review)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites and its water treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yijie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency of Science, Technology, and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jing [AGplus Technologies Pte Ltd, 10 Jalan Besar #10-06 Sim Lim Tower, 208787 (Singapore); Lin, Ming [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency of Science, Technology, and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Tang, Xiaosheng [AGplus Technologies Pte Ltd, 10 Jalan Besar #10-06 Sim Lim Tower, 208787 (Singapore); Zhang, Jie, E-mail: zhangj@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency of Science, Technology, and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Liu, Hongjun, E-mail: hjliu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); AGplus Technologies Pte Ltd, 10 Jalan Besar #10-06 Sim Lim Tower, 208787 (Singapore)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Nanosilver diatomite has been developed with a facile, easy and effective in–situ reduction method. • The nanosilver diatomite demonstrated great antibacterial properties to gram positive and gram–negative bacterial. • A small amount of the nanosilver diatomite could kill >99.999% of E. Coli within half an hour time. • Low cost nano–composite antimicrobial material for water purification industry. - Abstract: Nanotechnology for water disinfection application gains increasing attention. Diatomite is one kind of safe natural material, which has been widely used as absorbent, filtration agents, mineral fillers, especially in water treatment industry. Nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites were developed in this publication with a facile, effective in-situ reduction method. The as-prepared nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites demonstrated amazing antibacterial properties to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The corresponding property has been characterized by UV–vis absorbance, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the detailed bacteria killing experiments further displayed that 0.5 g of the nanosilver diatomite could kill >99.999% of E. Coli within half an hour time. And the silver leaching test demonstrated that the concentrations of silver in the filtered water under varies pH environment were below the limit for silver level of WHO standard. Considering the low price of natural diatomite, it is believed that the nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites have potential application in water purification industry due to its excellent antimicrobial property.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites and its water treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yijie; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Ming; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Hongjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanosilver diatomite has been developed with a facile, easy and effective in–situ reduction method. • The nanosilver diatomite demonstrated great antibacterial properties to gram positive and gram–negative bacterial. • A small amount of the nanosilver diatomite could kill >99.999% of E. Coli within half an hour time. • Low cost nano–composite antimicrobial material for water purification industry. - Abstract: Nanotechnology for water disinfection application gains increasing attention. Diatomite is one kind of safe natural material, which has been widely used as absorbent, filtration agents, mineral fillers, especially in water treatment industry. Nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites were developed in this publication with a facile, effective in-situ reduction method. The as-prepared nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites demonstrated amazing antibacterial properties to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The corresponding property has been characterized by UV–vis absorbance, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, the detailed bacteria killing experiments further displayed that 0.5 g of the nanosilver diatomite could kill >99.999% of E. Coli within half an hour time. And the silver leaching test demonstrated that the concentrations of silver in the filtered water under varies pH environment were below the limit for silver level of WHO standard. Considering the low price of natural diatomite, it is believed that the nanosilver/diatomite nanocomposites have potential application in water purification industry due to its excellent antimicrobial property.

  4. Characterization of high exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from mustard pickles for potential probiotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yao; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Liu, We-Sin; Fang, Tony J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0.49%, 95.07% ± 0.64%, 105.84% ± 0.82%, and 99.65% ± 0.31% under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, respectively. No cytotoxic effects on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were observed when they were treated with a low dose (1 μg/ml) of stimulants extracted from the tested LAB strains. The production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with various LAB stimulants showed a dose-dependent increase. Among the four strains, SLC 13 showed higher inhibitory activity on growth of Enterococcus faecalis (BCRC 12302) and Yersinia enterocolitica (BCRC 10807). NLD 4 showed strong inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894) as compared with the other three strains. In summary, our results suggest that Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 may be a good candidate for probiotic applications and for development of antibacterial compounds. [Int Microbiol 20(2):75-84 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. Characterization of a dielectric phantom for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Qi, E-mail: Qi.Duan@nih.gov; Duyn, Jeff H.; Gudino, Natalia; Zwart, Jacco A. de; Gelderen, Peter van [Advanced MRI Section, Laboratory of Functional and Molecular Imaging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sodickson, Daniel K.; Brown, Ryan [The Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: In this work, a generic recipe for an inexpensive and nontoxic phantom was developed within a range of biologically relevant dielectric properties from 150 MHz to 4.5 GHz. Methods: The recipe includes deionized water as the solvent, NaCl to primarily control conductivity, sucrose to primarily control permittivity, agar–agar to gel the solution and reduce heat diffusivity, and benzoic acid to preserve the gel. Two hundred and seventeen samples were prepared to cover the feasible range of NaCl and sucrose concentrations. Their dielectric properties were measured using a commercial dielectric probe and were fitted to a 3D polynomial to generate a recipe describing the properties as a function of NaCl concentration, sucrose concentration, and frequency. Results: Results indicated that the intuitive linear and independent relationships between NaCl and conductivity and between sucrose and permittivity are not valid. A generic polynomial recipe was developed to characterize the complex relationship between the solutes and the resulting dielectric values and has been made publicly available as a web application. In representative mixtures developed to mimic brain and muscle tissue, less than 2% difference was observed between the predicted and measured conductivity and permittivity values. Conclusions: It is expected that the recipe will be useful for generating dielectric phantoms for general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil development at high magnetic field strength, including coil safety evaluation as well as pulse sequence evaluation (including B{sub 1}{sup +} mapping, B{sub 1}{sup +} shimming, and selective excitation pulse design), and other non-MRI applications which require biologically equivalent dielectric properties.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoparticles for photocatalysis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli; Minervino, Gabriela Bosco; Medalha Filho, Carlos Alberto, E-mail: tatimazzo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Regiane Cristina; Longo, Elson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The search for more effective ways to prevent and remedy environmental problems has a strong academic and technological appeal. Based on the study of a variety of compounds, zinc oxide (ZnO) is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of multifunctional nanoparticles due to their potential technological application in various fields [1]. In this work, we were synthesized flowers-like ZnO by coprecipitation and hydrothermal microwave methods. All materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. All XRD patterns correspond to hexagonal structure, which is in agreement with the respective JCPDS card no. 36-1451 for pure ZnO phase with group space group (P63mc) and two molecular formula units per unit cell (Z = 2). Analysis of Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed the presence of vibrational modes in all samples and confirmed the hexagonal ZnO structure. The microscopy images clearly show a change of the morphology of the sample obtained by the co- precipitation method in comparison with those obtained by hydrothermal microwave method. In accordance with the photodegradation the results revealed that the ZnO processed at 140 deg C for 32 minutes have higher photocatalytic efficiency degradation. The Rodamine B dye was completely decolorized at 30 minutes. The pseudo-first order model indicate an increasing in the (k) values with the increase microwave processing time and that improve the ZnO photocatalytic performance. In this work we reported a low-temperature way to prepare the ZnO photocatalytic semiconductor and the results showed a great potential of this material for that application. References: [1] Pearton, S. J; Norton, D. P; et al, Journal of Science and Technology. 22 (2004) 932-948 [2] Kansal, S. K.; Kaur, N. Nanoscale Research Letters 4 (2009) 709-716. (author)

  7. Fabrication and characterization of hydrothermal cross-linked chitosan porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Mohammad Amin; Rabiee, Ahmad; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Mahdavi, Hamid; Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-11-01

    The use of various chemical cross-linking agents for the improvement of scaffolds physical and mechanical properties is a common practical method, which is limited by cytotoxicity effects. Due to exerting contract type forces, chondrocytes are known to implement shrinkage on the tissue engineered constructs, which can be avoided by the scaffold cross-linking. In the this research, chitosan scaffolds are cross-linked with hydrothermal treatment with autoclave sterilization time of 0, 10, 20 and 30min, to avoid the application of the traditional chemical toxic materials. The optimization studies with gel content and crosslink density measurements indicate that for 20min sterilization time, the gel content approaches to ~80%. The scaffolds are fully characterized by the conventional techniques such as SEM, porosity and permeability, XRD, compression, thermal analysis and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). FT-IR studies shows that autoclave inter-chain cross-linking reduces the amine group absorption at 1560cm -1 and increase the absorption of N-acetylated groups at 1629cm -1 . It is anticipated, that this observation evidenced by chitosan scaffold browning upon autoclave cross-linking is an indication of the familiar maillard reaction between amine moieties and carbonyl groups. The biodegradation rate analysis shows that chitosan scaffolds with lower concentrations, possess suitable degradation rate for cartilage tissue engineering applications. In addition, cytotoxicity analysis shows that fabricated scaffolds are biocompatible. The human articular chondrocytes seeding into 3D cross-linked scaffolds shows a higher viability and proliferation in comparison with the uncross-linked samples and 2D controls. Investigation of cell morphology on the scaffolds by SEM, shows a more spherical morphology of chondrocytes on the cross-linked scaffolds for 21days of in vitro culture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Characterization of nanoparticle mediated laser transfection by femtosecond laser pulses for applications in molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Markus; Heinemann, Dag; Kalies, Stefan; Willenbrock, Saskia; Wagner, Siegfried; Nolte, Ingo; Ripken, Tammo; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Meyer, Heiko; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2015-02-03

    In molecular medicine, the manipulation of cells is prerequisite to evaluate genes as therapeutic targets or to transfect cells to develop cell therapeutic strategies. To achieve these purposes it is essential that given transfection techniques are capable of handling high cell numbers in reasonable time spans. To fulfill this demand, an alternative nanoparticle mediated laser transfection method is presented herein. The fs-laser excitation of cell-adhered gold nanoparticles evokes localized membrane permeabilization and enables an inflow of extracellular molecules into cells. The parameters for an efficient and gentle cell manipulation are evaluated in detail. Efficiencies of 90% with a cell viability of 93% were achieved for siRNA transfection. The proof for a molecular medical approach is demonstrated by highly efficient knock down of the oncogene HMGA2 in a rapidly proliferating prostate carcinoma in vitro model using siRNA. Additionally, investigations concerning the initial perforation mechanism are conducted. Next to theoretical simulations, the laser induced effects are experimentally investigated by spectrometric and microscopic analysis. The results indicate that near field effects are the initial mechanism of membrane permeabilization. This methodical approach combined with an automated setup, allows a high throughput targeting of several 100,000 cells within seconds, providing an excellent tool for in vitro applications in molecular medicine. NIR fs lasers are characterized by specific advantages when compared to lasers employing longer (ps/ns) pulses in the visible regime. The NIR fs pulses generate low thermal impact while allowing high penetration depths into tissue. Therefore fs lasers could be used for prospective in vivo applications.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro biocompatibility assessment of a novel tripeptide hydrogelator, as a promising scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospišil, Tihomir; Ferhatović Hamzić, Lejla; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Lovrić, Marija; Gajović, Srećko; Frkanec, Leo

    2016-10-20

    We have synthesized and characterized a self-assembling tripeptide hydrogelator Ac-l-Phe-l-Phe-l-Ala-NH2. A series of experiments showed that the hydrogel material could serve as a stabile and biocompatible physical support as it improves the survival of HEK293T cells in vitro, thus being a promising biomaterial for use in tissue engineering applications.

