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Sample records for characterizing low-level radioactive

  1. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  2. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  3. Low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 10 new disposal facilities for low level radioactive waste are now under development in the USA. They were planned in the wake of the highly visible failures of three such sites and a widespread loss of public confidence, both in shallow burial technology and the federal government's ability to regulate commercial waste disposal enterprises. The development of new technology and active involvement of state governments presents the nuclear power industry with its best opportunity for regaining the public confidence that it lost during the 1970s. This paper critically explores the fundamental technical, economic, political and value issues at stake in this process. (author)

  4. Characterization plan for a low-level radioactive waste site in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has been aggressively pursuing a site for the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the Authority started the site selection process intended to produce one suitable site. Following site selection, a three-step site characterization program will quantify the parameters which must be evaluated. Step I will be a prequalification of techniques and procedures. The purpose of Step I will be to identify those parameters critical to the characterization of an arid site and the methodologies most relevant to obtaining satisfactory data. Step II will be the actual on-site characterization studies. For ease in conducting the work, the studies will be broken down using three environmental regimes: surface, subsurface, and radiological. Step III will be a critical evaluation of the entire process to identify preferred methodologies and to provide guidance to other states and compacts, particularly those in arid regions. The program will be conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix F: Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study characterizes potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste streams, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates their radionuclide content and distribution. Several types of low-level radioactive wastes produced by light water reactors were identified in an earlier study as being potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste, including specific activated metal components and certain process wastes in the form of cartridge filters and decontamination resins. Light water reactor operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants were reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste generated per fuel cycle. The amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste were estimated as a function of fuel cycle. Component-specific radionuclide content and distribution was calculated for activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste streams were used to estimate radionuclide content and distribution for process wastes. The greater-than-Class C low-level waste volumes that could be generated through plant closure were also estimated, along with volumes and activities for potential greater-than-Class C activated metals generated at decommissioning

  6. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  7. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen ampersand Associates, Inc. (SC ampersand A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG ampersand G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information

  8. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen ampersand Associates, Inc. (SC ampersand A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG ampersand G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix H: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report develops and presents estimates for a set of three values that represent a reasonable range for the packaging factors for several waste streams that are potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level waste disposal container divided by the original, as-generated or ''unpackaged,'' volume of the wastes loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors take into account any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of a greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. The three values developed represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated volume of waste for disposal, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. Three categories of greater-than-Class C low-level waste are evaluated in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other wastes. Estimates of reasonable packaging factors for the low, base, and high cases for the specific waste streams in each category are shown in Table H-1

  10. Low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is an overview of the problem of radioactive waste management in general as a step in dealing with the issues it presents to emergency preparedness. Major topics covered include the following: types of radioactive waste; Low-level radioactive waste including an overview of regulations and the problems/possibilities of developing disposal sites; Barriers to LLRW disposal site development including technical issues, not in my backyard, not in my term of office, and legal issues; impacts created by lack of disposal; and possible solutions

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ''unpackaged'' volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste

  12. Site characterization field manual for near surface geologic disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field manual has been developed to aid states and regions to do a detailed characterization of a proposed near-surface low-level waste disposal site. The field manual is directed at planners, staff personnel and experts in one discipline to acquaint them with the requirements of other disciplines involved in site characterization. While it can provide a good review, it is not designed to tell experts how to do their job within their own discipline

  13. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7.5 double

  14. Characterization of organics in leachates from low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear industry, universities, research institutions, and hospitals are disposed of in shallow-land trenches and pits. In 1962 the first commercial disposal site was opened in Beatty, Nevada. Since then, the industry has grown to include three private companies operating six disposal areas located in sparsely populated areas: at Maxey Flats (Morehead), Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; Sheffield, Illinois; Barnwell, South Carolina; West Valley, New York; and Richland, Washington. Although the facilities are operated by private industry, they are located on public land and are subject to federal and state regulation. Although inventories of the radioactive materials buried in the disposal sites are available, no specific records are kept on the kinds and quantities of organic wastes buried. In general, the organic wastes consist of contaminated paper, packing materials, clothing, plastics, ion-exchange resins, scintillation vials, solvents, chemicals, decontamination fluids, carcasses of experimental animals, and solidification agents. Radionuclides such as 14C, 3H, 90Sr, 134137Cs, 60Co, 241Am, and 238239240Pu have been identified in leachate samples collected from several trenches at Maxey Flats and West Valley. The purpose of this report is to identify some of the organic compounds present in high concentrations in trench leachates at the disposal sites in order to begin to evaluate their effect on radionuclide mobilization and contamination of the environment

  15. Characterization and assessment for the Weldon Spring Quarry low-level radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Weldon Spring Quarry is located approximately 4 miles from the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and 20 miles west of St. Louis. Originally a limestone and sand quarry, the 9 acre site was later used for the disposal of TNT-contaminated soils during the 1940's and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste during the 1960's. The most important potential hazards posed by the quarry are contamination of groundwater, radiation exposure and contamination of trespassers, and contamination of surface waters. The potential for groundwater contamination was identified at an early date by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as the most important of these potential hazards. Particular concern exists for the future of the municipal well field located between the quarry and the Missouri River. At the present time the well field supplies drinking water for the area from Weldon Spring up to and including parts of the city of St. Charles. Chapters are devoted to geology, waste inventory, hydrology, investigations of radionuclide migration from the quarry, numerical modeling of engineering options, and raffinate pits. 40 references, 182 figures, 49 tables, 7 appendixes

  16. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  17. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP

  18. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 6: Appendices G--J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  19. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  20. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  1. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 2: Main report -- Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the, waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  2. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix D-3: Characterization of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from other generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Other Generators category includes all greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) that is not generated or held by nuclear utilities or sealed sources licensees or that is not stored at Department of Energy facilities. To determine the amount of waste within this category, 90 LLW generators were contacted; 13 fit the Other Generators category. Based on information received from the 13 identified Other Generators, the GTCC LLW Management Program was able to (a) characterize the nature of industries in this category, (b) estimate the 1993 inventory of Other Generator waste for high, base, and low cases, and (c) project inventories to the year 2035 for high, base, and low cases. Assumptions were applied to each of the case estimates to account for generators who may not have been identified in this study

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m3 to 187 m3, depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging

  6. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  7. Site characterization and performance assessment for a low-level radioactive waste management site in the American Southwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site located in southern Nevada, has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste since 1961. The site is located in the Mohave Desert of the American Southwest, an extremely arid region receiving as little as 0.1 m/yr of precipitation. Site characterization studies have measured the physical, hydrologic, and geochemical properties of core samples collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 3 deep boreholes that extend through the unsaturated zone to the uppermost aquifer. Results indicate that the unsaturated zone consists of 240 m of dry alluvial sediments and is remarkably uniform with respect to most physical parameters. Measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth showed no evidence of trends, layering, or anisotropy. Parameters for hydraulic functions were not highly variable and exhibited little trend with depth. Water potential profiles indicate that water movement in the upper alluvium is upward, except immediately following a precipitation event. Below the evaporative zone, the liquid flux was downward and of the same order of magnitude as the upward thermal vapor flux induced by the geothermal gradient. The extreme climatic conditions at the site reduce or eliminate many radionuclide release and transport mechanisms. Downward transport of radionuclides to the uppermost aquifer appears unlikely under current climatic conditions. Important radionuclide transport pathways appear to be limited to upward diffusion and advection of gases and biologically-mediated transport. Conceptual models of disposal site performance have been developed based on site characterization studies. The limited transport pathways and limited land use potential of the site provide reasonable assurance that regulatory performance objectives can be met

  8. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  12. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating

  14. Processing system for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes are successively charged into a container while sliding a partition plate such that the wastes are kept substantially in a fully charged state in the direction of the height. Radiation rays from the low level radioactive wastes contained in the container are measured by a radiation dose measuring means constituted so as to be slidable together with the partition plate. Further, the weight of the low level radioactive wastes in the container is measured by the weight measuring means, and the radioactivity concentration per unit container is calculated by a calculation means based on the result of the measurement. Accordingly, the optimum storage period and the radioactivity level can be estimated on every containers. Further, since the measuring vessel is used also as a storage vessel, long time measurement can be conducted by measuring the radioactivity for the wastes successively to enable exact evaluation. Accordingly, it is possible to save the labors for processing operation and save the storage facility. (T.M.)

  15. Surface characterization of simulated low-level radioactive waste glasses corroded in water and LiOH buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical durability of simulated radioactive low-level waste (LLW) baseline glass, 6-5412, was found to decrease with the addition of either phosphate or sulfate, or chromium oxide. Scanning electron microscopic study of corroded samples suggests that the effect of these components on glass chemical durability may be attributed to cluster formation of: Na-O-P-O or Na-O-S-O, or (O0)3-Cr3+-(O-)3 groups. Preferential corrosion attack was severe on certain corroded sample surface areas that are possibly enriched in these clusters. Durability tests in a solution with LiOH as a buffer suggest that chlorine in the glass slightly improved glass corrosion resistance, while fluorine significantly deteriorated glass corrosion resistance

  16. Encapsulating low level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a process for encapsulating low level radioactive liquid organic wastes into a solid form suitable for burial one part by weight of the waste is mixed with less that one part by weight of a particulate, crosslinked, organic liquid swellable, organic liquid insoluble polymer to provide discrete, noncoalescent, gelled particles of the polymer and the waste. Between 0.1 to 3 parts by weight of the gelled particles are dispersed in one part by weight of a curable liquid resin. The resin is selected from the group consisting of unsaturated polyester resins, vinyl ester resins and mixtures of the resins. The liquid resin is then cured to a solid

  17. Marine transportation for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As each Japanese nuclear power plant is located on the seaside, the marine transportation is the most suitable way to carry safely various types of radioactive materials. Nuclear Fuel Transport Co. (NFT) is to be in charge of the marine transportation of the spent fuel and the low level radioactive waste (LLW) from the nuclear power plants to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 'Rokkasho Mura' including land transportation. The urgent LLW transportation is scheduled to be commenced at the end of 1992 and NFT has already been providing the necessary transport means; an exclusive use vessel, a bridge type crane, transport packages, etc. NFT puts a great emphasis on 'the concept of safe transport' in developing a new transport system. This concept has been implemented in the design of mechanical structure, radiation shieldings and automation systems. (author)

  18. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  19. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  20. Characterization of the low-level radioactive wastes and waste packages of General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the low-level wastes and waste packages generated by General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center (GEVNC) was made on the basis of 10 CFR Part 61 criteria and on the Technical Position on Waste Form (TP). In addition, a review has been performed of the handling and storage methods used by GEVNC for their transuranic wastes. Several options have been discussed for management of these materials. This evaluation was the result of a study initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in which GEVNC participated. GEVNC generates radioactive wastes in hot cell processes which include examination of reactor fuel and components, and production of sources and radiopharmaceuticals. These wastes are usually Class B or greater. Class A wastes result from support activities which include maintenance of the hot cells. The dominant contaminating radioisotopes are Cs-137 and Co-60. In addition, transuranic wastes result from examination and burnup analyses of fuel. The latter wastes are all currently stored on-site at GEVNC. The low activity Class A, Cs-137 and Co-60 dominated wastes are generally packaged in 55-gallon drums and wooden boxes, while those of higher activity (Class B and greater) are packaged in 84-gallon extended 17H drums that are grouted with cement. The Class A packages meet the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61. The Class B and greater grouted drum packages have been evaluated with respect to meeting the stability requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 and with respect to the guidance in the TP. Based on the evaluation, overall, the waste forms of these packages are expected to maintain their stability, but a few concerns are identified and testing should be performed by GEVNC to demonstrate waste form stability. 57 references, 16 tables

  1. PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases

  5. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  6. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  7. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  8. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  9. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  10. Low-level radioactive waste activities in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1982, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority began the process for the selection, construction, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The statute creating the Authority is a very comprehensive law which calls for the orderly completion of a step-by-step process in the development of the disposal facility. The organization of the Authority and its use of external resources, both professional organizations and citizens groups, are functioning extremely well in the performance of the Authority's objectives. Continued success will lead to the development and operation of a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas prior to 1988

  11. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found

  13. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  14. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  15. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  16. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  17. Management of low-level radioactive wastes in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management system of low level radioactive wastes in Mexico is presented. The radioactive wastes are produced by medical institutions, research establishments and universities as well as in industry, clinics and laboratories. The National Institute of Nuclear Research is the organization responsible for managing these wastes. Mexico classifies its wastes in accordance with the IAEA recommendations. The system of collection and transport, the processes of treatment and the final storage of radioactive wastes, are described. (M.C.K.)

  18. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow

  19. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  20. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  1. Radiation Protection Research: Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtgen, C

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is SCK-CEN's contribution to the EULEP-EURADOS Action Group on 'Derivation of parameter values for application in the new model of the human respiratory tract for occupational exposure'.

  2. Low-level radioactive material information management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) has designed and tested a monitoring system for reporting and tracking the movement of low-level radioactive waste from generator through transporter or broker to disposal site. This demonstration project has been an attempt to show the feasibility of a system with wider regional and national scope. In conjunction with the development of this closed-loop system, a low-level waste generators' survey has been conducted in 10 pilot states to collect, analyze and present low-level waste data for state management purposes. These states are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

  3. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  4. Low-level radioactive wastes bituminization - ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the research and development of low level radioactive waste treatment by bituminization process in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). Low level radioactive solid waste was simulated by mixed ion exchange resin. Cation exchange and anion resin were loaded with lithium and boric acid respectively and were incorporated in bitumen of suitable rheological properties. The simulated solid wastes incorporated in bitumen were 30 to 46 weight %. The rheological properties of waste product bitumen-mixed resin have been reported. The waste product with bitumen V-65 showed best physical and rheological properties and grave lowest leaching rates of boron and lithium. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, all low-level radioactive wastes are presently stored. The wastes are classified into two major categories, that is, historic wastes for which the original generator/producer can no longer be held responsible and for which the federal government has assumed residual management responsibility, and ongoing wastes, which are the responsibility of the present waste producers. This paper will present the approach being taken for the management of each class of waste and will also briefly discuss the community-based, cooperative and consultative approach being used to find sites for the long-term management/disposal of historic low-level radioactive wastes

  6. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes work of the US Conference of Mayors project, Local Government Review of Approaches to Management of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes. The work covered the time between April 1, 1981 and September 30, 1982, and was carried out in two phases. The objective of the first phase was to have local government officials review DOE's proposed low-level radioactive waste management program strategy document. Towards this end, the Conference was to organize meetings to obtain such review, to convey information to local representatives on policy and technical issues associated with low-level waste management, and to provide EG and G Idaho, Inc. (EG and G), the operator of DOE's Idaho Operations Office, with reports on those meetings. Because of the compression of time, funds remained unspent at the end of the first phase. After discussion, both the Conference and EG and G agreed it would be mutually beneficial to re-allocate funds within categories of the original budget, and to extend the project. The purpose of the extention was to permit follow-up to issues and suggestions raised at the Strategy Review Meetings. These included the need to monitor the on-going process of implementing the Low-Level Radioactive Policy Act, and to provide more mayors with information about the issues of low-level radioative waste disposal. As agreed, the tasks under this extension have involved preparation of three information packets for mayors, and briefings for staff of other local government associations

  8. Low level air radioactivity measurements in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulík, P.; Malá, H.; Bečková, V.; Hölgye, Z.; Schlesingerová, E.; Světlík, Ivo; Škrkal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2009), s. 969-973. ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : atmospheric radionuclides * monitoring * low level activities Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2009

  9. Treatment of wet solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently low-level radioactive waste has caused much concern because of its long term impact on the environment. Most of the low-level radioactive waste is produced by nuclear power plants while a small fraction comes from medical applications, for example, radioactive isotopes. This waste exists in gas, liquid and solid forms. Research was carried out on wet solid low-level wastes, which were treated with polymeric materials. Their properties and applications were studied and evaluated. Wet solid radioactive wastes come from evaporated condensates produced by light-water reactors. The main component of boiling-water reactor waste is Na2SO4 and that of pressure-water reactor waste is H3BO3. Furthermore the spent ion exchange resin also constitutes a major portion of the solid radioactive waste. In this research, unsaturated polyesters, such as ETERSET 2565P and 2144 HCM, were employed to solidify the wastes; i.e. Na2SO4, Ca3(BO3)2.2H2O, cationic ion exchange resin Duolite ARA 9366 and anionic ion exchange resin Duolite ARC 9351. It was found that the properties, such as density, compressive strength, water resistance and thermal stability of unsaturated polyester solidified wastes were excellent. The radiation resistance could be as high as 108 Rad and the leachability was low. The volume reduction ratios of all samples were better than those of cement solidified waste

  10. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  11. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  12. An innovative approach to solid Low Level Radioactive Waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will focus on a new system of Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) accumulation, processing and packaging, as-well as the implementation of a Laboratory-wide training program used to introduce new waste accumulation containers to all of the on-site radioactive waste generators, and to train them on the requirements of this innovative waste characterization and documentation program

  13. Low-level radioactive waste research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The resulting LLW research program plan provides an integrated framework for planning the LLW research program to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely for use in NRC's LLW regulatory program. The plan discusses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents programmatic goals and objectives for resolving them, establishes a long-term strategy for conducting the confirmatory and investigative research needed to meet these goals and objectives, and includes schedules and milestones for completing the research. Areas identified for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan proposes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, and (3) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Low-level radioactive waste management by states and compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) provided 7 years of interim access to the disposal sites operating in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington, Today, nearly 5 years later, we are beginning to speculate on the status of States and Compacts at the end of interim access, which is scheduled by law for January 1, 1993. In theory, by then, our job of developing a new regionally based, national low-level waste disposal system should be completed. Upon examining the evidence of progress so far, I conclude that as a Nation, we have a long way to go. An acceleration of efforts may help to put us back on schedule, but it does not look promising. The purpose of this paper it to summarize the current status of low-level waste management nationwide, and to reflect on the difficult challenges the lie ahead in developing an effective nationwide system for the next few years

  15. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  16. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three-foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  18. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  19. Low-level radioactivity measurements in an ocean shellfish matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reference marine biological samples are necessary to test the performance of the analytical methods employed in surveying and monitoring radioactive materials in the sea. The measurement of artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations in ocean shellfish material by nondestructive ultra low-level γ-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory is reported. The material analysed, a composite material made of Irish Sea and White Sea mussel and Japan Sea oyster, was prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  20. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  1. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  2. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  3. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  4. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  5. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data.

