WorldWideScience

Sample records for characterizing habitable worlds

  1. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  2. Pulling Back the Veil: The Characterization and Habitability of Enshrouded Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada Nicole

    habitability, I compared the production of fractal organic haze on Archean Earth-analog planets around several spectral types of stars: the sun at 2.7 billion years ago and at present day; the highly flaring M3.5V dwarf AD Leo; the M4V dwarf GJ 876; a modeled quiescent M dwarf; the K2V star epsilon Eridani; and the F2V star sigma Bootis. In my simulations, planets orbiting stars with the highest or lowest UV fluxes did not form haze. Low UV-stars are unable to drive the photochemistry needed for haze formation. High UV stars generate photochemical oxygen radicals that halt the buildup of this haze. Hazes can impact planetary habitability via UV shielding and surface cooling, but this cooling seems unimportant for hazy M dwarf planets because the bulk of the M dwarf spectral energy arrives at longer infrared wavelengths where organic hazes are relatively transparent. I simulated hazy planet spectra for these exoplanet-analogs in reflected light, thermal emission, and transit transmission and found that the spectral features of organic hazes should be detectable with future telescopes. For 10 transits of a hypothetical Archean-analog planet orbiting GJ 876 observed by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) over 0.8-14 mum, haze, methane and carbon dioxide are detectable assuming photon-limited noise levels. For direct imaging of a planet at 10 pc using a coronagraphic 10-meter class ultraviolet-visible-near infrared telescope, a shortwave haze absorption feature would be strongly detectable at >12 sigma in 200 hours. The impact of haze on planetary habitability and spectra are crucial to consider for future characterization of terrestrial exoplanets. Haze in the Archean could even have impacted the evolution of photosynthetic pigments because the spectrum of light reaching the planet's surface would have been reddened. I explore the consequences of this and show the spectrum of photons at the Earth's surface beneath a haze. In addition to haze, other types of UV shields would

  3. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    CERN Document Server

    Cockell, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

  4. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  5. Characterizing Habitable Extrasolar Planets using Spectral Fingerprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly thanks to radial velocity surveys (HARPS), transit searches (Corot, Kepler) and space observatories dedicated to their characterization are already in development phase (James Webb Space Telescope), large ground based telescopes (ELT, TNT, GMT), and dedicated space-based missions like Darwin, Terrestrial Planet Finder, New World Observer). In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. Identifying signs of life implies understanding how the observed atmosphere physically and chemically works and thus to gather information on the planet in addition to the observing its spectral fingerprint.

  6. Mapping the Nearest Stars for Exotic Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Exoplanets are planets orbiting stars other than the sun. Thousands of exoplanets are known and thousands of more planet candidates have been found. Until now, the dominant focus on habitable worlds has been on Earth-like planets, because Earth is the only known planet with life. Yet exoplanets are astonishingly diverse—in terms of their masses, densities, orbits, and host star types—and this diversity motivates a radical extension of what conventionally constitutes a habitable planet. The race to find habitable exoplanets has accelerated with the realization that “big Earths” transiting small stars can be both discovered and characterized with current technology. Moreover, technology for space-based direct imaging of Earth analogs has been rapidly maturing. The ambitious goal of inferring signs of life via biosignature gases in an exoplanet atmosphere, once only a futuristic thought, is now within reach.

  7. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  8. Characterizing Habitable Exo-Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of screening the atmosphere of exomoons for habitability. We concentrate on Earth-like satellites of extrasolar giant planets (EGP) which orbit in the Habitable Zone of their host stars. The detectability of exomoons for EGP in the Habitable Zone has recently been shown to be feasible with the Kepler Mission or equivalent photometry using transit duration observations. Using the Earth itself as a proxy we show the potential and limits of spectroscopy to detect biomarkers on an Earth-like exomoon and discuss effects of tidal locking for such potential habitats. Transmission spectroscopy of exomoons is a unique potential tool to screen them for habitability in the near future.

  9. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  10. The First Atmospheric Characterization of a Habitable-Zone Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Charbonneau, David; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Irwin, Jonathan; Kreidberg, Laura; Line, Michael; Montet, Ben; Morley, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    Exoplanet surveys have recently revealed nearby planets orbiting within stellar habitable zones. This highly-anticipated breakthrough brings us one step closer in our quest to identify cosmic biosignatures, the indicators of extrasolar life. To achieve our goal, we must first study the atmospheres of these temperate worlds to measure their compositions and determine the prevalence of obscuring clouds. Using observations from the K2 mission, Co-I Montet recently announced the discovery of a 2.2 Earth-radii planet within the habitable zone of its relatively bright, nearby M dwarf parent star, K2-18. This temperate world is currently the best habitable-zone target for atmospheric characterization. Congruent with currently planned HST observations, we propose a Spitzer program to measure the transmission spectrum of the first habitable-zone exoplanet. Both telescopes are essential to revealing K2-18b's chemical composition. In a cloud-free, hydrogen-dominated atmosphere, the precision achieved by these measurements will be sufficient to detect methane, ammonia, and water vapor, which are the dominant C, N, and O bearing species at these temperatures. In turn, elemental abundance constraints from a primordial atmosphere can tell us about the composition of a protoplanetary disk in which Earth-like planets could have formed. Conversely, if the atmosphere contains thick clouds then the multi-wavelength observations from K2, HST, and Spitzer will constrain the clouds' properties. Because temperature plays a key role in the formation of clouds, their detection within the atmosphere of this habitable-zone exoplanet would be an important signpost that serves as a guide to future investigations of smaller, rocky exoplanets. As K2 continues discovering more habitable-zone planets, it is imperative that we perform spectral reconnaissance with Spitzer to determine their physical characteristics and begin understanding the prevalence of potentially-obscuring clouds prior to the

  11. Was Venus the first Habitable World of our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael; Del Genio, Anthony; Kiang, Nancy; Sohl, Linda; Grinspoon, David; Aleinov, Igor; Kelley, Maxwell; Clune, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Recent simulations have been completed with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies 3-D General Circulation Model of paleo Venus for a range of early solar system ages from 3Gya to 0.7Gya when the sun was less luminous than today. We use this and Magellan topography to provide Venus an ocean of average depth 310m and an atmosphere similar to present day Earth. A combination of a less luminous Sun and a slow rotation rate reveal that Venus could have had conditions on its surface amenable to surface liquid water in its early history. It is possible that fewer assumptions have to be made to make Venus an early habitable world of our solar system than have to be made for Mars or Earth, even though Venus is a much tougher world on which to confirm this hypothesis. These results could have implications in the search for planets within the habitable zones of stars.

  12. Energizing the Discussion of Ice-Ocean World Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    2014-04-01

    The outer solar system boasts a wide range of worlds with oceans - moons orbiting the gas giants as well as putative ocean worlds in the Kuiper Belt. These objects span sizes from a few hundred kilometers to larger than Mercury. How do we understand these bodies as a class as well as evaluate the habitability of individual environments? Recognizing that there is more to habitability than a set of ingredients, "Follow the Energy' has become an important mantra. Earth's biosphere is strongly coupled to its geologic activity that maintains a sort of stable chemical disequilibria that is employed by life. From this perspective, we can think of geologic activity as a planetary proxy for energy, setting up redox environments of which life can take advantage. With this as a backdrop, we will explore two of the most intriguing bodies: Europa and Enceladus. With an icy outer shell hiding a global ocean, Europa (r=1565 km) exists in a dynamic environment, where immense tides from Jupiter potentially power an active deeper interior. Intense irradiation and impacts bathe the top of the ice shell. These processes are sources of energy that could sustain a biosphere. In the past few decades the debate about habitability of Europa has been focused strongly on the thickness of its ice shell. However an arguably more critical question is: how does the ice shell really work? Galileo data indicated that Europa has undergone recent resurfacing, and implied that near-surface water was likely involved. Now the detection of potential water ice plumes, subduction-like behavior as well as shallow subsurface "lakes" within the past few years implies that rapid ice shell recycling could create a conveyor belt between the ice and ocean. Mediated by processes at the ice-ocean interface, exchange between Europa's surface and subsurface could allow ocean material to one day be detected or sampled by spacecraft. At least at this level, Europa passes the energy test. But the question remains: is

  13. Venus: The First Habitable World of Our Solar System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael Joseph; Del Genio, Anthony; Kiang, Nancy; Sohl, Linda; Clune, Tom; Aleinov, Igor; Kelley, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of effort in the search for life off-Earth in the past 20+ years has focused on Mars via a plethora of space and ground based missions. While there is good evidence that surface liquid water existed on Mars in substantial quantities, it is not clear how long such water existed. Most studies point to this water existing billions of years ago. However,those familiar with the Faint Young Sun hypothesis for Earth will quickly realize that this problem is even more pronounced for Mars. In this context recent simulations have been completed with the GISS 3-D GCM (1) of paleo Venus (approx. 3 billion years ago) when the sun was approx. 25 less luminous than today. A combination of a less luminous Sun and a slow rotation rate reveal that Venus could have had conditions on its surface amenable to surface liquid water. Previous work has also provided bounds on how much water Venus could have had using measured DH ratios. It is possible that less assumptions have to be made to make Venus an early habitable world than have to be made for Mars, even thoughVenus is a much tougher world on which to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Emergence of Habitable Environments in Icy World Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life [1]. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. Hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are icy moons and dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core [2]. By improving an icy world evolution code [3] to include the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, I show that several icy moons and dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction [4,5]. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces [6,7]. I simulated the alteration of chondritic rock [8] by pure water or fluid of cometary composition [9] to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the distribution of radionuclides, whose decay is a chief heat source on dwarf planets [10]. Hydrothermal circulation also efficiently transports heat from the core into the ocean, thereby increasing ocean persistence [4]. Thus, these coupled geophysical-geochemical models provide a comprehensive picture of icy world evolution and the emergence of liquid environments in chemical disequilibrium with underlying rock in their interiors. Habitable settings also require a suitable supply of bioessential elements; but what constitutes "suitable"? I sought to quantify the bulk elemental composition of hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. This was achieved using a

  15. Was Venus the First Habitable World of our Solar System?

    CERN Document Server

    Way, Michael J; Kiang, Nancy Y; Sohl, Linda E; Grinspoon, David H; Aleinov, Igor; Kelley, Maxwell; Clune, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Present-day Venus is an inhospitable place with surface temperatures approaching 750K and an atmosphere over 90 times as thick as present day Earth's. Billions of years ago the picture may have been very different. We have created a suite of 3D climate simulations using topographic data from the Magellan mission, solar spectral irradiance estimates for 2.9 and 0.715 billion years ago, present day Venus orbital parameters, an ocean volume consistent with current theory and measurements, and an atmospheric composition estimated for early Venus. Using these parameters we find that such a world could have had moderate temperatures if Venus had a rotation period slower than about 16 Earth days, despite an incident solar flux 46-70% higher than modern Earth receives. At its current rotation period of 243 days, Venus's climate could have remained habitable until at least 715 million years ago if it hosted a shallow primordial ocean. These results demonstrate the vital role that rotation and topography play in unders...

  16. Was Venus the first habitable world of our solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M. J.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Kiang, Nancy Y.; Sohl, Linda E.; Grinspoon, David H.; Aleinov, Igor; Kelley, Maxwell; Clune, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Present-day Venus is an inhospitable place with surface temperatures approaching 750 K and an atmosphere 90 times as thick as Earth's. Billions of years ago the picture may have been very different. We have created a suite of 3-D climate simulations using topographic data from the Magellan mission, solar spectral irradiance estimates for 2.9 and 0.715 Gya, present-day Venus orbital parameters, an ocean volume consistent with current theory, and an atmospheric composition estimated for early Venus. Using these parameters we find that such a world could have had moderate temperatures if Venus had a prograde rotation period slower than ~16 Earth days, despite an incident solar flux 46-70% higher than Earth receives. At its current rotation period, Venus's climate could have remained habitable until at least 0.715 Gya. These results demonstrate the role rotation and topography play in understanding the climatic history of Venus-like exoplanets discovered in the present epoch.

  17. Expanding and Improving the Search for Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Mandell, Avi M

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on recent results in advancing our understanding of the location and distribution of habitable exo-Earth environments. We first review the qualities that define a habitable planet/moon environment. We extend these concepts to potentially habitable environments in our own Solar System and the current and future searches for biomarkers there, focusing on the primary targets for future exploratory missions: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. We examine our current knowledge on the types of planetary systems amenable to the formation of habitable planets, and review the current state of searches for extra-solar habitable planets as well as expected future improvements in sensitivity and preparations for the remote detection of the signatures of life outside our Solar System.

  18. The search for habitable worlds: 1. The viability of a starshade mission

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, Margaret C; Roberge, Aki; Cash, Webster; Noecker, Charley; Lo, Amy; Mason, Brian; Oakley, Phil; Bally, John

    2012-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission to explore habitable planets orbiting nearby stars, this paper explores the detection and characterization capabilities of a 4-m space telescope plus 50-m starshade located at the Earth-Sun L2 point, a.k.a. the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Our calculations include the true spectral types and distribution of stars on the sky, an iterative target selection protocol designed to maximize efficiency based on prior detections, and realistic mission constraints. We carry out both analytical calculations and simulated observing runs for a wide range in exozodiacal background levels ({\\epsilon} = 1 - 100 times the local zodi brightness) and overall prevalence of Earth-like terrestrial planets ({\\eta}\\oplus = 0.1 - 1). We find that even without any return visits, the NWO baseline architecture (IWA = 65 mas, limiting FPB = 4\\times10-11) can achieve a 95% probability of detecting and spectrally characterizing at least one habitable Earth-like planet, and an expectation value of ~3 planets found, w...