  10. Characterization and application of microearthquake clusters to problems of scaling, fault zone dynamics, and seismic monitoring at Parkfield, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains information about the characterization and application of microearthquake clusters and fault zone dynamics. Topics discussed include: Seismological studies; fault-zone dynamics; periodic recurrence; scaling of microearthquakes to large earthquakes; implications of fault mechanics and seismic hazards; and wave propagation and temporal changes.

  11. Preparation and characterization of thin-film Pd–Ag supported membranes for high-temperature applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Gesalaga, Ekain; Coenen, Kai; Helmi Siasi Farimani, Arash; Melendez, J.; Zuniga, Jon; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation, characterization and stability tests of thin-film Pd–Ag supported membranes for high-temperature fluidized bed membrane reactor applications. Various thin-film supported membranes have been prepared by simultaneous Pd–Ag electroless plating and have been initially

  12. Pyranose Dehydrogenase from Agaricus campestris and Agaricus xanthoderma: Characterization and Applications in Carbohydrate Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens K. Peterbauer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH is a flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is limited to a rather small group of litter-degrading basidiomycetes. The enzyme is unable to utilize oxygen as an electron acceptor, using substituted benzoquinones and (organo metal ions instead. PDH displays a broad substrate specificity and intriguing variations in regioselectivity, depending on substrate, enzyme source and reaction conditions. In contrast to the related enzyme pyranose 2-oxidase (POx, PDHs from several sources are capable of oxidizing α- or β-1→4-linked di- and oligosaccharides, including lactose. PDH from A. xanthoderma is able to perform C-1 and C-2 oxidation, producing, in addition to lactobionic acid, 2-dehydrolactose, an intermediate for the production of lactulose, whereas PDH from A. campestris oxidizes lactose nearly exclusively at the C-1 position. In this work, we present the isolation of PDH-encoding genes from A. campestris (Ac and A. xanthoderma (Ax and a comparison of other so far isolated PDH-sequences. Secretory overexpression of both enzymes in Pichia pastoris was successful when using their native signal sequences with yields of 371 U·L−1 for AxPDH and 35 U·L−1 for AcPDH. The pure enzymes were characterized biochemically and tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance.

  13. Development and Characterization of a Microemulsion System Containing Amphotericin B with Potential Ocular Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Walteçá Louis Lima; Damasceno, Bolivar P G L; Ferreira, Laura F; Ribeiro, Izabel L S; Silva, Karolyne S; Silva, André Leandro; Giannini, Maria José Mendes; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, E Sócrates Tabosa

    2016-01-01

    Amphotericin B eye drops are widely used in the treatment of ocular infections. However, amphotericin's toxicity leads to low patient compliance and aggravation of symptoms. This work describes the development of a microemulsion system containing amphotericin B, aiming for its use in ocular applications. The microemulsion was developed by the titration technique. The physicochemical characteristics were determined with both loaded and unloaded amphotericin B-microemulsion. The nanostructures were analyzed by polarized light microscopy. The microdilution method was used to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration against fungal strains, and, therefore, evaluate the microemulsion activity. Additionally, in order to evaluate the microemulsion toxicity an in vitro toxicity assay against red blood cells was performed. The performed studies showed that the presence of amphotericin B loaded into the system did not induce serious changes in the physicochemical properties of the microemulsion when compared to the unloaded system. The spectrophotometric studies depicted amphotericin B-self-associated species, which allow predicting its behavior in vitro. The high pressure liquid chromatography results revealed high drug content entrapment in the microemulsion droplet. Finally, the amphotericin B-microemulsion in vitro susceptibility test showed high activity against Candida strains and a low toxicity profile against red blood cells when compared to Fungizone®. The physicochemical characterization of the microemulsion demonstrated that its characteristics are compatible with the topical ocular route, making it eligible for consideration as a new and interesting amphotericin B-deliverydosage form to be used as eye drop formulation.

  14. Deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryilmaz, O L; Johnson, J A; Ajayi, O O; Erdemir, A

    2006-01-01

    As an element, carbon is rather unique and offers a range of rare opportunities for the design and fabrication of zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional nanostructured novel materials and coatings such as fullerenes, nanotubes, thin films, and free-standing nano-to-macroscale structures. Among these, carbon-based two-dimensional thin films (such as diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC)) have attracted an overwhelming interest in recent years, mainly because of their exceptional physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and tribological properties. In particular, certain DLC films were found to provide extremely low friction and wear coefficients to sliding metallic and ceramic surfaces. Since the early 1990s, carbon has been used at Argonne National Laboratory to synthesize a class of novel DLC films that now provide friction and wear coefficients as low as 0.001 and 10 -11 -10 -10 mm 3 N -1 m -1 , respectively, when tested in inert or vacuum test environments. Over the years, we have optimized these films and applied them successfully to all kinds of metallic and ceramic substrates and evaluated their friction and wear properties under a wide range of sliding conditions. In this paper, we will provide details of our recent work on the deposition, characterization, and tribological applications of near-frictionless carbon films on glass and ceramic substrates. We will also provide chemical and structural information about these films and describe the fundamental tribological mechanisms that control their unusual friction and wear behaviour

  15. Dosimetric characterization of a bi-directional micromultileaf collimator for stereotactic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciolini, M; Russo, S; Banci Buonamici, F; Pini, S; Silli, P

    2002-07-01

    A 6 MV photon beam from Linac SL75-5 has been collimated with a new micromultileaf device that is able to shape the field in the two orthogonal directions with four banks of leaves. This is the first clinical installation of the collimator and in this paper the dosimetric characterization of the system is reported. The dosimetric parameters required by the treatment planning system used for the dose calculation in the patient are: tissue maximum ratios, output factors, transmission and leakage of the leaves, penumbra values. Ionization chambers, silicon diode, radiographic films, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters have been employed for measurements of absolute dose and beam dosimetric data. Measurements with different dosimeters supply results in reasonable agreement among them and consistent with data available in literature for other models of micromultileaf collimator; that permits the use of the measured parameters for clinical applications. The discrepancies between results obtained with the different detectors (around 2%) for the analyzed parameters can be considered an indication of the accuracy that can be reached by current stereotactic dosimetry.

  16. Organic surfaces exposed by self-assembled organothiol monolayers: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Martin; Wöll, Christof

    2009-07-01

    Organic surfaces play a major role in materials science. Most surfaces that we touch in our daily lives are made from organic materials, e.g., vegetables, fruit, skin, wood, and textiles made from natural fibers. In the context of biology, organic surfaces play a prominent role too, proteins docking onto cell surfaces are a good example. To better understand the characteristics of organic surfaces, including physico-chemical properties like wettability or chemical reactivities and physical properties like friction and lubrication, a structurally well-defined model system that can be investigated with numerous analytical techniques is desirable. In the last two decades, one particular system, self-assembled monolayers or SAMs, have demonstrated their suitability for this purpose. In particular, organothiols consisting of an organic molecule with an attached SH-group are well suited to fabricating structurally well-defined adlayers of monolayer thickness on gold substrates using a simple preparation procedure. These ultrathin monolayers expose an organic surface with properties that can be tailored by varying the type of organothiol employed. After a short introduction into the preparation of SAMs, this article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of organic surfaces exposed by Au-thiolate SAMs. Applications are as diverse as the metallization of organic surfaces, a fundamental problem in materials science, and the fabrication of surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins. In addition to a number of different case studies, we will also discuss the most powerful analytical techniques needed to characterize these important model systems.

  17. Halloysite Nanocapsules Containing Thyme Essential Oil: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Si-Hoon; Jang, So-Ri; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Park, Su-Il; Park, No-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which are natural nanomaterials, have a hollow tubular structure with about 15 nm inner and 50 nm outer diameters. Because of their tubular shape, HNTs loaded with various materials have been investigated as functional nanocapsules. In this study, thyme essential oil (TO) was encapsulated successfully in HNTs using vacuum pulling methods, followed by end-capping or a layer-by-layer surface coating process for complete encapsulation. Nanocapsules loaded with TO were mixed with flexographic ink and coated on a paper for applications as food packaging materials. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanocapsules and to confirm the TO loading of the nanocapsules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses analysis were used to complement the structural information. In addition, the controlled release of TO from the nanocapsules showed sustained release properties over a period of many days. The results reveal that the release properties of TO in these nanocapsules could be controlled by surface modifications such as end-capping and/or surface coating of bare nanocapsules. The packaging paper with TO-loaded HNT capsules was effective in eliminating against Escherichia coli during the first 5 d and showed strong antibacterial activity for about 10 d. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Yunjiao; Wang, Xue; Yang, Chao; Yi, Yanfeng

    2012-11-01

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm2O3 nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm2O3) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm2O3 composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm2O3 composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm2O3 composite at a current density of 20 mA cm-2 in a 1.0 M NaNO3 electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g-1 was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm2O3 composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  19. Development and characterization of attenuated metabolic mutants of Bordetella bronchiseptica for applications in vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevsa, Tetyana; Ebensen, Thomas; Fuchs, Barbara; Zygmunt, Beata; Libanova, Rimma; Gross, Roy; Schulze, Kai; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is an important pathogen causing a number of veterinary respiratory syndromes in agriculturally important and food-producing confinement-reared animals, resulting in great economic losses annually amounting to billions of euros worldwide. Currently available live vaccines are incompletely satisfactory in terms of efficacy and safety. An efficient vaccine for livestock animals would allow reducing the application of antibiotics, thereby preventing the massive release of pharmaceuticals into the environment. Here, we describe two new potential vaccine strains based on the BB7865 strain. Two independent attenuating mutations were incorporated by homologous recombination in order to make negligible the risk of recombination and subsequent reversion to the virulent phenotype. The mutations are critical for bacterial metabolism, resistance to oxidative stress, intracellular survival and in vivo persistence. The resulting double mutants BB7865 risA aroA and BB7865 risA dapE were characterized as promising vaccine candidates, which are able to confer protection against colonization of the lower respiratory tract after sublethal challenge with the wild-type strain. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Development and characterization of multilayer films of polyaniline, titanium dioxide and CTAB for potential antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Emanuel Airton O.; Dionisio, Natália A.; Quelemes, Patrick V. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Leal, Sergio Henrique [CCNH, UFABC, Santo André, SP 09210-170 (Brazil); Matos, José Milton E.; Filho, Edson C. Silva [Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAv, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Bechtold, Ivan H. [Departamento de Física — UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Leite, José Roberto S.A. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eiras, Carla, E-mail: carla.eiras.ufpi@gmail.com [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAv, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    Composites prepared from polyaniline (PANI) and the ceramic technology of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) have been proposed, however, the interaction of these materials with greater control of molecular arrangement becomes attractive in order to achieve properties not previously described or yet the optimization of those already reported. Therefore, in this study, thin hybrid films made of polyaniline (PANI), a conductive polymer, and the technological ceramic, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV–VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aiming to improve the dispersion of the ceramic in the polymer matrix, the commercial surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used in the formation of the films. The best condition of deposition was found showing synergic interactions between the conjugated materials. The antibacterial activity of the PANI(TiO{sub 2})/CTAB films was studied and the obtained results suggest their use as antimicrobial coatings. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite films of PANI and TiO2 prepared by the LbL technique • Ceramic dispersion in PANI improved with CTAB for antimicrobial applications. • Optimized film deposition for synergic interactions of the conjugated materials • Antibacterial activity of the films suggests their use as antimicrobial coatings.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of new oxalate ester-polymer composites for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petre, Razvan [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania); University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 149 Calea Victoriei, Bucharest 010072 (Romania); Zecheru, Teodora, E-mail: teodora.zecheru@yahoo.com [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania)