  6. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  7. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  8. Low-level radioactive waste research program plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The program plan has been published in NUREG-1380, and provides an integrated framework to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely. The plan addresses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents goals and ways for achieving them, establishes a long-term strategy for the confirmatory and investigative research needed and includes schedules and milestones for completion. Areas for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan includes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the radiological and chemical characteristics of decommissioning waste from Nuclear power stations, (3) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, (4) investigate the long term effectiveness of disposal unit covers in controlling water infiltration into disposal units, (5) examine the information needed at time of closure for predicting future facility performance, (6) attempt to develop a predictive model of the rate of radionuclide release at the boundary of waste disposal units, (7) examine radionuclide transport behavior, pathways, uptake, and transfer coefficients of radionuclide releases from LLW disposal facilities, and (8) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 1 fig

  9. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  10. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  11. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  12. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  13. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  14. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  15. Management of low-level radioactive waste in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are used extensively in Israel in many areas and applications for medicine, industry, agriculture, research and development and others. Israel's primary concern in waste management is population safety and environmental protection. The Ministry of The Environment (MOE), in cooperation with the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), supervise over the disposal system, and ensure an effective control. The MOE is responsible for the granting of permits to users of radioactive elements in about 300 plants and institutes, with about 2,200 installations. The MOE operates a computerized database management system (DBMS) on radioactive materials, with data on licensing, import and distribution, waste disposal and transportation. Supervision over the disposal of LLRW has deepened recently, and periodic reports, based on the number of drums containing LLRW, which were transferred from all institutes in Israel to the NRWDS, were prepared. Draft regulations on the disposal of LLRW from institutes of research and education, hospitals, medical laboratories and other, have been recently prepared. These regulations include instructions on the disposal of solid and liquid LLRW as well as radioactive gases and vapors. As a general rule, no LLRW of any sort will be disposed of through the ordinary waste system or general sewage. However, in some extraordinary cases, residues of liquid LLRW are allowed to be disposed in this manner, if the requirements for disposal are satisfied. There are some conditions, in which solid LLRW might be treated as a conventional waste, as well as for safe emission of radioactive gases and aerosols. In light of these considerations, a new and more specific approach to radiation protection organizations and management of low-level radioactive waste problems, supervision and optimization is presented

  16. Low-level radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earliest generation of low level radioactive waste in the US was a result of research and development activities and Universities and Institutional laboratories. During World War-II, the research and development activities were accelerated and the Government and it's contractors became the important generators. This early waste generally was stored, leaving processing and disposal to a future activity. Commercial generation of waste became significant in the late 50's and a disposal industry was born to take care of commercial waste. The actions of this industry were closely regulated, monitored, and licensed by the Federal Government. Disposal of waste at sea was authorized initially, but soon gave way to shallow land-burial. Today two companies operate three shallow landfill disposal facilities and accommodate all the commercially generated Low Level Radioactive Waste in the United States. The Government has given the States the responsibility for the disposal of wastes generated within their boundaries. As a result, disposal facilities will be dealing with smaller volumes of wastes at significantly higher costs. Volume reduction technology therefore has become a new business opportunity for waste handlers in the United States

  17. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  18. Thirteenth annual U.S. DOE low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The 40 papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy`s Thirteenth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 19--21, 1991. General subjects addressed during the conference included: disposal facility design; greater-than-class C low-level waste; public acceptance considerations; waste certification; site characterization; performance assessment; licensing and documentation; emerging low-level waste technologies; waste minimization; mixed waste; tracking and transportation; storage; and regulatory changes. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For β radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10-6 Ci/m3 to 6 x 10-8 Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10-8 Ci/m3

  20. Cement encapsulation of low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been carried out to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry which should be produced in a new plant designed to process radioactive effluents from CEA Cadarache Research Center. Direct cementation comes up against a major problem: a very long setting time of cement due to strong inhibition by borates from the waste. A two-stage process, including a chemical treatment prior to immobilization, has been elaborated and the resulted material characterized. (authors)

  1. Cement encapsulation of low-level radioactive slurries of complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DESD), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Investigations have been carried out to solidify in cement a low-level radioactive waste of complex chemistry which should be produced in a new plant designed to process radioactive effluents from CEA Cadarache Research Center. Direct cementation comes up against a major problem: a very long setting time of cement due to strong inhibition by borates from the waste. A two-stage process, including a chemical treatment prior to immobilization, has been elaborated and the resulted material characterized. (authors)

  2. Risk-based financial assurance for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a risk assessment to characterize the potential for liability costs associated with a facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Potential liability costs are grouped into two categories: corrective action costs (e.g., for cleanup of property and the environment) and third-party compensation costs (e.g., for bodily injury and property damage)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  4. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  5. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  6. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  7. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  8. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom was conducted. In 1985, the low-level waste [LLW] site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc [BNFL] was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep into which a miscellany of rubbish-some in drums, some raw-was tipped, with a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content was seen. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. The recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety. Drigg was re-visited in June 1989. In place of the open clay trenches, carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers were found. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellafield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions had been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. Discharges of alpha and beta radiation are now around one per cent of the peak discharges of the 1970s and monitoring of shellfish has confirmed that this has been carried forward into a reduced exposure for the public. (author)

  9. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985-86 an inquiry was conducted into the disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. In April 1985, during that inquiry, the low-level waste (LLW) site at Drigg which is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) was visited. A series of trenches dug into glacial clay about eight metres deep contained a miscellany of rubbish - some in drums, some raw - with but a rough and ready check on total daily radioactivity of the material and no attempt at analysis of content. When filled, the trench was covered over with soil; and water accumulating in it was allowed to run off into the Drigg stream and eventually into the Irish Sea. If the monitoring of the stream one day revealed a high level of radioactivity nothing could have been done about it, since pinpointing the offending waste would be impossible. Recommendations as set out in Appendix I to the present Report, were made. Recommendations were accepted virtually in their entirety; measures would be taken to meet criticisms of what was seen. Drigg was revisited in June 1989. The solid waste encapsulation plant (EP1) which is currently nearing completion at Sellafield was also seen. Carefully-engineered concrete bunkers to receive metal containers replaced open clay trenches. Sampling equipment has been installed on-site and all waste arriving at Drigg from non-Sellefield sources is placed in an approved container, which is carefully labelled and its ultimate destination carefully recorded. Insofar as the old trenches are concerned, these have been isolated by the construction of a groundwater cut-off wall designed to prevent lateral movement of contaminants from the trenches. Significant reductions have been achieved by BNFL for radioactive emissions from the site as a whole. Large sums have been spent on achieving this. (author)

  10. AECL experience with low-level radioactive waste technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), as the Canadian government agency responsible for research and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has had experience in handling a wide variety of radioactive wastes for over 40 years. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is generated in Canada from nuclear fuel manufacturers and nuclear power facilities, from medical and industrial uses of radioisotopes and from research facilities. The technologies with which AECL has strength lie in the areas of processing, storage, disposal and safety assessment of LLRW. While compaction and incineration are the predominant methods practised for solid wastes, purification techniques and volume reduction methods are used for liquid wastes. The methods for processing continue to be developed to improve and increase the efficiency of operation and to accommodate the transition from storage of the waste to disposal. Site-specific studies and planning for a LLRW disposal repository to replace current storage facilities are well underway with in-service operation to begin in 1991. The waste will be disposed of in an intrusion-resistant underground structure designed to have a service life of over 500 years. Beyond this period of time the radioactivity in the waste will have decayed to innocuous levels. Safety assessments of LLRW disposal are performed with the aid of a series of interconnected mathematical models developed at Chalk River specifically to predict the movement of radionuclides through and away from the repository after its closure and the subsequent health effects of the released radionuclides on the public. The various technologies for dealing with radioactive wastes from their creation to disposal will be discussed. 14 refs

  11. Overview of the mixed low-level radioactive waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has jurisdiction over the disposal of solid wastes with the exception of source, byproduct, and special nuclear material, which are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). These low-level hazardous wastes (LLW) can also contain chemical constituents which are hazardous under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261. Such wastes are commonly referred to as Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). NRC regulations exist to control the byproduct, source, and special nuclear material components of the Mixed LLW; EPA has the authority and continues to develop regulations to control the hazardous component of the Mixed LLW. Thus, all of the individual constituents of Mixed LLW are subject to either NRC or EPA regulations. However, when the components are combined to become Mixed LLW, neither agency has exclusive jurisdiction. This has led to a situation of dual regulation where both agencies, NRC and EPA, regulate the same waste. This paper discusses the jurisdiction issue, NRC's efforts to date, and NRC's present approach to develop guidance to reduce the volume of mixed LLW and to develop alternatives concerning statutory and regulatory differences affecting mixed LLW disposal. 6 references

  12. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

  13. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers

  14. Overview of management of low level radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, the programme for the management of low level radioactive wastes is one of continued reliance on interim storage methods while putting in place the policies, regulations and technologies for the transition to permanent disposal which should begin early in the 1990s. The Canadian regulatory authority has issued a policy statement on the objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes and has proposed a basis for the identification of a de minimis category. The regulations impose a maximum annual risk of 10-6 and are directed at minimizing the burden placed on future generations as well as protecting human health and the environment. Several conceptual and site specific repositories have been designed and evaluated by the major producers in Canada. Proposals for the disposal of uranium contaminated wastes, which comprise the majority of the existing inventory, encountered strong public opposition to suggested sites. This led to the formation of a federal task force which has recommended a community driven siting process. Little opposition has been evident, however, to the operation of most of the existing storage sites for the wastes continuing to arise from the nuclear industry. Processing and storage techniques are being further developed to improve their efficiency. Also, funding for the construction of the first prototype disposal vault has been committed. (author). 22 refs, 1 tab

  15. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  16. Operation for Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Disposal Center is located in Oishitai, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikitagun, of Aomori Prefecture. This district is situated in the southern part of Shimohita Peninsula in the northeastern corner of the prefecture, which lies at the northern tip of Honshu, Japan's main island. The Rokkasho LLW Disposal Center deals with only LLW generated by operating of nuclear power plants. The No.1 and No.2 disposal facility are now in operation. The disposal facilities in operation have a total dispose capacity of 80,000m3 (equivalent to 400,000 drums). Our final business scope is to dispose of radioactive waste corresponding to 600,000 m3 (equivalent to 3000,000 drums). For No.1 disposal facility, we have been disposing of homogeneous waste, including condensed liquid waste, spent resin, solidified with cement and asphalt, etc. For No.2 disposal facility, we can bury a solid waste solidified with mortar, such as activated metals and plastics, etc. Using an improved construction technology for an artificial barrier, the concrete pits in No.2 disposal facility could be constructed more economical and spacious than that of No.1. Both No.1 and No.2 facility will be able to bury about 200,000 waste packages (drums) each corresponding to 40,000 m3. As of March 17, 2008, Approximately 200,00 waste drums summing up No.1 and No.2 disposal facility have been received from Nuclear power plants and buried. (author)

  17. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  18. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  19. Greater-than-class C low-level waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: (1) nuclear utilities waste, (2) potential sealed sources GTCC LLW, (3) DOE-held potential GTCC LLW, and (4) other generator waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The other-generator-waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-held potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential sealed sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 m3. This was substantially less than previous estimates

  20. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  1. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  2. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste shipping document requirements: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares the way various items of information are presented on a draft nationally uniform low-level radioactive waste (LLW) manifest developed by the Western Governors Association (WGA) in 1986 and on the two existing manifest forms developed by the current LLW disposal facility operators, Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. and US Ecology, Inc. The information items that are required by regulation are covered in Chapter 2 and are presented with their regulatory citations and their item numbers on the three manifests (proposed WGA Uniform Manifest, Chem-Nuclear Manifest and US Ecology Manifest). The information items are not required by regulation but are necessary for a manifest to function properly and to serve its intended purpose are covered in Chapter 3 and with their item numbers on the three manifests. Items that would be useful to have on a manifest but that are neither required nor necessary are covered in Chapter 4. Items that are on one or more of the three manifests but that are not required by regulation, are not necessary for a manifest to function properly or to serve its intended purpose and are not useful to the actual or potential users of information contained on a manifest are covered in Chapter 5

  4. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkert, R. [California Dept. of Health Services, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  5. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  6. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion

  7. The plasma torch for the vitrification of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma torch technology provides a possible solution for radioactive material storage. During the past decade, plasma torches have been developed that produce temperatures as high as 25,000 F. Currently, the plasma torch finds application in solid waste vitrification and pyrolysis plants. Low-level radioactive waste is a topic of considerable interest for baseline technologies development, generally by means of low-temperature arc heating to characterize surrogate or low-level waste streams. High temperature plasma torches, the hottest members belonging to the family of plasma arc heaters, are efficient devices for reducing matter to its constituent elements but also the most complex in theory and operation. Characterization of the high energy density plasma instability that produces the intense heat, ranges from MHD computer modeling to stimulated Raman scattering by laser diagnostics. This paper describes the history of the plasma torch and the possible use of a 1-megawatt reverse polarity torch in a low-level radioactive waste testbed. Issues such as torch diagnostics, control, and the monitoring of radioactive gaseous, aqueous, solid, and plasma effluent streams are discussed

  8. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  9. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  10. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  11. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH2) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na2SO4 can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented

  13. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  14. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  15. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behaviour of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behaviour of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  16. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J. [ed.] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  17. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  18. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  19. Investigation into the behaviour of highly compacted dry low-level radioactive waste under repository conditions. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercompaction is a process in which drums containing low-level radioactive waste are compressed at a high axial pressure of up to 70 MPa, resulting in a significant saving in the volume of a repository built to store such waste. Recent practice of supercompaction is to compact waste which has been placed in a sealed primary container, typically a 200-litre steel drum. During the process of compaction the drum is squashed with its contents into a flat pellet; and the compaction ratio can reach as high as 20:1. Although the compaction of radioactive waste has long been a popular means for reducing its storage volume, there is virtually no available information as to the physical or chemical characteristics of such compacted wastes. The primary objective of this project has been to investigate the physical and some of the chemical characteristics of such supercompacted pellets. All the work was carried out on full-scale 200-litre drums of simulated, but non-radioactive, waste. The compaction ratio reached in this study ranged from 5 to 21, depending on the type of waste. Upon completion of compaction, all drums exhibited a tendency to expand. The magnitude of ultimate expansion for dry storage was of the order of 1 mm only, whereas under wet storage conditions values were up to about 10 mm. As the presence of moisture can significantly increase the expansion of compacted waste drums or stress developed due to restraint, it is recommended that the waste repository be made water/vapour-tight

  20. 1989 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1989 of states and compacts in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1989 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99--240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. 2 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    have been fully dismantled. Proven techniques and equipment are available to dismantle nuclear facilities safely. Most parts of a nuclear power plants do not become radioactive or are contaminated at very low levels and most metal can be recycled. There are obvious environmental benefits to the decontamination, recycle and reuse of materials. The benefits come primarily from the reduction of waste and eliminating the need to obtain fresh materials for the new product. The benefits of recycling in other industries are well recognized. Not having a waste management option can sometimes delay decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Therefore, the availability of a recycling route for the waste may accelerate decommissioning progress. With improving prospects for building new nuclear power plants, the industry would likely use the option if significant amounts of waste materials could be recycled economically. There is little consistency in national approaches to recycling radioactive waste. Many options for recycling allow for the release of materials into the public domain (after decontamination to allowable levels). There is not uniform endorsement of this practice from country to country and some stakeholders do not agree with this type of material release (often reduced to as unconditional release). There is a large amount of material that can have conditional release within the industry that assures consistent endorsement by stakeholders. This material includes: concrete, lead, carbon and stainless steel, and graphite. More work needs to be done to ensure consistency in regulation from country to country. The IAEA is working to this end

  2. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  3. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  4. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  5. Status of the North Carolina/Southeast Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.K. [North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, NC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Southeast Compact is a sited region for low-level radioactive waste because of the current facility at Barnwell, South Carolina. North Carolina has been designated as the next host state for the compact, and the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority is the agency charged with developing the new facility. Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc., has been selected by the Authority as its primary site development and operations contractor. This paper will describe the progress currently being made toward the successful opening of the facility in January 1996. The areas to be addressed include site characterization, performance assessment, facility design, public outreach, litigation, finances, and the continued operation of the Barnwell facility.

  6. Low-level radioactive-waste-management handbook series: methods to decrease low-level-waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the methods of low-level waste generation by commercial nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, installations engaged in government-related nuclear activities, hospitals, universities, and research foundations that use nuclear materials for research, and industrial processors and users of radioactive materials is made by site visits and interviews. The literature on low-level waste is also reviewed to obtain documentation on preventive waste generation. Few unique developments or technological breakthroughs have been identified. The most significant waste-generation reduction results from systematic evaluation of waste generation factors throughout the facility. Methods of decreasing waste generation in terms of facility and equipment design, operation and maintenance, decontamination, and administrative controls are presented with cost/benefit relationships and examples of each method. Appendix A documents the need for decreased low-level waste generation. A bibliography is provided for each method discussed in the handbook

  7. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  8. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  9. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Compact Region: Volume 2, Management plan: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management has begun the development of a regional low-level radioactive waste management plan. They have reviewed and analyzed existing data on current low-level radioactive waste volumes shipped for disposal by generators in the Southeast region and have supplemented existing data by direct contact with State regulatory personnel, disposal site operators, and individual generators. The Commission has also projected the amounts and types of waste expected to require offsite disposal. This characterized data base and the projections of waste volumes and types through 1996 are included in this volume. Alternative disposal and treatment technologies were evaluated for management of the waste in the region. This evaluation consisted of a review of the literature concerning the several technologies in low level radioactive waste management. This information is summarized in Appendix A. 72 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs

  10. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Planner's guide to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Planning Advisory Service report number 369

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapters are devoted to the basics of waste generation and management, transport of low-level radioactive wastes, treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive wastes, proposed siting standards for disposal facilities, state initiatives for waste management, and local government participation. Five appendices are included: definitions; summary of code and federal regulations for the transport of radioactive materials; DOT routing rules for radioactive materials (excerpt); proposed NRC site selection criteria; waste distribution by state; available films; and annotated bibliography

  12. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  13. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories

  14. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  15. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in response to a combined request from Nuclear Information... reduction continues to be important, but that risk-informed, performance-based approaches to managing waste... COMMISSION Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management...

  16. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), located at the Y-12 site of the Oak Ridge Reservation, produces modest amounts of radioactive mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes which present unique disposal problems under current Federal (Dept. of Energy (DOE)), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State of Tennessee rules and regulations governing the disposal of these types of wastes. These wastes fall into five categories, as generated: (a) liquid (laboratory process) wastes, (b) dry (lab trash) wastes, (c) animal carcases. The liquid waste is considered to contain approx. = 90% of the total radioactivity of the wastes. The most feasible long-term method of dealing with these wastes, consists of four inter-related processes. These are (1) distillation of the liquid wastes to remove a volatile, slightly radioactive organic fraction (to be incinerated); (2) scintillation fluid (''cocktail'') recovery and component separation; (3) incineration (high temperature, high efficiency) of the relatively low activity dry waste, animal bedding, animal carcasses; and the slightly radioactive (3H and 14C) flammable components from the liquid and scintillation fluid wastes; and (4) cold chemical oxidation and solidification in cement of the aqueous waste fractions from distillation and scintillation fluid separation steps. This alternative provides for the elimination of all hazardous components with the minimum release of radioactivity into the environment. Only a small fraction of the original waste would be landfilled as either immobiled radioactive waste (low activity tritiated water in carbon-14 carbonate and other ''institutional'' radioisotopes or non-hazardous ash

  17. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  18. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  19. Collective bads: The case of low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low-level radioactive waste (LLW) compact development, policy gridlock and intergovernmental conflict between states has been the norm. In addition to the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) phenomenon, LLW compacts must content with myriad political and ethical dilemmas endemic to a particular collective bad. This paper characterizes the epistemology of collective bads, and reviews how LLW compacts deal with such bads. In addition, using data from survey questionnaires and interviews, this paper assesses the cooperative nature of LLW compacts in terms of their levels of regional autonomy, regional efficacy, allocation of costs and benefits, and their technocentric orientation

  20. The Michigan site selection process for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michigan as the host for the Midwest Compact, a consortium of states, is in the process of site selection of three potential candidate sites for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Ultimately, three detailed site characterization studies will be performed concurrently. The site selection process consists of application of siting criteria. An initial screening of the entire state with exclusionary criteria incorporated into a geographic information system eliminated about 97 percent of the state. The remaining areas of over 2,250 acres in extent are being investigated using available data. Three have been eliminated to date and the remaining 79 continue under study. (author) 10 figs

  1. Quality assurance guidance for low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. The QC requirements are the basis for developing of a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. The criteria are basic to any QA program. The document specifically establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, systems, components, as well as, for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives and to limit exposure to our release of radioactivity. 7 refs

  2. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  3. Determination of Iodine-129 in Low Level Radioactive Wastes - 13334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the radioactivity determination of 129I in the radioactive wastes, alkali fusion and anion-exchange resin separation methods, which are sample pretreatment methods, have been investigated in this study. To separate and quantify the 129I radionuclide in an evaporator bottom and spent resin, the radionuclide was chemically leached from the wastes and adsorbed on an anion exchange resin at pH 4, 7, 9. In the case of dry active waste and another solid type, the alkali fusion method was applied. KNO3 was added as a KOH and oxidizer to the wastes. It was then fused at 450 deg. C for 1 hour. The radioactivity of the separated iodine was measured with a low energy gamma spectrometer after the sample pretreatment. Finally, it was confirmed that the recovery rate of the iodine for the alkali fusion method was 83.6±3.8%, and 86.4±1.6% for the anionic exchange separation method. (authors)

  4. Low level radioactive waste treatment at the Siberian Chemical Combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety codes require that open surface disposal sites for liquid low-level wastes at radiochemical works be closed down. At the Siberian Chemical Works, the first operation was to stop the flow of wastes into the pulp repository. The presence of burial sites predetermined the choice of precisely this method as an alternative for dumping wastes into open disposal sites. The results of a study of the physicochemical characteristics of the wastes flowing into the pulp repository PKh-1,2 from four plants at the Works made it possible to develop a unified scheme for preparing them for disposal - wastes are put into a deep repository and maximum use is made of the individual properties of reprocessed wastes, which decreases the consumption of additional reagents substantially, i.e., it decreases the cost of the preparation process. The scheme developed has successfully passed commercial prototype tests and is now in the design stage

  5. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts

  6. Fifteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Agenda and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to give the opportunity to identify and discuss low-level radioactive waste management issues, share lessons learned, and hear about some of the latest advances in technology. Abstracts of the presentations are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) Performance Management Track: Performance assessment perspectives; Site characterization; Modeling and performance assessment; and Remediation; (2) Technical Track: Strategic planning; Tools and options; Characterization and validation; Treatment updates; Technology development; and Storage; (3) Institutional Track: Orders and regulatory issues; Waste management options; Legal, economic, and social issues; Public involvement; Siting process; and Low-level radioactive waste policy amendment acts.

  7. Determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes using extraction chromatography and LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the determination of 90Sr in low-level radioactive wastes is presented in this work. It is a part of a methodology developed for the sequential radiochemical separation of radionuclides in low-level radioactive wastes. These radionuclides comprises the actinides and 55Fe, 63Ni and 90Sr, classified as difficult-to-measure (DTM) radionuclides in the radioactive waste characterization, because they cannot be measured by direct measurements, like gamma spectrometry. A variety of methods have been reported in the literature, based on precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange. In this work, the separation was carried out using precipitation and extraction chromatography using the Sr Resin (Eichrom). This resin is strontium-selective, the extractant is a crown ether-derivative immobilized on an inert polymeric support. The 90Sr eluted from column was measured by LSC. The counting was carried out within 5 hours of the start of yttrium ingrowth to minimize interferences from 90Y. The counting efficiency was calculated by using a 90Sr standard solution purified by the specific resin. The chemical yield of the procedure was determined gravimetrically by the addition of a stable Sr carrier. Optimum conditions for the pretreatment, separation and LSC setting were determined using simulated samples. This procedure showed to be rapid and achieved a good chemical recovery, with an average of 84 %, and a detection limit of 0.6 Bq L-1. (author)

  8. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  9. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  10. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  11. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  12. Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.

    1980-06-01

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloried and analyzed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by microorganisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions.