  19. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-08

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

  20. Exotic Earths: Forming Habitable Worlds with Giant Planet Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, S N; Sigurdsson, S; Raymond, Sean N.; Mandell, Avi M.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-01-01

    Close-in giant planets (e.g. ``Hot Jupiters'') are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth mass planets also form interior to the migrating Jovian planet, analogous to recently-discovered ``Hot Earths''. Very water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the Habitable Zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

  1. The Search for Habitable Worlds. 1. The Viability of a Starshade Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Margaret C.; Glassman, Tiffany; Roberge, Aki; Cash, Webster; Noecker, Charley; Lo, Amy; Mason, Brian; Oakley, Phil; Bally, John

    2012-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission to explore habitable planets orbiting nearby stars, this article explores the detection and characterization capabilities of a 4 m space telescope plus 50 m starshade located at the Earth-Sun L2 point, known as the New Worlds Observer (NWO). Our calculations include the true spectral types and distribution of stars on the sky, an iterative target selection protocol designed to maximize efficiency based on prior detections, and realistic mission constraints. We conduct simulated observing runs for a wide range in exozodiacal background levels (epsilon = 1-100 times the local zodi brightness) and overall prevalence of Earth-like terrestrial planets (eta(sub solar halo))0.1-1). We find that even without any return visits, the NWO baseline architecture (IWA = 65 mas, limiting FPB = 4 x 10(exp -11) can achieve a 95% probability of detecting and spectrally characterizing at least one habitable Earth-like planet and an expectation value of approximately 3 planets found, within the mission lifetime and delta V budgets, even in the worst-case scenario (eta(sub solar halo) = 0.1 and = epsilon = 100 zodis for every target). This achievement requires about 1 yr of integration time spread over the 5 yr mission, leaving the remainder of the telescope time for UV-NIR general astrophysics. Cost and technical feasibility considerations point to a "sweet spot" in starshade design near a 50 m starshade effective diameter. with 12 or 16 petals, at a distance of 70,000-100,000 km from the telescope.

  2. Exploring extrasolar worlds: from gas giants to terrestrial habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Griffith, Caitlin A; Swain, Mark R; Deroo, Pieter; Beaulieu, Jean Philippe; Vasisht, Gautam; Kipping, David; Waldmann, Ingo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Barber, Robert J; Bouwman, Jeroen; Allard, Nicole; Brown, Linda R

    2010-01-01

    Almost 500 extrasolar planets have been found since the discovery of 51 Peg b by Mayor and Queloz in 1995. The traditional field of planetology has thus expanded its frontiers to include planetary environments not represented in our Solar System. We expect that in the next five years space missions (Corot, Kepler and GAIA) or ground-based detection techniques will both increase exponentially the number of new planets discovered and lower the present limit of a approximately 1.9 Earth-mass object [e.g. Mayor et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2009, 507, 487]. While the search for an Earth-twin orbiting a Sun-twin has been one of the major goals pursued by the exoplanet community in the past years, the possibility of sounding the atmospheric composition and structure of an increasing sample of exoplanets with current telescopes has opened new opportunities, unthinkable just a few years ago. As a result, it is possible now not only to determine the orbital characteristics of the new bodies, but moreover to study the exotic environments that lie tens of parsecs away from us. The analysis of the starlight not intercepted by the thin atmospheric limb of its planetary companion (transit spectroscopy), or of the light emitted/reflected by the exoplanet itself, will guide our understanding of the atmospheres and the surfaces of these extrasolar worlds in the next few years. Preliminary results obtained by interpreting current atmospheric observations of transiting gas giants and Neptunes are presented. While the full characterisation of an Earth-twin might requires a technological leap, our understanding of large terrestrial planets (so called super-Earths) orbiting bright, later-type stars is within reach by current space and ground telescopes.

  3. Characterizing the Habitable Zone Planets of Kepler Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Debra

    Planet Hunters (PH) is a well-established and successful web interface that allows citizen scientists to search for transiting planets in the NASA Kepler public archive data. Over the past 3 years, our users have made more than 20 million light curve classifications. We now have more than 300,000 users around the world. However, more than half of the Kepler data has not yet been displayed to our volunteers. In June 2014 we are launching Planet Hunters v2.0. The backend of the site has been completely redesigned. The new website is more intuitive and faster; we have improved the real-time weighting algorithm that assigns transit scores for faster and more accurate extraction of the transit events from the database. With Planet Hunters v2.0, we expect that assessments will be ten times faster, so that we have the opportunity to complete the classifications for the backlog of Kepler light curve in the next three years. There are three goals for this project. First, we will data-mine the PH classifications to search for long period planets with fewer than 5 transit events. We have demonstrated that our volunteers are efficient at detecting planets with long periods and radii greater than a few REARTH. This region of parameter space is optimal for characterizing larger planets orbiting close to the habitable zone. To build upon the citizen science efforts, we will model the light curves, search for evidence of false positives, and contribute observations of stellar spectra to refine both the stellar and orbital parameters. Second, we will carry out a careful analysis of the fraction of transits that are missed (a function of planet radius and orbital period) to derive observational incompleteness factors. The incompleteness factors will be combined with geometrical detection factors to assess the planet occurrence rate for wide separations. This is a unique scientific contribution current studies of planet occurrence rate are either restricted to orbital periods shorter

  4. Origins of Water in the Solar System Leading to Habitable Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen J.

    2015-08-01

    Life on Earth depends on an aqueous biochemistry, and water is a key component of habitability on Earth and for likely other habitable environments in the solar system. While water is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, and plays a key role in protoplanetary disk chemistry, the inner solar system is relatively dry. We now have evidence for potentially thousands of extrasolar planets, dozens of which may be located in their host star’s habitable zones. Understanding how planets in the habitable zone accrete their water, is key to understanding the likelihood for habitability. Given that many disk models show that Earth formed inside the water-ice snow line of our solar system, understanding how the inner solar system received its water is important for understanding the potential for other planetary systems to host habitable worlds. Boundaries for the timing of the water delivery are constrained by cosmochemistry and geochemistry. Possible scenarios for the delivery of water to the inner solar system include adsorption on dust from protoplanetary disk gas, chemical reactions on the early earth, and delivery from planetesimals forming outside the water-ice snow line. This talk will set the stage for understanding the isotopic and geochemical markers along with the dynamical delivery mechanisms that will help uncover the origins of Earths water. This introduction will provide an overview for understanding the distribution of water in the solar system, in particular for the inner solar system and terrestrial planets—and the details will be developed in the subsequent talks. Additionally information will be presented regarding new inner solar system reservoirs of water that can shed light on origins (the main belt comets), and new research about water in the Earth.

  5. Prospects for Habitable World Detections Using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake

    2010-01-01

    Doppler and transit surveys are finding extrasolar planets of ever smaller mass and radius, and are now sampling the domain of superEarths. Recent results from the Doppler surveys suggest that discovery of a transiting superEarth in the habitable zone of a lower main sequence star may be possible. We evaluate the prospects for an all-sky transit survey targeted to the brightest stars I that would find the most favorable cases for photometric and spectroscopic characterization using the James Webb Space Telescope. We use the proposed Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) as representative of an all-sky survey. We couple the simulated TESS yield to a sensitivity model for the MIRI and NIRSpec instruments on JWST. Our sensitivity model includes all currently known and anticipated sources of random and systematic error for these instruments. We focus on the TESS planets with radii between Earth and Neptune. Our simulations consider secondary eclipse filter photometry using JWST/MIRI, comparing the 11- and 15- micron bands to measure carbon dioxide absorption in superEarths, as well as JWST!NIRSpec spectroscopy of water absorption from 1.7-3.0 microns, and carbon dioxide absorption at 4.3 microns. We find that JWST will be capable of characterizing dozens of TESS superEarths with temperatures above the habitable range, using both MIRI and NIRspec. We project that TESS will discover about eight nearby habitable transiting superEarths, all orbiting lower main sequence stars. The principal sources of uncertainty in the prospects for JWST characterization of habitable superEarths are superEarth frequency and the nature of superEarth atmospheres. Based on our estimates of these uncertainties, we project that JWST will be able to measure the temperature, and identify molecular absorptions (water, carbon dioxide) in one to four nearby habitable TESS superEarths orbiting lower main sequence stars.

  6. Habitable Worlds Around M Dwarf Stars: The CAPSCam Astrometric Planet Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Thompson, Ian B.; Brahm, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    M dwarf stars are attractive targets in the search for habitable worlds as a result of their relative abundance and proximity, making them likely targets for future direct detection efforts. Hot super-Earths as well as gas giants have already been detected around a number of early M dwarfs, and the former appear to be the high-mass end of the population of rocky, terrestrial exoplanets. The Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search (CAPS) program has been underway since March 2007, searching ~ 100 nearby late M, L, and T dwarfs for gas giant planets on orbits wide enough for habitable worlds to orbit interior to them. The CAPSCam-N camera on the 2.5-m du Pont telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory has demonstrated the ability to detect planets as low in mass as Saturn orbiting at several AU around late M dwarfs within 15 pc. Over the next decade, the CAPS program will provide new constraints on the planetary census around late M dwarf stars, and hence on the suitability of these nearby planetary systems for supporting life.

  7. HABITABLE PLANETS ECLIPSING BROWN DWARFS: STRATEGIES FOR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Bolmont, Emeline [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Palle, Enric [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ribas, Ignasi, E-mail: belu@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl., E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-05-10

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P{sub HZ{sub out}}). Habitable planets with P{sub HZ{sub out}} shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5{sup +5.6}{sub -1.4}% and 56{sup +31}{sub -13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using {approx}1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  8. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Belu, Adrian R; Raymond, Sean N; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D K; Von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G C; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting brown dwarfs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (PHZ out). Habitable planets with PHZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g. 8-10 hrs) can be screened with 100 percent completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous brown dwarfs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g. from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved - 3 telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known brown dwarfs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5 +5.6-1.4 and 56 +31-13 percent, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that bro...

  9. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D. K.; von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G. C.; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-05-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P HZ out). Habitable planets with P HZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5^{+5.6}_{-1.4}% and 56^{+31}_{-13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using ~1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  10. Habitable worlds with JWST: transit spectroscopy of the TRAPPIST-1 system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, J. K.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2016-09-01

    The recent discovery of three Earth-sized, potentially habitable planets around a nearby cool star, TRAPPIST-1, has provided three key targets for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Depending on their atmospheric characteristics and precise orbit configurations, it is possible that any of the three planets may be in the liquid water habitable zone, meaning that they may be capable of supporting life. We find that present-day Earth levels of ozone, if present, would be detectable if JWST observes 60 transits for innermost planet 1b and 30 transits for 1c and 1d.

  11. Habitable worlds with JWST: transit spectroscopy of the TRAPPIST-1 system?

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, Joanna K

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of three Earth-sized, potentially habitable planets around a nearby cool star, TRAPPIST-1, has provided three key targets for the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Depending on their atmospheric characteristics and precise orbit configurations, it is possible that any of the three planets may be in the liquid water habitable zone, meaning that they may be capable of supporting life. We find that present-day Earth levels of ozone, if present, would be detectable if JWST observes 60 transits for innermost planet 1b and 30 transits for 1c and 1d.

  12. Title: Characterizing a Frozen Extrasolar World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered brown dwarf WISE 0855 presents our first opportunity to study an object outside the Solar System that is nearly as cold as our own gas giant planets. However the traditional methodology for characterizing brown dwarfs-near infrared spectroscopy-is not currently feasible as WISE 0855 is too cold and faint. To characterize this frozen extrasolar world we obtained a 4.5-5.2 micrometers spectrum, the same bandpass long used to study Jupiter's deep thermal emission. Our spectrum reveals the presence of atmospheric water vapor and clouds, with an absorption profile that is strikingly similar to Jupiter. The spectrum is high enough quality to allow the investigation of dynamical and chemical processes that have long been studied in Jupiter's atmosphere, but this time on an extrasolar world.

  13. World Assessment Unit Geological Characterizations, 2000 World Petroleum Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapfile includes arcs and polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of the World. Each assessment unit is...

  14. Changing dietary habits in a changing world: emerging drivers for the transmission of foodborne parasitic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broglia, A; Kapel, C

    2011-11-24

    Changing eating habits, population growth and movements, global trade of foodstuff, changes in food production systems, climate change, increased awareness and better diagnostic tools are some of the main drivers affecting the emergence or re-emergence of many foodborne parasitic diseases in recent years. In particular, the increasing demand for exotic and raw food is one of the reasons why reports of foodborne infections, and especially waterborne parasitosis, have increased in the last years. Moreover increasing global demand for protein of animal origin has led to certain farming practices (e.g. aquaculture) increasing in emerging or developing countries, where health monitoring may not be sufficiently implemented. Therefore, high quality epidemiological data are needed which together with biological, economic, social and cultural variables should be taken into account when setting control programs for these increasingly popular production systems in emerging economies. This review focuses on the dietary, social, economic and environmental changes that may cause an increase in human exposure to foodborne parasites. Some examples illustrating these new epidemiological dynamics of transmission foodborne parasitic disease are presented.