    2013-03-15

    The present study focused on the synthesis of high purity oxalate esters: bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) and bis(2,4,5-trichloro-6-carbobutoxyphenyl) oxalate (TCCBPO), and further on their incorporation into potentially applicative polymer composites. The organic compounds were characterized through NMR and the composites obtained were evaluated for light capacity availability at room temperature and low temperatures. The concentrations of the peroxide, fluorescer, catalyst, and polymer additives were optimized. The chemiluminescent composites' performances were evaluated after 360 days and returned satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-oxalate (TCPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,5-Trichloro-6-carbobutoxiphenyl)-oxalate (TCCBPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCPO and TCCBPO-based composites were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites light emission was evaluated versus scotopic visual sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compositions present superior performances within extensive emission time.

  2. Dynamic focusing of phased arrays for nondestructive testing: characterization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, A.; Mainguy, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in Phased Array hardware developed by R/D TECH for nondestructive testing now allow dynamic focusing on reception. This new option, borrowed from medical technology, enables a programmable, real-time array response on reception by modifying the delay line, the gain, and the activation of each element as a function of time. This technology is presented as a new powerful tool, which can extend the depth-of-field, reduce the beam spread and increase the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Implementation of dynamic focusing in Phased Array systems will present many advantages such as an increase of the Pulse Rate Frequency (PRF). The technology implies a lot of significant possibilities, but also an extensive beam characterization. Some results are presented to quantify the advantages and drawbacks of the technique in comparison with standard phased array zone focusing and conventional UT. Results are clearly demonstrating the effect of dynamic focusing on the depth-of-field, the beam spread, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the acquisition rate, both with linear and annular arrays. Therefore this technique is suitable for applications where long soundpaths and small beam divergence are required as boresonic, billet, and blade root inspections. (author)

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg-doped ZnO Nanorods for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemar, H.; Das, N. C.; Wanekaya, A.; Delong, R.; Ghosh, K.

    2013-03-01

    Nanomaterials research has become a major attraction in the field of advanced materials research in the area of Physics, Chemistry, and Materials Science. Bio-compatible and chemically stable metal nanoparticles have biomedical applications that includes drug delivery, cell and DNA separation, gene cloning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This research is aimed at the fabrication and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO nanorods. Hydrothermal synthesis of undoped ZnO and Mg-doped ZnO nanorods is carried out using aqueous solutions of Zn(NO3)2 .6H2O, MgSO4, and using NH4OH as hydrolytic catalyst. Nanomaterials of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by varying the process parameters such as molarity (0.15M, 0.3M, 0.5M) and pH (8-11) of the precursors, growth temperature (130°C), and annealing time during the hydrothermal Process. Structural, morphological, and optical properties are studied using various techniques such as XRD, SEM, UV-vis and PL spectroscopy. Detailed structural, and optical properties will be discussed in this presentation. This work is partially supported by National Cancer Institute (1 R15 CA139390-01).

  4. Characterization and Application of Enterocin RM6, a Bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  5. Characterization and application of enterocin RM6, a bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, En; Zhang, Liwen; Chung, Yoon-Kyung; Zheng, Zuoxing; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-01-01

    Use of bacteriocins in food preservation has received great attention in recent years. The goal of this study is to characterize enterocin RM6 from Enterococcus faecalis OSY-RM6 and investigate its efficacy against Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. Enterocin RM6 was purified from E. faecalis culture supernatant using ion exchange column, multiple C18-silica cartridges, followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of enterocin RM6 is 7145.0823 as determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that enterocin RM6 is a 70-residue cyclic peptide with a head-to-tail linkage between methionine and tryptophan residues. The peptide sequence of enterocin RM6 was further confirmed by sequencing the structural gene of the peptide. Enterocin RM6 is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Enterocin RM6 (final concentration in cottage cheese, 80 AU/mL) caused a 4-log reduction in population of L. monocytogenes inoculated in cottage cheese within 30 min of treatment. Therefore, enterocin RM6 has potential applications as a potent antimicrobial peptide against foodborne pathogens in food.

  6. Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the Characterization of waste product used like fertilizer in soil. Some Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, N. R.; Orihuela, D. L.; Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    At the present time, the use of industrial solid wastes is an important task, because a great effort that have been carried out to preserve the environmental and to obtain the high technologies. In this work, a characterization of a industrial waste product, on base of the monohydrous iron sulphate (FeSO 4 .1H 2 O) with a 15% approximately of free sulphuric acid, used like improvement of soil was carried out by Mossabuer spectroscopy. This waste product was used in a series of the experiences in parcels (where peaches, (Prunus persica), strawberries are cultivated) in the zone of Cartaya (Huelva, Spain). The characterisation of soil from the parcel before application of this product was carried out in order to analyse and compare with the final results by using the methods of the Moessbauer spectroscopy. High contents of Fe, S, and Zn at the studied product are observed . This elements are very important for plants. The pH in soil and Fe, Mn, and Zn contents in soil and leaf were determined. The knowledge of the main chemical-structural properties of this product, used like improvement of soil, will permit the study of the influence to) on the soil properly, b) on the peach leaves and c) on the foodstuff fruit. (Author)

  7. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  8. Development and characterization of multilayer films of polyaniline, titanium dioxide and CTAB for potential antimicrobial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Emanuel Airton O.; Dionisio, Natália A.; Quelemes, Patrick V.; Leal, Sergio Henrique; Matos, José Milton E.; Filho, Edson C. Silva; Bechtold, Ivan H.; Leite, José Roberto S.A.; Eiras, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Composites prepared from polyaniline (PANI) and the ceramic technology of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) have been proposed, however, the interaction of these materials with greater control of molecular arrangement becomes attractive in order to achieve properties not previously described or yet the optimization of those already reported. Therefore, in this study, thin hybrid films made of polyaniline (PANI), a conductive polymer, and the technological ceramic, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV–VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aiming to improve the dispersion of the ceramic in the polymer matrix, the commercial surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used in the formation of the films. The best condition of deposition was found showing synergic interactions between the conjugated materials. The antibacterial activity of the PANI(TiO 2 )/CTAB films was studied and the obtained results suggest their use as antimicrobial coatings. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite films of PANI and TiO2 prepared by the LbL technique • Ceramic dispersion in PANI improved with CTAB for antimicrobial applications. • Optimized film deposition for synergic interactions of the conjugated materials • Antibacterial activity of the films suggests their use as antimicrobial coatings

  9. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Arqueros, C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the electrodeposition as a low-cost, large-area fabrication process to obtain CuInSe 2 this films for efficient photovoltaic devices. this objective entails the elucidation of thin film deposition mechanism, the study of the fundamental properties of electrodeposited material, and also the modification of their physical and chemical parameters for photovoltaic applications. CuInSe 2 thin films have been successfully electrodeposited from a citric was characterized by compositional, structural, electrical, optical and electrochemical measurements, relating their properties with the preparation parameters and also studying the effect of various thermal and chemical treatments. The results showed post-deposition treatment are needed for optimizing these films for solar cells fabrication: first, an annealing in inert atmosphere at temperatures above 400 degrees celsius to obtain a high recrystallization in the chalcopyrite structure, and after a chemical etching in KCN solution to remove secondary phases of Cu x Se and Se which are frequently electrodeposited with the CuInSe 2 . The treated samples showed appropriate photovoltaic activity in a semiconductor-electrolite liquid junction. (author) 193 ref

  10. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl potato starch and its application in reactive dye printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Gong, Honghong; Lü, Shaoyu; Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Gao, Chunmei; Huang, Yinjuan; Han, Fei

    2012-11-01

    Carboxymethyl potato starch (CMPS) was synthesized with a simple dry and multi-step method as a product of the reaction of native potato starch and monochloroacetic acid in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The influence of the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to anhydroglucose unit, the volume of 95% (v/v) ethanol, the rotation rate of motor driven stirrer and the reaction time for degree of substitution (DS) were evaluated. The product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). FTIR spectrometry showed new bonds at 1618 and 1424 cm⁻¹ when native starch underwent carboxymethylation. SEM pictures showed that the smooth surface of native starch particles was mostly ruptured. XRD revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. The viscosity of the mixture paste of carboxymethyl starch and sodium alginate (SA) was measured using a rotational viscometer. In addition, the applied effect of mixed paste in reactive dye printing was examined by assessing the fabric stiffness, color yield and sharp edge to the printed image in comparison with SA. And the results indicated that the mixed paste could partially replace SA as thickener in reactive dye printing. The study also showed that the method was low cost and eco-friendly and the product would have an extensive application in reactive dye printing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the exradin W1 plastic scintillation detector for small field applications in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, C.; Lindsay, C.; Beaudry, J.; Penner, C.; Strgar, V.; Lee, R.; Duzenli, C.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dosimetry in small field proton therapy is challenging, particularly for applications such as ocular therapy, and suitable detectors for this purpose are sought. The Exradin W1 plastic scintillating fibre detector is known to out-perform most other detectors for determining relative dose factors for small megavoltage photon beams used in radiotherapy but its potential in small proton beams has been relatively unexplored in the literature. The 1 mm diameter cylindrical geometry and near water equivalence of the W1 makes it an attractive alternative to other detectors. This study examines the dosimetric performance of the W1 in a 74 MeV proton therapy beam with particular focus on detector response characteristics relevant to relative dose measurement in small fields suitable for ocular therapy. Quenching of the scintillation signal is characterized and demonstrated not to impede relative dose measurements at a fixed depth. The background cable-only (Čerenkov and radio-fluorescence) signal is 4 orders of magnitude less than the scintillation signal, greatly simplifying relative dose measurements. Comparison with other detectors and Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the W1 is useful for measuring relative dose factors for field sizes down to 5 mm diameter and shallow spread out Bragg peaks down to 6 mm in depth.