  13. Low level radioactive waste disposal in Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozloduy NPP is the biggest power plant in the Republic of Bulgaria. It is in operation since 1974 and for the past 25 years it has generated over 263 billion kWh electric power. The NPP share in the total electric production in 1998 was about 50%. It has six units in operation - four WWER 440 B-230 and two WWER 1000 B-320. In the nuclear reactor operation the generation of radioactive waste (RAW) is an inevitable process. The waste must be conditioned, stored and disposed of in a safe manner. There are no national radioactive waste disposal facilities, for waste generated by an NPP, in Bulgaria to the moment. This situation necessitates the storage of operational RAW to be carried out on site for a long period of time (30 to 50 years). Following the principle for protection of human health and environment now and in the future, Kozloduy NPP adopted the concept for conditioning the RAW to a stable solid form and placing the waste in a package which should keep its features for a sufficiently long term so that the package can be safely transported to the disposal site. (author)

  14. Microbial transformation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation of the radioactive waste and waste forms disposed of at shallow-land burial sites. Microbial degradation products of organic wastes may influence the transport of buried radionuclides by leaching, solubilization, and formation of organoradionuclide complexes. The ability of indigenous microflora of the radioactive waste to degrade the organic compounds under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was examined. Leachate samples were extracted with methylene chloried and analyzed for organic compounds by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In general, several of the organic compounds in the leachates were degraded under aerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the degradation of the organics was very slow, and changes in concentrations of several acidic compounds were observed. Several low-molecular-weight organic acids are formed by breakdown of complex organic materials and are further metabolized by microorganisms; hence these compounds are in a dynamic state, being both synthesized and destroyed. Tributyl phosphate, a compound used in the extraction of metal ions from solutions of reactor products, was not degraded under anaerobic conditions

  15. Radioactive package container system for remote handling of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remotely operated handling systems are employed for safe processing and transfer of low level radioactive wastes at nuclear generating plants. These systems minimize or preclude personnel radiation exposure while expediting waste handling operations. A remotely operated waste handling and transfer system containing several unique features has been designed, fabricated and tested for installation oat Arizona Public Service's, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The system incorporates modular subcomponents such as a waste processing shield, bottom and top loading shielded cask, and remote grappling equipment, making it adaptable to multi-task waste handling operations. The system has been designed to be operationally flexible, and contributes significantly to reducing waste processing personnel exposure

  16. Waste classification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new method for classifying low-level waste is introduced. The method is based on the geological hazard index introduced by Smith et al. (Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E., 1980. A Hazard Index for Underground Toxic Material, UCRL-52889), and provides a measure of the total innate hazard of the waste after disposal. The classification system is designed to be a simple, cost effective and efficient waste screening tool that is conservative and applicable for the great majority of waste streams. The majority of the classification systems methodology has been developed and presented here. Three major tasks still remain to be done. First, values for the persistence of chemicals need to be developed. Second, availability factors must be derived for the ingestion of organic compounds and inhalation of volatile compounds. Third, a thorough review and evaluation of the toxic dose level methodology must be done. The waste classification index has been developed to allow some quantification of total waste hazard. The methodology has been designed to be as general as possible, so that the index would be applicable over a broad range of waste streams. The approach is intuitively simple and conservative. The waste classification index can be very useful as a measurement tool to aid in waste management decisions

  17. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  18. Communicating Risk to a Concerned Public in Historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) was established in 1982 to carry out federal government responsibility for historic low-level radioactive waste across Canada. Funded through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) and administered by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the LLRWMO has conducted waste characterization, delineation and remediation projects in British Columbia, the Northwest Territories, Alberta and Ontario. Most (95%) of the historic low-level radioactive wastes for which the LLRWMO assumes responsibility are located in and around Port Hope, Ontario, the site of the refining operations of the former federal Crown Corporation, Eldorado Nuclear. Additional contamination is connected to the transportation of the ore along a route extending from Port Radium on Great Bear Lake (Northwest Territories) to Port Hope, a Lake Ontario community of 16,000 in south/central Ontario. This paper will focus on the successful strategies employed by the LLRWMO over the past 25 years to find solutions to the problems posed by the historic waste. Risks associated with each project must be defined prior to initiating any communication plan. Using this approach, the LLRWMO has addressed socio-economic, health and well being and environmental risks through strategies that embrace proactive communications and full public involvement. Recognizing the diversity of the Canadian communities affected by the historic waste, the LLRWMO has tailored its consultation programs both to the type of solutions proposed and to the character of the communities (i.e. urban, First Nation, rural etc.). In Port Hope, community solutions are being realized through a Legal Agreement negotiated by the affected communities and the federal government in 2000 and an intensive Environmental Assessment process under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, which is expected to reach completion early in 2007. (authors)

  19. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  20. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  1. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  2. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  3. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  4. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  5. California State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The California State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in California. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in California. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in California

  6. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina

  7. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  8. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina

  9. Illinois State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Illinois State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Illinois. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Illinois. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Illinois

  10. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon

  11. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  12. Louisiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Louisiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Louisiana. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Louisiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Louisiana

  13. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  14. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky

  15. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  16. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985.

  17. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio.

  18. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  19. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut.

  20. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  1. Michigan State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Michigan State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Michigan. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Michigan. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Michigan

  2. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  3. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi

  4. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  5. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  6. Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Virginia

  7. Oklahoma State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oklahoma State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oklahoma. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oklahoma. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal cmmunications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oklahoma

  8. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  9. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington

  10. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont

  11. Arizona State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arizona State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arizona. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arizona. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arizona

  12. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  13. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota.

  14. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-12

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts.

  15. Vermont State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Vermont State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Vermont. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Vermont. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Vermont.

  16. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi.

  17. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  18. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  19. Washington State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Washington State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Washington. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Washington. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Washington.

  20. South Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The South Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as definied by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Carolina.

  1. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico.

  2. Idaho State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Idaho. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Idaho. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Idaho

  3. Puerto Rico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Puerto Rico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Puerto Rico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Puerto Rico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Puerto Rico

  4. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee.

  5. 1994 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for calendar year 1994 summarizes the progress that states and compact regions made during the year in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although events that have occurred in 1995 greatly alter the perspective in terms of storage versus disposal, the purpose of this report is to convey the concerns as evidenced during calendar year 1994. Significant developments occurring in 1995 are briefly outlined in the transmittal letter and will be detailed in the report for calendar year 1995. The report also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1994 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, and is prepared is in response to Section 7(b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

  6. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  7. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  8. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey

  9. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  10. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  11. Kentucky State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Kentucky State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kentucky. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Kentucky. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Kentucky.

  12. New York State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New York State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New York. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New York. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New York

  13. Utah State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Utah State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Utah. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Utah. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Utah

  14. Massachusetts State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Massachusetts State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Massachusetts. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Massachusetts. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Massachusetts

  15. Minnesota State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minnesota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Minnesota. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Minnesota conducted by the Minnesota Department of Health. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Minnesota

  16. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  17. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming.

  18. Georgia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Georgia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Georgia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Georgia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Georgia

  19. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  20. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  1. West Virginia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Virginia State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in West Virginia. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in West Virginia. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in West Virginia

  2. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  3. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida

  4. Florida State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-06-01

    The Florida State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Florida. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Florida. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Florida.

  5. Alabama State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alabama State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Alabama. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alabama. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alabama

  6. Incineration of hazardous and low-level radioactive waste by a small generator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from Arizona State University's study of the feasibility of a small generator incinerating low-level radioactive waste in a pathological incinerator are reported. The research included various aspects of environmental impact, public relations, cost versus benefit, and licensing procedures. Three years of work resulted in a license amendment authorizing the University to incinerate certain hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. 13 references, 6 figures, 16 tables

  7. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  8. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control

  9. Defining greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) was signed by President Reagan on January 15, 1986. This act requires the federal government to be responsible for the disposal of greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that is generated commercially by state agencies and by federal entities (other than waste generated by atomic weapons research, development, or testing, or by decommissioning of vessels of the nuclear navy). To plan for disposal, the federal government will require estimates of the volume of waste involved and characterization of this waste. A clear definition of greater-than-class-C LLRW is the first step in determining what wastes will be included in the waste to be received by the federal government. This definition will influence major policy decisions to be made for management of such waste. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing information on greater-than-class-C LLRW in view of the current definition of such waste and potential changes in this definition - for example, an upper limit on the concentrations of radionuclides in LLRW. The paper identifies further information needs to develop a clear definition of such waste for use in federal planning for acceptance of responsibility for disposal of such waste

  10. Fourteenth annual U.S. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste management conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains 69 papers that were presented at the Fourteenth Annual U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, November 18--20, 1992, in Phoenix, Arizona. The papers address the following general topics: (a) Performance Management Track: risk assessment; waste characterization; site characterization; facility design; groundwater modeling; monitoring and modeling; and regulatory requirements; (b) Technical Track: waste minimization; new technologies; international perspectives; licensing issues; hot topics; commercial storage; DOE storage; treatment technologies; and mixed waste; and (c) Institutional Track: status report; changes in orders, regulations, and guidance; regulatory compliance issues; communicating risk; hot topics; and storage impacts. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  11. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas.

  12. Texas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactivee waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Texas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Texas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Texas

  13. Some aspects of coastal marine disposal of low-level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the quantities and composition of low-level liquid radioactive waste discharged to the marine environment of the UK. A comparison with other sources of environmental radioactivity is provided along with a discussion of some aspects of the behaviour and dispersion of selected radionuclides in the marine environment which are of relevance to radiological safety considerations. (author)

  14. On the computer system for the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Rokkasho Low-Level Radioactive waste Disposal Center, which buries the low-level radioactive waste produced from nuclear power plants all over Japan, started operation in December, 1992. This report introduces the computer system developed for controlling a tremendous volume of waste disposal-related data which include that for the radioactive-waste containing drums to be buried regarding whether they can satisfy the technical standards for burial, that for the disposal operation such as the positions of drum placement within the facility, etc., that for the environmental monitoring around the disposal site, etc.

  15. Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios designed to demonstrate the complexity of modeling exposure pathways. The risks of developing a fatal cancer from exposure to the radioactive material, should it occur, is compared to other more commonly accepted risks

  16. 1991 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1991 of States and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity. It has been prepared in response to requirements in Section 7 (b) of Title I of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act). By the end of 1991, 9 compact regions (totaling 42 States) were functioning with plans to establish low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Appalachian, Central, Central Midwest, Midwest, Northeast, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southeast, and Southwestern. Also planning to construct disposal facilities, but unaffiliated with a compact region, are Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Texas, and Vermont. The District of Columbia, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island and Michigan are unaffiliated with a compact region and do not plan to construct a disposal facility. Michigan was the host State for the Midwest compact region until July 1991 when the Midwest Interstate Compact Commission revoked Michigan's membership. Only the Central, Central Midwest, and Southwestern compact regions met the January 1, 1992, milestone in the Act to submit a complete disposal license application. None of the States or compact regions project meeting the January 1, 1993, milestone to have an operational low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Also summarized are significant events that occurred in low-level radioactive waste management in 1991 and early 1992, including the 1992 United States Supreme Court decision in New York v. United States in which New York challenged the constitutionality of the Act, particularly the ''take-title'' provision. Summary information is also provided on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1991 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

  17. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its preceding agencies have been managing low-level waste (LLW) for more than 50 years. Waste management at DOE includes waste minimization, generation, characterization, treatment, storage, transportation and disposal. The total volume of DOE LLW disposed through 1993 is nearly three million cubic meters. In the last decade, DOE has generated more than 100,000 cubic meters of LLW annually at six on-site facilities. In 1993, DOE disposed of approximately two-thirds of the total LLW disposed nationwide. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, mandates that DOE assure the proper management of source, byproduct and special nuclear material, allowing DOE to set radiation protection standards for itself and its contractors. DOE policies and requirements for radioactive waste management are embodied in a set of DOE Orders. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240, assigned responsibility for disposal of DOE and certain other LLW to the Federal Government. In 1987, DOE acknowledged its responsibility for managing the hazardous component of its radioactive waste under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), thereby establishing additional requirements for managing its mixed LLW. The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992, directed DOE to prepare a plan for developing mixed waste treatment capacities and technologies for each site at which DOE generates or stores mixed waste. Several issues related to management of DOE LLW are addressed. The three initiatives addressed are likely to have significant impacts on the DOE LLW Management Program over the next decade. These initiatives include: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC LLW), and external regulation of DOE nuclear safety

  18. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Impact on the medical profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1985, low-level radioactive waste disposal has become a critical concern. The issue has been forced by the threatened closure of the three commercial disposal sites. The medical community has used radioactive isotopes for decades in nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, radioimmunoassay, and biomedical research. Loss of disposal capacity for radioactive wastes generated by these activities, by the suppliers of radioisotopes, and by pharmaceutical companies will have a profound impact on the medical profession

  19. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Volume 3. Task 2b: technical requirements for aboveground vault disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2b (Technical Requirements for Aboveground Vault Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities.'' The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available potential license applicants. The above-ground vault disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. In this report, the term aboveground vault refers to an engineered structure with roof, walls and floor enclosing the disposal space. The limited experience and knowledge gained with this method are described and updated in this report. The short term experience does not conclusively demonstrate the capability of this method to satisfy the Part 61 Performance Objectives. A generic description of the features and components and operation of an aboveground vault disposal facility is provided. Features and components that could enhance the long-term performance are described. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the aboveground vault disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With few exceptions, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings. 22 refs., 5 figs

  20. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  2. Alaska State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alaska State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in Alaska. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Alaska. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Alaska

  3. New Hampshire State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Hampshire State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books based on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste generators in New Hampshire. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Hampshire. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Hampshire

  4. Treatment of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management options for three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which a large number of generators were surveyed for information on potentially hazardous low-level wastes. The general management targets adopted for mixed wastes are immobilization, destruction, and reclamation. It is possible that these targets may not be practical for some wastes, and for these, goals of stabilization or reduction of hazard are addressed. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, segregation, and substitution have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, and decontamination and re-use have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, containment, substitution, chemical reduction, and biological removal have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has necessarily included assessment/estimation of the effect of the treatment on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present. 10 refs

  5. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. In this report, extended storage of LLRW is considered in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission areas of concern and actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and performance of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: (1) Performance of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. (2) Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion). A discussion is given of additional information and actions required to address these concerns

  6. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  7. Some aspects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the NRC supported Shallow Land Burial research program at Brookhaven National Laboraotry and its relationship to the proposed revised ruling on disposal of low level radioactive waste, 10 CFR Part 61. Section of the proposed regulation, which establish the new low level waste classification system and the performance objective placed on waste form, are described briefly. The report also summarizes the preliminary results obtained from the EPA program in which low level waste drums were retrieved from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

  8. Development of low-level radioactive waste disposal capacity in the United States - progress or stalemate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been fifteen years since responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) was shifted to the states by the United States Congress through the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA). In December 1985, Congress revisited the issue and enacted the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). No new disposal sites have opened yet, however, and it is now evident that disposal facility development is more complex, time-consuming, and controversial than originally anticipated. For a nation with a large nuclear power industry, the lack of availability of LLW disposal capacity coupled with a similar lack of high-level radioactive waste disposal capacity could adversely affect the future viability of the nuclear energy option. The U.S. nuclear power industry, with 109 operating reactors, generates about half of the LLW shipped to commercial disposal sites and faces dwindling access to waste disposal sites and escalating waste management costs. The other producers of LLW - industries, government (except the defense related research and production waste), academic institutions, and medical institutions that account for the remaining half of the commercial LLW - face the same storage and cost uncertainties. This paper will summarize the current status of U.S. low-level radioactive waste generation and the status of new disposal facility development efforts by the states. The paper will also examine the factors that have contributed to delays, the most frequently suggested alternatives, and the likelihood of change

  9. Status of low-level radioactive waste requirements development in the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level radioactive waste in accordance with the policies, guidelines and requirements specified in DOE Order 5820.2A, 'Radioactive Waste Management', issued in 1988. Since that time, DOE has reorganized its waste management programs, instituted new policies with emphasis on environmental protection, safety and health protection, and strengthened the management of hazardous waste. An evaluation of DOE Order 5820.2A has shown the need to revise the Order in light of recent organizational and operational policies. In addition, the Order should be more comprehensive, clarify organizational responsibilities, and be more compatible with similar Federal regulations. A revision could also integrate recent interim guidance for management of low-level waste (LLW), such as determination of material as radioactive waste, management of naturally-occurring radioactive material, use of commercial disposal facilities, and the management of special case waste that is unique to DOE. (author)

  10. Clearance of very low level radioactive waste in spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to present Spanish legislation a radioactive waste is defined as any material or waste product, without any possible planned use, that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides in concentrations or activity levels higher than those established by the Regulatory Authorities. Legally, this situation allows to develop a conventional management of very low level radioactive waste, by checking the negligibility of their radiological impact, and thus obtaining the corresponding Authorization to treat them as conventional waste. This presentation describes the clearance project of contaminated oils from spanish nuclear power plants. The on-site management includes: -) preliminary settling, centrifugation and filtration; -) oil purification; and -) radiological characterization. The off-site management includes the following operations: -) transportation to the facility where treatment is developed (dilution); -) temporary storage (decay); -) transportation to the place where final management is carried out; -) oil burning (dilution); and management of ashes and other combustion products. An annual amount of 70 m3/year (63 MBq) of very low contaminated oil with a specific concentration of 1 Bq/g could be disposed off. (A.C.)

  11. Optimization of the very low-level radioactive wastes volume in Cogema La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the reprocessing plant of la Hague, the ALARA policy was principally focused until now, on the personnel dosimetry. For several years, the approach is more global and concerns the environmental impact and radioactive wastes. In this frame, an action has been started upon the wastes relative to a surface storage and with the regulatory context, it was translated by the putting in operation of a global management of very low level radioactive wastes in an ALARA approach. (N.C.)

  12. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  13. Modelling and assessment work in support of the Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Associated with low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Drigg in Cumbria is a programme of technical support work. The role of this work in the recent review of the site authorisation is described, with particular emphasis on the hydrogeological modelling and radiological assessment studies. The scope of the ongoing technical programme is described. (author)

  14. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  15. Maryland and District of Columbia State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The District of Columbia and Maryland State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in the District of Columbia and Maryland. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in the District of Columbia and Maryland

  16. Low-level radioactive waste transportation plan for the State of Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to prepare a recommended transportation plan that will outline specific procedures for monitoring and regulating low-level radioactive waste transport in Maryland and which is consistent with federal law and party-state requirements under the Appalachian Compact

  17. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority (the Authority) was formed by the 67th Legislature and charged with the responsibility of site selection, design, construction, operation, maintenance, decommissioning, closing, and financing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Texas. The Authority is governed by a six-member Board of Directors and advised by a Citizens Advisory Board. In February, 1983, the Authority retained Dames and Moore to perform a statewide siting study to define one or more suitable sites. The study was conducted in three phases, progressing from statewide screening to site-specific studies. Each phase of screening included a more rigorous application of the Authority's siting criteria at various scales to narrow the search to more favorable areas. In February, 1985, the siting study culminated in the identification of five sites and recommendation of one site for further consideration by the Authority. This paper provides a discussion of this site selection process

  18. Recovery of low-level radioactive waste packages from deep ocean disposal sites. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the methods used for the recovery of three low-level radioactive-waste packages from deep-ocean disposal sites in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The design of the recovery equipment and its utilization by the submersibles ALVIN and PISCES VI is described. Considerations for future waste disposal and recovery techniques are provided

  19. Facilities for processing and solidification of intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For intermediate- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes processing two units are proposed. Technological schemes of both units include primary purification of solutions from solids, waste reagent treatment , preparation of waste concentrated product, evaporation of concentrated product and remainder drying. Difference between unit 1 and 2 is in methods used for preparation of concentrated product: unit 1 - settling, unit 2 - filtration

  20. Experiment close out of lysimeter field testing of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. These experiments were recently shut down and the contents of the lysimeters have been examined in accordance with a detailed waste form and soil sampling plan. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms were tested to (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radio nuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters at two test sites over 10 years of successful operation. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the examination of waste forms and soils of the two lysimeter arrays after shut down. During this examination, the waste forms were characterized after removal from the lysimeters and the results compared to the findings of the original characterizations. Vertical soil cores were taken from the soil columns and analyzed with radiochemistry to define movement of radionuclides in the soils after release from the waste forms. A comparison is made of the DUST and BLT code predictions of releases and movement, using recently developed partition coefficients and leachate measurements, to actual radio nuclide movement through the soil columns as determined from these core analyses

  1. Anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive cellulosic and animal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary process design and a cost estimate have been made for a volume reduction plant for low-level, solid radioactive wastes generated at ORNL. The process is based on extension of existing anaerobic digestion technology and on laboratory studies indicating the feasibiity of this technology for digestion of the organic portion of low-level, solid radioactive wastes. A gaseous effluent (CO2 and CH4) is vented in the process, and a liquid ffluent containing undigested solids is filtered to remove solids, which are buried. The liquid is discharged to the low-level liquid waste system at ORNL. Overall volume reduction of solid waste by this process is estimated to be approximately 20:1. Costs appear to be comparable to costs for compaction. The process design is conservative, and several potential improvements which could increase efficiency are discussed in this report

  2. Recommended regulatory program plan for low-level radioactive waste management in Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Program for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management was instituted by the US Department of Energy to assist the states in carrying out this new federal policy. Based on the premise that the safe disposal of low-level waste is technologically feasible and that states have the necessary degree of authority to set management policy, the National Program is helping them to develop a responsive, comprehensive regulatory program. The State of Maryland is actively engaged with the National Program in its efforts to form a comprehensive management program. The purpose of this plan is to review existing statutory and regulatory program responsibilities and provide a recommended management scheme for low-level radioactive waste