  15. Changing eating habits on the home front: Lost lessons from World War II research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    Programs intended to improve nutrition often fall short of expectations. One exception, however, occurred during the rationing years of World War II, when U.S. citizens were encouraged to incorporate protein-rich organ meats into their protein-deficient diets. Unfortunately,, most of tire insights r

  16. In Order to Save the World for Human Habitation, We Must Stop Teaching Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raymond C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews 11 normative principles of capitalist economics. Contends that these principles form the basis for much of economics education in the United States and Western society. Argues that to save the world from massive environmental degradation, economics education must be completely restructured to focus on ecological concerns. (CFR)

  17. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T): Investigating the habitability and evolution of ocean worlds in the Saturn system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Giuseppe; Postberg, Frank; Soderblom, Jason M.; Tobie, Gabriel; Tortora, Paolo; Wurz, Peter; Barnes, Jason W.; Coustenis, Athena; Ferri, Francesca; Hayes, Alexander; Hayne, Paul O.; Hillier, Jon; Kempf, Sascha; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Lorenz, Ralph; Orosei, Roberto; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Yen, Chen-wan; Reh, Kim R.; Schmidt, Jürgen; Sims, Jon; Sotin, Christophe; Srama, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The NASA-ESA-ASI Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed Titan and Enceladus to be two of the most enigmatic worlds in the Solar System. Titan, with its organically rich and dynamic atmosphere and geology, and Enceladus, with its active plume of water vapor and ice laced with organics, salts, and silica nano-particles, both harbouring subsurface oceans, are prime environments in which to investigate the conditions for the emergence of life and the habitability potential of ocean worlds as well as the origin and evolution of unique complex planetary systems. Explorer of Enceladus and Titan (E2T) is a space mission concept dedicated to investigating the evolution and habitability of these Saturnian satellites and is proposed as a medium-class mission led by ESA in collaboration with NASA in response to ESA's M5 Cosmic Vision Call. E2T has a focused state-of-the-art adapted payload that will provide in-situ sampling, high-resolution imaging and radio science measurements from multiple flybys of Enceladus and Titan using a solar-electric powered spacecraft in orbit around Saturn. With significant improvements in mass range and resolution, as compared with Cassini, the Ion and Neutral Gas Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Enceladus Icy Jet Analyzer (ENIJA) time of flight mass spectrometers will provide the data needed to decipher the subtle details of the aqueous environment of Enceladus from plume sampling and of the complex pre-biotic chemistry occurring in Titan's atmosphere. The Titan Imaging and Geology, Enceladus Reconnaissance (TIGER) mid-wave infrared camera will map thermal emission from Enceladus' tiger stripes at meter scales and investigate Titan's geology and compositional variability at decameter scales. The Radio Science Experiment (RSE) measurements will provide constraints on the ice shell structure and the properties of the internal oceans of Enceladus and Titan. We will present the concept and discuss the major improvements to our understanding of these

  18. Exoplanet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet’s surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  19. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  20. Psychology of Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors.

  1. Spectroscopic characterization of the atmospheres of potentially habitable planets: GL 581 d as a model case study

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Grenfell, J Lee; Hedelt, Pascal; Rauer, Heike; Schreier, Franz; Stracke, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) The Super-Earth candidate GL 581 d is the first potentially habitable extrasolar planet. Therefore, GL 581 d is used to illustrate a hypothetical detailed spectroscopic characterization of such planets. Atmospheric profiles from 1D radiative-convective model scenarios of GL 581 d were used to calculate high-resolution synthetic spectra. From the spectra, signal-to-noise ratios were calculated for a telescope such as the planned James Webb Space Telescope. The presence of the model atmospheres could be clearly inferred from the calculated synthetic spectra due to strong water and carbon dioxide absorption bands. Surface temperatures could be inferred for model scenarios with optically thin spectral windows. Dense, CO2-rich scenarios did not allow for the characterization of surface temperatures and to assess habitability. Degeneracies between CO2 concentration and surface pressure further complicated the interpretation of the calculated spectra, hence the determination of atmospheric conditions. Sti...

  2. Spitzer Observations Confirm and Rescue the Habitable-Zone Super-Earth K2-18b for Future Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Benneke, Björn; Petigura, Erik; Knutson, Heather; Dressing, Courtney; Crossfield, Ian J M; Schlieder, Joshua E; Livingston, John; Beichman, Charles; Christiansen, Jessie; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Howard, Andrew W; Sinukoff, Evan; Ciardi, David R; Akeson, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    The recent detections of two transit events attributed to the super-Earth candidate K2-18b have provided the unprecedented prospect of spectroscopically studying a habitable-zone planet outside the Solar System. Orbiting a nearby M2.5 dwarf and receiving virtually the same stellar insolation as Earth, K2-18b would be a prime candidate for the first detailed atmospheric characterization of a habitable-zone exoplanet using HST and JWST. Here, we report the detection of a third transit of K2-18b near the predicted transit time using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Spitzer detection demonstrates the periodic nature of the two transit events discovered by K2, confirming that K2-18 is indeed orbited by a super-Earth in a 33-day orbit and ruling out the alternative scenario of two similarly-sized, long-period planets transiting only once within the 75-day K2 observation. We also find, however, that the transit event detected by Spitzer occurred 1.85 hours (7-sigma) before the predicted transit time. Our joint analy...

  3. Relationship between digestive enzymes and food habit of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) larvae: Characterization of carbohydrases and digestion of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, C S; Lucena, S A; Moreira, B H S; Brazil, R P; Gontijo, N F; Genta, F A

    2012-08-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912) is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. In spite of its medical importance and several studies concerning adult digestive physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, very few studies have been carried out to elucidate the digestion in sandfly larvae. Even the breeding sites and food sources of these animals in the field are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe and characterize several carbohydrases from the gut of L. longipalpis larvae, and show that they are probably not acquired from food. The enzyme profile of this insect is consistent with the digestion of fungal and bacterial cells, which were proved to be ingested by larvae under laboratory conditions. In this respect, sandfly larvae might have a detritivore habit in nature, being able to exploit microorganisms usually encountered in the detritus as a food source.

  4. Spitzer Observations Confirm and Rescue the Habitable-zone Super-Earth K2-18b for Future Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Werner, Michael; Petigura, Erik; Knutson, Heather; Dressing, Courtney; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Livingston, John; Beichman, Charles; Christiansen, Jessie; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Howard, Andrew W.; Sinukoff, Evan; Ciardi, David R.; Akeson, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of two transit events attributed to the super-Earth candidate K2-18b have provided the unprecedented prospect of spectroscopically studying a habitable-zone planet outside the solar system. Orbiting a nearby M2.5 dwarf and receiving virtually the same stellar insolation as Earth, K2-18b would be a prime candidate for the first detailed atmospheric characterization of a habitable-zone exoplanet using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)and James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Here, we report the detection of a third transit of K2-18b near the predicted transit time using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The Spitzer detection demonstrates the periodic nature of the two transit events discovered by K2, confirming that K2-18 is indeed orbited by a super-Earth in a 33 day orbit, ruling out the alternative scenario of two similarly sized, long-period planets transiting only once within the 75 day Kepler Space Telescope (K2) observation. We also find, however, that the transit event detected by Spitzer occurred 1.85 hr (7σ ) before the predicted transit time. Our joint analysis of the Spitzer and K2 photometry reveals that this early occurrence of the transit is not caused by transit timing variations, but the result of an inaccurate ephemeris due to a previously undetected data anomaly in the K2 photometry. We refit the ephemeris and find that K2-18b would have been lost for future atmospheric characterizations with HST and JWST if we had not secured its ephemeris shortly after the discovery. We caution that immediate follow-up observations as presented here will also be critical for confirming and securing future planets discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), in particular if only two transit events are covered by the relatively short 27-day TESS campaigns.

  5. Bioclimatic and physical characterization of the world's islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Jetz, Walter; Kreft, Holger

    2013-09-17

    The Earth's islands harbor a distinct, yet highly threatened, biological and cultural diversity that has been shaped by geographic isolation and unique environments. Island systems are key natural laboratories for testing theory in ecology and evolution. However, despite their potential usefulness for research, a quantitative description of island environments and an environmental classification are still lacking. Here, we prepare a standardized dataset and perform a comprehensive global environmental characterization for 17,883 of the world's marine islands >1 km(2) (∼98% of total island area). We consider area, temperature, precipitation, seasonality in temperature and precipitation, past climate change velocity, elevation, isolation, and past connectivity--key island characteristics and drivers of ecosystem processes. We find that islands are significantly cooler, wetter, and less seasonal than mainlands. Constrained by their limited area, they show less elevational heterogeneity. Wet temperate climates are more prevalent on islands, whereas desert climates are comparatively rare. We use ordination and clustering to characterize islands in multidimensional environmental space and to delimit island ecoregions, which provides unique insights into the environmental configuration and diversity of the world's islands. Combining ordination and classification together with global environmental data in a common framework opens up avenues for a more integrative use of islands in biogeography, macroecology, and conservation. To showcase possible applications of the presented data, we predict vascular plant species richness for all 17,883 islands based on statistically derived environment-richness relationships.

  6. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of New Wheat—Dasypyrum breviaristatum Derivatives with Post-Harvest Re-Growth Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dasypyrum species, Dasypyrum breviaristatum, serves as a valuable source of useful genes for wheat improvement. The development and characterization of new wheat—D. breviaristatum introgression lines is important to determine the novel gene(s on specific chromosome(s. We first used multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to identify the individual D. breviaristatum Vb chromosomes in a common wheat—D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid, TDH-2. The FISH patterns of D. breviaristatum chromosomes were different from those of D. villosum chromosomes. Lines D2146 and D2150 were selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat—D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid TDH-2, and they were characterized by FISH and PCR-based molecular markers. We found that D2150 was a monosomic addition line for chromosome 5Vb of D. breviaristatum, while D2146 had the 5VbL chromosome arm translocated with wheat chromosome 5AS. Molecular marker analysis confirmed that the introduced D. breviaristatum chromosome 5VbL translocation possessed a duplicated region homoeologous to 5AS, revealing that the 5AS.5VbL translocation may not functionally compensate well. The dwarfing and the pre-harvest re-growth habits observed in the wheat—D. breviaristatum chromosome 5Vb derivatives may be useful for future development of perennial growth wheat lines.

  7. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of New Wheat-Dasypyrum breviaristatum Derivatives with Post-Harvest Re-Growth Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjun; Li, Guangrong; Li, Donghai; Gao, Dan; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Ennian; Yang, Zujun

    2015-11-27

    A novel Dasypyrum species, Dasypyrum breviaristatum, serves as a valuable source of useful genes for wheat improvement. The development and characterization of new wheat-D. breviaristatum introgression lines is important to determine the novel gene(s) on specific chromosome(s). We first used multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the individual D. breviaristatum V(b) chromosomes in a common wheat-D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid, TDH-2. The FISH patterns of D. breviaristatum chromosomes were different from those of D. villosum chromosomes. Lines D2146 and D2150 were selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat-D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid TDH-2, and they were characterized by FISH and PCR-based molecular markers. We found that D2150 was a monosomic addition line for chromosome 5V(b) of D. breviaristatum, while D2146 had the 5V(b)L chromosome arm translocated with wheat chromosome 5AS. Molecular marker analysis confirmed that the introduced D. breviaristatum chromosome 5V(b)L translocation possessed a duplicated region homoeologous to 5AS, revealing that the 5AS.5V(b)L translocation may not functionally compensate well. The dwarfing and the pre-harvest re-growth habits observed in the wheat-D. breviaristatum chromosome 5V(b) derivatives may be useful for future development of perennial growth wheat lines.

  8. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Behrens, T.; Ben-Dor, E.; Bartholomeus, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about

  9. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  10. Habitable Trinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. Dohm; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients) accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  11. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Behrens, T.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystemservices, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulatesemissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agroecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about soil...... to sustainably manage and preserve it for future generations. To this end, we developed and analyzed a global soil visible–near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral library. It is currently the largest and most diverse database of its kind. We show that the information encoded in the spectra can describe soil composition...

  12. THESIS: terrestrial and habitable zone infrared spectroscopy spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, G.; Swain, M. R.; Akeson, R. L.; Burrows, A.; Deming, D.; Grillmair, C. J.; Greene, T. P.

    2008-07-01

    THESIS is a concept for a medium class mission designed for spectroscopic characterization of extrasolar planets between 2-14 microns. The concept leverages off the recent first-steps made by Spitzer and Hubble in characterizing the atmospheres of alien gas giants. Under favourable circumstances, THESIS is capable of identifying biogenic molecules in habitable-zone planets, thereby determining conditions on worlds where life might exist. By systematically characterizing many worlds, from rocky planets to gas-giants, THESIS would deliver transformational science of profound interest to astronomers and the general public.

  13. It Doesn't Break Just on Twitter. Characterizing Facebook content During Real World Events

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies in the past have analyzed the role and dynamics of the Twitter social network during real world events. However, little work has explored the content of other social media services, or compared content across two networks during real world events. We believe that social media platforms like Facebook also play a vital role in disseminating information on the Internet during real world events. In this work, we study and characterize the content posted on the world's biggest soc...