  12. Characterization for DRX and FTIR of the surface of UWMWPE for critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila M. de; Araujo, E.M.; Lira, H.L.; Patricio, Aline C.L.; Lima, Carlos A.P. de

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials is the result of the application of the science of the materials to the medicine, understands a new and important spectrum of the knowledge - Science of Biomaterials. The principal aspects that determine the acting of a bio material in the human body are three: biocompatibility, mechanical properties and degradation. This work had the objective to modify and to oxidate the surface of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). It was utilized for this modification water sandpapers and for oxidation the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The surface of UHMWPE it was modified with water sandpapers of numbers 180, 600 and 1200 mesh and oxidated with the H 2 O 2 in different concentrations of 35 and 60%. The samples already with its modified surfaces had been submitted to the characterization using itself the following techniques: diffraction de ray-X and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The physical modification (sanded) and chemistry (H 2 O 2 ) of the surface of UHMWPE was important because it looks for improving the interaction techniques of the implants with the bone. (author)

  13. Magneto-optical characterization of colloidal dispersions. Application to nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Oana; Caicedo, José Manuel; Fontcuberta, Josep; Herranz, Gervasi; Roig, Anna

    2010-08-03

    We report here on a fast magneto-optical characterization method for colloidal liquid dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles. We have applied our methodology to Ni nanoparticles with size equal or below 15 nm synthesized by a ligand stabilized solution-phase synthesis. We have measured the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of colloidal dispersions and found that we can probe the intrinsic magnetic properties within a wide concentration range, from 10(-5) up to 10(-2) M, with sensitivity to concentrations below 1 microg/mL of magnetic Ni particles. We found that the measured MCD signal scales up with the concentration thus providing a means of determining the concentration values of highly diluted dispersions. The methodology presented here exhibits large flexibility and versatility and might be suitable to study either fundamental problems related to properties of nanosize particles including surface related effects which are highly relevant for magnetic colloids in biomedical applications or to be applied to in situ testing and integration in production lines.

  14. Development and characterization of a D-D fast neutron generator for imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert; Bort, Lorenz; Zboray, Robert; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2015-02-01

    The experimental characterization of a pulsed D-D fast neutron generator designed for fan-beam tomography applications is presented. Using Monte Carlo simulations the response of an LB6411 neutron probe was related to the neutron generator output. The yield was measured to be up to ∼10(7) neutrons/s. An aluminum block was moved stepwise between the source and a BC400 plastic scintillator detector in order to measure an edge response. This edge response was related to the neutron emitting spot size using Monte Carlo simulations and a simplified geometry-based model. The experimentally determined spot size of 2.2 mm agreed well with the simulated value of 1.5 mm. The time-dependence of pulsed output for various operating conditions was also measured. The neutron generator was found to satisfy design requirements for a planned fast neutron tomography arrangement based on a plastic scintillator detector array which is expected to be capable of producing 2D tomograms with a resolution of ∼1.5 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m -1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m -1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (S or ). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  16. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  17. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong

    2018-01-01

    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  18. Preparation and characterization of Schiff base Cu(II) complex and its applications on textile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oylumluoglu, G.; Oner, J.

    2017-10-01

    Schiff base ligands are regarded as an important class of organic compounds on account of the fact that their complexation ability with transition metal ions. A new monomeric Schiff base Cu(II) complex, [Cu(HL)2], 1 [H2L = 2-((E)-(2-hydroxypropylimino)methyl)-4-nitrophenol] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV and IR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence study. While the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex are excited at λex = 349 nm in UV region, the Schiff base ligand shows a blue emission band at λmax = 480 nm whereas its Cu(II) complex shows a strong green emission band at λmax = 520 nm in the solid state at room temperature. The luminescent properties showed that the Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II) complex can be used as novel potential candidates for applications in textile such as UV-protection, antimicrobial, laundry and functional bleaching treatments.

  19. Characterizing canopy biochemistry from imaging spectroscopy and its application to ecosystem studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, R.F.; Asner, Gregory P.; Ollinger, S.V.; Martin, M.E.; Wessman, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    For two decades, remotely sensed data from imaging spectrometers have been used to estimate non-pigment biochemical constituents of vegetation, including water, nitrogen, cellulose, and lignin. This interest has been motivated by the important role that these substances play in physiological processes such as photosynthesis, their relationships with ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling, and their use in identifying key plant species and functional groups. This paper reviews three areas of research to improve the application of imaging spectrometers to quantify non-pigment biochemical constituents of plants. First, we examine recent empirical and modeling studies that have advanced our understanding of leaf and canopy reflectance spectra in relation to plant biochemistry. Next, we present recent examples of how spectroscopic remote sensing methods are applied to characterize vegetation canopies, communities and ecosystems. Third, we highlight the latest developments in using imaging spectrometer data to quantify net primary production (NPP) over large geographic areas. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in quantifying non-pigment biochemical constituents of plant canopies from remotely sensed spectra.

  20. Characterization of natural topaz for dosimetric applications in the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

    2002-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission of Brazilian natural topaz samples from Minas Gerais were analysed aiming the use of this mineral for dosimetric applications. Topaz is an aluminium fluorosilicate with a fairly constant chemical composition of Al 2 SiO 4 (F,OH) 2 . The major variation in the structure among different samples is related to the OH/F concentration ratio. In the present work, samples cut from rolled pebbles, powdered samples and composites were used. The composites (dosimeters) were prepared with powdered topaz embedded in powdered Teflon or glass. The dosimetric characterization of the composites showed that the dosimeters present a linear response in the range of therapeutic doses, slow isothermic fading and a strong TL dependence with radiation energy. The TL was also combined with the X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopic techniques to identify the charge carrier traps and those of the recombination centres, that are essential aspects to understand the processes of light emission in natural colourless topaz. It was observed that the main charge trapping centers in the topaz are due to various OH-related defects, and that the thermal treatments can change the concentration of the recombination centers. Implantations with chromium, aluminium and iron ions into colourless samples were performed, and they were efficient to produce TL modifications in topaz. (author)

  1. Functionalized polypyrrole film: synthesis, characterization, and potential applications in chemical and biological sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Li, Chang Ming

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a carboxyl-functionalized polypyrrole derivative, a poly(pyrrole-N-propanoic acid) (PPPA) film, by electrochemical polymerization, and the investigation of its basic properties via traditional characterization techniques such as confocal-Raman, FTIR, SEM, AFM, UV-vis, fluorescence microscopy, and contact-angle measurements. The experimental data show that the as-prepared PPPA film exhibits a hydrophilic nanoporous structure, abundant -COOH functional groups in the polymer backbone, and high fluorescent emission under laser excitation. On the basis of these unique properties, further experiments were conducted to demonstrate three potential applications of the PPPA film in chemical and biological sensors: a permeable and permselective membrane, a membrane with specific recognition sites for biomolecule immobilization, and a fluorescent conjugated polymer for amplification of fluorescence quenching. Specifically, the permeability and permselectivity of ion species through the PPPA film are detected by means of rotating-disk-electrode voltammetry; the specific recognition sites on the film surface are confirmed with protein immobilization, and the amplification of fluorescence quenching is measured by the addition of a quenching agent with fluorescence microscopy. The results are in good agreement with our expectations.

  2. Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts: fabrication, characterization, and application in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peng, E-mail: pliu@lzu.edu.cn; Wang Yunjiao; Wang Xue; Yang Chao; Yi Yanfeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (China)

    2012-11-15

    Polypyrrole-coated samarium oxide nanobelts were synthesized by the in situ chemical oxidative surface polymerization technique based on the self-assembly of pyrrole on the surface of the amine-functionalized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanobelts. The morphologies of the polypyrrole/samarium oxide (PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscope. The UV-vis absorbance of these samples was also investigated, and the remarkable enhancement was clearly observed. The electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The results indicated that the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite electrode was fully reversible and achieved a very fast Faradaic reaction. After being corrected into the weight percentage of the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2} in a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} electrolyte solution, a maximum discharge capacity of 771 F g{sup -1} was achieved in a half-cell setup configuration for the PPy/Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites electrode with the potential application to electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors.

  3. Characterization of the proton irradiation induced luminescence of materials and application in radiation oncology dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darafsheh, Arash; Zhang, Rongxiao; Kassaee, Alireza; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2018-03-01

    Visible light generated as the result of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter can be used for radiation therapy quality assurance. In this work, we characterized the visible light observed during proton irradiation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silica glass fiber materials by performing luminescence spectroscopy. The spectra of the luminescence signal from PMMA and silica glass fibers during proton irradiation showed continuous spectra whose shape were different from that expected from Čerenkov radiation, indicating that Čerenkov radiation cannot be the responsible radioluminescence signal. The luminescence signal from each material showed a Bragg peak pattern and their corresponding proton ranges are in agreement with measurements performed by a standard ion chamber. The spectrum of the silica showed two peaks at 460 and 650 nm stem from the point defects of the silica: oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), respectively. The spectrum of the PMMA fiber showed a continuous spectrum with a peak at 410 nm whose origin is connected with the fluorescence of the PMMA material. Our results are of interest for various applications based on imaging radioluminescent signal in proton therapy and will inform on the design of high-resolution fiber probes for proton therapy dosimetry.

  4. A review on syntheses, properties, characterization and bioanalytical applications of fluorescent carbon dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pengli; Lu, Xiuhua; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Yuhan; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots) are a kind of fluorescent nanoparticles that are strongly fluorescent, non-blinking, and can be easily synthesized at low cost. Their emission color can be tuned by varying the excitation wavelength. Their properties make them strong competitors to semiconductor quantum dots. Synthetic approaches for C-dots can be classified into two categories, viz. top-down and bottom-up methods. Surface passivated and functionalized C-dots can be utilized to sense pH values, metal ions and organic molecules. Owing to their low cytotoxicity, biocompatibility and impressive photostability, long-term observations become possible. C-dots also show promise as labels and for bioimaging. This review (with 142 refs.) is divided into several sections. The first covers commonly used methods for preparation of C-dots including laser ablation, arc discharge, electrochemical methods, pyrolytic processes, template based methods, microwave assisted methods, chemical oxidation methods, reverse micelle based methods, etc. The first section also covers methods for surface functionalization and passivation. We continue by discussing the spectroscopic properties and other physical and chemical properties of C-dots (fluorescence, up-conversion fluorescence, methods for enhancing photoluminescence, effects of pH value, cytotoxicity, etc.). Another section covers the characterization including TEM and XRD. Applications in biology are summarized and subdivided into in vitro imaging, in vivo imaging, chemical probe, quantitation of biomacromolecules, but also in drug delivery, photoacoustic imaging and anticancer therapy. We finally discuss current challenges and perspectives in this promising field. (author)

  5. Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of MnMoO4 nanorods for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Sivaprakasam, Radhakrishnan; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we reported the preparation of manganese molybdate (MnMoO 4 ) nanorods by a facile sonochemical method and investigated its electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. The microstructure, surface morphology and composition were characterized by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of sonochemically synthesized α-MnMoO 4 nanorods revealed the presence of redox pairs suggesting the pseudocapacitive nature of MnMoO 4 . A maximum specific capacitance of the α-MnMoO 4 nanorods was about 168.32 F g −1 as observed from the galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) analysis at a constant current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 . Long term cyclic stability study revealed that about 96% of initial capacitance was retained after 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • MnMoO 4 nanorods were synthesized by sonochemical method. • FE-SEM studies show the rod like morphology of MnMoO 4 . • XRD studies show the presence of monoclinic phase of α-MnMoO 4 . • Specific capacitance of 168.32 F g −1 was achieved using charge–discharge analysis