  3. Decontamination of Pu from low level radioactive liquid waste using Nano MnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) is generated from reactor operations, off-gas scrubbers of nuclear facilities, active floor drains, decontamination centre, laboratories, drain from change room and showers as well as during management of high and intermediate level waste. These waste streams require treatment to reduce their activity concentration to a level at which they are allowed to be discharged according to national regulations. The authorized limits are site specific and vary from coastal to inland sites. Typically, discharge limits of concentration of radioactivity in liquid effluent for coastal site are: 36 Bq/mL for gross beta and 0.36 Bq/mL for gross alpha. In this study a novel nano-adsorbent, manganese dioxide (MnO2), is used for removal of alpha radio contaminants like Pu and Am from LLW generated particularly during vitrification of high level radioactive liquid waste. Nanocrystalline manganese oxide was prepared by hydrolysis of potassium permanganate by ethanol. The oxide obtained was characterized using various techniques such as XRD, zeta potential, BET technique etc. In the present study, the potential of nano manganese oxide was investigated for the sorption of Pu as a function of pH, equilibration time and plutonium ion concentrations. The maximum sorption was achieved in the pH range of 2 to 6 with 0.05 g of Mn oxide. Sorption experiments were also carried out with commercially available MnO2 and it was found that nano MnO2 shows higher sorption characteristics due to its larger surface area. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management at Argonne National Laboratory-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an overview of the low-level radioactive waste management practices and treatment systems at Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E). It addresses the systems, processes, types of waste treated, and the status and performance of the systems. ANL-E is a Department of Energy laboratory that is engaged in a variety of research projects, some of which generate radioactive waste, in addition a significant amount of radioactive waste remains from previous projects and decontamination and decommissioning of facilities where this work was performed

  7. Management of low-level natural radioactivity wastes of phosphate mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redistribution of the uranium-series radionuclides associated with phosphate deposits produces what are, in effect, low-level radioactive wastes. Proposed management of these materials involved (1) restricting by-product uses to applications not causing significant exposures to man; and (2) returning other material to the land with simulation of the natural radioactivity depth profile by covering high activity overburden, tailings, clays, gypsum and other radioactivity-bearing wastes with a lower activity overburden layer. Radon flux models are being developed to aid design of materials placement

  8. A low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting simulation exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facilities. This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation consists of two sessions: in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred site is chosen from three suitable candidate sites. Several workshops involving the simulation have been conducted for persons involved in the planning of LLW management activities. The simulation is useful as (a) a training tool, (b) a vehicle to foster communication, and (c) a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The siting simulation is now available through the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in the development of LLW disposal facilities

  9. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  10. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program

  11. Inventory and characteristics of current and projected low-level radioactive materials and waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB), under US Department of Energy (DOE) funding and guidance, provides an annual update of compiled data on current and projected inventories and characteristics of DOE and commercially owned radioactive wastes. The data base addresses also the inventories of DOE and commercial spent fuel. These data are derived from reliable information from government sources, open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The radioactive materials considered are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste (HLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), commercial uranium mill tailings, environmental restoration wastes, and mixed-LLW. This paper primarily focuses on LLW inventory and characterization

  12. Risk-based financial assurance for transport of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) assess the risks associated with the transportation of low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW) in New York State; and (2) evaluate financial assurance requirements to cover those risks. The risk assessment uses as inputs characterizations of the following: (1) waste shipments by vehicle category (i.e., type of vehicle); and (2) environmental settings by generic route. Once LLRW shipments and environmental settings have been characterized, the risk assessment proceeds to analyze potential events (e.g., small accident enroute) and their consequences (e.g., dispersion of released materials and subsequent human exposure) for each combination of vehicle category and generic route (i.e., transport configuration). Finally, for each transport configuration, the risk assessment estimates the probability and magnitude of corrective action costs and third-party compensation costs attached to the consequences of each event, and combines these estimates with the estimates of the probability of each event to construct a cost curve for corrective action, third-part compensation, and combined liabilities

  13. Recycling and reuse of very low level radioactive steel in motorway tunnel scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methodology for the reuse of very low radioactive material was developed. • Radiation impact assessment for the motorway tunnel scenario was performed. • New clearance levels for analyzed radionuclides were derived. • Recyclable amount of radioactive steel arising from decommissioning was determined. • Cost-benefit analysis of application of concept of conditional clearance was done. -- Abstract: Since a number of nuclear power plants are approaching the end of their lifetime is continuously increasing, decommissioning issues and radioactive waste management have become widely discussed topics. Considerable amounts of materials arising from decommissioning could be categorized as very low level radioactive waste. In line with international incentives for optimization of radioactive material management, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are suggested, analyzed and discussed. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional clearance of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in the industrial sector. The present paper describes an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally cleared steel in motorway tunnels. The analyzed scenario assumes that very low level radioactive steel would be reused in the form of steel reinforcing components, such as reinforcing mesh and bars, assembled in the primary and secondary linings of a motorway tunnel. However, prior to real application, a radiological impact assessment has to be done in order to prove compliance with radiation protection criteria. Methodology for implementation of the concept of conditional clearance was created and applied on two selected NPPs located in the Slovak Republic, which are currently under decommissioning. Assessment of relevant exposure pathways, which are likely to occur in the analyzed scenario, was performed. The aim of the paper is to derive and to justify new clearance levels for each radionuclide contained in steel

  14. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references

  15. Regulatory authority of the Rocky Mountain states for low-level radioactive waste packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly-formed Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is an interstate agreement for the management of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Eligible members of the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Each state must ratify the compact within its legislature for the compact to become effective in that state and to make that state a full-fledged member of the compact. By so adopting the compact, each state agrees to the terms and conditions specified therein. Among those terms and conditions are provisions requiring each member state to adopt and enforce procedures requiring low-level waste shipments originating within its borders and destined for a regional facility to conform to packaging and transportation requirements and regulations. These procedures are to include periodic inspections of packaging and shipping practices, periodic inspections of waste containers while in the custody of carriers and appropriate enforcement actions for violations. To carry out this responsibility, each state must have an adequate statutory and regulatory inspection and enforcement authority to ensure the safe transportation of low-level radioactive waste. Three states in the compact region, Arizona, Utah and Wyoming, have incorporated the Department of Transportation regulations in their entirety, and have no published rules and regulations of their own. The other states in the compact, Colorado, Nevada and New Mexico all have separate rules and regulations that incorporate the DOT regulations. A brief description of the regulatory requirements of each state is presented

  16. Strategy and plan for siting and licensing a Rocky Mountain low-level radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, the States of Nevada and Washington temporarily closed their commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities and South Carolina, the only other state hosting such a facility, restricted the amount of waste it would accept. All three states then announced that they did not intend to continue the status quo of accepting all of the country's commercial low-level radioactive waste. Faced with this situation, other states began considering alternative LLW management and disposal options. In the Rocky Mountain region, this evolved into discussions for the development of an interstate compact to manage low-level waste. Inherent in this management plan was a strategy to site and license a new LLW disposal facility for the Rocky Mountain region. The Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact was negotiated over the course of a year, with final agreement on the language of the compact agreed to in early 1982. States eligible to join the compact are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Colorado adopted the compact into law in 1982, and Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming adopted it in 1983. Utah has joined the Northwest Compact, although it may decide to join the Rocky Mountain Compact after a new disposal facility is developed for the region. Arizona has taken no action on the Rocky Mountain Compact

  17. Operational and regulatory impacts of regional management on transportation of commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 96th Congress of the United States, as part of the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), instructed the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report on the current US low-level waste management situation and the conditions and requirements for management on a regional basis. The Transportation Technology Center has compared the transportation requirement and regional management scenarios for commercial low-level radioactive waste in support of the DOE response to this instruction. Using 1979 low-level waste volumes shipped to commercial burial grounds and six management regions postulated by DOE, transportation requirements were estimated and compared for the two management scenarios in terms of cumulative shipping distance and transportation cost. Effects of these results on the demand for transportation services and equipment and on population risks were considered. Finally, current regulatory issues and the potential effects of regional management on regulation of low-level waste transportation were reviewed

  18. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass

  19. Adopting plasma pyrolysis for management of low-level solid radioactive waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Plasma Pyrolysis of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste has the potential of reducing waste volumes by a factor of up to 1000:1, the new technology is seen as a sound engineering and economic option for managing voluminous low-active wastes. Development and adoption of such technique, to replace existing methods of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Waste management, is borne out of a compelling need to conserve disposal space. While Plasma-based systems are already in use for disposal of medical, toxic and other industrial wastes, the level of maturity is yet to be attained in their radioactive applications. A Prototype Plasma Pyrolysis Unit is being set up in India which, after extensive trials, will function as a full-scale plant for the volume reduction of Low-Level Solid Radioactive Wastes. This paper deals with the transition philosophy from the current techniques to the Plasma-based process. The design and engineering of the proposed facility and various system components is also briefly touched upon. (author)

  20. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kong; Wang, TsingHai; Jian, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Han; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences; Tsai, Tsuey-Lin [Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China). Chemical Analysis Div.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  1. An improved analytical method for iodine-129 determination in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an alkaline-digestion pretreatment and a subsequent ICP-MS measurement were conducted for iodine-129 (I-129) determination in low-level radioactive waste. A TMAH + H2O2 + Triton X-100 mixed alkaline digestion was the most effective mixture for I-129 determination. Using this alkaline reagent, a high level of I-129 recovery (101 ± 6%) was achieved for the analysis of the I-129-spiked standard reference materials NIST 2709 and 2711. Importantly, the I-129 concentrations determined for ten real samples provided by the Lan-Yu radioactive waste temporary storage site were found to be below the detection limit (0.011 mg/kg). This value was only approximately 30-70% of the values determined using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor. This means that using the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor severely overestimates the I-129 concentration in these low-level radioactive wastes. We therefore suggest that a detailed re-inspection of the I-129/Cs-137 scaling factor should be performed to appropriately categorize these low-level radioactive wastes.

  2. Discussion paper: siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact region. A model for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While this paper is intended to be broad enough in scope to cover the concerns and implementation guidelines of any compact commission, the focus will be on the procedures and guidelines that must be followed under the terms of the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. This is not necessarily an endorsement of the Central States Compact approach to siting but is rather an attempt to discuss the siting process by using an existing compact as an example. As stated earlier, each compact commission will have to follow the specific guidelines of its compact. Many of the procedures to be followed and technical standards to be considered, however, apply to all the compacts

  3. Water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, R.W. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Gray, J.R. (Geological Survey, Tucson, AZ (United States)); de Vries, M.P. (Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)); Mills, P.C.

    1989-04-01

    The water balance at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous data collection allowed estimates to be made for each component of the water-balance equation independent of other components. The average annual precipitation was 948 millimeters. Average annual evapotranspiration was estimated at 637 millimeters, runoff was 160 millimeters, change in water storage in a waste-trench cover was 24 millimeters, and deep percolation was 208 millimeters. The magnitude of the difference between precipitation and all other components indicates that, in a similar environment, the water-budget method would be useful in estimating evapotranspiration, but questionable for estimation of other components. Precipitation depth and temporal distribution had a very strong effect on all other components of the water-balance equation. Due to the variability of precipitation from year to year, it appears that two years of data are inadequate for characterization of the long-term average water balance at the site.

  4. Storage capability of low-level radioactive waste generators in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 104 generators of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts will be denied access to the Barnwell, South Carolina LLRW disposal facility in June, 1994. In order to evaluate the capability of these generators to safely store waste until new disposal alternatives are identified, the LLRW Management Board has developed and implemented a program to survey each generator that has in the past shipped LLRW for disposal. Survey results are analyzed to estimate the kinds and quantities of waste that will be produced during this interim storage period, characterize the physical facilities to be used for storage and provide information on planned institutional and administrative controls for the waste at each individual storage site. Key components of the survey include: a generator outreach program; provision of technical assistance packages for use by the generators in preparation of storage plans and related license amendments; completion by the generator's of a survey questionnaire; and a follow-up visit to examine proposed storage areas. Based on this information, a series of valuative criteria were developed and each LLRW generator classified as being prepared, somewhat prepared or not prepared for interim storage

  5. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility`s WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator`s waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits.

  6. Use of engineered soils beneath low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, T.C.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-03-01

    Current regulations are oriented toward locating low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on sites that have a substantial natural soil barrier and are above the groundwater table. In some of the northern states, like Maine, the overburden soils are glacially derived and in most places provide a thin cover over bedrock with a high groundwater table. Thus, the orientation of current regulations can severely limit the availability of suitable sites. A common characteristic of many locations in glaciated regions is the rapid change of soil types that may occur and the heterogeneity within a given soil type. In addition, the bedrock may be fractured, providing avenues for water movement. A reliable characterization of these sites can be difficult, even with a detailed subsurface exploration program. Moreover, fluctuating groundwater and frost as well as the natural deposition processes have introduced macro features such as cracks, fissures, sand and silt seams, and root holes. The significant effect that these macro features have on the permeability and adsorptive capacity of a large mass is often ignored or poorly accounted for in the analyses. This paper will examine an alternate approach, which is to use engineered soils as a substitute for some or all of the natural soil and to treat the fractures in the underlying bedrock. The site selection would no longer be primarily determined by the natural soil and rock and could even be placed in locations with no existing soils. Engineered soils can be used for below- or aboveground facilities.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

  8. Methods for verifying compliance with low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the methods that are currently employed and those that can be used to verify compliance with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This report presents the applicable regulations representing the Federal, State, and site-specific criteria for accepting LLW. Typical LLW generators are summarized, along with descriptions of their waste streams and final waste forms. General procedures and methods used by the LLW generators to verify compliance with the disposal facility WAC are presented. The report was written to provide an understanding of how a regulator could verify compliance with a LLW disposal facility's WAC. A comprehensive study of the methodology used to verify waste generator compliance with the disposal facility WAC is presented in this report. The study involved compiling the relevant regulations to define the WAC, reviewing regulatory agency inspection programs, and summarizing waste verification technology and equipment. The results of the study indicate that waste generators conduct verification programs that include packaging, classification, characterization, and stabilization elements. The current LLW disposal facilities perform waste verification steps on incoming shipments. A model inspection and verification program, which includes an emphasis on the generator's waste application documentation of their waste verification program, is recommended. The disposal facility verification procedures primarily involve the use of portable radiological survey instrumentation. The actual verification of generator compliance to the LLW disposal facility WAC is performed through a combination of incoming shipment checks and generator site audits

  9. Environmental monitoring for low-level radioactive waste-disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission prepared a Branch Technical Position (BTP) paper on environmental monitoring of a low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility. The BTP provides guidance on what is required in Section 61.53 of 10 CFR Part 61 for those submitting a license application. Guidance is also provided on choosing constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance. The environmental monitoring program generally consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase should be designed to fulfill specific objectives defined in the BTP. During the preoperational phase, program objectives are to provide site characterization information, demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, and obtain background or baseline information. Emphasis during the operational phase is on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to demonstrate compliance with regulations, with dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or with applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational phase emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with site closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective for release. Data are used to support evaluation of long-term impacts to the general public and for public information

  10. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  11. Comprehensive low-level radioactive waste management plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the Comprehensive Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky discusses the alternatives that have been examined to manage the low-level radioactive waste currently generated in the state. Part II includes a history of the commercial operation of the Maxey Flats Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in Fleming County, Kentucky. The reasons for closure of the facility by the Human Resources Cabinet, the licensing agency, are identified. The site stabilization program managed by the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet is described in Chapter VI. Future activities to be conducted at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site will include site stabilization activities, routine operations and maintenance, and environmental monitoring programs as described in Chapter VII

  12. Developing public information and public participation strategies for siting low-level radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providing accurate information and opportunities for public involvement in the siting of low-level radioactive waste management facilities have emerged as key elements for improving public understanding and acceptability of proposed facilities. This paper documents public reactions to a proposed low-level radioactive waste incinerator and efforts to involve local citizens in discussions and decisions associated with the proposed incinerator. The paper identifies and examines reasons for public opposition to the proposed incinerator and suggests approaches to the siting process and citizen participation that may avoid similar problems in future siting efforts. In discussing possible approaches to siting, the paper points out that to comprehensively address and legitimate concerns raised by citizens and officials living in the vicinity of proposed waste management facilities additional technical, economic, and social solutions must be developed

  13. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  14. Role of the state in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the role of the State in the regulation of low-level radioactive waste in the context of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-573), which recognizes that the States are responsible for disposal of the waste and as such may develop interstate compacts. The perspective is the present national regulatory framework for the waste system, including generation, transport, treatment, storage and disposal. Although not a definitive legal statement of the area in which States may properly act, the regulatory authority of all Compact States as Agreement States, States with a limited Agreement, and as non-Agreement States is described. The analysis is based on the assumption that the disposal site is State land

  15. Comprehensive low-level radioactive waste management plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.M.; Mills, D.; Perkins, C.; Riddle, R.

    1984-03-01

    Part I of the Comprehensive Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for the Commonwealth of Kentucky discusses the alternatives that have been examined to manage the low-level radioactive waste currently generated in the state. Part II includes a history of the commercial operation of the Maxey Flats Nuclear Waste Disposal Site in Fleming County, Kentucky. The reasons for closure of the facility by the Human Resources Cabinet, the licensing agency, are identified. The site stabilization program managed by the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet is described in Chapter VI. Future activities to be conducted at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site will include site stabilization activities, routine operations and maintenance, and environmental monitoring programs as described in Chapter VII.

  16. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs

  17. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper

  18. Experience of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office with EARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) was established by the federal government in 1982 to carry out the government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management in Canada. The LLRWMO mandate includes the resolution of historic waste problems which are a federal responsibility. Assessment of LLRWMO projects in accordance with the federal Environmental Assessment Review Process (EARP) has been a long-standing requirement, both as a matter of AECL policy and because the work is federally funded. Several projects have required interim storage at, or near, the original waste site. This aspect, interim storage, can be controversial, and is the primary focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper describes LLRWMO experience with environmental assessment, including public consultation as an integral part of the assessment process, for projects from 1983 to present which have involved substantial volumes of contaminated soil. (author)

  19. Insuring low-level radioactive waste sites: Past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viveiros, G.F. III

    1989-11-01

    The primary purpose of the paper is to provide information concerning the availability of nuclear liability insurance coverage under the Facility Form for low-level radioactive waste facilities only. The paper describes the past history of insurers and their merger into the Nuclear Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU). The paper discusses the coverage afforded, underwriting suspension, and work the nuclear insurance pools are doing to lift the suspension.

  20. Near-field/far-field interface of a near-surface low level radioactive waste site

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Ian R.; S. Boult; Graham, J.; Hand, V. L.; Humphreys, Paul; Trivedi, D. P.; Warwick, P.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and Modelling studies have been used to investigate the biogeochemical processes occurring at the interface zone between the near-field and far-field of the Drigg Low- Level radioactive Waste (LLW) trenches. These have led to a conceptual model of interface biogeochemistry, which has subsequently been modelled by the BNFL code known as the Generalised Repository Model (GRM). GRM simulations suggest that as organic rich leachate migrates into the far-field, iron III minerals such ...

  1. Ground water flow analysis of potential low level radioactive waste disposal sites using electrical circuit analogies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analogy between electrical circuits and ground water flow systems is developed. The analogy previously required an extensive electrical network to obtain the desired results. This paper deals with adapting the analogy to a computer based electrical circuit analysis program. The application of the analogy is then demonstrated through a preliminary ground water modeling of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Illinois, USA. (orig.)

  2. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement

  3. Experience with disposal of low-level radioactive waste: building confidence for and against the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the controversy regarding the potential use of the Ward Valley site in California as a low level radioactive waste facility, an Advisory Group and a Scientific Panel were formed to recommend alternatives to the Governor. During the course of the Group and Panel deliberations, the arguments for and against near surface burial and waste classification were crystallized. In this paper we discuss the bases upon which the arguments were formed and what we can learn from them. (author)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: disposal volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northeastern states, with support of the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG), are developing compact(s) for the disposal and management of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in the eleven northeastern states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont). The Technical Subcommittee has made a projection of future low-level radioactive waste to the year 2000 based on existing waste volume data and anticipated growth in the Northeast states. Aware of the difficulties involved with any long range projection - unforeseen events can drastically change projections based on current assumptions - the Technical Subcommittee believes that waste volume projections should be reviewed annually as updated information becomes available. The Technical Subcommittee made the following findings based upon a conservative projection methodology: volumes of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states individually and collectively are expected to grow continually through the year 2000 with the rate of increase varying by state; by the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 58,000 m3 of low-level waste annually, about 1.9 times the current average; and based on current estimates, 47% of the total projected waste volume in the year 2000 will be produced by nuclear power plants, compared to the current average of 54%. Non-reactor wastes will equal 53% of the total in the year 2000 compared to the current 46%

  5. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this.