  14. Study Habits on English Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China gradual y focuses on the development of local English education in order to expand its influence to the world. The essay wil analyze the situation of English education in China and explain the importance of study habits to English education. Meanwhile, some advices for Chinese education changes wil be given. According to the essay, it can be found that study habit is essential for further English education. China cannot be stick to its English education strategy al the time because Chinese students rely too much on the teaching strategies instead of their own study habits.

  15. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  16. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further, the......, the state variable of the model - the surplus consumption ratio - explains counter-cyclical time-varying expected returns on stocks. The model also produces plausible low real risk-free rates despite high relative risk aversion....

  17. The sustainability of habitability on terrestrial planets: Insights, questions, and needed measurements from Mars for understanding the evolution of Earth-like worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Anderson, F. S.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Catling, D. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Cohen, B. A.; Dressing, C. D.; Edwards, C. S.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Farley, K. A.; Fassett, C. I.; Fischer, W. W.; Fraeman, A. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hayes, A. G.; Herd, C. D. K.; Horgan, B.; Hu, R.; Jakosky, B. M.; Johnson, J. R.; Kasting, J. F.; Kerber, L.; Kinch, K. M.; Kite, E. S.; Knutson, H. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Mangold, N.; McCubbin, F. M.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Rice, M. S.; Stack, K. M.; Stevenson, D. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Toplis, M. J.; Usui, T.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Wordsworth, R. D.; Wray, J. J.; Yingst, R. A.; Yung, Y. L.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2016-10-01

    What allows a planet to be both within a potentially habitable zone and sustain habitability over long geologic time? With the advent of exoplanetary astronomy and the ongoing discovery of terrestrial-type planets around other stars, our own solar system becomes a key testing ground for ideas about what factors control planetary evolution. Mars provides the solar system's longest record of the interplay of the physical and chemical processes relevant to habitability on an accessible rocky planet with an atmosphere and hydrosphere. Here we review current understanding and update the timeline of key processes in early Mars history. We then draw on knowledge of exoplanets and the other solar system terrestrial planets to identify six broad questions of high importance to the development and sustaining of habitability (unprioritized): (1) Is small planetary size fatal? (2) How do magnetic fields influence atmospheric evolution? (3) To what extent does starting composition dictate subsequent evolution, including redox processes and the availability of water and organics? (4) Does early impact bombardment have a net deleterious or beneficial influence? (5) How do planetary climates respond to stellar evolution, e.g., sustaining early liquid water in spite of a faint young Sun? (6) How important are the timescales of climate forcing and their dynamical drivers? Finally, we suggest crucial types of Mars measurements (unprioritized) to address these questions: (1) in situ petrology at multiple units/sites; (2) continued quantification of volatile reservoirs and new isotopic measurements of H, C, N, O, S, Cl, and noble gases in rocks that sample multiple stratigraphic sections; (3) radiometric age dating of units in stratigraphic sections and from key volcanic and impact units; (4) higher-resolution measurements of heat flux, subsurface structure, and magnetic field anomalies coupled with absolute age dating. Understanding the evolution of early Mars will feed forward to

  18. Characterization of tobacco geminiviruses in the Old and New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paximadis, M; Idris, A M; Torres-Jerez, I; Villarreal, A; Rey, M E; Brown, J K

    1999-01-01

    Biological differences and molecular variability between six phenotypically distinct tobacco-infecting geminivirus isolates from southern Africa (Zimbabwe) and Mexico were investigated. Host range studies conducted with tobacco virus isolates ZIM H from Zimbabwe and MEX 15 and MEX 32 from Mexico indicated all had narrow host ranges restricted to the Solanaceae. Alignment of coat protein gene (CP) and common region (CR) sequences obtained by PCR, and phylogenetic analysis of the CP sequences indicated Zimbabwean isolates were distantly related to those from Mexico and that geographically proximal isolates shared their closest affinities with Old and New World geminiviruses, respectively. Zimbabwean isolates formed a distinct cluster of closely related variants (> 98% sequence identity) of the same species, while MEX 15 segregated independently from MEX 32, the former constituting a distinct species among New World geminiviruses, and the latter being a variant, Texas pepper virus-Chiapas isolate (TPV-CPS) with 95% sequence identity to TPV-TAM. Results collectively indicated a geographic basis for phylogenetic relationships rather than a specific affiliation with tobacco as a natural host. MEX 15 is provisionally described as a new begomovirus, tobacco apical stunt virus, TbASV, whose closest CP relative is cabbage leaf curl virus, and ZIM isolates are provisionally designated as tobacco leaf curl virus, TbLCV-ZIM, a new Eastern Hemisphere begomovirus, which has as its closest relative, chayote mosaic virus from Nigeria.

  19. Characterizing of a Mid-Latitude Ice-Rich Landing Site on Mars to Enable in Situ Habitability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J.; Schurmeier, L. R.; Wilhelm, M.; Stoker, C.; McKay, C.; Davila, A.; Marinova, M.; Karcz, J.; Smith, H.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest an ice-rich landing site at 188.5E 46.16N within Amazonis Planitia as a candidate location to support a Mars lander mission equipped to study past habitability and regions capable of preserving the physical and chemical signs of life and organic matter. Studies of the ice-rich subsurface on Mars are critical for several reasons. The subsurface environment provides protection from radiation to shield organic and biologic compounds from destruction. The ice-rich substrate is also ideal for preserving organic and biologic molecules and provides a source of H2O for biologic activity. Examination of martian ground ice can test several hypotheses such as: 1) whether ground ice supports habitable conditions, 2) that ground ice can preserve and accumulate organic compounds, and 3) that ice contains biomolecules evident of past or present biological activity on Mars. This Amazonis site, located near the successful Viking Lander 2, shows indirect evidence of subsurface ice (ubiquitous defined polygonal ground, gamma ray spectrometer hydrogen signature, and numerical modeling of ice stability) and direct evidence of exposed subsurface ice. This site also provides surface conditions favorable to a safe landing including no boulders, low rock density, minimal rough topography, and few craters.

  20. Diversity among other worlds: characterization of exoplanets by direct detection

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J; Aylward, A; Baudoz, P; Beuzit, J L; Brown, R; Cho, J; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M; Galicher, R; Grasset, O; Grenfell, L; Guyon, O; Hough, J; Kasper, M; Keller, Ch; Longmore, A; López, B; Martin, E; Mawet, D; Ménard, F; Merin, B; Palle, E; Perrin, G; Pinfield, D; Sein, E; Shore, P; Sotin, Ch; Sozzetti, A; Stam, D; Surdej, J; Tamburini, F; Tinetti, G; Udry, S; Verinaud, C; Walker, D

    2008-01-01

    The physical characterization of exoplanets will require to take spectra at several orbital positions. For that purpose, a direct imaging capability is necessary. Direct imaging requires an efficient stellar suppression mechanism, associated with an ultrasmooth telescope. We show that before future large space missions (interferometer, 4-8 m class coronograph, external occulter or Fresnel imager), direct imaging of giant planets and close-by super-Earth are at the cross-road of a high scientific interest and a reasonable feasibility. The scientific interest lies in the fact that super-Earths share common geophysical attributes with Earths. They already begin to be detected by radial velocity (RV) and, together with giant planets, they have a larger area than Earths, making them detectable with a 1.5-2 m class telescope in reflected light. We propose such a (space) telescope be a first step before large direct imaging missions.

  1. Characterizing the Habitable Zones of Exoplanetary Systems with a Large Ultraviolet/Visible/Near-IR Space Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey; Roberge, Aki; Ayres, Thomas; Barman, Travis; Brown, Alexander; Davenport, James; Desert, Jean-Michel; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Fleming, Brian; Fontenla, Juan; Fossati, Luca; Froning, Cynthia; Hallinan, Gregg; Hawley, Suzanne; Hu, Renyu; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kasting, James; Kowlaski, Adam; Loyd, Parke; Mauas, Pablo; Miguel, Yamila; Osten, Rachel; Redfield, Seth; Rugheimer, Sarah; Schneider, Christian; Segura, Antigona; Stocke, John; Tian, Feng; Tumlinson, Jason; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Wood, Brian; Youngblood, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the surface and atmospheric conditions of Earth-size, rocky planets in the habitable zones (HZs) of low-mass stars is currently one of the greatest astronomical endeavors. Knowledge of the planetary effective surface temperature alone is insufficient to accurately interpret biosignature gases when they are observed in the coming decades. The UV stellar spectrum drives and regulates the upper atmospheric heating and chemistry on Earth-like planets, is critical to the definition and interpretation of biosignature gases, and may even produce false-positives in our search for biologic activity. This white paper briefly describes the scientific motivation for panchromatic observations of exoplanetary systems as a whole (star and planet), argues that a future NASA UV/Vis/near-IR space observatory is well-suited to carry out this work, and describes technology development goals that can be achieved in the next decade to support the development of a UV/Vis/near-IR flagship mission in the 2020s.

  2. The Promise of Many Worlds: Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets with Extreme Precision Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, technological advancement aligned with some of mankind's oldest and most compelling questions to give birth to exoplanet science. Since then, the study of exoplanets, more than any other field of astrophysics, has grown in direct consonance with new instrumentation. In this dissertation talk I will discuss the development of three precision spectrographs that are pushing the limits on current radial velocity (RV) precision: (a) PARAS, a workhorse optical instrument achieving ~1m/s over several months, (b) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder, an upcoming NIR instrument for the 10m Hobby Eberly Telescope, and (c) NEID, an extreme precision instrument that will be the centerpiece of the NASA-NSF Exoplanet Observational Research (NN-EXPLORE) partnership. The path to the extreme precisions required to detect Earth analogs (~10cm/s), requires severe technical artistry and demands unprecedented performance from both hardware and software. I will summarize the most challenging sources of measurement error and the hardware solutions we have innovated, including my work on the invention of an efficient ball lens double scrambler (patent pending) that essentially retires issues of illumination instability. As software architect of these instruments, I will also describe the pathways to extreme precision data analysis pipelines, rooted firmly in the heritage of current instruments in the field. Fortunately, the scientific return from these meticulously produced spectra will be manifold, extending beyond precision RVs. I will briefly discuss my work leveraging the stability and resolution of similar instruments for stellar activity diagnosis and the determination of insidious false positives, as well as for the direct detection of reflected light from exoplanets. These efforts together underline both the formidable demands and rich rewards of extreme precision spectroscopy, which remains our fundamental tool for the discovery of potentially habitable non

  3. Characterization of the USDA Rice World Genebank usng a core collection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Rice World Genebank contains more than 18,000 accessions originated from 116 countries displayed at www.ars-grin.gov with descriptive data for each. The resources and expertise required to fully characterize the collection is limited by the sheer number of accessions. Development of a Core ...

  4. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  5. THE HABIT OF CURIOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA CESARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is commonly referred to as a way of being, or an object of curiosity. How curiosity is part of our daily lives, how we engage with curiosity intellectually has a long and interesting history. Since the sixteenth century it has been manifest in cabinets of curiosity, museums and curio cabinets; exercises in collecting, self-reflection and discovery. However, the end of the twentieth-century has altered our sense of the world, through the speed and accessibility of information leaving a changed relationship with wonder. This paper discusses the role of curiosity in research as a “habit of curiosity”, (Benedict 2001, 2 a method for discovery. It reviews its historical manifestations and concerns, locating it through objects and actions, and questions what new meanings the twenty-first century brings with it. Is curiosity at risk? Is it still risky? The relationship between the individual and their interior and exterior socio-cultural landscape continually creates new meanings for knowledge and how we achieve it. This shadowy landscape of our curiosity has not lost meaning intellectually, but it in our shrinking, globalized world how we engage with it requires a new investigation.

  6. THESIS: the terrestrial habitable-zone exoplanet spectroscopy infrared spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Mark R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Henning, Thomas; Tinetti, Giovanna; Beaulieu, Jean-Phillippe

    2010-07-01

    THESIS, the Transiting Habitable-zone Exoplanet Spectroscopy Infrared Spacecraft, is a concept for a medium/Probe class exoplanet mission. Building on the recent Spitzer successes in exoplanet characterization, THESIS would extend these types of measurements to super-Earth-like planets. A strength of the THESIS concept is simplicity, low technical risk, and modest cost. The mission concept has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of conditions on extrasolar worlds and could serve as a stepping stone to more ambitious future missions. We envision this mission as a joint US-European effort with science objectives that resonate with both the traditional astronomy and planetary science communities.

  7. Molecular characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate: squirrel monkey polyomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ernst J; Groenewoud, Marlous J; Fagrouch, Zahra; Kewalapat, Aruna; van Gessel, Sabine; Kik, Marja J L; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2008-01-01

    DNA samples from a variety of New World monkeys were screened by using a broad-spectrum PCR targeting the VP1 gene of polyomaviruses. This resulted in the characterization of the first polyomavirus from a New World primate. This virus naturally infects squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sp.) and is provisionally named squirrel monkey polyomavirus (SquiPyV). The complete genome of SquiPyV is 5,075 bp in length, and encodes the small T and large T antigens and the three structural proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. Interestingly, the late region also encodes a putative agnoprotein, a feature that it shares with other polyomaviruses from humans, baboons and African green monkeys. Comparison with other polyomaviruses revealed limited sequence similarity to any other polyomavirus, and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene confirmed its uniqueness.

  8. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type...