  6. Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-silicon heterojunction for gamma radiation dosimetry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, Jane Maria Goncalves

    2004-08-01

    In this work a technique has been developed to fabricate high quality polyaniline-silicon heterojunction diodes for use as gas and/or ionizing radiation sensors. Polyaniline thin films (40 nm thick) produced by spin-coating on silicon substrates, were the active part of the junction structure. The devices presented excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics with high rectification ratio, 60,000 at ±1.0 V, and typical reverse current at - 1.0 V of 3 nA at 295 K. A G/I x G plot has been used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, yielding typical series resistance of 4 kΩ ± 5% and ideality factor in a range of 1,9 ± 0.5%. The heterojunction diode presents high sensitivity to gamma radiation in the dose range of 3 x 10 -2 to 7 kGy with a linear response in the forward and reverse bias. The excellent electrical characteristics together with the linear response with the dose, strongly suggest the application of this device for spectrometry or dosimetry of high doses of gamma radiation. These devices presented high sensitivity to gas moistures such as ammonia, nitric acid and trichloroethylene. In both cases the sensitivity was observed through shifts of the current-voltage curves, which can be easily monitored to provide a calibration curve of the sensor either as a radiation dosimeter or as a gas sensor for use in applications for gas monitoring or radiation dosimetry. Several aspects of the reliability physics of silicon-polyaniline heterojunction, such as degradation effects induced by local heating, charge trapping and temperature changes, have been discussed. These results further confirm the quality of the devices electrical characteristics and their suitability for radiation and gas sensors applications. Another interesting results presented in this work was the use of polyemeraldine nanofilms (thickness in the range 30-50 nm) deposited by 'spin coating' on glass substrates as an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation based on the

  7. Materials engineering, characterization, and applications of the organicbased magnet, V[TCNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harberts, Megan

    Organic materials have advantageous properties such as low cost and mechanical flexibility that have made them attractive to complement traditional materials used in electronics and have led to commercial success, especially in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Many rapidly advancing technologies incorporate magnetic materials, leading to the potential for creating analogous organic-based magnetic applications. The semiconducting ferrimagnet, vanadium tetracyanoethylene, V[TCNE]x˜2, exhibits room temperature magnetic ordering which makes it an attractive candidate. My research is focused on development of thin films of V[TCNE]x˜2 through advancement in growth, materials engineering, and applications. My thesis is broken up into two sections, the first which provides background and details of V[TCNE]x˜2 growth and characterization. The second section focuses on advances beyond V[TCNE]x˜2 film growth. The ordering of the chapters is for the ease of the reader, but encompasses work that I led and robust collaborations that I have participated in. V[TCNE]x˜2 films are deposited through a chemical vapor deposition process (CVD). My advancements to the growth process have led to higher quality films which have higher magnetic ordering temperatures, more magnetically homogenous samples, and extremely narrow ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidths. Beyond improvements in film growth, materials engineering has created new materials and structures with properties to compliment thin film V[TCNE]x˜2. Though a robust collaboration with chemistry colleagues, modification of the molecule TCNE has led to the creation of new magnetic materials vanadium methyl tricyanoethylene carboxylate, V[MeTCEC]x and vanadium ethyl tricyanoethylene carboxylate, V[ETCEC]x. Additionally, I have lead a project to deposit V[TCNE]x˜2 on periodically patterned substrates leading to the formation of a 1-D array of V[TCNE]x˜2 nanowires. These arrays exhibit in-plane magnetic anisotropy

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanide based nanomaterials for radiation detection and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingzhen

    2011-12-01

    Lanthanide based nanomaterials have shown a great potential in various areas such as luminescence imaging, luminescent labels, and detection of cellular functions. Due to the f-f transitions of the metal ion, luminescence of lanthanide ions is characterized by sharp and narrow emissions. In this dissertation lanthanide based nanoparticles such as Ce3+, Eu3+ and other lanthanide ions doped LaF3 were synthesized, their characterization, encapsulation and embedding into hybrid matrix were investigated and some of their biomedical and radiological applications were studied. DMSO is a common solvent which has been used widely for biological applications. LaF3:Ce nanoparticles were synthesized in DMSO and it was found that their fluorescent emission originates from the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited states. After conjugation with PpIX and then encapsulation within PLGA, the particles show efficient uptake by cancer cells and great cytotoxicity, which is promising for applications in cancer treatments. However, the emission of Eu3+ in DMSO is totally different from LaF3:Ce, very strong characteristic luminescence is observed but no emissions from metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited states as observed in LaF3:Ce in DMSO. Besides, it is very interesting to see that the coupling of Eu 3+ with O-H oscillations after water was introduced has an opposite effect on emission peaks at 617 nm and its shoulder peak at 613 nm. As a result, the intensity ratio of these two emissions has a nearly perfect linear dependence on increasing water concentration in Eu-DMSO, which provides a very convenient and valuable method for water determination in DMSO. Ce3+ has been well known as an emitter for radiation detection due to its very short decay lifetime. However, its emission range limited the environment in which the detection system works. Whereas, Quantum dots have high luminescence quantum efficiency but their low stopping power results in very weak scintillation

  9. A new application of hyperspectral radiometry: the characterization of painted surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Salvatici, Teresa; Camaiti, Mara; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Moretti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral sensors, working in the Visible-Near Infrared and Short Wave Infrared (VNIR-SWIR) regions, are widely employed for geological applications since they can discriminate many inorganic (e.g. mineral phases) and organic compounds (i.e. vegetations and soils) [1]. Their advantage is to work in the portion of the solar spectrum used for remote sensors. Some examples of application of the hyperspectral sensors to the conservation of cultural heritage are also known. These applications concern the detection of gypsum on historical buildings [2], and the monitoring of organic protective materials on stone surfaces [3]. On the contrary, hyperspectral radiometry has not been employed on painted surfaces. Indeed, the characterization of these surfaces is mainly performed with sophisticated, micro-destractive and time-consuming laboratory analyses (i.e. SEM-EDS, FTIR and, GC-MS spectroscopy) or through portable and non-invasive instruments (mid FTIR, micro Raman, XRF, FORS) which work in different spectral ranges [4,5]. In this work the discrimination of many organic and inorganic components from paintings was investigated through a hyperspectral spectroradiometer ,which works in the 350-2500 nm region. The reflectance spectra were collected by the contact reflectance probe, equipped with an internal light source with fixed geometry of illumination and shot. Several standards samples, selected among the most common materials of paintings, were prepared and analysed in order to collect reference spectra. The standards were prepared with powders of 7 pure pigments, films of 5 varnishes (natural and synthetic), and films of 3 dried binding media. Monochromatic painted surfaces have also been prepared and investigated to verify the identification of different compounds on the surface. The results show that the discrimination of pure products is possible in the VNIR-SWIR region, except for compounds with similar composition (e.g. natural resins such as dammar and

  10. Exploring performance and energy tradeoffs for irregular applications: A case study on the Tilera many-core architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panyala, Ajay; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Manzano, Joseph B.; Tumeo, Antonino; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2017-06-01

    High performance, parallel applications with irregular data accesses are becoming a critical workload class for modern systems. In particular, the execution of such workloads on emerging many-core systems is expected to be a significant component of applications in data mining, machine learning, scientific computing and graph analytics. However, power and energy constraints limit the capabilities of individual cores, memory hierarchy and on-chip interconnect of such systems, thus leading to architectural and software trade-os that must be understood in the context of the intended application’s behavior. Irregular applications are notoriously hard to optimize given their data-dependent access patterns, lack of structured locality and complex data structures and code patterns. We have ported two irregular applications, graph community detection using the Louvain method (Grappolo) and high-performance conjugate gradient (HPCCG), to the Tilera many-core system and have conducted a detailed study of platform-independent and platform-specific optimizations that improve their performance as well as reduce their overall energy consumption. To conduct this study, we employ an auto-tuning based approach that explores the optimization design space along three dimensions - memory layout schemes, GCC compiler flag choices and OpenMP loop scheduling options. We leverage MIT’s OpenTuner auto-tuning framework to explore and recommend energy optimal choices for different combinations of parameters. We then conduct an in-depth architectural characterization to understand the memory behavior of the selected workloads. Finally, we perform a correlation study to demonstrate the interplay between the hardware behavior and application characteristics. Using auto-tuning, we demonstrate whole-node energy savings and performance improvements of up to 49:6% and 60% relative to a baseline instantiation, and up to 31% and 45:4% relative to manually optimized variants.

  11. A simple surface treatment and characterization of AA 6061 aluminum alloy surface for adhesive bonding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleema, N.; Sarkar, D.K.; Paynter, R.W.; Gallant, D.; Eskandarian, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A very simple surface treatment method to achieve excellent and durable aluminum adhesive bonding. ► Our method involves simple immersion of aluminum in very dilute NaOH solution at room temperature with no involvement of strong acids or multiple procedures. ► Surface analysis via various surface characterization techniques showed morphological and chemical modifications favorable for obtaining highly durable bond strengths on the treated surface. ► Safe, economical, reproducible and simple method, easily applicable in industries. - Abstract: Structural adhesive bonding of aluminum is widely used in aircraft and automotive industries. It has been widely noted that surface preparation of aluminum surfaces prior to adhesive bonding plays a significant role in improving the strength of the adhesive bond. Surface cleanliness, surface roughness, surface wettability and surface chemistry are controlled primarily by proper surface treatment methods. In this study, we have employed a very simple technique influencing all these criteria by simply immersing aluminum substrates in a very dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and we have studied the effect of varying the treatment period on the adhesive bonding characteristics. A bi-component epoxy adhesive was used to join the treated surfaces and the bond strengths were evaluated via single lap shear (SLS) tests in pristine as well as degraded conditions. Surface morphology, chemistry, crystalline nature and wettability of the NaOH treated surfaces were characterized using various surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), optical profilometry, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and contact angle goniometry. Excellent adhesion characteristics with complete cohesive failure of the adhesive were encountered on the NaOH treated surfaces that are comparable to the benchmark

  12. Characterization of diatomite and its application for the retention of radiocobalt: role of environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Guodong; Dong, Huaping; Li, Yimin

    2012-01-01

    Clay minerals have been extensively studied because of their strong sorption and complexation ability. In this work, diatomite was characterized by using acid–base titration. Retention of radionuclide 60 Co(II) from aqueous solution by sorption onto diatomite was investigated by using batch technique under various environmental conditions such as pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and temperature. The results indicated that the sorption of Co(II) onto diatomite was strongly dependent on pH. At low pH value, the sorption of Co(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na + /H + on diatomite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH value. The D–R model fitted the sorption isotherms better than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of Co(II) was an endothermic and spontaneous process. In addition, diatomite showed higher sorption capacity than that of lots of the sorbents reported in the literatures we surveyed. From the results of Co(II) removal by diatomite, the optimum reaction conditions can be obtained for the maximum removal of Co(II) from water. It is clear that the best pH values of the system to remove Co(II) from solution by using diatomite are 7–8. Considering the low cost and effective disposal of Co(II)-contaminated wastewaters, the best condition for Co(II) removal is at room temperature and solid content of 0.5 g/L. The results might be important for assessing the potential of practical application of diatomite in Co(II) and related radionuclide pollution management. - Highlights: ► The sorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at low pH, but independent of ionic strength at high pH. ► A positive effect of HA/FA on Co(II) sorption was found at low pH, whereas a negative effect

  13. Joint application of non-invasive techniques to characterize the dynamic behaviuor of engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallipoli, M. R.; Perrone, A.; Stabile, T. A.; Ponzo, F. C.; Ditommaso, R.