  6. Low-level radioactive-waste compacts. Status report as of July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (P.L. 96-573), enacted in December 1980, established as federal policy that states take responsibility for providing disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated within their borders, except for defense waste and Federal R and D. At the request of Senator James A. McClure, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, DOE has documented the progress of states individually and collectively in fulfilling their responsibilities under the Public Law. Regionalization through formation of low-level waste compacts has been the primary vehicle by which many states are assuming this responsibility. To date seven low-level waste compacts have been drafted and six have been enacted by state legislatures or ratified by a governor. As indicated by national progress to date, DOE considers the task of compacting achievable by the January 1, 1986, exclusionary date set in law, although several states and NRC questioned this

  7. Survey of microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposed of to land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of published literature was mounted to determine the current position of research into microbiological effects in low-level radioactive waste disposal sites and to assess the need for further research. It is concluded from the survey that the microbial activity present in domestic landfills also occurs in shallow land burial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. The microbial activity results in the release of tritium as tritiated methane to the atmosphere and tritiated components to the leachate. Carbon-14 migration is also enhanced. It also accelerates the corrosion of steel and concrete used to contain the wastes. There is little evidence for enhanced migration of radionuclides as a result of their incorporation in bacteria but there is considerable evidence for enhancement resulting from the presence of complexing agents (such as ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid and tributyl phosphate) in the waste. Research in this field has been observed to be very active in the United States. Its objective is to predict with more certainty the important parameters for future low-level radioactive waste site designs. Quantitative prediction of microbial effects and their magnitude is not easy to deduce from the published literature, and new site designs will differ markedly from those that have been in operation over the last thirty years. (author)

  8. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action. PMID:9340003

  9. Significant progress towards development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste is a complicated legal, regulatory and public sector process. Development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to support generators in Illinois and Kentucky is well under way. Significant progress has been made to re-engineer the siting development process capitalizing on prior lessons learned and a recommitment from Illinois state leadership assuring the future success of the program. Comparisons of why this new process will succeed are the major focus of this paper. Specific changes in approach from the previous process including changes in the Illinois Management Act (Management Act), creation of the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Task Group (Task Group), new roles for the Illinois State Geologic Survey and Illinois State Water Survey (Scientific Surveys) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), a new contractor reliance approach and increased confidence on the open-quote science close-quote are the major contrasts between the previous process and the new process currently underway

  10. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  11. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1994-12-31

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the {open_quotes}Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act{close_quotes}, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the {open_quotes}Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985{close_quotes}. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two.

  12. Overview of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is a critical part of the national infrastructure needed to maintain the health of American businesses, universities, and hospitals. Currently only 19 States (located in the Northwest and Southeast) have access to operating disposal facilities; all other States are storing their LLW until they open new disposal facilities on their own or in concert with other States through regional compact agreements. In response to recommendations from the National Governors Association, Congress assigned the burden for LLW disposal to all States, first in 1980 through Public Law 96-573, the open-quotes Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Actclose quotes, and again in 1986 through Public Law 99-240, the open-quotes Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985close quotes. As directed by Congress, the Department of Energy provides technical assistance to States and compact regions with this task. After almost 14 years, nine compact regions have been ratified by Congress; California, Texas, North Carolina, and Nebraska have submitted license applications; California has issued an operating license; and the number of operating disposal facilities has decreased from three to two

  13. The low-level waste handbook: A user's guide to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a detailed, section-by-section analysis of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Appendices include lists of relevant law and legislation, relevant Congressional committees, members of Congress mentioned in the report, and exact copies of the 1980 and 1985 Acts

  14. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.

    1990-11-01

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report.

  15. Guidance document for prepermit bioassay testing of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the mandate of Public Law 92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) of 1972, as amended, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a program to promulgate regulations and criteria to control the ocean disposal of radioactive wastes. The EPA seeks to understand the mechanisms for biological response of marine organisms to the low levels of radioactivity that may arise from the release of these wastes as a result of ocean-disposal practices. Such information will play an important role in determining the adequacy of environmental assessments provided to the EPA in support of any disposal permit application. Although the EPA requires packaging of low-level radioactive waste to prevent release during radiodecay of the materials, some release of radioactive material into the deep-sea environment may occur when a package deteriorates. Therefore, methods for evaluating the impact on biota are being evaluated. Mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated at the expected low environmental levels that might occur if radioactive materials were released from the low-level waste packages. Therefore, traditional bioassay systems are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects on biota in the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) has had an ongoing program to examine sublethal responses to radiation at the cellular level, using cytogenetic end points. This technical guidance report represents prepermit bioassay procedures that potentially may be applicable to the assessment of effects from a mixture of radionuclides that could be released from a point source at the ocean bottom. Methodologies along with rationale and a discussion of uncertainty are presented for the sediment benthic bioassay protocols identified in this report

  16. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  17. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  18. On-site transfer system for remote handling of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased uncertainties regarding the future availability of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites have caused many commercial nuclear power utilities to investigate and implement alternatives to radwaste storage and disposal. Nuclear Packaging, Inc., under contract to Southern California Edison has developed an on-site radioactive waste transfer system (OTS), which allows shielded handling of LLW at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. The system is designed to remotely transfer multiconfigured radwaste containers into shielded storage modules, on-site radioactive waste storage facilities, or shipping casks. The OTS consists of three primary components: (a) a shielded transfer cask, (b) a transport trailer, and (c) a mobile straddle crane for remote handling and positioning of the transfer cask during container transfer operations

  19. Study on the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By simulating the trajectory of one single suspended radioactive particle subjected to ultrasonic standing wave, the principle of the treatment of low-level radioactive wastewater by ultrasound was analyzed. The result show that under the action of ultrasonic standing wave, the particle will move toward the pressure node plane and the time of particle reached the plane became shorter when the radium of particle and the frequency and power of ultrasound was enlarged. The mathematic equation represent the change of the number of the suspended particles was built and the decontamination efficiency was calculated. The result shows that under the condition of T=80 min, f=50 kHz and P=71.09 w, the radioactive concentration of wastewater could be reduced from 400 Bq/L to 9.295 Bq/L and the decontamination efficiency was 97.68%. The decontamination efficiency could not be obviously improved by further increasing the treating time. (authors)

  20. Hazards of past low-level radioactive waste ocean dumping have been overemphasized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1946 to 1970, the United States disposed of low-level radioactive waste by dumping it into the ocean. Today, more than a decade after all dumping stopped, concerns over the potential environmental and public health consequences of past ocean dumping persist. In an evaluation of the adequacy of federal efforts to deal with this issue, GAO found that: the Federal Government has no complete and accurate catalogue of information on how much, what kind, and where low-level nuclear waste was dumped because detailed records were not required; the overwhelming body of scientific research and opinion shows that concerns over the potential public health and environmental consequences posed by past ocean dumping activity are unwarranted and overemphasized; and although the Environmental Protection Agency has been slow in developing low-level radioactive waste ocean dumping regulations, its current approach is sound. Nonetheless, improvements are needed in developing specific dumpsite monitoring requirements. Accordingly, GAO makes specific recommendations to improve the effectiveness of federal efforts in the area

  1. Thermoplastic encapsulation of commercial reactor low level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional hydraulic cement solidification is the primary technology employed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities for treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. The extensive use of cement as a solidification binder has been based on its availability, relative low cost, processability, and high alkalinity (beneficial for immobilizing toxic metals). However, a chemical hydration reaction necessary to set and cure the waste form limits the type and quantity of waste that can be incorporated due to possible interferences between the waste and binder material. Alternative encapsulation technologies have been sought under DOE sponsorship that provide increases in waste stream compatibility, waste loading potential, and waste form performance at lower costs. The Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center (E ampersand WTC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several low temperature encapsulation processes for improved treatment of commercial reactor and DOE waste streams, using low-density polyethylene and sulfur polymer. Process development studies have shown successful process applicability to a wide range of wastes including evaporator concentrates, such as sodium sulfate and borate salts, incinerator ash and ion exchange resins. Waste form performance studies have been conducted to characterize waste form behavior under disposal conditions in accordance with testing criteria specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Based on processing and performance considerations, dramatic waste loading improvements compared with conventional hydraulic cement have been achieved. For example, the polyethylene process has been shown to encapsulate up to 70 dry wt% evaporator salt concentrates, compared with a maximum of about 12 dry wt% for the best hydraulic cement formation

  2. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial

  3. Evaluating public involvement in the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy contracted with the Keystone Center to evaluate the effectiveness of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program's public-involvement efforts. The Center chose six evaluators with diverse training and experience related to low-level waste management and public-participation programs. Keystone's evaluation was based on (a) observations by the evaluators who attended the National Program-sponsored strategy review meetings and fairs; (b) interviews with low-level waste generators, local government officials, state legislators, public-interest groups, and members of the general public; and (c) observations of the final National Program strategy task force meeting. The evaluators concluded that, overall, the public-participation processes yielded some very positive results - for policy development and for DOE and the EG and G staff. They judged the strategy document to be complete, concise, and helpful to public dialogue on low-level waste issues. They also made specific recommendations for improvements to the public-participation program

  4. Survey of agents and techniques applicable to the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1981-12-01

    A review of the various solidification agents and techniques that are currently available or potentially applicable for the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes is presented. An overview of the types and quantities of low-level wastes produced is presented. Descriptions of waste form matrix materials, the wastes types for which they have been or may be applied and available information concerning relevant waste form properties and characteristics follow. Also included are descriptions of the processing techniques themselves with an emphasis on those operating parameters which impact upon waste form properties. The solidification agents considered in this survey include: hydraulic cements, thermoplastic materials, thermosetting polymers, glasses, synthetic minerals and composite materials. This survey is part of a program supported by the United States Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program (LLWMP). This work provides input into LLWMP efforts to develop and compile information relevant to the treatment and processing of low-level wastes and their disposal by shallow land burial.

  5. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office: Thirty Years of Experience in Canada - 13308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews thirty years of progress by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) in developing and implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) remediation projects and environmentally safe co-existence strategies. It reports on the present status and the future of the national historic waste program in Canada. There are over two million cubic metres of historic LLRW in Canada. Historic LLRW is broadly defined as LLRW that was managed in the past in a manner that is no longer considered acceptable and for which the original owner cannot reasonably be held accountable. In many cases, the original owner can not be identified or no longer exists. The LLRWMO was established in 1982 as Canada's agent to carry out the responsibilities of the federal government for the management of historic LLRW. The LLRWMO is operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) through a cost-recovery agreement with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the federal department that provides the funding and establishes national policy for radioactive waste management in Canada. The LLRWMO expertise includes project managers, environmental remediation specialists, radiation surveyors, communications staff and administrative support staff. The LLRWMO in providing all aspects of project oversight and implementation contracts additional resources supplementing core staff capacity as project/program demands require. (authors)

  6. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelk, H.

    1999-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material`s radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Fundamental research on thermal plasma technology for treatment of low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected to establish the technology for treatment of low level radioactive solid waste generated in nuclear power plants. The main problems are volume reduction and stabilization of radionuclides acceptable for final disposal. Thermal plasma technology offers advantages for such waste treatment because of the easy supply of heat at high temperature independent on chemical and physical properties of the waste. New, non-contaminated waste, such as metallic, inorganic and combustible materials, have been melted in a crucible furnace. Transferred type of a DC plasma torch with a solid electrode was used as heat source and rated up to 50 kW. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) Metallic and inorganic materials can be melted and vitrified. Combustible materials can be pyrolyzed. Consequently high volume reduction rates can be attained. (2) Compressive strength of solidified products is more than twice as great as that of cement composites used for solidification of the liquid waste. Leaching rate of main components of the slag layer is in the same order of that of the high level radioactive waste glass. (3) In order to get guiding principle for design of off-gas treating system, compositions of the off-gas and properties of the dust entrained in the off-gas are clarified. From these results, technical prospects so that plasma heating technology can be applied for treatment of low level radioactive solid waste have been obtained. (author)

  8. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  9. International aspects of the management of low-level dumping of radioactive wastes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: international regulations governing radioactive waste disposal; radiological principles as applied to disposal to the environment; historical dumping practices; assessment of the North East Atlantic dump site; IAEA generic studies; and national and international implications. A recent analysis of international issues associated with ocean disposal of low-level radioactive wastes indicated a number of points which impact on US needs and policies and need resolution. The first is that the development of adequate international criteria and standards will assist the US in evaluating the option of using the oceans for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Secondly, it is essential that international cooperation in research and radiological surveillance be expanded. Thirdly, the delays in the agreements on international mechanisms, criteria and standards, sometimes as a direct result of a lack of coordinated US policies makes the implementation of the intent of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA mechanism more difficult. Last of all in the unresolved question of how the US should apply the London Convention to the 200 mile exclusive economic zone

  10. New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Status Report for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attridge, T.; Rapaport, S.; Yang, Qian

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generation in New York State for calendar year 1992. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority) and on data from the US Department of Energy. The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the seventh year generators have been required to submit reports on their waste to the Energy Authority. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are three sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, radioactivity and other characteristics of waste generated in 1992. Section 2 shows historical LLRW generation over the years and includes generators` projections for the next five years. Section 3 provides a list of all facilities for which 1992 LLRW reports were received.

  11. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State: it is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Act (State Act) requires LLRW generators in the State to submit annual reports detailing the classes and quantities of waste generated. This is the 13th year generators have been required to submit these reports to NYSERDA. The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in the report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1998. Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second. Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1998. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1998 LLRW reports were received. 2 figs., 23 tabs

  12. Aboveground roofed design for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The conceptual designs proposed in this report resulted from a study for the Maine Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority to develop conceptual designs for a safe and reliable disposal facility for Maine`s low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Freezing temperatures, heavy rainfall, high groundwater tables, and very complex and shallow glaciated soils found in Maine place severe constraints on the design. The fundamental idea behind the study was to consider Maine`s climatic and geological conditions at the beginning of conceptual design rather than starting with a design for another location and adapting it for Maine`s conditions. The conceptual designs recommended are entirely above ground and consist of an inner vault designed to provide shielding and protection against inadvertent intrusion and an outer building to protect the inner vault from water. The air dry conditions within the outer building should lead to almost indefinite service life for the concrete inner vault and the waste containers. This concept differs sharply from the usual aboveground vault in its reliance on at least two independent, but more or less conventional, roofing systems for primary and secondary protection against leakage of radioisotopes from the facility. Features include disposal of waste in air dry environment, waste loading and visual inspection by remote-controlled overhead cranes, and reliance on engineered soils for tertiary protection against release of radioactive materials.

  13. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  14. Risk comparisons relevant to sea disposal of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains estimates of, and comparisons among, risks to human health posed by exposures to radionuclides, including those associated with low level radioactive wastes dumping at sea, and organic chemical contaminants resulting from seafood consumption. This study was conducted at the request of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (the London Convention 1972, formerly referred to as the London Dumping Convention) as a component of a review of the wider political, legal, economic and social aspects of sea dumping of radioactive wastes. The highest potential risks associated with seafood consumption are generally those resulting from exposures to naturally occurring radionuclides. In some representations, the potential risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) and dieldrin in seafood are of the same order as those arising from naturally occurring radionuclides. The peak annual risks resulting from low level radioactive waste dumping at sea, assessed on any rational basis, are at least two orders of magnitude lower than those associated with the ingestion of common organic chemical contaminants in seafood. 47 refs, 4 figs, 13 tabs

  15. Results after eight years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II+ prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. This paper reviews radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 8 years of sampling and examines the relationship between code input parameters and lysimeter data. Included is discussion of the recently discovered upward migration of radionuclides. Also, lysimeter data are applied to a performance assessment source term model, and initial results are presented

  16. Overview of the management of solid low level radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Rob [British Nuclear Fuels, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Hagger, Richard C. [BNFL, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in ner-surface facilities for over 40 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site also receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. This paper is principally from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Sellafield and Drigg sits and also some of the supporting technical work.

  17. Overview of the management of solid low level radioactive waste at Sellafield and Drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in ner-surface facilities for over 40 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site also receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. This paper is principally from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Sellafield and Drigg sits and also some of the supporting technical work

  18. New method to determine the decision threshold for low-level radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a new method to determine the value of a decision threshold that can be used to decide whether to choose a one-sided confidence interval or a two-sided confidence interval. The method is based on the Feldman–Cousins unified approach providing a unique confidence region for estimated parameters. We apply this method to a net count rate measurand in low-level radioactivity measurements which is physically restricted to nonnegative values. We tabulate the values of the decision threshold and detection limit of the measurand for some typical coverage probabilities. The decision threshold in this method does indeed enable a decision on whether or not the physical effect quantified by the measurand is present. - Highlights: • A new method to determine decision threshold is discussed. • A net count rate in low-level measurements is analyzed. • The decision threshold enables a decision on the physical effect

  19. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  20. Source-term development for commercial low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic source terms base don historical data have been developed for commerical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from fuel-cycle and non-fuel-cycle facilities. These source terms are used in DOE's Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program to estimate historical and projected volumes, radioactivity, and thermal power (from radioactive decay) of LLRW to the year 2020. Periodically, the source terms are updated as new waste is generated and as information on older waste is reviewed, redefined, and upgraded by the generator. Other segments of the nuclear industry also use source terms in planning for waste treatment, transportation, and storage systems. Several uses of source terms are illustrated. For example, the reported volume and radioactivity of LLRW added annually to commerical burial sites are compared with the calculated annual values obtained by summing contributions based on source terms for each generator. Likewise, accumulative radioactivity and thermal power of buried LLRW obtained by using an average source term and a synthesis of individual source terms are compared. 6 refs., 8 figs, 5 tabs

  1. Fabrication technology of waste package for low level radioactive solid waste and evaluation of the package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive solid wastes generating from nuclear power plant are classified into air and liquid-filter, articles of consumption, various parts of replacement and consumption materials generating during periodical inspections and so on. Therefore it is difficult to define such wastes univocally, because waste forms and contamination conditions are different respectively. In order to bury these wastes into shallow land disposal site, it is necessary to understand waste properties, and to establish reasonable fabrication technology of waste package. This report describes the outline of these studies. (author)

  2. Citizen participation in selecting a disposal site for California's low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the processes of effective public participation and information implemented in the selection of a California site for low-level radioactive waste. The site developer implemented a many-faceted information campaign in coordination with the League of Women Voters early in the site selection process. The paper describes the strategy used to establish the credibility of the public participation process. It also analyzes some of the strategies, pointing out benefits of the interwoven complete program for involving various publics. Throughout the process, there is emphasis on implementing public information programs before uninformed public opinion polarizes

  3. The physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradiation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  4. Solidification of low-level-radioactive resins in ASC-zeolite blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification of low-level-radioactive (LLR) resins was studied in ASC (a kind of new cement)-zeolite blends. The effect of addition of zeolite on the strength of the cementation matrix was investigated. A superior combination was obtained as ASC 35 wt.%, zeolite 7 wt.% to mix 42 wt.% of resins with 16 wt.% of water, the moisture content of the resins was about 50%. The simulated leaching tests showed that inclusion of zeolite in ASC reduced the leaching rates of radionuclides significantly. From tests of 200L, the center temperature curve was measured, and no early thermal cracks were found

  5. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  6. Physical and chemical environment and radionuclide migration in a low level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expected physical and chemical environment within the low-level radioactive waste repository to be sited at Chalk River is being studied to establish the rate of radionuclide migration. Chemical conditions in the repository are being assessed for their effect on buffer performance and the degradation of the concrete structure. Experimental programs include the effect of changes in solution chemistry on radionuclide distribution between buffer/backfill materials and the aqueous phase; the chemical stability of the buffer materials and the determination of the controlling mechanism for radionuclide transport during infiltration

  7. Environmental impact discussion requirements for an application for a low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of significant quantities of radium-bearing material from the Denver Radium Sites poses unique siting and design problems for the Rocky Mountain Low Level Waste Compact. The topics covered in this report follow closely those in 10 CFR part 61, however, 10 CFR part 61 does not address disposal of long-lived naturally occurring radioactive material, therefore guidance is presented for the preparation of an environmental report for a facility with additional requirements commensurate with regional needs. Guidance provided herein is not intended to replace or supersede any existing or future rules. However, it may prove useful to individuals preparing similar reports for other regions

  8. Natural radioactivity of sand samples by low-level gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivities of compressed powdered sand samples from different locations along the Qena-Safaga highway were measured in face to face geometry applying a low-level γ-ray spectrometry method. The average measured values of U, Th and K are: 6.3, 6.2 and 1.5 x 104 ppm, respectively. Some samples were found to be free from thorium to the minimum detectable activity of the spectrometer. Results are discussed and compared with other results presented. (author)

  9. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Penn State continuing education program on low-level radioactive waste disposal and management: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since November of 1983, The Pennsylvania State University, Institute for Research on Land and Water Resources has provided the citizens of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with information on low-level radioactive waste disposal and management through a continuing education program called the PIER (Public Involvement and Education on Radiation) Program. This paper will review the form, function, and development of this continuing education program and some of the lessons learned in providing citizens of the Commonwealth with information in both formal and informal educational settings

  11. On-site transfer system for remote handling of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remotely operated handling systems are employed for safe processing and transfer of low level radioactive wastes at nuclear generating plants. These systems minimize or preclude personnel radiation exposure while expediting waste handling operations. A remotely operated waste handling and transfer system containing several unique features has been designed, fabricated and installed at Southern California Edison's, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station. The system incorporates modular subcomponents such as a waste processing shield, bottom and top loading shielded cask, transportation system and remote grappling equipment, making it adaptable to multi-task waste handling operations. The system has proven to be operationally flexible, and has contributed significantly to reducing waste processing personnel exposure

  12. Current Regulations and Guidance - New Approaches for Risk-Informed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the historical foundations and future challenges for commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management in the United States. LLRW has been managed at government facilities since the beginning of the nuclear age and in the commercial sector since the early 1960's. Over the intervening years many technical, management and regulatory changes have occurred. Significant progress has been made in waste form, waste packaging and in recognizing radionuclides important to performance of disposal technologies and disposal facilities. This presentation will examine approaches using existing regulations and risk-informed approaches to improve guidance, licensing and management of LLRW. (authors)