  9. Habitability of Planets Orbiting Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Heller, Rene; Jackson, Brian; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Tanner, Angelle; Gomez-Perez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial planets are more likely to be detected if they orbit M dwarfs due to the favorable planet/star size and mass ratios. However, M dwarf habitable zones are significantly closer to the star than the one around our Sun, which leads to different requirements for planetary habitability and its detection. We review 1) the current limits to detection, 2) the role of M dwarf spectral energy distributions on atmospheric chemistry, 3) tidal effects, stressing that tidal locking is not synonymous with synchronous rotation, 4) the role of atmospheric mass loss and propose that some habitable worlds may be the volatile-rich, evaporated cores of giant planets, and 5) the role of planetary rotation and magnetic field generation, emphasizing that slow rotation does not preclude strong magnetic fields and their shielding of the surface from stellar activity. Finally we present preliminary findings of the NASA Astrobiology Institute's workshop "Revisiting the Habitable Zone." We assess the recently-announced planet ...

  10. Terraforming The Creating of Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Often used as the narrative premise in science fiction novels, terraforming is the process by which an uninhabitable planet might be converted into one capable of supporting life. This book proposes an exploration on the topic of terraforming. It presents what is physically possible and hints what might conceivably be put into practice

  11. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  12. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  13. Teenagers Media Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  14. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  15. The role of habit in compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Wingen, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Compulsivity has been recently characterized as a manifestation of an imbalance between the brain׳s goal-directed and habit-learning systems. Habits are perhaps the most fundamental building block of animal learning, and it is therefore unsurprising that there are multiple ways in which the development and execution of habits can be promoted/discouraged. Delineating these neurocognitive routes may be critical to understanding if and how habits contribute to the many faces of compulsivity observed across a range of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we distinguish the contribution of excessive stimulus-response habit learning from that of deficient goal-directed control over action and response inhibition, and discuss the role of stress and anxiety as likely contributors to the transition from goal-directed action to habit. To this end, behavioural, pharmacological, neurobiological and clinical evidence are synthesised and a hypothesis is formulated to capture how habits fit into a model of compulsivity as a trans-diagnostic psychiatric trait.

  16. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  17. Understanding other worlds: NASA's missions to find and characterize extrasolar planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    About 150 extrasolar planets, mostly much more massive the Earth, are now known from ground-based observations. Earth-mass planets are very hard, if not impossible, to detect from the ground. The study of planets like our own Earth, orbiting in a 'habitable zone' around their parent stars, will require a new generation of space-based instruments.

  18. Apparatus to characterize gas sensor response under real-world conditions in the lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, J; Eberhardt, A; Walden, P; Ortiz Pérez, A; Wöllenstein, J; Palzer, S

    2014-05-01

    The use of semiconducting metal-oxide (MOX) based gas sensors in demanding applications such as climate and environmental research as well as industrial applications is currently hindered by their poor reproducibility, selectivity, and sensitivity. This is mainly due to the sensing mechanism which relies on the change of conductivity of the metal-oxide layer. To be of use for advanced applications metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensors need to be carefully prepared and characterized in laboratory environments prior to deployment. This paper describes the working principle, design, and use of a new apparatus that can emulate real-world conditions in the laboratory and characterize the MOX gas sensor signal in tailor-made atmospheres. In particular, this includes the control of trace gas concentrations and the control of oxygen and humidity levels which are important for the surface chemistry of metal-oxide based sensors. Furthermore, the sensor temperature can be precisely controlled, which is a key parameter of semiconducting, sensitive layers, and their response to particular gas compositions. The setup also allows to determine the power consumption of each device individually which may be used for performance benchmarking or monitoring changes of the temperature of the gas composition. Both, the working principle and the capabilities of the gas measurement chamber are presented in this paper employing tin dioxide (SnO2) based micro sensors as exemplary devices.

  19. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  20. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  1. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Wolf, Eric T.; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G.

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ˜ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets.

  2. High on habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. F Hilário

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in learning and executing goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, have been shown to be different from those mediating habits, which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and changes in outcome value. Extended training, different reinforcement schedules, and substances of abuse have been shown to induce a shift from goal-directed performance to habitual performance. This shift can be beneficial in everyday life, but can also lead to loss of voluntary control and compulsive behavior, namely during drug seeking in addiction. Although the brain circuits underlying habit formation are becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are still not understood. Here, we review a recent study where Hilario et al. established behavioral procedures to investigate habit formation in mice in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation. Using those procedures, and a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, the authors showed that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation.

  3. Worlds Beyond: A Strategy for the Detection and Characterization of Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunine, J; Fischer, D; Hammel, H; Hillenbrand, L; Kasting, J; Laughlin, G; Macintosh, B; Marley, M; Melnick, G; Monet, D; Noecker, C; Peale, S; Quirrenbach, A; Seager, S; Winn, J

    2008-06-02

    This report is a comprehensive study of the search for and study of planets around other stars (exoplanets). The young but maturing field of exoplanets is perhaps one of the most compelling fields of study in science today--both because of the discoveries made to date on giant planets around other stars, and because the detection of planets just like our Earth ('Earth analogs') is at last within reach technologically. In the Report we outline the need for a vigorous research program in exoplanets to understand our place in the cosmos: whether planets like our home Earth are a common or rare outcome of cosmic evolution. The strategy we developed is intended to address the following fundamental questions, in priority order, within three distinct 5-yr long phases, over a 15 year period: (1) What are the physical characteristics of planets in the habitable zones around bright, nearby stars? (2) What is the architecture of planetary systems? (3) When, how and in what environments are planets formed? The Report recommends a two-pronged strategy for the detection and characterization of planets the size of the Earth. For stars much less massive and cooler than our Sun (M-dwarfs), existing ground-based techniques including radial velocity and transit searches, and space-based facilities both existing and under development such as Spitzer and JWST, are adequate for finding and studying planets close to the mass and size of the Earth. Conducted in parallel with the M-dwarf strategy is one for the more challenging observations of the hotter and brighter F, G, and K stars, some of which are very close in properties to our Sun, in which the frequency of Earth-sized planets is assessed with Corot and Kepler, but new space missions are required for detection and study of specific Earth-mass and Earth-sized objects. Our Task Force concludes that the development of a space-based astrometric mission, narrowly-focused to identify specific nearby stars with Earth

  4. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  5. Discovery and characterization of distinct simian pegiviruses in three wild African Old World monkey species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Sibley

    Full Text Available Within the Flaviviridae, the recently designated genus Pegivirus has expanded greatly due to new discoveries in bats, horses, and rodents. Here we report the discovery and characterization of three simian pegiviruses (SPgV that resemble human pegivirus (HPgV and infect red colobus monkeys (Procolobus tephrosceles, red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius and an olive baboon (Papio anubis. We have designated these viruses SPgVkrc, SPgVkrtg and SPgVkbab, reflecting their host species' common names, which include reference to their location of origin in Kibale National Park, Uganda. SPgVkrc and SPgVkrtg were detected in 47% (28/60 of red colobus and 42% (5/12 red-tailed guenons, respectively, while SPgVkbab infection was observed in 1 of 23 olive baboons tested. Infections were not associated with any apparent disease, despite the generally high viral loads observed for each variant. These viruses were monophyletic and equally divergent from HPgV and pegiviruses previously identified in chimpanzees (SPgVcpz. Overall, the high degree of conservation of genetic features among the novel SPgVs, HPgV and SPgVcpz suggests conservation of function among these closely related viruses. Our study describes the first primate pegiviruses detected in Old World monkeys, expanding the known genetic diversity and host range of pegiviruses and providing insight into the natural history of this genus.

  6. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer.

  7. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  8. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  9. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  10. FIRST HABITABLE PLANET DISCOVEREO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    20 light years away from our solar system, there is a planet called "Gliese 581d" which has conditions that could support Earth-like life, including possible oceans and rainfall. On May. 19, 20l 1, the planet has been the first to be officially declared habitable by French scientists.

  11. Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L; Fridlund, M; Lammer, H; Beichman, Ch; Danchi, W; Eiroa, C; Henning, T; Herbst, T; Léger, A; Liseau, R; Lunine, J; Paresce, F; Penny, A; Quirrenbach, A; Roettgering, H; Schneider, J; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; White, G J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 MEarth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? The new field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. The results of a first generation mission will most likely result in an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution as well as our planet in an overall context.

  12. Cultural routes: characterization and challenges of a new category of world cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Yáñez, Celia; Universidad de Granada

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies in depth the progress that cultural routes, as a new category of World Cultural Heritage, introduce in heritageprotection, as a result of their multidimensional, transnational and wide territorial extension. For this purpose it focuses onboth its scientific definition and its differentiation from other heritage categories, as well as on the challenges that set out itsfull assumption in the framework of the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural H...

  13. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  14. Pathways Towards Habitable Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Campanella, Giammarco; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational interaction. In particular, transit timing variations (TTV) and transit duration variations (TDV) are predicted to produce a unique exomoon signature, which is not only easily distinguished from other gravitational perturbations, but also provides both the period and mass of an exomoon. Using these timing effects, photometry greater or equal to that of the Kepler Mission is readily able to detect habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Earth masses and could survey up to 25,000 stars for 1 Earth-mass satellites. We discuss future possibilities for spectral retrieval of such bodies and show that transmission spectroscopy with JWST should be able to detect molecular species...

  15. High precision astrometry mission for the detection and characterization of nearby habitable planetary systems with the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Brown, Anthony G A; Cara, Christophe; Durand, Gilles; Eiroa, Carlos; Feautrier, Philippe; Jakobsson, Björn; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Labadie, Lucas; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Laskar, Jacques; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Maldonado, Jesús; Mercier, Manuel; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Traub, Wesley; Absil, Olivier; Alibert, Yann; Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Beichman, Charles; Chelli, Alain; Cockell, Charles S; Duvert, Gilles; Forveille, Thierry; Garcia, Paulo J V; Hobbs, David; Krone-Martins, Alberto; Lammer, Helmut; Meunier, Nadège; Minardi, Stefano; de Almeida, André Moitinho; Rambaux, Nicolas; Raymond, Sean; Röttgering, Huub J A; Sahlmann, Johannes; Schuller, Peter A; Ségransan, Damien; Selsis, Franck; Surdej, Jean; Villaver, Eva; White, Glenn J; Zinnecker, Hans

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) A complete census of planetary systems around a volume-limited sample of solar-type stars (FGK dwarfs) in the Solar neighborhood with uniform sensitivity down to Earth-mass planets within their Habitable Zones out to several AUs would be a major milestone in extrasolar planets astrophysics. This fundamental goal can be achieved with a mission concept such as NEAT - the Nearby Earth Astrometric Telescope. NEAT is designed to carry out space-borne extremely-high-precision astrometric measurements sufficient to detect dynamical effects due to orbiting planets of mass even lower than Earth's around the nearest stars. Such a survey mission would provide the actual planetary masses and the full orbital geometry for all the components of the detected planetary systems down to the Earth-mass limit. The NEAT performance limits can be achieved by carrying out differential astrometry between the targets and a set of suitable reference stars in the field. The NEAT instrument design consists of an off-axis para...

  16. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  17. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  18. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  19. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  20. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  1. On the radius of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The conditions that a planet must fulfill to be habitable are not precisely known. However, it is comparatively easier to define conditions under which a planet is very likely not habitable. Finding such conditions is important as it can help select, in an ensemble of potentially observable planets, which ones should be observed in greater detail for characterization studies. Assuming, as in the Earth, that the presence of a C-cycle is a necessary condition for long-term habitability, we derive, as a function of the planetary mass, a radius above which a planet is likely not habitable. We compute the maximum radius a planet can have to fulfill two constraints: surface conditions compatible with the existence of liquid water, and no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met. We compute internal structure models of planets, using a five-layer model (core, inner mantle, outer mantle, ocean, and atmosphere), for different mas...

  2. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  3. Circumbinary Habitability Niches

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

    2014-01-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

  4. Habitable planet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  5. Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolken, Tove C; Laquerre, Sylvie; Zhang, Yuanming; Bailey, Thomas R; Pevear, Daniel C; Kickner, Shirley S; Sperzel, Lindsey E; Jones, Kevin F; Warren, Travis K; Amanda Lund, S; Kirkwood-Watts, Dana L; King, David S; Shurtleff, Amy C; Guttieri, Mary C; Deng, Yijun; Bleam, Maureen; Hruby, Dennis E

    2006-02-01

    Category A arenaviruses as defined by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) are human pathogens that could be weaponized by bioterrorists. Many of these deadly viruses require biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) containment for all laboratory work, which limits traditional laboratory high-throughput screening (HTS) for identification of small molecule inhibitors. For those reasons, a related BSL-2 New World arenavirus, Tacaribe virus, 67-78% identical to Junín virus at the amino acid level, was used in a HTS campaign where approximately 400,000 small molecule compounds were screened in a Tacaribe virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. Compounds identified in this screen showed antiviral activity and specificity against not only Tacaribe virus, but also the Category A New World arenaviruses (Junín, Machupo, and Guanarito). Drug resistant variants were isolated, suggesting that these compounds act through inhibition of a viral protein, the viral glycoprotein (GP2), and not through cellular toxicity mechanisms. A lead compound, ST-294, has been chosen for drug development. This potent and selective compound, with good bioavailability, demonstrated protective anti-viral efficacy in a Tacaribe mouse challenge model. This series of compounds represent a new class of inhibitors that may warrant further development for potential inclusion in a strategic stockpile.