    2012-04-01

    The systematic monitoring of strategic civil infrastructures such as bridges, large dams or high-rise buildings in order to ensure their structural stability is a strategic issue particularly in earthquake-prone regions. Nevertheless, in areas less exposed to seismic hazard, the monitoring is also an important tool for civil engineers, for instance if they have to deal with structures exposed to heavy operational demands for extended periods of time and whose structural integrity might be in question or at risk. A continuous monitoring of such structures allows the identification of their fundamental response characteristics and the changes of these over time, the latter representing indicators for potential structural degradation. The aim of this paper is the estimation of fundamental dynamic parameters of some civil infrastructures by the joint application of fast executable, non-invasive techniques such as the Ambient Noise Standard Spectral Ratio, and Ground-Based microwave Radar Interferometer techniques. The joint approach combine conventional, non-conventional and innovative techniques in order to set up a non destructive evaluation procedure allowing for a multi-sensing monitoring at a multi-scale and multi-depth levels (i.e. with different degrees of spatial resolution and different subsurface depths). In particular, techniques based on ambient vibration recordings have become a popular tool for characterizing the seismic response and state-of-health of strategic civil infrastructure. The primary advantage of these approaches lies in the fact that no transient earthquake signals or even active excitation of the structure under investigation are required. The microwave interferometry radar technology, it has proven to be a powerful remote sensing tool for vibration measurement of structures, such as bridge, heritage architectural structures, vibrating stay cables, and engineering structures. The main advantage of this radar technique is the possibility to

  14. Transformation from layered to tunnel structures: Synthesis, characterization, and applications of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang

    Manganese oxide based octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been found to have a wide variety of applications as catalysts, absorbents, and battery materials due to their unique structures and physical and chemical properties. OMS materials are made up of manganese oxide octahedral building blocks sharing comers and edges to form tunnel structures. Manganese species in the framework of OMS materials are mixed valent with various ion-exchangeable cations residing in the tunnels playing important roles in charge balancing and special chemical activities. With different synthetic parameters such as the template used, temperature, pressure, and the pH of the synthetic media, layered birnessite materials were hydrothermally transformed into distinct tunnel structures with different tunnel sizes, including Mg-3x3 (OMS-1), NH4-2x2 (NH4-OMS-2), Na-2x4 (OMS-5), and other manganese oxides. Characterization of the OMS materials with a wide variety of instruments has revealed that most of them are nano-fibrous hollow crystals ith large surface areas, high ion-exchange capabilities, and relatively high thermal stabilities. The Na-2x4 tunnel structure sodium MnOx has been synthesized for the first time and studied in detail, including synthetic strategies, structural analyses, and other physical and chemical property analyses. As catalysts, the synthetic OMS materials show high catalytic activities and shape-selective properties. For example, the results of the competitive oxidation of cycloalkanes with tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) over different tunnel sized ONIS materials have proven that the OMS materials with larger tunnels are more favorable for the oxidation of the biggest molecule, cyclooctane, than the smallest one, cyclohexane. Besides the tunnel size effects, tunnel cations in the OMS materials also have influences on their catalytic activities. The study of carbon monoxide cleanup for fuel cell applications demonstrates that Ag-OMS-2 (a hollandite

  15. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite gel and its application as scaffold aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a technique used to synthesize materials from colloidal suspensions and, therefore, is suitable for preparing materials in the nanoscale. In this work hydroxyapatite was used due to its known properties in tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO46(OH2 is a bioactive ceramic which is found in the mineral phase of bone tissue and is known for its great potential in tissue engineering applications. For this reason, this material can be applied as particle aggregates on ceramic slurry, coating or film on materials with a poorer biological response than hydroxyapatite. In this work, hydroxyapatite gel was obtained by the sol-gel process and applied as nanoparticle aggregation in the mixture of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate to form a ceramic slurry. This process is the polymer foam replication technique used to produce scaffolds, which are used in tissue engineering. For HA gel characterization it was used enviromental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The crystallite size was calculated from XRD data using the Scherrer equation. The nanoparticles size before firing was approximately 5nm. The crystallite size calculated after calcination was approximately 63 nm. The EELS results showed that calcium phosphate was obtained before firing. After HA gel calcination at 500 ºC the XRD results showed hydroxyapatite with a small content of beta-TCP. The scaffolds obtained by polymer foam replication technique showed a morphology with adequate porosity for tissue engineering.

  17. Characterization of cellular solids in Ti6Al4V for orthopaedic implant applications: Trabecular titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E; Fusi, S; Pressacco, M; Paussa, L; Fedrizzi, L

    2010-07-01

    EBM (Electron Beam Melting) technology can be used successfully to obtain cellular solids in metallic biomaterials that can greatly increase osseointegration in arthroprothesis and at the same time maintain good mechanical properties. The investigated structures, called Trabecular Titanium, usually cannot be obtained by traditional machining. Two samples: (A) with a smaller single cell area and, (B) with a bigger single cell area, were produced and studied in this project. They have been completely characterized and compared with the results in similar literature pertinent to Ti6Al4V EBM structures. Relative density was evaluated using different methods, the mean diameter of the open porosities was calculated by Scanning Electron Microscope images; the composition was evaluated using Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy; the microstructure (alpha-beta) was investigated using chemical etching and, the mechanical proprieties were investigated using UMTS. The mean porosity values resulted comparable with spongy bone (63% for A and 72% for B). The mean diameter of the single porosity (650 mum for A and 1400 mum for B) resulted compatible with the osseointegration data from the literature, in particular for sample A. The Vickers micro-hardness tests and the chemical etching demonstrated that the structure is fine, uniform and well distributed. The mechanical test proved that sample (A) was more resistant than sample (B), but sample (B) showed an elastic modulus almost equal to the value of spongy bone. The results of this study suggest that the two Ti6Al4V cellular solids can be used in biomedical applications to promote osseointegration demonstrating that they maybe successfully used in prosthetic implants. Additional implant results will be published in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxygen Optode Sensors: Principle, Characterization, Calibration, and Application in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C. Bittig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, measurements of oxygen concentration in the ocean—one of the most classical parameters in chemical oceanography—are experiencing a revival. This is not surprising, given the key role of oxygen for assessing the status of the marine carbon cycle and feeling the pulse of the biological pump. The revival, however, has to a large extent been driven by the availability of robust optical oxygen sensors and their painstakingly thorough characterization. For autonomous observations, oxygen optodes are the sensors of choice: They are used abundantly on Biogeochemical-Argo floats, gliders and other autonomous oceanographic observation platforms. Still, data quality and accuracy are often suboptimal, in some part because sensor and data treatment are not always straightforward and/or sensor characteristics are not adequately taken into account. Here, we want to summarize the current knowledge about oxygen optodes, their working principle as well as their behavior with respect to oxygen, temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and response time. The focus will lie on the most widely used and accepted optodes made by Aanderaa and Sea-Bird. We revisit the essentials and caveats of in-situ in air calibration as well as of time response correction for profiling applications, and provide requirements for a successful field deployment. In addition, all required steps to post-correct oxygen optode data will be discussed. We hope this summary will serve as a comprehensive, yet concise reference to help people get started with oxygen observations, ensure successful sensor deployments and acquisition of highest quality data, and facilitate post-treatment of oxygen data. In the end, we hope that this will lead to more and higher-quality oxygen observations and help to advance our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry in a changing ocean.

  19. Characterization of CdSe-nanocrystals used in semiconductors for aerospace applications: Production and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof A. Hegazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s are the materials with dimensions less than 10 nm. When the dimensions of nanocrystals are reduced the bulk bohr diameter, the photo generated electron-hole pair becomes confined and nanocrystal exhibits size dependent upon optical properties. This work is focused on the studying of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals. These nanocrystals are considered as one of the most widely studies semiconductors because of their size – tunable optical properties from the visible spectrum. CdSe-nanocrystals are produced and obtained throughout the experimental setup initiated at Nano-NRIAG Unit (NNU, which has been constructed and assembled at NRIAG institute. This unit has a specific characterization for preparing chemical compositions, which may be used for solar cell fabrications and space science technology. The materials prepared included cadmium oxide and selinid have sizes ranging between 2.27 nm and 3.75 nm. CdSe-nanocrystals are synthesized in “TOP/TOPO (tri–octyl phosphine/tri–octyl phosphine oxide. Diagnostic tools, include UV analysis, TEM microscope, and X-ray diffraction, which are considered for the analytical studies of the obtained materials. The results show that, in this size regime, the generated particles have unique optical properties, which is achieved from the UV analysis. Also, the TEM image analysis shows the size and shape of the produced particles. These studies are carried out to optimize the photoluminescent efficiency of these nanoparticles. Moreover, the data revealed that, the grain size of nanocrystals is dependent upon the growth time in turn, it leads to a change in the energy gap. Some applications of this class of materials are outlined.

  20. Dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and potential computed tomography imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi; Peng, Chen; Guo, Rui; Zheng, Linfeng; Qin, Jinbao; Zhou, Benqing; Shen, Mingwu; Lu, Xinwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2013-06-07

    We report here a general approach to synthesizing dendrimer-stabilized bismuth sulfide nanoparticles (Bi2S3 DSNPs) for potential computed tomography (CT) imaging applications. In this study, ethylenediamine core glycidol hydroxyl-terminated generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G4.NGlyOH) were used as stabilizers to first complex the Bi(III) ions, followed by reaction with hydrogen sulfide to generate Bi2S3 DSNPs. By varying the molar ratio of Bi atom to dendrimer, stable Bi2S3 DSNPs with an average size range of 5.2-5.7 nm were formed. The formed Bi2S3 DSNPs were characterized via different techniques. X-ray absorption coefficient measurements show that the attenuation of Bi2S3 DSNPs is much higher than that of iodine-based CT contrast agent at the same molar concentration of the active element (Bi versus iodine). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay and hemolysis assay reveal that the formed Bi2S3 DSNPs are noncytotoxic and have a negligible hemolysis effect in the studied concentration range. Furthermore, we show that cells incubated with the Bi2S3 DSNPs are able to be imaged using CT, a prominent enhancement at the point of rabbit injected subcutaneously with the Bi2S3 DSNPs is able to be visualized via CT scanning, and the mouse's pulmonary vein can be visualized via CT after intravenous injection of the Bi2S3 DSNPs. With the good biocompatibility, enhanced X-ray attenuation property, and tunable dendrimer chemistry, the designed Bi2S3 DSNPs should be able to be further functionalized, allowing them to be used as a highly efficient contrast agent for CT imaging of different biological systems.