  13. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Seawater corrosion tests for low-level radioactive waste drum containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a part of corrosion tests of drums under various environmental conditions (seawater, river water, coastal sand, inland soil and indoor and outdoor atmosphere) done at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute sponsored by the Science and Technology Agency. The corrosion tests were started in November, 1977 and complated at March, 1984. This report describes the results of the seawater corrosion tests which are part of the final report, ''Corrosion Safety Demonstration Test'' (Japanese), and it is expected to contribute the safety assessment of sea dumping of low-level radioactive waste packages. (author)

  15. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  16. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures

  17. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State's needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided

  18. In situ grouting of a low-level radioactive waste trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shallow land burial trench containing low level radioactive waste was injected with a particulate grout to help control subsidence and radionuclide migration. The trench's accessible voids have been estimated at 20 vol %, and most of these voids appear to have been filled with grout. This injection was accomplished with a simple, labor intensive technique, and an inexperienced crew at an estimated cost of about $55,000. The grout costs $0.21/gal and 8081 gal was injected into the trench. 5 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  19. State of the art review of alternatives to shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of alternatives to shallow land burial for disposal of low level radioactive waste was conducted to assist ORNL in developing a program for the evaluation, selection, and demonstration of the most acceptable alternatives. The alternatives were categorized as follows: (1) near term isolation concepts, (2) far term isolation concepts, (3) dispersion concepts, and (4) conversion concepts. Detailed descriptions of near term isolation concepts are provided. The descriptions include: (1) method of isolation, (2) waste forms that can be accommodated, (3) advantages and disadvantages, (4) facility and equipment requirements, (5) unusual operational or maintenance requirements, (6) information/technology development requirements, and (7) related investigations of the concept

  20. Development of new treatment process for low level radioactive waste at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-level radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LWTF) was constructed at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) and cold testing has been carried out since 2006. The waste which will be treated in the LWTF is combustible/incombustible solid waste and liquid waste. In the LWTF, the combustible/incombustible solid waste will be incinerated. The liquid waste will be treated by a radio-nuclides removal process and subsequently solidified in cement. This report describes the essential technologies of the LWTF and results of R and D work for the nitrate-ion decomposition technology for the liquid waste. (author)

  1. Procedures for the site location of an storage centre of medium and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish the procedures for the location of a new and definitive storage center for medium and low level radioactive wastes which will be the place where confining, controlling and keeping those waste products of radioactive materials which were used in the hospitable centers, clinics and institutions (research and techniques development) as well as those obtained from industry. The site studies for nuclear facilities, require the participation of a several professionals with different specialities to be able to make use of competence in different disciplines. The result is the exclusion of unacceptable zones followed them by a pre-selection, a selection and a systematic comparison of those sites which are in the remaining zones considered as acceptable. (Author)

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  3. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A.; Hawkins, G.; Milverton, P. [UKAEA, Solid Waste Services Section, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  4. A practical approach to volume minimisation of low level radioactive waste at UKAEA, Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfil the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) policy on best practicable environmental option (BPEO), the requirements of the radioactive substances act (RSA) 1993 and to meet the BNFL Drigg Conditions of Acceptance, the UKAEA Winfrith employ a range of techniques to minimise the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) consigned to BNFL drigg for final disposal. To achieve this the UKAEA Winfrith solid waste services section commissioned a plasma cutting facility, a lead decontamination facility and the Winfrith abrasive cleaning machine (WACM). These techniques coupled with regular supercompaction campaigns and a free release procedure ensure UKAEA Winfrith minimise the volume of LLW consigned to BNFL Drigg. This paper describes the waste minimisation techniques, the supercompaction campaigns and the free release monitoring programme employed at UKAEA Winfrith. (orig.)

  5. Specific calibration problems for gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Wershofen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Gammaspectrometric measurements of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples are always done in a close source detector geometry. This geometry causes coincidence-summing effects for measurements of multi-photon emitting nuclides. The measurements of radioactivity in environmental samples are also influenced by the absorption of photons in the materials which have to be analysed. Both effects must be taken into account by correction factors with respect to an energy-specific calibration of the detector system for a given geometry and a given composition of the calibration source. The importance of these corrections is emphasized. It is the aim of the present paper to compare different experimental and theoretical methods for the determination of these correction factors published by various authors and to report about efforts to refine them. (orig.)

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  7. Hydraulic containment of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the use of impermeable barriers for the containment of liquid radioactive wastes at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Included are a review of existing barrier systems, assessments of laboratory and field data, and simulations of system performance under humid and arid conditions. Alternatives are identified as the most promising of the existing systems based on retention of irradiated water, field installation feasibility, and response to aggressive permeation. In decreasing order of preference, the favored systems are asphalt slurry, high density polyethylene synthetic liner, polyvinyl chloride synthetic liner, lean portland cement concrete, and compacted bentonite liner. It should be stressed that all five of these alternatives effectively retain irradiated water in the humid and arid simulations. Recommendations on the design and operation of the hydraulic containment system and suggestions on avenues for future research are included. 102 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs

  8. SLBM-A Fortran code for shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety performance of shallow land burial sites for low level radioactive wastes are required for a number of scenarios related to the activity disposal mode; source release mode; type of burial facility and geohydrology of the site. This report deals with a program code in FORTRAN-77 for the safety performance assessment of different scenarios associated with shallow land burial of radioactive waste. The code is made operational in SINTRAN III, UNIX and MS-DOS environments. A display system is also attached to the code in these environments. The mathematical basis of the code; the description of input and output data files and a general discussion on the results obtained from a sample execution of the code are also included in the report. (author)

  9. New York State low-level radioactive waste status report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes data on low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generated in New York State. It is based on reports from generators that must be filed annually with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and on data from the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The data are summarized in a series of tables and figures. There are four sections in this report. Section 1 covers volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste shipped for disposal in 1997. (Activity is the measure of a material's radioactivity, or the number of radiation-emitting events occurring each second.) Section 2 summarizes volume, activity, and other characteristics of waste held for storage as of December 31, 1997. Section 3 shows historical LLRW generation and includes generators' projections for the next five years. Section 4 provides a list, by county, of all facilities from which 1997 LLRW reports were received

  10. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de tres faible activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  11. The inventory of radioactive waste as an integrated part of a low-level radioactive waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing radioactive waste inventories is much like managing huge amounts of technical and scientific data. Most of these data are aimed at one common goal: the knowledge of the radiological and chemical contents of a radioactive waste package destined to be disposed of in a final repository. All calculations concerning the design of such a repository, be it performance assessments or safety evaluations or, quite plainly, its dimensions, require a whole range of data, the most important being the number of primary waste packages that will exist at the end of the nuclear program and their radionuclide contents and chemical composition. Assessing these data involves a lot of number crunching. The pillars of the knowledge of these data are twofold, namely an acceptance system and an inventory of radioactive waste. Both are part of the radioactive waste management system put in place by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials. This paper outlines the way the acceptance system interacts with the inventory of radioactive waste. It then focuses on the inventory itself, describing the methodology and giving some of the key results of the most recent inventory exercise completed in 2003. The final paragraph highlights the way this inventory is used as an integrated part of a low-level waste management system. (author)

  12. Parameter sensitivity study of an off-island low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan, the six operating nuclear power reactor units yearly produce several thousand drums of LLW (Low-Level radioactive Waste). The volume of each drum is about 200 liters. Some of these LLW drums are stored temporarily in a national storage site on an off-island Lan-Yu. Eventually these radioactive substances should be permanently isolated from environment. Since some radioactive nuclides will eventually release to the biosphere after disposal, a coastal repository has the apparent advantage of high dilution which occurs when groundwater enters the sea. The radiation dose evaluation of the potential repository should be made before its development. Conventionally, the estimation of radiological impact of nuclide release from nuclear waste repositories are deterministic. Kim, Cho and Chang employed their method to evaluate the radionuclide release from the land buried LLW repository with the disposing of one batch of the waste only. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model to assess the radiological impact on seafood from the LLW repository sited on the coast. The authors extend Kim's model with an additional layer of concrete barrier and a changing of the disposed number. The authors' work combines the probabilistic failure models for the barrier system with the oceanic plume model to estimate the consequences of radioactive release from the coastal repository. a sensitivity analysis has also been performed to determine the important parameters affecting the results of their model

  13. Pilot plant studies on denitrification of low level radioactive effluent using bio-degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the radioactive effluents generated in nuclear installations contain significant amount of nitrate because of the use of nitric acid in uranium metal extraction, fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing plants. The radioactive effluent is normally provided treatment for retention of radioactivity to meet the regulatory requirement. The effluent being discharged to the environment after dilution should also meet the regulatory limit of 44.2 ppm set by Central Pollution Control Board (Handbook of Environment Laws) for nitrates. Laboratory scale studies on biodegradation of nitrates in the low level radioactive effluent waste from fuel processing plant received at Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Trombay have been completed successfully. The results obtained indicated that nitrate concentration upto 2000 ppm nitrate could be biodegraded to below permissible limit. To scale up the experiment, a pilot plant of 2.5 m3/d capacity was set up at ETP, Trombay in the year 2005. The plant is being operated continuously since last more than two years with actual effluent to optimize engineering scale parameters. The optimized value for pH was found to be 7-8.5, N:C ratio 1:1.7 and the maximum nitrate concentration that could be biodegraded below permissible discharge limit was found to be 3000 ppm. (author)

  14. Assessment of the requirements for DOE's annual report to congress on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (PL99-240; LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to ''submit to Congress on an annual basis a report which: (1) summarizes the progress of low-level waste disposal siting and licensing activities within each compact region, (2) reviews the available volume reduction technologies, their applications, effectiveness, and costs on a per unit volume basis, (3) reviews interim storage facility requirements, costs, and usage, (4) summarizes transportation requirements for such wastes on an inter- and intra-regional basis, (5) summarizes the data on the total amount of low-level waste shipped for disposal on a yearly basis, the proportion of such wastes subjected to volume reduction, the average volume reduction attained,, and the proportion of wastes stored on an interim basis, and (6) projects the interim storage and final disposal volume requirements anticipated for the following year, on a regional basis (Sec. 7(b)).'' This report reviews and assesses what is required for development of the annual report specified in the LLRWPAA. This report addresses each of the subject areas set out in the LLRWPAA

  15. Impact of technology applications to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive wastes are generated from reactor sources (nuclear power reactors) as well as from nonreactor sources (academic, medical, governmental, and industrial). In recent years, about 50,000 m3 per year of such wastes have been generated in the United States and about 10,000 m3 per year in Canada. Direct disposal of these wastes in shallow ground has been a favored method in both countries in the past. In the United States, three operating commercial sites at Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington, receive most of the commercial low-level waste generated. However, with recent advances in waste management, technologies are being applied to achieve optimum goals in terms of protection of human health and safety and the environment, as well as cost-effectiveness. These technologies must be applied from the generation sources through waste minimization and optimum segregation -- followed by waste processing, conditioning, storage, and disposal. A number of technologies that are available and can be applied as appropriate -- given the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste -- include shredding, baling, compaction, supercompaction, decontamination, incineration, chemical treatment/conditioning, immobilization, and packaging. Interim and retrievable storage can be accomplished in a wide variety of storage structures, and several types of engineered disposal facility designs are now available. By applying an integrated approach to radioactive waste management, potential adverse impacts on human health and safety and the environment can be minimized. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign

  17. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste: The elastic waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (the Act) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for disposal of greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). A recent DOE study projects that some 3,240 cubic meters of GTCC LLW will be generated through 2035. As important as the projection, however, are the caveats about the uncertainties involved in the projection. GTCC LLW is labeled the elastic waste stream, not because of characteristics of the waste, but because legal interpretations and regulatory policies will have a major affect on the volume of waste ultimately considered GTCC LLW. For the past several years, DOE has implemented a three-phase strategy for implementing its responsibilities for GTCC LLW. Under the strategy, DOE would provide for interim storage of GTCC LLW that poses a potential threat to public health and safety, would plan for a dedicated storage system that would accept GTCC LLW on a less restricted basis, and would plan for eventual disposal of the waste. Based on information developed by the GTCC LLW over the past several years, the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and the Idaho Operations Office have directed that the program reassess whether this is the most effective strategy to meet DOE's responsibilities under the Act

  18. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches

  19. Viability study for the implantation of an incineration unit for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration have been a world-wide accepted volume reduction technique for combustible materials due to its high efficiency and excellent results. This technique is used since the last century as an alternative to reduce cities garbage and during the last four decades for the hazardous wastes. The nuclear industry is also involved in this technique development related to the low level radioactive waste management. There are different types of incineration installations and the definition of the right system is based on a criterious survey of its main characteristics, related to the rad wastes as well technical, economical and burocratic parameters. After the autonomous Brazilian nuclear programme development and the onlook of the future intensive nuclear energy uses, a radwaste generation increase is expected. One of the installations where these radwastes volumes are awaited to be high is the Experimental Center of ARAMAR (CEA). Nuclear reactors for propulsion and power generation have been developed in CEA beyond other nuclear combustible cycle activities. In this panorama it is important to evaluate the incineration role in CEA installations, as a volume reduction technique for an appropriate radioactive wastes management implementation. In this work main aspects related to the low level radwaste incineration systems were up rised. This information are important to a coherent viability study and also to give a clear and impartial about a topic that is still non discussed in the national scenery. (author)

  20. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  1. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  2. Safety assessment for the disposal of very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate concentration of very low level radioactive concrete wastes which arise from decontamination activities of the KRR-2 auxiliary facility satisfied with the dose limits of clearance level by using RESRAD Ver. 6.21. The maximum individual dose and collective dose were evaluated by using dose conversion factor which was based on the concept of effective dose in ICRP publication 60 and partly adopting input parameter to circumstance in Korea. In case the radionuclide concentration is 0.4 Bq/g, the result of maximum individual dose and collective dose is 49.25 μSv per year, 7.880x10-5 man□Sv per year about landfill workers for the most risky source(Co-60) and 53.44 μSv per year 2.432 10-3 man□Sv per year about residents after closed for the risky source(Cs-137) respectively. The concentration of radionuclide for self-disposition for satisfying the dose limits of clearance level is less than 8.122x10-2 Bq/g in the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

  3. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  4. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States: An overview of current commercial regulations and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States is regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under 10 CFR 61 (1991). This regulation was issued in 1981 after a lengthy and thorough development process that considered the radionuclide concentrations and characteristics associated with commercial low-level radioactive waste streams; alternatives for waste classification; alternative technologies for low-level radioactive waste disposal; and data, modeling, and scenario analyses. The development process also included the publication of both draft and final environmental impact statements. The final regulation describes the general provisions; licenses; performance objectives; technical requirements for land disposal; financial assurances; participation by state governments and Indian tribes; and records, reports, tests, and inspections. This paper provides an overview of, and tutorial on, current commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal regulations in the United States.

  5. Radioactive dating and methods of low-level counting. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1962, when the first Symposium on Radioactive Dating was organized in Athens by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), the methods of radioactive dating have been continuously refined and applied to various problems in geochronology, archaeology and other disciplines. A number of new techniques have been developed which have resulted in an increase not only in range and accuracy of measurement but also in applications. To present a comprehensive picture of the latest work, the same two organizations sponsored a Symposium in Monaco on 2-10 March on Radioactive Dating and Methods of Low-Level Counting. At the meeting were 172 participants from 30 countries, and 57 papers were presented. To improve still further the accuracy of the radiocarbon dating method, some of the basic assumptions are being examined. Many physical and cosmochemical phenomena are involved in the movement of radiocarbon from the atmosphere into the biosphere and the oceans. The important conclusions drawn from the recent work correlating the latest results are presented in these proceedings; their implications throw much light on natural and cosmological events in the past. There has been increasing interest in the study of meteorites, their origin, age and history, and the study of dating by primeval isotopes has been greatly advanced by perfecting the technique for detecting very small activities of radioelements. The Symposium succeeded in attracting many of the recognized world authorities, and it is hoped that the present volume, which contains the papers and a record of the discussions, will be a significant contribution to the study of radioactive dating

  6. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level α/β Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur

    2010-01-01

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr90, Pu239, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level α/β Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aα = (0.19±0.01) Bq/filter and Aα (IAEA) = (0.17±0.009) Bq/filter; Aβ = (0.33±0.009) Bq/filter and Aβ (IAEA) = (0.29±0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  7. Italian low-level radioactive waste management regulation, with special regard to mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastes are produced in all human activities, and their management becomes more difficult and urgent. In fact the increase of the life standards, based on widespread production and consumption of a large variety of products, especially in the developed countries has led the problem of managing and disposing wastes to sometimes dramatic levels. In addition to, the increasing number of different production processes and of the resources used implies specific treatment for each type of waste. Therefore specific treatment technologies and regulations have to be applied to the various waste categories. A particular emphasis is devoted to the radioactive wastes, owing to their particular characteristics, i. e. the electromagnetic energy of the contained radionuclides. Low level radioactive wastes are currently produced in many research and medical activities. From a technological point of view, such wastes pose much smaller management problems than those from nuclear power plants, owing to their relatively small amounts and low radioactivity levels. However their management and disposal rise some important problems, in terms of the correct radiation protection procedure, in relation to the specific health risks and to their being often 'mixed', i. e. contaminated with other chemical, biological, toxic, noxious and even infected substances. The authors review the European and Italian regulations about the management of radioactive, chemical and biological, toxic and noxious wastes, with special emphasis on the problem of mixed wastes. Moreover the authors present a summary of the results of the recent workshop, held in Italy, about this problem. In this work the high and medium level radioactive wastes are not been taken into account

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations worldwide, with special reference to organic compounds in leachates and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are defined and ground disposal practices worldwide are discussed. The organic content of low-level wastes is tabulated and the organic composition of leachates and gaseous emissions from low-level wastes in the U.K. and U.S.A. are discussed. The radionuclide content of these leachates is tabulated. (U.K.)

  9. Remediation of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Williams Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Force initiated a contract to develop and prepare detailed work plans for the removal of five concrete cylinders and associated field activities at site RW-11 at Williams AFB. Cylinders were believed to contain low-level radioactive waste including radium-luminous painted dials and radium-bearing parts. Although the general location of the cylinders was known, the exact configuration and contents of the cylinders was unknown. Plans included site preparation, excavation, monitoring, packaging, disposal, closure, and health and safety. The Health and Safety Plan was developed based on the premise that Radium 226 was the primary isotope of concern. The primary health hazard for workers and the public associated with site excavation was inhalation of airborne radioactive dust. Contingency plans were prepared in the event any radiation activity was detected above background levels or other radioactive isotopes were detected at the site. Criteria used to determine whether the site posed a threat to human health or the environment was based on an action level of 10 millirem Total Effective Dose Equivalent. Williams AFB is a closed installation that was placed on the Superfund National Priorities List. This paper discusses the plans what were developed to remove the buried waste, the execution of the plans, and closure of the site RW-11

  10. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective

  11. OREX reg-sign based ''point of generation'' low-level radioactive waste reduction program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power facilities generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. In order to address this issue, the industry must look to the application of ''point of generation'' technologies. For the purposes of this discussion, point of generation is a concept that will allow the DAW wastes generated at a facility to be processed at that same facility. There are two specific issues to address with this concept. The first issue deals with the establishment of a line of products which can be used for personnel protection and particle barriers that offers easy disposal at the point of generation. The second issue involves the technology for the disposal. The first issue has been resolved by the development of Isolyser's OREX materials. The OREX product is a hot-water soluble, biodegradable, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based material. When Isolyser's OREX product is placed in an aqueous environment maintained at a temperature of approximately 88 C, the OREX material will decompose and go into solution. After the OREX has been dissolved, any radioactive contaminants are collected by passing them through specially designed resin columns. Once the contaminants have been collected, the dissolved OREX solution can be monitored and discharged from the facility

  12. Low-level radioactive waste management at the Nevada Test Site - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance objectives of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facilities located at the Nevada Test Site transcend those of any other radioactive waste disposal site in the US. Situated at the southern end of the Great Basin, 800 feet above the water table, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) has utilized a combination of engineered shallow land disposal cells and deep augured shafts to dispose a variety of waste streams. These include high volume low-activity wastes, classified materials, and high-specific-activity special case wastes. Twenty miles north of Area 5 is the Area 3 RWMS. Here bulk LLW disposal takes place in subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons. Earliest records indicate that documented LLW disposal activities have occurred at the Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS's since 1961 and 1968, respectively. However, these activities have only been managed under a formal program since 1978. This paper describes the technical attributes of the facilities, present and future capacities and capabilities, and provides a description of the process from waste approval to final disposition. The paper also summarizes the current status of the waste disposal operations

  13. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  14. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.J.