  6. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  7. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  8. Materials characterization of dusts generated by the collapse of the World Trade Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Clark, Roger N.; Gent, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The major inorganic components of the dusts generated from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 were concrete materials, gypsum, and man-made vitreous fibers. These components were likely derived from lightweight Portland cement concrete floors, gypsum wallboard, and spray-on fireproofing and ceiling tiles, respectively. All of the 36 samples collected by the USGS team had these materials as the three major inorganic components of the dust. Components found at minor and trace levels include chrysotile asbestos, lead, crystalline silica, and particles of iron and zinc oxides. Other heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel, were present at much lower levels occurring in a variety of chemical forms. Several of these materials have health implications based on their chemical composition, morphology, and bioaccessibility.

  9. On the probability of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Francois

    2012-01-01

    In the past 15 years, astronomers have revealed that a significant fraction of the stars should harbor planets and that it is likely that terrestrial planets are abundant in our galaxy. Among these planets, how many are habitable, i.e. suitable for life and its evolution? These questions have been discussed for years and we are slowly making progress. Liquid water remains the key criterion for habitability. It can exist in the interior of a variety of planetary bodies, but it is usually assumed that liquid water at the surface interacting with rocks and light is necessary for the emergence of a life able to modify its environment and evolve. A first key issue is thus to understand the climatic conditions allowing surface liquid water assuming a suitable atmosphere. This have been studied with global mean 1D models which has defined the "classical habitable zone", the range of orbital distances within which worlds can maintain liquid water on their surfaces (Kasting et al. 1993). A new generation of 3D climate...

  10. Portfolio Optimization under Habit Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Naryshkin, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The "standard" Merton formulation of optimal investment and consumption involves optimizing the integrated lifetime utility of consumption, suitably discounted, together with the discounted future bequest. In this formulation the utility of consumption at any given time depends only on the amount consumed at that time. However, it is both theoretically and empirically reasonable that an individuals utility of consumption would depend on past consumption history. Economists term this "Habit Formation". We introduce a new formulation of habit formation which allows non-addictive consumption patterns for a wide variety of utility specification. In this paper we construct a simple mathematical description of this habit formation and present numerical solutions. We compare the results with the standard ones and draw insights obtained from the habit formation. The consumption path tends to increase with time and be less sensitive to the market fluctuations, which perfectly reflects the existence of habit persistenc...

  11. Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

  12. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet's semi-major axis to the location of its host star's "habitable zone," the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an "eccentricity-albedo degeneracy" for the habitability of transiti...

  13. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: Preliminary Science Drivers and Technical Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. Scott; Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission Science and Technology Definition Team

    2017-01-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  14. Search for a habitable terrestrial planet transiting the nearby red dwarf GJ 1214

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Madhusudhan, N; Deming, D; Seager, S; Knutson, H A; Lanotte, A; Bonfils, X; Desert, J -M; Delrez, L; Jehin, E; Fraine, J D; Magain, P; Triaud, A H M J

    2013-01-01

    High-precision eclipse spectrophotometry of transiting terrestrial exoplanets represents a promising path for the first atmospheric characterizations of habitable worlds and the search for life outside our solar system. The detection of terrestrial planets transiting nearby late-type M-dwarfs could make this approach applicable within the next decade, with near-to-come general facilities. In this context, we previously identified GJ 1214 as a high-priority target for a transit search, as the transit probability of a habitable planet orbiting this nearby M4.5 dwarf would be significantly enhanced by the transiting nature of GJ 1214 b, the super-Earth already known to orbit the star. Basing on this observation, we have set-up an ambitious high-precision photometric monitoring of GJ 1214 with the Spitzer Space Telescope to probe its entire habitable zone in search of a transiting planet as small as Mars. We present here the results of this transit search. Unfortunately, we did not detect any second transiting pl...

  15. The Habitable Exoplanet (HabEx) Imaging Mission: preliminary science drivers and technical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Gaudi, Scott; Seager, Sara; Cahoy, Kerri; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Kasdin, Jeremy; Marois, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Tamura, Motohide; Mouillet, David; Prusti, Timo; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Robinson, Tyler; Rogers, Leslie; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Stern, Daniel; Still, Martin; Turnbull, Margaret; Booth, Jeffrey; Kiessling, Alina; Kuan, Gary; Warfield, Keith

    2016-07-01

    HabEx is one of four candidate flagship missions being studied in detail by NASA, to be submitted for consideration to the 2020 Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics for possible launch in the 2030s. It will be optimized for direct imaging and spectroscopy of potentially habitable exoplanets, and will also enable a wide range of general astrophysics science. HabEx aims to fully characterize planetary systems around nearby solar-type stars for the first time, including rocky planets, possible water worlds, gas giants, ice giants, and faint circumstellar debris disks. In particular, it will explore our nearest neighbors and search for signs of habitability and biosignatures in the atmospheres of rocky planets in the habitable zones of their parent stars. Such high spatial resolution, high contrast observations require a large (roughly greater than 3.5m), stable, and diffraction-limited optical space telescope. Such a telescope also opens up unique capabilities for studying the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. We present some preliminary science objectives identified for HabEx by our Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), together with a first look at the key challenges and design trades ahead.

  16. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the c...

  17. Going Bananas over Fruit: Using Habits of Mind to Foster Nutritional Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel; Hodges, Georgia Wood; Haddox, Anne; Arrington, Alejandro; Tippins, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Science literacy for all students is an education goal in the United States, as well as in many other parts of the world. Habits of mind are the skills and attitudes that students need to develop in order to understand science as a way of thinking. In this standards-based era, habits of mind can be readily incorporated to teach multiple content…

  18. [Oral habits. Etiology and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou-Kouvelas, K; Kouvelas, N

    1988-01-01

    Oral habits have been described by psychologists and psychyatrists as psychodynamic phenomena. Dentists are concerned with oral habits because of the detrimental consequences they have in the oral facial system. The dentist who is in a position to confront a child with an oral habit in order to treat his dentinofacial problems is required to be aware of the psychological background of his patient as well as of the conditions under which the children do the habit in order to overcome emotional difficulties. The dentist should also search into the child's family to find out what the causes of the child's oral habit maybe. For the treatment of an oral habit the dentist should ensure both the child's and the family's cooperation and he should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of every available method for treatment. Methods of treatment are: Use of orthodontic appliances: This method has the disadvantage that disturbs the child's psychological need for the habit, it can be interpreted as a punishment, it is visible and it causes speaking difficulties. It should be applied only in cooperation with the child. Behavioristic technique: This method aims to reinforce the child's positive behavior according to the Skinnerian principle: stimulus-response-reward. It has fast results but it is a conditioned treatment. Psychoanalytic method: It could solve the problem of the child's primary need for the oral habit in a radical manner. However it is practically impossible to be applied in Dentistry. Behavior modification according to ego psychology. With this method we attempt to analyse and understand the psychological cause of an oral habit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Tidal Constraints on Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N; Heller, Rene

    2009-01-01

    We review how tides may impact the habitability of terrestrial-like planets. If such planets form around low-mass stars, then planets in the circumstellar habitable zone will be close enough to their host stars to experience strong tidal forces. We discuss 1) decay of semi-major axis, 2) circularization of eccentric orbits, 3) evolution toward zero obliquity, 4) fixed rotation rates (not necessarily synchronous), and 5) internal heating. We briefly describe these effects using the example of a 0.25 solar mass star with a 10 Earth-mass companion. We suggest that the concept of a habitable zone should be modified to include the effects of tides.

  20. Identification and characterization of highly divergent simian foamy viruses in a wide range of new world primates from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P Muniz

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP and New World primates (NWP, which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV. While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n = 332 comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14-30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America.

  1. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  2. El dispositivo habitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Roche, P. M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the main concepts supporting the project "Habitar el Dispositivo" which was awarded a prize in the International Competition "25 Bioclimatical Houses" promoted by the "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables of Tenerife " and organized by the "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" and sponsored by the "International Union of Architects". As opposed to bioclimatical houses which are the result of adding bioclimatical devices to an architectural project, the integration of bioclimatical and architectural concepts in a livable device is proposed. A digital model of the project was built to analyze sunlight and shadow behavior and computer simulations permitted to determine thermal performance. Average thermal satisfaction was 89.75 % during typical summer and winter 24 hour periods.

    Se presentan los conceptos fundamentales que respaldan la propuesta "Habitar el Dispositivo", premiada en el Concurso Internacional "25 Viviendas Bioclimáticas" promovido por el "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables del Cabildo de Tenerife", organizado por el "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" y homologado por la "Unión Internacional de Arquitectos". Al contrario de la solución de añadir dispositivos a un proyecto de arquitectura, la propuesta integra conceptos bioclimáticos y arquitectónicos en un dispositivo habitable. Un modelo digital de la edificación permitió estudiar su volumetría y soleamiento en diferentes períodos del año, mientras que su comportamiento térmico se analizó con un programa de simulación en régimen dinámico. El promedio de personas satisfechas en días típicos de verano e invierno fue del 89,75 %.

  3. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  4. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  5. Cosmological aspects of planetary habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is defined as the region around a star where a planet can support liquid water on its surface, which, together with an oxygen atmosphere, is presumed to be necessary (and sufficient) to develop and sustain life on the planet. Currently, about twenty potentially habitable planets are listed. The most intriguing question driving all these studies is whether planets within habitable zones host extraterrestrial life. It is implicitly assumed that a planet in the habitable zone bears biota. However along with the two usual indicators of habitability, an oxygen atmosphere and liquid water on the surface, an additional one -- the age --- has to be taken into account when the question of the existence of life (or even a simple biota) on a planet is addressed. The importance of planetary age for the existence of life as we know it follows from the fact that the primary process, the photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones. Therefore on...

  6. Circumstellar Habitable Zones to Ecodynamic Domains: A Preliminary Review and Suggested Future Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the Circumstellar Habitable Zone has served the scientific community well for some decades. It slips easily off the tongue, and it would be hard to replace. Recently, however, several workers have postulated types of habitable bodies which might exist outside the classic circumstellar habitable zone (HZ). These include not only bodies which orbit at substantial distances from their parent stars, but also snowball worlds with geothermally-maintained internal oceans and even densely-atmosphered worlds with geothermally-maintained surface oceans, which have been ejected from unstable planetary systems into interstellar space. If habitability is not a unique and diagnostic property of the HZ, then the value of the term has been compromised in a fundamental way. At the same time, it has become evident that multiple environmental states, differing in important ways in their habitability, are possible even for geophysically similar planets subject to similar levels of insolation, within the classic HZ...

  7. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  8. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  9. Contribution of oral habits to dental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, J; Hochman, N; Yaffe, A

    1992-04-01

    Oral habits or parafunction may contribute to dental, periodontal, or neuromuscular damage. Such habits, of which the patient is often unaware, may cause considerable damage. Habits may be occlusal or non-occlusal, and may affect the dentition and/or the oral soft tissues. Drawing a patient's attention to the damage caused by some habits of which he or she is unaware often leads to cessation, whereas with certain conscious habits, such as nail or finger biting, success is much more limited.

  10. Exploring Habitability Markers, Biosignatures, and Their False Positives Using Spectral Models of Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.

    In the coming years and decades, we will obtain our first opportunity to spectrally characterize potentially habitable worlds outside our solar system. These planets will be at the right distance from their host star and possess the correct range of atmospheric compositions to have surfaces conducive to maintaining liquid water, the key requirement for habitability and life. For example, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), set for launch in 2018, could observe the transmission spectra of a handful of terrestrial planets orbiting late type stars. Direct-imaging telescopes currently in the design phases, including the Large UltraViolet Optical InfraRed (LUVOIR) Surveyor, will possess the ability to spectrally characterize planets in the habitable zones of up to hundreds of nearby planetary systems. The goal of this work is to advance our ability to recognize whether an exoplanet can or does support life by exploring a range of spectral habitability markers and astronomical biosignatures. As our best, and currently only, example of a habitable planet, Earth provides a fiducial point for studying the possible spectral manifestation of habitability markers and biosignatures for exoplanets. This thesis includes studies in four areas related to this theme. First, I build a high fidelity, high cadence spectral Earth database from the far UV (0.1 mum) to the far Infrared (200 mum) using the VPL 3D, line-by-line, multiple scattering spectral Earth model. This database furthers our understanding of Earth as an exoplanet, illustrating spectral changes as a function of phase and rotation. Second, I demonstrate the detectability of N2 using the (N2) 2 collisional pair, which has implications for characterizing the bulk atmospheres of terrestrial exoplanets and may be a strong biosignature in combination with detection of O2 or O3. I use data model comparisons to show that (N2)2 produces a 35% reduction in Earth's spectral flux at 4.1 mum. I quantify the strength of the (N2

  11. Real-world characterization and differentiation of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price DB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David B Price,1 Christine L Baker,2 Kelly H Zou,3 Victoria S Higgins,4 James T Bailey,4 James S Pike4 1University of Aberdeen, Division of Applied Health Sciences, Aberdeen, UK; 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, New York, USA; 3Pfizer Inc, Statistical Center for Outcomes, Real-World and Aggregate Data, Global Innovative Pharma Business, New York, USA; 4Adelphi Real World, Macclesfield, UK Background: This study aimed to characterize and differentiate the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD strategy 2011 cut points through the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT. Methods: Analysis of COPD patient data from the 2012 Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Program was conducted in Europe and US. Matched data from physicians and patients included CAT and mMRC scores. Receiver operating characteristic curves and kappa analysis determined a cut point for CAT and mMRC alignment and thus defined patient movement (“movers” within GOLD groups A–D, depending on the tool used. Logistic regression analysis, with a number of physician- and patient-reported covariates, characterized those movers. Results: Comparing GOLD-defined high-symptom patients using mMRC and CAT cut points (≥2 and ≥10, respectively, there were 890 (53.65% movers; 887 of them (99.66% moved from less symptomatic GOLD groups A and C (using mMRC to more symptomatic groups B and D (using CAT. For receiver operating characteristic (area under the curve: 0.82, P<0.001 and kappa (maximized: 0.45 recommended CAT cut points of ≥24 and ≥26, movers reduced to 429 and 403 patients, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed variables significantly associated with movers were related to impact on normal life, age, cough, and sleep (all P<0.05. Within movers, direction of movement was significantly associated with the same variables (all P<0

  12. The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBernacer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and we compare it with that of William James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a habit-as-learning. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term habit-as-routine, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: 1 theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as knowing that x is so; 2 behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (knowing how to behave; and 3 technical or learned skills (knowing how to make or to do. Finally, we propose new areas of research where this novel conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as cognitively controlled behaviors that in turn improve cognitive control of behavior, are a crucial resource for enhancing human learning and behavioral plasticity.