  1. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aresta, Antonella; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375–503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization of novel multilayer mirrors intended for astronomical and laboratory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozin, Eugene N.; Mednikov, Konstantin N.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Reva, Anton A.; Shestov, Sergei V.; Ul'yanov, Artem S.; Vishnyakov, Eugene A.

    2009-05-01

    We report measurements of the reflection spectra of (i) concave (spherical and parabolic) Mo/Si, Mg/Si, and Al/Zr multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for imaging solar spectroscopy in the framework of the TESIS/CORONAS-FOTON Satellite Project and of (ii) an aperiodic Mo/Si MM optimized for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 125-250 Å range intended for laboratory applications. The reflection spectra were measured in the configuration of a transmission grating spectrometer employing the radiation of a tungsten laser-driven plasma as the source. The function of detectors was fulfilled by backside-illuminated CCDs coated with Al or Zr/Si multilayer absorption filters. High-intensity second-order interference reflection peaks at wavelengths of about 160 Å were revealed in the reflection spectra of the 304-Å Mo/Si MMs. By contrast, the second-order reflection peak in the spectra of the new-generation narrow-band (~12 Å FWHM) 304-Å Mg/Si MMs is substantially depressed. Manifestations of the NEXAFS structure of the L2, 3 absorption edges of Al and Al2O3 were observed in the spectra recorded. The broadband Mo/Si MM was employed as the focusing element of spectrometers in experiments involving (i) the charge exchange of multiply charged ions with the donor atoms of a rare-gas jet; (ii) the spectroscopic characterization of a debris-free soft X-ray radiation source excited by Nd laser pulses in a Xe jet (iii) near-IR-to-soft-X-ray frequency conversion (double Doppler effect) occurring in the retroreflection from the relativistic electron plasma wake wave (flying mirror) driven by a multiterawatt laser in a pulsed helium jet.

  3. Processing and characterization of amorphous magnesium based alloy for application in biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanco Matias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based bulk metallic glasses are attractive due to their single-phase, chemically homogeneous alloy system and the absence of second-phase, which could impair the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, one of the unsolved problems for the manufacturability and the applications of bulk metallic glasses is that their glass-forming ability is very sensitive to the preparation techniques and impurity of components since oxygen in the environment would markedly deteriorate the glass-forming ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish proper processing conditions to obtain a magnesium-based amorphous ternary alloy and its characterization. The final composition was prepared using two binary master alloys by melting in an induction furnace. Carbon steel crucible was used in argon atmosphere with and without addition of SF6 gas in order to minimize the oxygen contamination. The microstructure, amorphous nature, thermal properties and chemical analysis of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, respectively. The oxygen content of the as-cast samples was chemically analyzed by using carrier gas hot extraction (O/N Analyzer TC-436/LECO and was kept bellow 25 ppm (without SF6 and 10 ppm (with SF6. Bulk samples were produced by rapid cooling in a cooper mold until 1.5 mm thickness, with amorphous structures being observed up to 2.5 mm.

  4. Characterization of TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Honglin; Xiong, Guangyao; Hu, Da; Ren, Kaijing; Yao, Fanglian; Zhu, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wan, Yizao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of active groups on the surface of bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers is one of the promising routes of tailoring the performance of BC scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper reported the introduction of aldehyde groups to BC nanofibers by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and evaluation of the potential of the TEMPO-oxidized BC as tissue engineering scaffolds. Periodate oxidation was also conducted for comparison. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out to determine the existence of aldehyde groups on BC nanofibers and the crystallinity. In addition, properties relevant to scaffold applications such as morphology, fiber diameter, mechanical properties, and in vitro degradation were characterized. The results indicated that periodate oxidation could introduce free aldehyde to BC nanofibers and the free aldehyde groups on the TEMPO-oxidized BC tended to transfer to acetal groups. It was also found that the advantageous 3D structure of BC scaffolds remained unchanged and that no significant changes in morphology, fiber diameter, tensile structure and in vitro degradation were found after TEMPO-mediated oxidation while significant differences were observed upon periodate oxidation. The present study revealed that TEMPO-oxidation could impart BC scaffolds with new functions while did not degrade their intrinsic advantages. - Highlights: • TEMPO-mediated oxidation on BC scaffold for tissue engineering use was conducted. • TEMPO-mediated oxidation did not degrade the intrinsic advantages of BC scaffold. • TEMPO-mediated oxidation could impart BC scaffold with new functional groups. • Feasibility of TEMPO-oxidized BC as tissue engineering scaffold was confirmed

  5. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  6. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, Antonella, E-mail: antonellamaria.aresta@uniba.it; Calvano, Cosima Damiana [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio [University of Bari, Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences (Italy); Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-{beta}-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  7. Medical applications: a database and characterization of apps in Apple iOS and Android platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Heather J; Stromer, Julie N; Shevkenek, Cole; Bharwani, Aleem; de Grood, Jill; Ghali, William A

    2014-08-27

    Medical applications (apps) for smart phones and tablet computers are growing in number and are commonly used in healthcare. In this context, there is a need for a diverse community of app users, medical researchers, and app developers to better understand the app landscape. In mid-2012, we undertook an environmental scan and classification of the medical app landscape in the two dominant platforms by searching the medical category of the Apple iTunes and Google Play app download sites. We identified target audiences, functions, costs and content themes using app descriptions and captured these data in a database. We only included apps released or updated between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, with a primary "medical" app store categorization, in English, that contained health or medical content. Our sample of Android apps was limited to the most popular apps in the medical category. Our final sample of Apple iOS (n = 4561) and Android (n = 293) apps illustrate a diverse medical app landscape. The proportion of Apple iOS apps for the public (35%) and for physicians (36%) is similar. Few Apple iOS apps specifically target nurses (3%). Within the Android apps, those targeting the public dominated in our sample (51%). The distribution of app functions is similar in both platforms with reference being the most common function. Most app functions and content themes vary considerably by target audience. Social media apps are more common for patients and the public, while conference apps target physicians. We characterized existing medical apps and illustrated their diversity in terms of target audience, main functions, cost and healthcare topic. The resulting app database is a resource for app users, app developers and health informatics researchers.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of nanozeolite NaX from Vietnamese kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, Don Ta; Pham, Thanh Huyen; Hong Nguyen, Khanh Dieu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of synthesis of nanozeolite NaX from Vietnamese kaolin. Influence factors on the control of crystal sizes and application of synthesized materials as adsorbent for organic compound are discussed. The results show that there are several factors that influence the synthesis. When water content in gel increases, crystal size of NaX increases sharply. The increase of alkaline and silica contents increases the crystallinity and decreases the particle size of nano NaX, and the particle size reaches the minimum at Na 2 O/Al 2 O 3 = 5.0 and SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 = 4.0. Crystal sizes formed at low crystallizing temperature are smaller than those formed at higher temperature. Ageing time and crystallizing time strongly influence the crystallinity and crystal size, which is related to the number of crystal seeds formed during ageing period, the growth of seed and the partial solubility of crystal at maximum formation. Nano NaX was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) adsorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and simultaneous thermogravimetry–differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC). At optimized synthesis conditions, nano NaX has surface area of 573 m 2 g −1 with external surface area of 92 m 2 g −1 , pore size distribution at 0.81 and 10.8 nm, average crystal size of 25 nm and thermal stability up to 789 °C. This material can adsorb cumene rapidly with high adsorption capacity and stability. (paper)

  9. Characterization of diatomite and its application for the retention of radiocobalt: role of environmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Guodong; Dong, Huaping; Li, Yimin

    2012-11-01

    Clay minerals have been extensively studied because of their strong sorption and complexation ability. In this work, diatomite was characterized by using acid-base titration. Retention of radionuclide (60)Co(II) from aqueous solution by sorption onto diatomite was investigated by using batch technique under various environmental conditions such as pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and temperature. The results indicated that the sorption of Co(II) onto diatomite was strongly dependent on pH. At low pH value, the sorption of Co(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na(+)/H(+) on diatomite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH value. The D-R model fitted the sorption isotherms better than the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH(0), ΔS(0) and ΔG(0)) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of Co(II) was an endothermic and spontaneous process. In addition, diatomite showed higher sorption capacity than that of lots of the sorbents reported in the literatures we surveyed. From the results of Co(II) removal by diatomite, the optimum reaction conditions can be obtained for the maximum removal of Co(II) from water. It is clear that the best pH values of the system to remove Co(II) from solution by using diatomite are 7-8. Considering the low cost and effective disposal of Co(II)-contaminated wastewaters, the best condition for Co(II) removal is at room temperature and solid content of 0.5 g/L. The results might be important for assessing the potential of practical application of diatomite in Co(II) and related radionuclide pollution management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and characterization of monodisperse uranium particles for nuclear safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Environmental sampling is a very effective measure to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Generally, samples are taken as swipe samples on cotton. These swipes contain minute quantities of particulates which have an inherent signature of their production and release scenario. These inspection samples are assessed for their morphology, elemental composition and their isotopic vectors. Mass spectrometry plays a crucial role in determining the isotopic ratios of uranium. Method validation and instrument calibration with well-characterized quality control (QC)-materials, reference materials (RMs) and certified reference materials (CRMs) ensures reliable data output. Currently, the availability of suitable well defined microparticles containing uranium and plutonium reference materials is very limited. Primarily, metals, oxides and various uranium and plutonium containing solutions are commercially available. Therefore, the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Services (SGAS) cooperates with the Institute of Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6) at the Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH in a joint task entitled ''Production of Particle Reference Materials''. The work presented in this thesis has been partially funded by the IAEA, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH and the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) through the ''Joint Program on the Technical Development and Further Improvement of IAEA Safeguards between the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and the IAEA''. The first step towards monodisperse microparticles was the development of pure uranium oxide particles made from certified reference materials. The focus of the dissertation is (1) the implementation of a working setup to produce monodisperse uranium oxide particles and (2) the characterization of these particles towards the application as QC-material. Monodisperse uranium oxide particles were produced by spray pyrolysis. It was

  11. Synthesis and characterization of bioresorbable calcium phosphosilicate nanocomposite particles for fluorescence imaging and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas T.