    1990-10-01

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. West Valley low-level radioactive waste site revisited: Microbiological analysis of leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundance and types of microorganisms in leachate samples from the West Valley low-level radioactive waste disposal site were enumerated. This study was undertaken in support of the study conducted by Ecology and Environment, Inc., to assess the extent of radioactive gas emissions from the site. Total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were enumerated as colony forming units (CFU) by dilution agar plate technique, and denitrifiers, sulfate-reducers and methanogens by the most probable number technique (MPN). Of the three trenches 3, 9, and 11 sampled, trench 11 contained the most number of organisms in the leachate. Concentrations of carbon-14 and tritium were highest in trench 11 leachate. Populations of aerobes and anaerobes in trench 9 leachate were one order of magnitude less than in trench 11 leachate while the methanogens were three orders of magnitude greater than in trench 11 leachate. The methane content from trench 9 was high due to the presence of a large number of methanogens; the gas in this trench also contained the most radioactivity. Trench 3 leachate contained the least number of microorganisms. Comparison of microbial populations in leachates sampled from trenches 3 and 9 during October 1978 and 1989 showed differences in the total number of microbial types. Variations in populations of the different types of organisms in the leachate reflect the changing nutrient conditions in the trenches. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  17. Siting and engineering design activities for the development of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a case study of the design of a landfill repository for low-level radioactive waste. Low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Low-level radioactive waste does not include irradiated reactor fuel. About 70% of the waste that will be sent to the Texas facility will be low-level waste generated at the state's two nuclear power plants; the remainder will be low-level wastes generated in hospital and medical research facilities in Texas. The low-level wastes will be placed in steel-reinforced concrete canisters, which have a design life of 500 years. This landfill will not have a synthetic lining because this type of liner will not last for 500 years. This landfill will be located in an areas of the state that receives very little precipitation. The depth to groundwater at the site is 600-1,000 feet. The natural geology of the site will provide an excellent barrier between the waste and the groundwater. The landfill is being designed to receive low-level radioactive waste for 30 years

  18. Sampling and analyses of colloids at the Drigg low level radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P; Allinson, S; Beckett, K; Eilbeck, A; Fairhurst, A; Russel-Flint, K; Verrall, K

    2002-04-01

    Water samples have been extracted from inside (from standpipes) and from outside (from boreholes) of the trenches at the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, UK. The samples were taken anaerobically from between 8.5 and 10.0 m below the surface using a submersible pump at low flow rates to ensure that the waters in the standpipes and boreholes were maintained at constant levels. To ensure representative samples, the Eh, pH. conductivity, temperature, iron and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the waters were taken during initial purging and during sampling. The gross tritium, gross non-tritium beta, gross alpha and gamma activities of each sample were determined using suitable sample preparation and counting techniques. Samples were then anaerobically, sequentially filtered through 12 microm, 1 microm, 30 kDa and 500 Da filter membranes. The filtrates were analysed for gross alpha, gross non-tritium beta and gamma activities. SEM and STEM analyses were used to determine the colloid population. An energy dispersive analyser on the SEM was used to determine the major elements present in the colloids. UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry and high performance size exclusion liquid chromatography were used to analyse the waters before and after treatment with ion exchange materials to determine whether natural organic matter was present in the waters. Results showed that two major types of colloids (iron containing colloids and silicon containing colloids) were present in the waters. There were also a small number of other colloids that contain, as major elements, aluminium, calcium and chromium. Organic colloids were also present. The majority of the radioactivity in the waters was due to tritium. Waters taken from outside the trenches contained low levels of non-tritium beta activities and alpha activities which were lower than the minimum detectable amount. Waters taken from the trenches contained non-tritium beta

  19. Long-term safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants found in common low level radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) can contain non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants. However, very few long-term safety assessments of LLW disposal have included quantitative evaluation of the environmental impacts of the non-radioactive contaminants in the wastes since it is commonly assumed that their impacts will be small compared with those of the radioactive contaminants. To test this assumption, QuantiSci Limited has undertaken two studies for the European Commission. The first study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of non-radioactive contaminants in LLW. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. Generic, acceptable disposal levels were calculated for a variety of nonradioactive contaminants that would allow the presence of the waste streams in the range of disposal facilities considered. The second study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The more detailed system and waste stream specific calculations generally implied less restrictive disposal limits for the non-radioactive contaminants. The calculations also indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants when assessing the impacts of LLW disposal. (author)

  20. Department of Energy treatment capabilities for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides brief profiles for 26 low-level and high-level waste treatment capabilities available at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP). Six of the treatments have potential use for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW). They include: (a) the glass ceramic process and (b) the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility incinerator at INEL; (c) the Super Compaction and Repackaging Facility and (d) microwave melting solidification at RFP; (e) the vitrification plant at SRS; and (f) the vitrification plant at WVDP. No individual treatment has the capability to treat all GTCC LLW streams. It is recommended that complete physical and chemical characterizations be performed for each GTCC waste stream, to permit using multiple treatments for GTCC LLW

  1. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenberg, J.D. [Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality, NE (United States)

    1993-03-01

    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  2. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection

  3. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  4. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  5. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Plasma arc melting treatment of low level radioactive waste with centrifugal hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma Arc Melting technology may possible be able to treat various kinds of waste streams through volume reduction and stabilization into a disposal waste form. The ability of other melting technologies to convert inorganic material in a single step, however, varies according to the characteristics of the materials. Plasma technology also can treat organic waste by selecting the oxidation atmosphere. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has decided to construct a low level radioactive waste treatment facility using the Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) process with an 8 ft rotating hearth and 1.2 MW transferred torch developed by Retech (Ukiah, CA. USA) in the Tsuruga power station. In Japan, the plasma technology has been developed for incineration ash treatment, but the JAPC plant will be the first treatment system using plasma technology for solid waste with various characteristics and shapes. (author)

  7. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  8. Selection of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites using screening models versus more complex methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of choosing a waste-disposal site from a set of candidate sites requires an approach capable of objectively handling many environmental variables for each site. Several computer methodologies have been developed to assist in the process of choosing a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste; however, most of these models are costly to apply, in terms of computer resources and the time and effort required by professional modelers, geologists, and waste-disposal experts. The authors describe how the relatively simple DRASTIC methodology (a standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings) may be used for open-quotes pre-screeningclose quotes of sites to determine which subset of candidate sites is worthy of more detailed screening. Results of site comparisons made with DRASTIC are compared with results obtained using PRESTO-II methodology, which is representative of the more complex release-transport-human exposure methodologies. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Investigation of the geology of the low-level radioactive waste burial site at Drigg, Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the low-level solid radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg, Cumbria has been investigated on the basis of a number of shallow excavations and 35 boreholes. The glacial sequence varies from 10 to 42 m in thickness and ranges from coarse sands and gravels to compact boulder clays. These overlie an irregular surface of St Bees Sandstone which probably contains a deep-erosion channel. The site is underlain by at least one boulder clay horizon. Clays restrict the direct downward movement of surface infiltration into the deeper permeable sands and gravels considered to be in hydraulic continuity with the St Bees Sandstone, but give rise to perched water tables in which lateral flow may occur. The streams which traverse the site are potentially influent throughout their length and may lose water to sand and peat deposits where these exist in the south-western part of the site. (author)

  11. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  12. Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste disposed during 1987--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the volume, activity, and radionuclide distributions in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposed during 1987 through 1989 at the commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. The report has been entirely assembled from descriptions of waste provided in LLW shipment manifests. Individual radionuclide distributions are listed as a function of waste class, of general industry, and of waste stream. In addition, information is presented about disposal of wastes containing chelating agents, about use of solidification media, about the distribution of radiation levels at the surfaces of waste containers, and about the distribution of waste container sizes. Considerably more information is presented about waste disposed at the Richland and Beatty disposal facilities than at the Barnwell disposal facility

  13. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  14. Alternatives to control subsidence at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have experienced geotechnical subsidence problems and may require stabilization. Ground surface manifestations of subsidence include: large cracks, basins, and cave-ins. Subsidence is primarily caused by void filling, and physicochemical degradation and solubilization of buried wastes. These surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass, pile driving and in situ incineration engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  15. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  17. BNFL Lysimeter programme to investigate the leaching of radionuclides from low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, K.; Clegg, R.; Holmes, R.G.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom); Newton, G.W.A. [Newton Systems, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has initiated an experimental programme to measure the leaching behavior of radionuclides from various low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials using Lysimeters. The programme commenced in 1986 and to date 10 lysimeters have been commissioned. These have concentrated on simulating shallow trench conditions but a further programme is now planned to study concrete vault environments. The aim of the study is to provide information on leaching processes as part of the ongoing Drigg Near Field Programme, and also to yield input data for radiological assessment purposes. Towards this end, data have been gained from the lysimeters on basic chemistry, gas generation and radionuclide Release Coefficients. This paper concentrates on one of the lysimeters which has recently been decommissioned and for which interim analytical data are available. Some general comments are given on BNFL`s experience using lysimeters and their applicability as a rapid and effective technique for studying near field degradation processes.

  18. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  19. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description

  20. Waste classification: a proposed methodology for classifying low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since low-level radioactive waste presents both a chemical and a radiological hazard, it is desirable that management practices take this into account. This paper describes a waste classification system that could provide a basis for such management practices. The classification method formulates the hazard of waste as the ratio of potential exposure or intake to a selected limit. Potential exposure or intake incorporates four factors: (a) the nature and (b) amount of toxic materials disposed in the soil, (c) the availability of the waste to enter an environmental pathway potentially exposing humans, and (d) the decay products. The system could provide guidance on how mixed wastes should be separated for disposal, and the degree of disposal isolation each waste material or shipment needs. Examples of the system's use are provided

  1. Microbial aspects of gas generation from low level radioactive waste simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst much of the organic matter present in Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) resembles that in domestic refuse, the disposal procedure in well engineered sealed repositories is sufficiently different to raise questions as to whether the degradation process will follow the classically accepted sequence from aerobic and anaerobic hydrolysis via anaerobic fermentation to methanogenesis. The generation of large volumes of gas could have significant effects on both the structural integrity of a nuclear waste repository and the rate at which dissolved radionuclides are released into the far field and geosphere. This report summarises the results from a series of experiments which investigate the effects of a range of environmental parameters on the kinetics of methanogenesis in a LLW simulant. The objective of the work was to investigate the effects of specific chemical and physical factors on the potential for gas generation. (author)

  2. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  3. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  4. Geochemical and biological research at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geochemical and biological study of the sea floor at the NEA dumpsite for low-level radioactive waste is reported. The sea bottom has rather steep hillsides. Slumps are usual phenomena and could be triggered by the dumping operations. The sediment is described in terms of its mineralogical and elemental composition. The variation in CaCO3 content accounts for most of the variation in the elemental composition and cation exchange capacity. The present depth of the lysocline is shown to be about 4700 m. A description is given of the early diagenetic processes: (1) Mineralization of organic material, (2) Cation exchange, (3) Change in redox conditions and (4) Carbonate dissolution and recrystallization; and discussed in terms of their effects on the redistribution and transport of trace elements and radionuclides within the sediment and between sediment and overlying water. (orig.)

  5. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste by plasma. A proven technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of actual and historical low level radioactive waste, with varying characteristics, are stored and generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, the nuclear fuel cycle, research laboratories, pharmaceutical and medical facilities. Virtual all of these waste streams can be treated by the plasma technology resulting in a final product free of organics, liquids and moisture, and meeting without a doubt the acceptance criteria for safe storage and disposal. The plasma is a highly desirable heat source. Its high temperature of up to 10.000degC can treat the radioactive waste as is. The inorganic materials are melted into a glassy slag, containing most of the radioactive isotopes, while the organic material is vaporized into a syngas and subsequently oxidized in an afterburner. This technology is very suitable for historical waste containing mixtures of inorganic, organic, liquids, sludge, etc, with almost no waste preparation and with minimal risk for radioactive contamination and exposure. Plasma technology offers a high volume waste reduction factor (VRF) that minimizes the volume and overall costs of waste storage and disposal. In addition, as plasma technology can recondition previously conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the present acceptance criteria for final disposal, it offers a solution to the growing demand for improved quality of final waste forms. As such, plasma technology is of great value, not just to waste producers but to future generations as well. This paper describes further the principles of plasma, the different waste feed systems, off-gas treatment, operational experience and future plasma plants. (author)

  6. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10−5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour−1

  7. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and open-quotes otherclose quotes. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF6 conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992

  9. Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes for treating low-level radioactive contaminated liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were performed on Waste Disposal Facility (WD) influent using Romicon hollow fiber ultrafiltration modules with molecular weight cutoffs ranging from 2000 to 80,000. The rejection of conductivity was low in most cases. The rejection of radioactivity ranged from 90 to 98%, depending on the membrane type and on the feed concentration. Typical product activity ranged from 7 to 100 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Experiments were also performed on alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater. Results ranged from 98 to >99.8%, depending on the membrane type. This yielded a product concentration of less than 0.1 dis/min/ml of alpha radiation. Tests on PP-Building decontamination water yielded rejections of 85 to 88% alpha radiation depending on the membrane type. These experiments show that the ability to remove radioactivity by membrane is a function of the contents of the waste stream because the radioactivity in the wastewater is in various forms: ionic, polymeric, colloidal, and absorbed onto suspended solids. Although removal of suspended or colloidal material is very high, removal of ionic material is not as effective. Alpha-contaminated laundry wastewater proved to be the easiest to decontaminate, whereas the low-level PP-Building decontamination water proved to be the most difficult to decontaminate. Decontamination of the WD influent, a combined waste stream, varied considerably from day to day because of its constantly changing makeup. The WD influent was also treated with various substances, such as polyelectrolytes, complexing agents, and coagulants, to determine if these additives would aid in the removal of radioactive material from the various wastewaters by complexing the ionic species. At the present time, none of the additives evaluated has had much effect; but experiments are continuing

  10. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundari, Noor Anis, E-mail: nooranis@batan.go.id; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi [Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Nuklir – Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional Jl. Babarsari P.O. BOX 6101 YKBB Yogyakarta 55281 Telp : (0274) 48085, 489716, Fax : (0274) 489715 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  11. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP's mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP's LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility

  12. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  13. Integrated system for the processing, storage, and disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SUREPAK was originally developed as a system for the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste. SUREPAK is an acronym for Subsurface Recoverable Packaging System. The SUREPAK system uses hexagonal reinforced concrete containers called SUREPAK modules to package waste in a stable form. The hexagonal SUREPAK modules are placed in a disposal trench in a close packed array to provide a structurally stable base to support a protective cover. This avoids subsidence and the other problems experienced with shallow land burial facilities. The SUREPAK concept has now been expanded to processing, storage and transport of low-level radioactive waste. The SUREPAK modules are designed to receive waste packaged in drums, liners and higher integrity containers. The SUREPAK modules can also be used to receive and process the waste directly. The processed waste can be stored on-site pending the availability of permanent disposal space. This eliminates the need for expensive on-site disposal facilities. The SUREPAK modules are transported to the permanent disposal site when space becomes available. Transport of the SUREPAK modules is accomplished by the use of reusable impact skirts. The SUREPAK modules are then buried along with the SUREPAK modules packaged at the disposal site. The application of the SUREPAK system is presently constrained by a number of factors. The present regulations do not provide incentives for the use of high integrity, structurally stable containers. In fact, current price schedules discourage the use of such containers. Regulations and price schedules must be revised to foster use of improved disposal technology

  14. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10-4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10-1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10-1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  15. An analysis of the conditions of gas migration from a low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report deals with the conditions under which gas will migrate from a radioactive low-level waste repository located in a hard rock formation below the sea bottom. Chemical reactions resulting in gas (hydrogen) production will take place in the stored waste. Unless the gas produced can escape from the rock cavern an over-pressure that may bring about contamination of the groundwater regime may arize in the cavern. The purpose of the present study is to provide a rough estimate of the capability of the rock formation in consideration to convey the gas produced in the repository to the surface. The gas produced in the water filled repository will be subject to very fast gravitational segregation, and as a result a gas cushion will be created at the roof of the cavern. Three particular stages may be distinguished in the present flow problem, these are (i) the accumulation of the gas at the roof of the cavern, (ii) the escape of the gas into the fractures, once the critical thickness of the gas cushion has been reached, and (iii) the flow of gas, once the water in the fractures has been displaced. A first part of the study is devoted to analysing the transport properties of a single fracture. The governing flow equations and expressions for the flowrates of the gas and break-through times of the gas front to reach the upper boundary (sea bottom) of the rock formation are derived. The physical properties of a single fracture are used for the modelling of the fractured rock mass in consideration. A second part of the study is devoted to a number of numerical examples worked out to study the conditions of the gas flow for the projected low-level radioactive waste repository. The following parameters are studied: (i) the critical thickness of the gas cushion, (ii) break-through times of the gas, and (iii) flowrates of the gas. (Authors)

  16. Prediction of waste leaching from solidified low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahboub, Alaeddin Borhan

    In 1983 a research program called Special Waste-Form Lysimeter Arid (SWLA) was initiated at Hanford Lysimeter testing facility near Richland, Washington to evaluate radionuclide release from solidified Low-Level Radioactive waste from underground burial facilities. The goal of this research is to help interpret experimental results from the Hanford site and formulate recommendations regarding source-term modeling for Low- Level waste forms. The specific objective is to test the diffusion source-term models based on ANS/ANSI 16.1 (ANS, 1986) laboratory leach test. The project uses the SWMS_2d model to predict the leaching of 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and 3H radio nuclides from the waste form contained in Hanford lysimeters. Effective diffusion coefficients (De's) as measured by the above standard test were obtained from published literature for each nuclide. These De's together with the published soil properties and environmental conditions at the Hanford site are the model input. The source term modeling results are compared to the measured lysimeter data. Results showed that, the model is able to predict release of 3H. The model was not able to predict the release of 60Co from the waste form, which indicate that there are other processes rather than diffusion involved. The effective diffusion coefficient from ANS/ANSI 16.1 test can be used only for non reactive radionuclides like 3H (tritium).

  17. Experience in low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the United Kingdom in near-surface facilities for over 30 years. This has mainly been at the Drigg disposal site on the Cumbrian coast, some six kilometres to the south of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing site. The Drigg site receives waste from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and clean-up of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals are being phased out in preference to emplacement of containerized conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) owns and operates the Drigg disposal site and this review of experience is from the perspective of a disposal facility operator. Firstly, however, the regulatory framework to low level waste disposal is outlined. This is then followed by a review of practices and projects associated with the Drigg site and also some of the supporting technical work. 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. US Army facility for the consolidation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, S.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Murphy, B.L.; Gillings, J.C.; Hadley, R.T.; Lyso, O.M.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    A preliminary study of a waste consolidation facility for the Department of the Army's low-level radioactive waste was carried out to determine a possible site and perform a cost-benefit analysis. Four sites were assessed as possible locations for such a facility, using predetermined site selection criteria. To assist in the selection of a site, an evaluation of environmental issues was included as part of each site review. In addition, a preliminary design for a waste consolidation facility was developed, and facilities at each site were reviewed for their availability and suitability for this purpose. Currently available processes for volume reduction, as well as processes still under development, were then investigated, and the support and handling equipment and the staff needed for the safe operation of a waste consolidation facility were studied. Using current costs for the transportation and burial of low-level waste, a cost comparison was then made between waste disposal with and without the utilization of volume reduction. Finally, regulations that could affect the operation of a waste consolidation facility were identified and their impact was assessed. 11 references, 5 figures, 16 tables.

  19. Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl esterstyrene. These waste forms are being tested to: (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays over 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predicted releases. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented

  20. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ''National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.'' The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities

  1. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste facility siting in the Rocky Mountain compact region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The puprose of the Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is to develop a regional management system for low-level waste (LLW) generated in the six states eligible for membership: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Under the terms of the compact, any party state generating at least 20% of the region's waste becomes responsible for hosting a regional LLW management facility. However, the compact prescribes no system which the host state must follow to develop a facility, but rather calls on the state to fulfill its responsibility through reliance on its own laws and regulations. Few of the Rocky Mountain compact states have legislation dealing specifically with LLW facility siting. Authority for LLW facility siting is usually obtained from radiation control statutes and solid or hazardous waste statutes. A state-by-state analysis of the siting authorities of each of the Rock Mountain compact states as they pertain to LLW disposal facility siting is presented. Siting authority for LLW disposal facilities in the Rocky Mountain compact region runs from no authority, as in Wyoming, to general statutory authority for which regulations would have to be promulgated, as in Arizona and Nevada, to more detailed siting laws, as in Colorado and New Mexico. Barring an amendment to, or different interpretation of, the Utah Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Act, none of the Rocky Mountain States' LLW facility siting authorities preempt local veto authorities

  3. US Army facility for the consolidation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of a waste consolidation facility for the Department of the Army's low-level radioactive waste was carried out to determine a possible site and perform a cost-benefit analysis. Four sites were assessed as possible locations for such a facility, using predetermined site selection criteria. To assist in the selection of a site, an evaluation of environmental issues was included as part of each site review. In addition, a preliminary design for a waste consolidation facility was developed, and facilities at each site were reviewed for their availability and suitability for this purpose. Currently available processes for volume reduction, as well as processes still under development, were then investigated, and the support and handling equipment and the staff needed for the safe operation of a waste consolidation facility were studied. Using current costs for the transportation and burial of low-level waste, a cost comparison was then made between waste disposal with and without the utilization of volume reduction. Finally, regulations that could affect the operation of a waste consolidation facility were identified and their impact was assessed. 11 references, 5 figures, 16 tables

  4. Evaluating public involvement in the national low-level radioactive-waste-management program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive public involvement approach has been developed to obtain the views and assistance of state and local governments, citizen groups, industry, professional societies and other organizations in the preparation and review of a national strategy document on low-level radioactive wastes. Six evaluators who have a wide diversity of backgrounds were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. This final report presents findings discussed under the headings: Introduction to the Recent History of Low-level Waste Policy Development (LLWMP) and the Role of Public Participation; Public Participation Mechanisms Employed in Preparing the National Strategy Document; the Keystone's Evaluation Process; and Findings. The overall evaluation of the process was very positive. It was clear that the LLWMP staff was seriously committed to building a credible public participation process. The evaluation team was provided rough cost figures for the various components of the LLWMP effort and concluded that, in its opinion, the public participation process provided benefits to the federal government that exceeded its costs. Moreover, the costs of the individual components were not out of line with each one's usefulness and contribution to the overall effort

  5. Modeling in low-level radioactive waste management from the US Geological Survey perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a long-standing proponent of using models as tools in geohydrologic investigations. These models vary from maps and core samples to elaborate digital computer algorithms, depending on the needed application and resources available. Being a non-regulatory scientific agency, the USGS uses models primarily for: improving modeling technology, testing hypotheses, management of water resources, providing technical advice to other agencies, parameter sensitivity analysis, and determination of parameter values (inverse problems). At low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, we are most interested in developing better capabilities for understanding the groundwater flor regime within and away from burial trenches, geochemical factors affecting nuclide concentration and mobility in groundwater, and the effects that various changes in the geohydrologic conditions have on groundwater flow and nuclide migration. Although the Geological Survey has modeling capabilities in a variety of complex problems, significant deficiencies and limitations remain in certain areas, such as fracture flow conditions and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However, even more serious are the deficiencies in measuring or estimating adequate input data for models and verification of model utility on real problems. Flow and transport models are being used by the USGS in several low-level disposal site studies, with varying degrees of sucess

  6. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  7. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for both radionuclides have been found approximately as 0,54 mSv/year and 0,28 mSv/year, respectively. These values are low in comparison to the reference dose limit for a member of the public, 1 mSv/year, recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP,1990). The modelling results indicate that, the disposal of low level waste, planned to be set up in future in Turkey seems to be possible

  8. The engineering application research of heat-pump evaporation technology dealing with low level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More and more radioactive wastes had been produced along with the development of nuclear industry, in which low level radioactive liquid waste is the most. There are many techniques to deal with low level radioactive liquid waste. 'The three-steps' method has been used widely in China for its advantages, which is high purify capability, simple technical principle and steady operation system. But the shortage which is high energy consumption is also obvious. The project of The Engineering Application Research of Heat-Pump Evaporation Technology Dealing with Low Level Radioactive Liquid Waste is about to set up an heat-pump evaporation system, which 1 m3 per hour liquid waste can be treated. in order to research and improve treatment technic of low level radioactive liquid evaporation. In the technology system of heat-pump evaporation, a steam-compressor used recycle the energy of second steam caused in evaporation process, in this way, it can enhance evaporation efficiency and reduce energy consumption under the condition of enough purify capability. The project will be tested by non-radioactivity and radioactivity experiments, and then the researching report will be written, the technic parameter and operation rule of the system in dealing with low radioactive liquid waste will be obtained, so that heat-pump can attain expanding demand in nuclear industry. (authors)

  9. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress; Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act.