  13. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  14. CD-HPF: New Habitability Score Via Data Analytic Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kakoli; Agrawal, Surbhi; Safonova, Margarita; Routh, Swati; Narasimhamurthy, Anand

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, ESI and PHI, describe heuristic methods to score similarity/habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets or exomoons. ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the probability that life in some form may exist on any given world, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which co...

  15. Establishment and Characterization of Baboon Embryonic Stem Cell Lines An Old World Primate Model for Regeneration and Transplantation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin R.; Navara, Christopher S.; Castro, Carlos A.; Turpin, Janet C.; Redinger, Carrie J.; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn D.; Jacoby, Ethan S.; Grund, Kevin J.; McFarland, David A.; Oliver, Stacie L.; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Carlisle, Diane L.; Frost, Patricia; Penedo, Cecilia; Hewitson, Laura; Schatten, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Here we have developed protocols using the baboon as a complementary alternative Old World Primate to rhesus and other macaques which have severe limitations in their availability. Baboons are not limited as research resources, they are evolutionarily closer to humans and the multiple generations of pedigreed colonies which display complex human disease phenotypes all support their further optimization an invaluable primate model. Since neither baboon assisted reproductive technologies nor baboon embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been reported, here we describe the first derivations and characterization of baboon ESC lines from IVF-generated blastocysts. Two ESCs lines (BabESC-4 and BabESC-15) display ESC morphology, express pluripotency markers (Oct-4, hTert, Nanog, Sox-2, Rex-1, TRA1–60, TRA1–81), and maintain stable euploid female karyotypes with parentage confirmed independently. They have been grown continuously for >430 and 290 days, respectively. Teratomas from both lines have all three germ layers. Availabilities of these BabESCs represent another important resource for stem cell biologists. PMID:19393591

  16. An estimate of the prevalence of biocompatible and habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, M J

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer model of extra-solar planetary formation and evolution, which includes the planetary geochemical carbon cycle, is presented. The results of a run of one million galactic disc stars are shown where the aim was to assess the possible abundance of both biocompatible and habitable planets. (Biocompatible planets are defined as worlds where the long-term presence of surface liquid water provides environmental conditions suitable for the origin and evolution of life. Habitable planets are those worlds with more specifically Earthlike conditions). The model gives an estimate of 1 biocompatible planet per 39 stars, with the subset of habitable planets being much rarer at 1 such planet per 413 stars. The nearest biocompatible planet may thus lie approximately 14 LY distant and the nearest habitable planet approximately 31 LY away. If planets form in multiple star systems then the above planet/star ratios may be more than doubled. By applying the results to stars in the solar neighbourhood, it is possible to identify 28 stars at distances of < 22 LY with a non-zero probability of possessing a biocompatible planet.

  17. Vital Signs: Seismology of ocean worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Vance, Steven D; Panning, Mark P; Staehler, Simon C; Bills, Bruce G; Lorenz, Ralph D; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Pike, W T; Castillo, Julie C; Lognonne, Philippe; Tsai, Victor C; Rhoden, Alyssa R

    2016-01-01

    Ice covered ocean worlds are probably seismically active. Measuring that activity can provide information about global and local habitability. This article examines the likely seismic activity of known and potential ocean worlds. We describe objectives and possible implementations for icy moon seismology. For currently known ocean worlds, we consider science objectives and technical challenges, and suggest priorities based on feasibility and potential science return. A seismic experiment could be less complex and less susceptible to noise than those implemented on Earth's Moon and planned for Mars. Such an investigation could probe the transport properties and radial structure of ocean worlds, yielding critical constraints on potential redox fluxes, and thus habitability.

  18. Betel quid, chewing habits and difficult intubation: A case report and critical appraisal of evidence for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Vijaykumar, T K; Nallamilli, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Betel quid is used by 10-20% of world of population. Oral submucus fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic premalignant disease common in South Asian countries where betel quid is chewed. It is characterized by juxtaepithelial fibrosis of oral cavity and limited mouth opening, which can cause difficult intubation. A recent study in Taiwan has revealed long-term betel nut chewing is not predictor of difficult intubation. We describe two cases of OSF and critically analyze this study and its implications for clinical practice. OSF is now seen in Saudi Arabia and western countries with use of commercial betel quid substitutes. Although betel quid without tobacco is used in Taiwan, available evidence suggests rapid and early development of OSF where commercial chewing products like Pan Masala are used in India. Effects of betel quid may vary depending on the composition of quid and chewing habits. Studies where personal habits are involved must be analyzed carefully for external validity. Even though, Taiwan study is controlled, its validity outside Taiwan is highly questionable. Since OSF can cause unanticipated difficult intubation, thus during preanesthetic assessment, history of betel quid chewing, more importantly use of commercial chewing products is more likely to give clues to severity of OSF and possible difficult intubation. Further controlled trails in populations where commercial chewing products are used is necessary to detect association of chewing habits and difficult intubation.

  19. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  20. Habitability in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Long term habitability on the surface of planets has as a prerequisite a minimum availability of elements to build rocky planets, their atmospheres, and for life sustaining water. They must be within the habitable zone and avoid circumstances that cause them to lose their atmospheres and water. However, many astrophysical sources are hazardous to life on the surfaces of planets. Planets in harsh environments may require strong magnetic fields to protect their biospheres from high energy particles from the host star(s). Planets in harsh environments may additionally require a strong astrosphere to be sufficiently able to deflect galactic cosmic-rays. Supernovae (SNe) play a central role in the habitability of planets in the disks of star forming galaxies. Currently, the SNe rate maintains a relativistic galactic wind shielding planets in the disk from extragalactic cosmic rays. However, if the density of SNe in the disk of the galaxy were significantly higher, as it was 6-8 GYA, the frequency of nearby catastrophic events and often prolonged harsh environment may have strongly constrained life in the early history of the Milky Way. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) may remain quiescent for hundreds of millions of years only to activate for some time due extraordinary accretion episode due to for instance a galactic merger. The starburst galaxy M82 is currently undergoing a merger, probably strongly compromising habitability within that galaxy. The giant elliptical M87 resides in the center of the Virgo supercluster and has probably consumed many such spiral galaxies. We show that super-Eddington accretion onto the supermassive black hole in M87, even for a short while, could compromise the habitability for a large portion of the central supercluster. We discuss environments where these effects may be mitigated.

  1. Worlds beyond our own the search for habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2015-01-01

    This is a book on planets: Solar system planets and dwarf planets. And planets outside our solar system – exoplanets. How did they form? What types of planets are there and what do they have in common? How do they differ? What do we know about their atmospheres – if they have one? What are the conditions for life and on which planets may they be met? And what’s the origin of life on Earth and how did it form? You will understand how rare the solar system, the Earth and hence life is. This is also a book on stars. The first and second generation of stars in the Universe. But in particular also on the link between planets and stars – brown dwarfs. Their atmospheric properties and similarities with giant exoplanets. All these fascinating questions will be answered in a non-technical manner. But those of you who want to know a bit more may look up the relevant mathematical relationships in appendices.

  2. The rules of coherence and other habits

    CERN Document Server

    Solis, M R C

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  3. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  4. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Reji Abraham; Geetha Kamath; Jasmeet Singh Sodhi; Sonia Sodhi; Chandki Rita; Sai Kalyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle ret...

  5. Do habits always override intentions? Pitting unhealthy snacking habits against snack-avoidance intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benjamin; Corbridge, Sharon; McGowan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Habit is defined as a process whereby an impulse towards behaviour is automatically initiated upon encountering a setting in which the behaviour has been performed in the past. A central tenet of habit theory is that habit overrides intentional tendencies in directing behaviour, such that as habit strength increases, intention becomes less predictive of behaviour. Yet, evidence of this effect has been methodologically limited by modelling the impact of positively-correlated habits ...

  6. THE HABITABLE ZONES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa [Institute for Pale Blue Dots, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence habitable zone (HZ) for stars of spectral classes F-M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important for understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet-star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) HZ. We use one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1-M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the runaway greenhouse threshold, and thus may lose substantial amounts of water initially delivered to them. We predict that M-star planets need to initially accrete more water than Earth did, or, alternatively, have additional water delivered later during the long pre-MS phase to remain habitable. Our findings are also consistent with recent claims that Venus lost its water during accretion.

  7. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  8. Towards the Minimum Inner Edge Distance of the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras; de Wit, Julien

    2013-01-01

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star for an exoplanet to be potentially habitable, in order to maximize future chances of finding other habitable worlds. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone (HZ) for hot desert worlds is at 0.5 AU around a solar-like star (well within the orbit of Venus). The relative humidity is the key controlling factor in determining the inner edge distance because water vapor has a strong impact on the greenhouse warming of the atmosphere, yet too little water vapor will deactivate precipitation and enable CO2 to accumulate. We estimate that a relative humidity as low as 1% can be sufficient to maintain a liquid water cycle and wash out CO2 from the atmosphere. If the surface pressure is too low (~0.1 bar), the water loss timescale of the planet is too short to support life. If the surface pressure is too high (~100 bars), we show using atmospheric circulation arguments, that the day-night side temperature difference on slow rotators and tidally locked planets is...

  9. Habitability in the Solar System and on Extrasolar Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    The criteria for a habitable world initially was based on Earth and centered around liquid water on the surface, warmed by a Sun-like star. The moons of the outer Solar System, principally Europa and Enceladus, have demonstrated that liquid water can exist below the surface warmed by tidal forces from a giant planet. Titan demonstrates that surface liquids other than water - liquid methane/ethane - may be common on other worlds. Considering the numerous extrasolar planets so far discovered and the prospect of discovering extrasolar moons it is timely to reconsider the possibilities for habitability in the Solar System and on extrasolar planets and moons and enumerate the attributes and search methods for detecting habitable worlds and evidence of life.

  10. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  11. THEO concept mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Shannon M.; Caswell, Tess E.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Stavros, E. Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D.; Sun, Vivian Z.; Powell, Kathryn E.; Steuer, Casey J.; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K.; Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Petro, Elaine M.; Wynne, J. Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K.; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J.; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-09-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it - liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources - are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spectrometer, a sub-mm radiometer-spectrometer, a camera, and two magnetometers. These instruments were selected to address four key questions for ascertaining the habitability of Enceladus's ocean within the context of the moon's geological activity: (1) how are the plumes and ocean connected? (2) are the abiotic conditions of the ocean suitable for habitability? (3) how stable is the ocean environment? (4) is there evidence of biological processes? By taking advantage of the opportunity Enceladus's plumes offer, THEO represents a viable, solar-powered option for exploring a potentially habitable ocean world of the outer solar system.

  12. The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, B.; Stone, N.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED) is a central, high quality, long-term searchable repository for archiving and collaborative sharing of astrobiologically relevant data, including, morphological, textural and contextural images, chemical, biochemical, isotopic, sequencing, and mineralogical information. The aim of AHED is to foster long-term innovative research by supporting integration and analysis of diverse datasets in order to: 1) help understand and interpret planetary geology; 2) identify and characterize habitable environments and pre-biotic/biotic processes; 3) interpret returned data from present and past missions; 4) provide a citable database of NASA-funded published and unpublished data (after an agreed-upon embargo period). AHED uses the online open-source software "The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher" (ODR - http://www.opendatarepository.org) [1], which provides a user-friendly interface that research teams or individual scientists can use to design, populate and manage their own database according to the characteristics of their data and the need to share data with collaborators or the broader scientific community. This platform can be also used as a laboratory notebook. The database will have the capability to import and export in a variety of standard formats. Advanced graphics will be implemented including 3D graphing, multi-axis graphs, error bars, and similar scientific data functions together with advanced online tools for data analysis (e. g. the statistical package, R). A permissions system will be put in place so that as data are being actively collected and interpreted, they will remain proprietary. A citation system will allow research data to be used and appropriately referenced by other researchers after the data are made public. This project is supported by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA) and NASA NNX11AP82A, Mars Science Laboratory Investigations. [1] Nate et al. (2015) AGU, submitted.