    Organically doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) were developed and characterized, driven by the need for non-toxic vectors for drug delivery and fluorescence biological imaging applications. In particular, advancement in drug delivery for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers is required to increase drug efficacy and improve patient quality of life. Additionally, brighter and more photostable fluorophores are needed to meet demands for improved sensitivity and experimental diversity, which may lead to improvements in early detection of solid tumors and advancement in understanding of biological processes. A literature survey on the state of the field for nanoparticle based biological fluorescence imaging and drug delivery is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 focuses on the characterization techniques used in this work. The development and optical characterization of 20-40 nm diameter, citrate functionalized Cy3 amidite doped calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (Cy3 CPSNPs) for in vitro fluorescence imaging is outlined in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. In particular, sodium citrate was used to functionalize the surface and provide electrosteric dispersion of these particles. CPSNPs stabilized with sodium citrate routinely exhibited highly negative zeta potentials greater than -25 mV in magnitude. Furthermore, the fluorescence quantum yield of the encapsulated fluorophore was improved by more than 4.5-fold when compared to the unencapsulated dye. The bioimaging and drug delivery capability of CPSNPs was explored. Cy3 CPSNPs dissolved quickly in the acidic environment experienced during endocytosis, releasing the encapsulated fluorophore. This is consistent with solution phase experiments that show the particles are dissolved at pH 5. CPSNPs loaded with fluorescein and a hydrophobic growth inhibitor, ceramide C6, proved the ability to simultaneously image and delivery of the hydrophobic drug to cells in vitro. Chapter 5 examined the colloidal

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Applications of Transition Metal Oxide/Carbonate Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei

    2011-12-01

    This thesis contains two parts: 1) Studies of novel synthesis methods and characterization of advanced functional manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) and their applications in Li/Air batteries, solvent free toluene oxidations, and ethane oxydehydrogenation (ODH) in the presence of CO2, recycling the green house gas. 2) Development of unique Ln2O2CO3 (Ln = rare earth) layered materials and ZnO/La2O2CO3 composites as clean energy biofuel catalysts. These parts are separated into five different focused topics included in this thesis. The first topic presents studies of catalytic activities of a single step synthesized gamma-MnO2 octahedral molecular sieve nano fiber in solvent free atmospheric oxidation of toluene with molecular oxygen. Solvent free atmospheric oxidation of toluene is a notoriously difficult liquid phase oxidation process due to the challenge of oxidizing sp³ hybridized carbon in inactive hydrocarbons. The synthesized gamma-MnO2 showed excellent catalytic activity and good selectivity under the mild atmospheric reflux system. Under optimized conditions, a 47.8% conversion of toluene, along with 57% selectivity of benzoic acid and 15% of benzaldehyde were obtained. The effects of reaction time, amount of catalyst and initiator, and the reusability of the catalyst were investigated. The second topic involves developing titanium containing gamma-MnO 2 (TM) hollow spheres as electrocatalysts in Li/Air Batteries. Li/air batteries have recently attracted interest because they have the largest theoretical specific energy (11,972 Wh.kg-1) among all practical electrochemical couples. In this study, unique hollow aspheric materials were prepared for the first time using a one-step synthesis method and fully characterized by various techniques. These prepared materials were found to have excellent electrocatalytic activation as cathode materials in lithium-air batteries with a very high specific capacity (up to 2.3 A.h/g of carbon). The third

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with perspectives in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani, Javier Bustamante, E-mail: javierbm@einstein.br [Hospital Israelita Alberto Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gamarra, Lionel Fernel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Neurocirurgia; Brito, Giancarlo Esposito de Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Aplicada

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays the use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in medical applications has exceeded expectations. In molecular imaging, MNP based on iron oxide coated with appropriated materials have several applications in vitro and in vivo studies. For applications in nanobiotechnology these MNP must present some characteristics such as size smaller than 100 nanometers, high magnetization values, among others. Therefore the MNP have physical and chemical properties that are specific to certain studies which must be characterized for quality control of the nanostructured material. This study presents the synthesis and characterization of MNP of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) dispersible in water with perspectives in a wide range of biomedical applications. The characterization of the colloidal suspension based on MNP stated that the average diameter is (12.6±0.2) nm determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy where the MNP have the crystalline phase of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) that was identified by Diffraction X-ray and confirmed by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The blocking temperature of (89±1) K, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP property, was determined from magnetic measurements based on the Zero Field Cooled and Field Cooled methods. The hysteresis loops were measured at different temperatures below and above blocking temperature. The magnetometry determined that the MNP showed superparamagnetic behavior confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance. (author)

  14. Characterization of physical properties of Al2O3 and ZrO2 nanofluids for heat transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marcelo S.; Cabral, Eduardo L.L.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Yoriyaz, Helio; Lima, Ana Cecilia S.; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Prado, Adelk C.; Filho, Tufic M.; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Shorto, Julian M.B.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Otubo, Larissa; Baptista Filho, Benedito D.; Pinho, Priscila G.M.; Ribatsky, Gherhardt; Moraes, Anderson Antonio Ubices

    2015-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that nanofluids based on metal oxide nanoparticles have physical properties that characterize them as promising fluids, mainly, in industrial systems in which high heat flux takes place. Water based nanofluids of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 were characterized regarding its promising use in heat transfer applications. Three different concentrations of dispersed solutions of cited nanofluids were prepared (0.01% vol., 0.05% vol., and 0.1% vol.) from commercial nanofluids. Experimental measurements were carried out at different temperatures. Thermal conductivity, viscosity and density of the prepared nanofluids were measured. (author)

  15. The application of aberration-corrected electron microscopy to the characterization of gold-based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzing, Andrew A.

    prepared using more traditional methods. The combination of STEM-HAADF imaging and XEDS mapping has been used to characterize these catalysts and a strong correlation between the catalytic activity and the enhanced degree of metal dispersion over the support is demonstrated. Thirdly, a systematic series of Au-Pd/Al2O3 catalysts has been studied in order to characterize the effects of various heat treatments on the development of core-shell morphologies within the bi-metallic particles and its subsequent effect on their catalytic performance for H2O 2 synthesis. STEM-XEDS spectrum imaging was employed in order to determine the degree of alloying and segregation behavior within the individual Au-Pd particles as a function of calcination/reduction temperature. It was found that the as prepared catalyst contained homogeneous Au-Pd alloy particles and that a Pd-rich shell/Au-rich core morphology gradually developed upon calcination. Subsequent reduction of the catalyst caused a large fraction of the particles to invert and form Pd-rich core/Au-rich shell structures. These changes are related to both the activity and stability of the catalyst. Finally, the washing of activated carbon support materials in acid was found to be extremely beneficial for producing Au-Pd catalysts for the direct synthesis of H2O2. STEM-HAADF imaging revealed that the acid-washing treatment increased the dispersion of the metal on the carbon supports. Aberration-corrected STEM-XEDS spectrum imaging demonstrated a strong size dependence of the Au-Pd particle composition. Crucially, the acid-washing pre-treatment enhanced the alloying of Au and Pd by suppressing the formation of large (> 25 nm) Au-rich particles. In summary, the application of aberration-corrected HAADF imaging and STEM-XEDS spectrum imaging to the characterization of Au-based catalysts has enhanced the understanding of the structural and chemical features that determine their catalytic behavior. Specifically, they have allowed us to

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Smart Block Copolymers for Biomineralization and Biomedical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanapathipillai, Mathumai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    moieties depends on the pH of the solution. Polymers with polyzwitterions, anions and cations have been shown to exhibit pH responsive self assembly. Other stimuli responsive polymers include glucose sensitive polymers, calcium ion-sensitive polymers and so on. Progress in living radical polymerization (LRP) methods [10] has made it possible for the facile synthesis of these block copolymer systems with controlled molecular weights and well defined architectures. The overall theme of this work is to develop novel smart block copolymers for biomineralization and biomedical applications. Synthesis and characterization of self-assembling thermoreversible ionic block copolymers as templates in biomimetic nanocomposite synthesis using a bottom-up approach is a novel contribution in this respect. Further, we have extended these families of copolymers to include block copolymer-peptide conjugates to enhance biological specificity. Future directions on this work will focus on enhancing the polymer templating properties for biomineralization by expanding the family of block copolymers with organic polypeptides and biological polypeptide scaffolds as well as a detailed understanding of the polymer-inorganic nanocomposites at the molecular level using small angle scattering analysis. Glucose responsive polymer hydrogels for drug delivery, polymer-ligand conjugates for non-viral therapy and thermoresponsive injectable photocrosslinkable hydrogels for posttraumatic arthritis cartilage healing are other applications of these novel copolymers synthesized in our work.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  18. Study and characterization of semi-conductor materials III-V for their applications to the ionizing radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, H.

    1989-01-01

    This work is the study of photoconduction in volume of gallium arsenide and of indium phosphide doped with iron for their applications to X-ray detection which is carried out directly in the material. After having recalled the physical characterization of materials and the principle of photoconduction, we describe two informatic simulations. The first supposes the spatial uniformity of the electric field on the semiconductor, the second takes the spatial and temporal variations of the field into consideration. Then we show the advantage of a first irradiation to neutrons of the photoconductors. With the gallium arsenide there is swiftness improvement of the detectors to the detriment of the sensitivity. The second part studies first the characterizations in the obscurity of the photoconductors according to the electric polarization field and to the neutron dose they received before and then their characterizations under X radiation. 77 refs., 221 figs., 33 tabs., 6 photos., 3 annexes

  19. Electrospun nanofibers: Formation, characterization, and evaluation for nerve tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Nicole E.

    direction showed the most promise for use in cell culture assays. While surface chemistry and topography are important, porosity of the scaffold is also critical to control cellular infiltration and tissue formation. To enhance the porosity of our electrospun nanofiber scaffolds and improve the infiltration of cells, two methods were explored to control porosity. In the first method, the scaffold polymer polycaprolactone was co-electrospun with a sacrificial polymer polyethylene oxide, which was removed after the bi-component fiber mat was formed. In doing so, the void space was increased. In the second method, the spinning solution concentration of polycaprolactone was varied to control fiber diameter and porosity. The second method proved to be more effective at improving the cellular infiltration of PC12 cells. Two orders of magnitude range of fiber diameters were achieved, and nearly full infiltration of PC12 cells was observed for the mats with the highest porosity. The pore sizes of these mats were on the order of the size of the cell bodies (approximately 6-10 µm). Although the majority of this work focuses on using conventional electrospinning to generate solid-core fibers, core-shell fibers, have many applications in tissue engineering, among other fields. We explored an efficient way to generate these fibers from an emulsion solution using a conventional electrospinning apparatus. We characterized the fibers using an atomic force microscope (AFM) elastic modulus mapping technique, along with AFM phase imaging, angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis, to determine the chemical and molar composition of the core and shell layers. This work presents novel analytical techniques for the characterization of core-shell nanofibers in order to better predict and understand their material properties. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Characterizing Ductile Damage and Failure: Application of the Direct Current Potential Drop Method to Uncracked Tensile Specimens