  10. Report to Congress in response to Public Law 99-240: 1990 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress during 1990 of states and compact regions in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1990 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended by Public Law 99-240

  11. Planning and consultation procedures for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report is the result of a year-long study funded by UK Nirex Ltd. between 1986 and 1987. The central purpose was to learn from overseas experience of planning and public consultation procedures associated with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. The most recent information on LLW developments in the United States, Canada, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, and West Germany was sought, particularly in regard to: (1) the efficacy of public consultation and negotiation procedures, focusing in particular on the perceived problems, successes and areas for improvement; (2) the key aspects bearing on the public acceptability of LLW proposals; and (3) the form and effect of any compensation mechanisms in operation. The greatest success overseas appears to be linked to some combination of the following elements: authority and clarity in the exposition of the direction of radioactive waste management policy, backed up by authoritative and independent analysis; the early involvement of local authority (county council/regional authority) organisations in the site selection process; careful attention to the potential contribution of authoritative independent advisory groups on both technical and procedural/site selection matters; the development and nurturing of local liaison committees to establish good communications at the local level; careful consideration of means of devolving some power to local authority level for safety reassurance, for example, in relation to site inspections and safety monitoring; the development of an incremental, openly negotiated approach to compensation. (author)

  12. Treatment of low level radioactive wastewater by means of NF process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanofiltration can offer one of the approaches in optimizing membrane system. • Operation parameters especially the pressure affect nuclides’ removal efficiency. • Organic polyamide membrane shows radiation resistance. • A summary of DF and flux values can be taken as reference in designing the membrane system for LLRWs treatment. - Abstract: Membrane technology has been proved as an effective technology in the treatment of low level radioactive wastewaters (LLRWs). As ‘loose reverse osmosis’, nanofiltration can be integrated with RO and offers the high permeate flux at low pressure without obvious loss of decontamination efficiency. In the paper, three kinds of commercially available NF membrane materials were investigated by lab-scale experiment with respect to the nuclide rejection. The results demonstrate the efficient elimination. The membrane flux can be improved by the elevation of temperature and cross-flow velocity within the ranges of 20–30 °C and 0.4–1.0 m s−1. The radiation resistance test demonstrates no obvious loss of flux and nuclide rejection after a long term operation in the radioactive circumstance. A brief comparison of LLRWs treatment methods shows that NF can perform the pre-treatment of RO and optimize the entire membrane system with high flux and low pressure. In the paper, decontamination factor and flux values of the tested membranes at different operation condition are summarized as the reference for membrane selection and system design

  13. Low level radioactive waste produced from the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Production Laboratory was established in 1980. The Production program depends mainly on the research reactor IRT. At the start of operation 131I, 51Cr, 35S, 24Na , 198Au and 32P were produced and supplied to the users. In the Last years some facilities had been upgraded in cooperation with IAEA such as the production of 99mTc, 131I, and 82Br. Little and low level radioactive waste are produced during these activities. These radioactive wastes which produced after the production are: Cation resin column, glass- wool, Alumina column, Membrane filter, Disposal Filter Assembly, Syringe and needle, Na299MoO4 solution after repeated extraction of 99mTc from Na299MoO4 solution for 5-7 days. TeO2 Target after distillation of 131I, laboratory glassware and vials, the aluminum containers which used for irradiation and the contaminated water used for the vacuum pump during the method of dry distillation of 131I and Animal waste, including carcasses or other biological or pathological wastes contaminated with radioisotopes. The solid waste accumulated in suitable container for storage, shipment, further treatment, or disposal. Removal of over 99% of most long and short-lived products has been achieved in this manner by using anion and cation-exchange resin. (author)

  14. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Vitrification of low-level radioactive waste in a slagging combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of a Babcock ampersand Wilcox cyclone furnace to vitrify a low-level radioactive liquid waste was evaluated. The feed stream contained a mixture of simulated radioactive liquid waste and glass formers. The U.S. Department of Energy is testing technologies to vitrify over 60,000,000 gallons of this waste at the Hanford site. The tests reported here demonstrated the technical feasibility of Babcock ampersand Wilcox's cyclone vitrification technology to produce a glass for near surface disposal. Glass was produced over a period of 24-hours at a rate of 100 to 150 lb/hr. Based on glass analyses performed by an independent laboratory, all of the glass samples had leachabilities at least as low as those of the laboratory glass that the recipe was based upon. This paper presents the results of this demonstration, and includes descriptions of feed preparation, glass properties, system operation, and flue gas composition. The paper also provides discussions on key technical issues required to match cyclone furnace vitrification technology to this U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site application

  16. Treatment of low level radioactive wastewater by means of NF process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ding; Zhao, Xuan, E-mail: zhxinet@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Fuzhi

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Nanofiltration can offer one of the approaches in optimizing membrane system. • Operation parameters especially the pressure affect nuclides’ removal efficiency. • Organic polyamide membrane shows radiation resistance. • A summary of DF and flux values can be taken as reference in designing the membrane system for LLRWs treatment. - Abstract: Membrane technology has been proved as an effective technology in the treatment of low level radioactive wastewaters (LLRWs). As ‘loose reverse osmosis’, nanofiltration can be integrated with RO and offers the high permeate flux at low pressure without obvious loss of decontamination efficiency. In the paper, three kinds of commercially available NF membrane materials were investigated by lab-scale experiment with respect to the nuclide rejection. The results demonstrate the efficient elimination. The membrane flux can be improved by the elevation of temperature and cross-flow velocity within the ranges of 20–30 °C and 0.4–1.0 m s{sup −1}. The radiation resistance test demonstrates no obvious loss of flux and nuclide rejection after a long term operation in the radioactive circumstance. A brief comparison of LLRWs treatment methods shows that NF can perform the pre-treatment of RO and optimize the entire membrane system with high flux and low pressure. In the paper, decontamination factor and flux values of the tested membranes at different operation condition are summarized as the reference for membrane selection and system design.

  17. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO3-/NO2- that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  18. Radiolytic generation of chloro-organic compounds in transuranic and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiolytic degradation of chloro-plastics is being investigated to evaluate the formation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in radioactive waste. These chlorinated VOCs, when their subsequent migration in the geosphere is considered, are potential sources of ground-water contamination. This contamination is an important consideration for transuranic waste repositories being proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project and the several additional low-level radioactive waste sites being considered throughout the United States. The production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with chloro-plastic materials has been well-established in both this work and past studies. This occurs as a result of gamma, beta, and alpha particle interactions with the plastic material. The assemblage of organic compounds generated depends on the type of plastic material, the type of ionizing radiation, the gaseous environment present and the irradiation temperature. In the authors' experiments, gas generation data were obtained by mounting representative plastics near (3 mm) an alpha particle source (Am-241 foil). This assembly was placed in an irradiation vessel which contained air, nitrogen, or a hydrogen/carbon dioxide mixture, at near-atmospheric pressures, to simulate the range of atmospheres likely to be encountered in the subsurface. The gas phase in the vessels are periodically sampled for net gas production. The gas phase concentrations are monitored over time to determine trends and calculate the radiolytic yield for the various gaseous products

  19. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  20. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel`s expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel`s reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel`s review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management.``

  1. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  2. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H. (Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management.''

  3. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification

  4. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  5. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices

  6. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level

  7. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out

  8. New York vs. United States: Federalism and the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although 97 percent of LLRW is so slightly radioactive that it requires little or no shielding to protect the public, the remaining 3 percent consists of materials that must be shielded for periods ranging from 300 to several thousand years. Some of the material classified as LLRW contains open-quotes open-quote hot spots close-quote, where concentrations of radioactivity may be quite high.close quotes Even aside from such hot spots, LLRW poses a threat to human health. While nuclear power plants generate the bulk of LLRW, a significant quantity of LLRW is generated by industry, and academic and medical institutions. States are allowed to regulate LLRW that is generated by the private sector, as long as the regulations are compatible with, and at least as restrictive as, those of the NRC. However, states may not regulate LLRW generated by NRC-licensed nuclear power plants. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLR-WPAA, or the Act) attempted to solve the problem of insufficient LLRW disposal capacity in the United States by further shifting responsibility for LLRW disposal to the states. The Act required each state to provide an approved disposal site that could be located either within that state or within a region formed by a compact including that state. In June, 1992, the United States Supreme Court struck down a key provision of the Act that would have forced a state to take title to all LLRW generated within its borders if that state failed to meet a 1996 deadline for providing such a disposal site. This note will examine the constitutional basis for, and the consequences of, that decision. In addition, this note will suggest that the Court's new criterion for determining when a federal statute violates principles of federalism be replaced by a more coherent and workable test resting on a theory of political accountability and on the Guarantee Clause of the United States Constitution

  9. Calculation of response coefficient for low-level liquid radioactivity concentration measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The on-line low-level liquid radioactivity concentration measurement device is designed for monitoring the radioactivity level of nuclear power plant waste water. The relation between the radioactivity concentration of 137Cs in the liquid of pipeline and the counting rate of measurement device, i.e. the response coefficient is must be known. It is generally given by experimental calibration. But the calibration is difficult for on-line measurement. Purpose: This paper attempts to study the response coefficient of on-line measurement device by calculation. Methods: The response coefficient is calculated by Monte Carlo method and in which gamma-ray transport processes in detection device are simulated. The response counts in Nal detector derived from 137Cs in the liquid are calculated. Results: The response coefficient of off-line measuring device is calculated firstly. The result is in good agreement with the experimental calibration and the difference is small than 3%. It is indicated that the method is correct and the calculation model is reasonable. Then, the response coefficient of on-line measuring devices is calculated according to the on-line measurement device design and the structure of Nal detector. The minimum detectable concentration is given according to the response coefficient and the background count rate. Conclusions: The response coefficient of on-line measurement device is 1.249×10-4 s-1·Bq-1·m3 and the minimum detectable concentration can reach (4-5)×103 Bq·m-3 when the thickness of lead shield is 80 mm. (authors)

  10. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: (1) whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so, (2) whether it could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with predominant waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing. The quality of combustion observed during the initial studies on the glass furnace was such that a more demanding application was suggested - that of hazardous waste processing. To fully evaluate the furnace's capabilities in this area a study was initiated in December, 1984 which simulated a ''trial burn'' of the type required for an EPA Part B permit for thermal processing of RCRA hazardous wastes. Solvents and sludges, some of which contained high percentages of water, were spiked with a ''cocktail'' of organics determined to be ''difficult to incinerate'' by the EPA. A complete sampling program following EPA protocol demonstrated destruction and removal efficiencies exceeding RCRA standards

  11. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  12. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  13. Surface erosion and hydrology of earth covers used in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land burial is the current method of disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the United States. The most serious technical problems encountered in shallow land burial are water-related. Water is reported to come into contact with the waste by erosion of earth covers or through infiltration of precipitation through the earth covers. The objectives of this study were to: compare and evaluate the effects of crested wheatgrass and streambank wheatgrass on surface erosion of simulated earth covers at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), characterize the surface hydrology, and estimate cumulative soil loss for average and extreme rainfall events and determine if the waste will become exposed during its burial life due to erosion. 30 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs

  14. Figure-of-merit analysis and cost effectiveness of low-level radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were performed to assess low-level waste treatment systems that are available commercially for volume reduction and/or solidification. In the first, a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) decision analysis technique was used to evaluate fourteen low-level radioactive waste processing systems on their ability to treat power reactor wastes. The assessment of the various processing systems was accomplished using a five member task force. The systems were judged on eleven major criteria and twenty subcriteria. The system judged superior to all the others was compaction of dry wastes with liquid wastes and sludges being directly incorporated into concrete. This was also the lowest cost system. The controlled air incinerator was judged the preferred incineration process. The Werner-Pfleider bitumen extruder was the preferred liquid waste treatment system. In the second study, the cost economy of volume reduction measured in land disposal dollars was investigated. The greatest cost savings with volume reduction were realized with a BWR using a deep bed condensate polishing system; the least with a PWR with condensate polishing. For both BWR systems and PWRs without condensate cleanup, over 80% of the savings in land disposal dollars resulted from volume reduction of liquid waste streams (concentrated liquids and filter sludge). For a PWR with a condensate polishing system, which had the least cost effective system for volume reduction, about one-third of the savings resulting from incineration of spent resin and compactible trash was offset by the increased expense of casks required for transporting concentrated liquids which have undergone additional volume reduction

  15. The Effect Of Felspar On the Results Of Low Level Radioactive Waste Treatment By Cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine an optimum composition of the mixture for waste treatment by cementation in the environmental condition. Mixture of cement and water by weight ratio of water/cement (w/c) = 0.35 was added by waste from various concentration of 5; 7.5; and 12.5 % weight from cement-water mixture. The mixture of water /cement was filled into polyethylene tube cover which has diameter = height = 3.7. Firstly none radioactive waste contained 300 g/l NaNO3 was added. The same work was done again for the edition of NaNO3 waste. After having cured for 28 days the mixture was the tube. Further examination was done by Paul Wreber compressive strength, irradiation at dose rate of 2250.900 rad/hr from 60Co sources, thermal test by Sykron furnace, and leaching rate test of active nuclide by Ortec analyzer, and non active nuclide was analyzed in BTKL Yogyakarta. In leach rate test 90Sr with a final activity of 1.10-4μCi/ml was added. The compressive strength (CS) of solid water-cement = 0.35 was 40/07 N/mm2. Solidification waste cement was 38.05 N/mm2 at pH 6, and was 39,10 N/mm at pH 10, because NaOH supported to inhibit cracking. After felspar mineral has been added CS was 39,95 N/mm2, because the function of additive was to close all pores and to inhibit cracking and bleeding . Thermal tested at 600oC during 1 hour indicated that CS was 24.65 N/mm2 and the beginning of cracking occurred at 400oC, and at 900oC . The CS was 44,95 N/mm2 Irradiation effect on CS of solid waste was not significant . Leaching test indicated that active nitrate waste cured into water at last three months were between 2.12x10-5 until 9.54x10-5 g.cm2 day1. Composition of the optimum solid content 1:65.625 wt % cement 22.968 wt % low level active nitrate waste; and 4,763 wt % felspar additive. Key words : cementation, low level radioactive waste,felspar

  16. Radionuclide characterization, migration and monitoring at a commercial low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is being studied to characterize the physico-chemical forms of the radionuclides and their behaviour during migration in groundwaters. Environmental monitoring studies are also in progress to identify and assess migration pathways of the radionuclides. At the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site, mobile species of various radionuclides have migrated short distances on-site (metres to tens of metres) from the trenches. Plutonium is migrating as a soluble anionic complex in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxidation states. Empirical evidence suggests that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) contained in the trench water has formed strong organic complexes with plutonium and 60Co, thereby increasing their mobility. Mobile forms of 90Sr and 137Cs are associated with a variety of polar organic species, e.g. carboxylic acids. Environmental monitoring studies at the Maxey Flats site are assessing surface contamination and biological monitoring techniques that can be used for long-term surveillance. Deciduous forests growing near the Maxey Flats site offer the potential to detect the migration of radionuclides, particularly tritium, occurring by subterranean flow from the waste trenches if the flow is within the rooting depth of the trees. (author)

  17. Radionuclide characterization, migration, and monitoring at a commercial low-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility is being studied to characterize the physicochemical forms of the radionuclides and their behavior during migration in ground waters. Environmental monitoring studies are also in progress to identify and assess migration pathways of the radionuclides. At the Maxey Flats, Kentucky low-level waste burial site, mobile species of various radionuclides have migrated short distances on-site (meters to tens of meters) from the trenches. Plutonium is migrating as a soluble anionic complex in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxidation states. Empirical evidence suggests that EDTA contained in the trench water has formed strong organic complexes with plutonium and 60Co, thereby increasing their mobility. Mobile forms of 90Sr and 137Cs are associated with a variety of polar organic species, e.g. carboxylic acids. Environmental monitoring studies at the Maxey Flats site are assessing surface contamination and biological monitoring techniques which can be used for long-term surveillance. Deciduous forests growing near the Maxey Flats site offer the potential to detect the migration of radionuclides, particularly tritium, occurring by subterranean flow from the waste trenches of the flow is within the rooting depth of the trees

  18. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow

  19. The development of special ISO freight containers for the transport of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation and maintenance of nuclear power stations, and other nuclear facilities, solid waste materials such as paper, plastics, filters, clothing, wood and metallic items are produced which are lightly or potentially radioactively contaminated. These items of trash are generally classified as low level waste (LLW) which, in the UK, is defined as having a radioactivity content of not more than 12 GBq/ton beta/gamma (about 300 mCi/t) and 4 GBq/ton alpha (about 100 mCi/t). LLW does not normally require to be shielded during normal handling and transport. LLW in the UK is routinely disposed at a special site at Drigg in Cumbria and until recently the disposal method used has been simple tumble-tipping into shallow trenches excavated in clay. Large re-usable tipping containers were used to transport the waste by road to the disposal site. Although various studies had confirmed the continued technical, safety and environmental acceptability of the simple disposal practices at Drigg, it was recognized that improvements would have to be made, mainly for presentational purposes. The new disposal concept adopted at Drigg was to construct concrete lined engineered vaults in which the containerized waste would be stacked uniformly. It was therefore necessary to develop a new method of waste packaging that was compatible with the new disposal concept. A number of proposals were considered. The authors proposed a system that would use ISO freight containers as both transport and disposal packages. This system was adopted and has been in service since mid 1988

  20. Protecting Lake Ontario - Treating Wastewater from the Remediated Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Facility - 13227

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freihammer, Till; Chaput, Barb [AECOM, 99 Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3P 0Y7 (Canada); Vandergaast, Gary [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada); Arey, Jimi [Public Works and Government Services Canada, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative, a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soils (MCS). The Port Granby Project involves the relocation and remediation of up to 0.45 million cubic metres of such waste from the current Port Granby Waste Management Facility located in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, adjacent to the shoreline of Lake Ontario. The waste material will be transferred to a new suitably engineered Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) to be located inland approximately 700 m from the existing site. The development of the LTWMF will include construction and commissioning of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) designed to treat wastewater consisting of contaminated surface run off and leachate generated during the site remediation process at the Port Granby Waste Management Facility as well as long-term leachate generated at the new LTWMF. Numerous factors will influence the variable wastewater flow rates and influent loads to the new WWTP during remediation. The treatment processes will be comprised of equalization to minimize impacts from hydraulic peaks, fine screening, membrane bioreactor technology, and reverse osmosis. The residuals treatment will comprise of lime precipitation, thickening, dewatering, evaporation and drying. The distribution of the concentration of uranium and radium - 226 over the various process streams in the WWTP was estimated. This information was used to assess potential worker exposure to radioactivity in the various process areas. A mass balance approach was used to assess the distribution of uranium and radium - 226, by applying individual contaminant removal rates for each process element of the WTP, based on pilot scale results and experience-based assumptions. The mass balance calculations were repeated for various flow