  13. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  14. The Habitability of Planets Orbiting M-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shields, Aomawa L; Johnson, John A

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for the habitability of M-dwarf planets have long been debated, due to key differences between the unique stellar and planetary environments around these low-mass stars, as compared to hotter, more luminous Sun-like stars. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made by both space- and ground-based observatories to measure the likelihood of small planets to orbit in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We now know that most M dwarfs are hosts to closely-packed planetary systems characterized by a paucity of Jupiter-mass planets and the presence of multiple rocky planets, with roughly a third of these rocky M-dwarf planets orbiting within the habitable zone, where they have the potential to support liquid water on their surfaces. Theoretical studies have also quantified the effect on climate and habitability of the interaction between the spectral energy distribution of M-dwarf stars and the atmospheres and surfaces of their planets. These and other recent results fill in knowledge g...

  15. Tidal Limits to Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones of main sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurface the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO_2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with th...

  16. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  17. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  18. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  19. Characterization of a New World Monopartite Begomovirus Causing Leaf Curl Disease of Tomato in Ecuador and Peru Reveals a New Direction in Geminivirus Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo, Tomas A.; Kon, Tatsuya; Rojas, Maria R.; Paz-Carrasco, Lenin; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Gilbertson, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    All characterized whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) with origins in the New World (NW) have bipartite genomes composed of a DNA-A and DNA-B component. Recently, an NW begomovirus lacking a DNA-B component was associated with tomato leaf curl disease (ToLCD) in Peru, and it was named Tomato leaf deformation virus (ToLDeV). Here, we show that isolates of ToLDeV associated with ToLCD in Ecuador and Peru have a single, genetically diverse genomic DNA that is most closely related ...

  20. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in ab

  1. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  2. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  3. Progressive Climate Change on Titan: Implications for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; A. D. Howard

    2014-01-01

    Titan's landscape is profoundly shaped by its atmosphere and comparable in magnitude perhaps with only the Earth and Mars amongst the worlds of the Solar System. Like the Earth, climate dictates the intensity and relative roles of fluvial and aeolian activity from place to place and over geologic time. Thus Titan's landscape is the record of climate change. We have investigated three broad classes of Titan climate evolution hypotheses (Steady State, Progressive, and Cyclic), regulated by the role, sources, and availability of methane. We favor the Progressive hypotheses, which we will outline here, then discuss their implication for habitability.

  4. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  5. The 5 Habits of Effective PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Lois Brown

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the knowledge and skills that professional learning community members need to create a habit out of their desire. Habits serve educators as signposts of progress toward achieving their desires. They are interim indicators of a professional learning community's success. Ultimately, of course, professional learning communities…

  6. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  7. The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

  8. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  9. Comprehensive characterization of evolutionary conserved breakpoints in four New World Monkey karyotypes compared to Chlorocebus aethiops and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobo; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Weise, Anja; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Tanomtong, Alongkoad; Pinthong, Krit; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Grothmann, Pierre; Liehr, Thomas; Oliveira, Edivaldo H C de

    2015-11-01

    Comparative cytogenetic analysis in New World Monkeys (NWMs) using human multicolor banding (MCB) probe sets were not previously done. Here we report on an MCB based FISH-banding study complemented with selected locus-specific and heterochromatin specific probes in four NWMs and one Old World Monkey (OWM) species, i.e. in Alouatta caraya (ACA), Callithrix jacchus (CJA), Cebus apella (CAP), Saimiri sciureus (SSC), and Chlorocebus aethiops (CAE), respectively. 107 individual evolutionary conserved breakpoints (ECBs) among those species were identified and compared with those of other species in previous reports. Especially for chromosomal regions being syntenic to human chromosomes 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 16 previously cryptic rearrangements could be observed. 50.4% (54/107) NWM-ECBs were colocalized with those of OWMs, 62.6% (62/99) NWM-ECBs were related with those of Hylobates lar (HLA) and 66.3% (71/107) NWM-ECBs corresponded with those known from other mammalians. Furthermore, human fragile sites were aligned with the ECBs found in the five studied species and interestingly 66.3% ECBs colocalized with those fragile sites (FS). Overall, this study presents detailed chromosomal maps of one OWM and four NWM species. This data will be helpful to further investigation on chromosome evolution in NWM and hominoids in general and is prerequisite for correct interpretation of future sequencing based genomic studies in those species.

  10. The Habitable Zones of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, Ramses M

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence HZ for stars of spectral classes F to M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important in understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet to star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) habitable zone (HZ). We use 1D radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1 to M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M-stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the ru...

  11. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  12. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  13. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  14. Disorders of compulsivity: a common bias towards learning habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Derbyshire, K; Rück, C; Irvine, M A; Worbe, Y; Enander, J; Schreiber, L R N; Gillan, C; Fineberg, N A; Sahakian, B J; Robbins, T W; Harrison, N A; Wood, J; Daw, N D; Dayan, P; Grant, J E; Bullmore, E T

    2015-03-01

    Why do we repeat choices that we know are bad for us? Decision making is characterized by the parallel engagement of two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, thought to arise from two computational learning mechanisms, model-based and model-free. The habitual system is a candidate source of pathological fixedness. Using a decision task that measures the contribution to learning of either mechanism, we show a bias towards model-free (habit) acquisition in disorders involving both natural (binge eating) and artificial (methamphetamine) rewards, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This favoring of model-free learning may underlie the repetitive behaviors that ultimately dominate in these disorders. Further, we show that the habit formation bias is associated with lower gray matter volumes in caudate and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that the dysfunction in a common neurocomputational mechanism may underlie diverse disorders involving compulsion.

  15. Characterization of epidemiological surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the world and challenges for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Junior, Cassimiro; Mello, Débora Silva de; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Boszczowski, Icaro; Levin, Anna Sara; Lacerda, Rubia Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched, but the country still lacks a full national information system on HAI, thus indicating the need to promote action strategies, strengthen the role of States in communication between the Federal and local levels, pursue a national plan to organize surveillance teams with the necessary technological infrastructure, besides updating the relevant legislation for dealing with these challenges. Such measures are essential in the Brazilian context for the unified surveillance of HAI, aimed at healthcare safety and quality.

  16. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology II. Characterization of Chinese pottery exported to the Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1992-02-01

    The early 9th century A.D. trade links between China's Tang dynasty and the Western world, by land along the caravan routes of the Silk Road and by sea via India and the Gulf, encouraged a taste for many kinds of Chinese ceramics among the affluent societies of the Islamic empire. Using PIXE analysis to determine the primary composition and minor element patterns of the clay fabrics of a wide range of pottery recovered from the Islamic city of Siraf (in southern Iran), we have established clear differences between Chinese wares imported to that region and a variety of imitative wares of local origin. Parallels and contrasts are drawn between our data and those obtained by Chinese scholars in recent years for the products of various Tang kiln sites, particularly for a series of distinctive stonewares from Tongguan (Hunan province).

  17. Habitable Evaporated Cores: Transforming Mini-Neptunes into Super-Earths in the Habitable Zones of M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Luger, Rodrigo; Lopez, Eric; Fortney, Jonathan; Jackson, Brian; Meadows, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    We show that photoevaporation of small gaseous exoplanets ("mini-Neptunes") in the habitable zones of M dwarfs can remove several Earth masses of hydrogen and helium from these planets and transform them into potentially habitable worlds. We couple X-ray/extreme ultraviolet (XUV)-driven escape, thermal evolution, tidal evolution and orbital migration to explore the types of systems that may harbor such "habitable evaporated cores" (HECs). We find that HECs are most likely to form from planets with $\\sim 1 M_\\oplus$ solid cores with up to about 50% H/He by mass, though whether or not a given mini-Neptune forms a HEC is highly dependent on the early XUV evolution of the host star. As terrestrial planet formation around M dwarfs by accumulation of local material is likely to form planets that are small and dry, evaporation of small migrating mini-Neptunes could be one of the dominant formation mechanisms for volatile-rich Earths around these stars.

  18. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control.

  19. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M⊙ < M < 1.64 M⊙. Key Words: Habitability-Habitable zone-Anthropic-Red dwarfs-Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61-77.

  20. Toward the minimum inner edge distance of the habitable zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; De Wit, Julien; Stamenković, Vlada, E-mail: zsom@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable Zone for hot desert worlds can be as close as 0.38 AU around a solar-like star, if the greenhouse effect is reduced (∼1% relative humidity) and the surface albedo is increased. We consider a wide range of atmospheric and planetary parameters such as the mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (water vapor and CO{sub 2}), surface albedo, pressure, and gravity. Intermediate surface pressure (∼1-10 bars) is necessary to limit water loss and to simultaneously sustain an active water cycle. We additionally find that the water loss timescale is influenced by the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level, because it indirectly influences the stratospheric water mixing ratio. If the CO{sub 2} mixing ratio of dry planets at the inner edge is smaller than 10{sup –4}, the water loss timescale is ∼1 billion years, which is considered here too short for life to evolve. We also show that the expected transmission spectra of hot desert worlds are similar to an Earth-like planet. Therefore, an instrument designed to identify biosignature gases in an Earth-like atmosphere can also identify similarly abundant gases in the atmospheres of dry planets. Our inner edge limit is closer to the host star than previous estimates. As a consequence, the occurrence rate of potentially habitable planets is larger than previously thought.

  1. Oral hygiene and smoking habit as risk factors of periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Seijo Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peridontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting human beings, and these are more frequent after the age of 35. Smoking habit is one of the risk factors usually linked with the development of these diseases. Objective: To characterize the relation between periodontal condition and buccal hygiene in patients with smoking habit. Method: Descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological study including 95 smokers from Palmira municipality; January-November, 2007. Peridontal treatment index was used in the community, as well as the simplified buccal hygiene index. Results: There was high prevalence of periodontal disease (85, 2%; buccal hygiene was directly related with smoking habit. Conclusions: The study shows an important relation between the periodontal disease in smokers, buccal hygiene and smoking habit intensity.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the ...

  3. Habit Formation, Surplus Consumption and Return Predictability: International Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Hyde, Stuart; Møller, Stig V.

    On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although there are impor......On an international post World War II dataset, we use an iterated GMM pro- cedure to estimate and test the Campbell-Cochrane (1999) habit formation model. In addition, we analyze the predictive power of the surplus consumption ratio for future asset returns. We find that, although...... there are important cross-country differences, for the majority of countries in our sample the model gets empirical support in a variety of diffrent dimensions, including reasonable estimates of risk- free rates, and the model dominates the time-separable power utility model in terms of pricing errors. Further......, for the majority of countries the surplus consumption ratio captures time-variation in expected returns. Together with the price-dividend ratio, the surplus consumption ratio contains significant information about future stock returns, also during the 1990s. Finally, in most countries the surplus con- sumption...

  4. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  5. Habitability potential of satellites around Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Raulin, Francois; Encrenaz, Therese; Grasset, Olivier; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2016-07-01

    biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. Titan has further been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphology and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In one of our geophysical studies [4], we have showed that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of internal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of ammonia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. If the silicate mantles of Europa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical energy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Such habitability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. Other future mission concepts are being studied for exploring the moons around Saturn. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth

  6. Developing Ecospheres on Transiently Habitable Planets: The Genesis Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost ro...

  7. Developing ecospheres on transiently habitable planets: the genesis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-10-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost robotic microcraft equipped with a on-board gene laboratory for the in situ synthesis of the microbes.

  8. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  9. Canvasback Food Habits in Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Food habits analyses were conducted on the gullet and gizzards of 153 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at night from eight major wintering areas in...

  10. The basic principles of habit formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Everything you ever achieve in life is up to yon. The only limits you actually have are those placed by your own imagination. Therefore, take complete control of your life by consciously choosing the habits you develop.

  11. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  12. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  13. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  14. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  15. On the Habitability of Our Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We consider the habitability of the Universe throughout cosmic history, and conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. The habitable cosmic epoch started shortly after the first stars formed, about 30 Myr after the Big Bang, and will end about 10 Tyr from now, when all stars will die. We review the formation history of habitable planets and find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  16. Exploring snacking habits of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Jihane W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that adolescents have the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status and unstructured eating patterns. They also recognized the importance of snacks in the eating habits of this population group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the snacking habits of undergraduate college students, and their correlations with the populationâ s general eating practices and response to nutrition education Two hundred eighty four students taking a nutr...

  17. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  18. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables.

  19. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Singh

    Full Text Available At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA was used (using multiresolution segmentation to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively. Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%, whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM and maximum likelihood (ML classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables.

  20. Multilevel Societies in New World Primates? Flexibility May Characterize the Organization of Peruvian Red Uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mark; Knogge, Christoph; Heymann, Eckhard W; Zinner, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    Researchers have described multilevel societies with one-male, multifemale units (OMUs) forming within a larger group in several catarrhine species, but not in platyrhines. OMUs in multilevel societies are associated with extremely large group sizes, often with >100 individuals, and the only platyrhine genus that forms groups of this size is Cacajao. We review available evidence for multilevel organization and the formation of OMUs in groups of Cacajao, and test predictions for the frequency distribution patterns of male-male and male-female interindividual distances within groups of red-faced uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii), comparing year-round data with those collected at the peak of the breeding season, when group cohesion may be more pronounced. Groups of Cacajao fission and fuse, forming subgroup sizes at frequencies consistent with an OMU organization. In Cacajao calvus ucayalii and Cacajao calvus calvus, bachelor groups are also observed, a characteristic of several catarrhine species that form OMUs. However, researchers have observed both multimale-multifemale groups and groups with a single male and multiple females in Cacajao calvus. The frequency distributions of interindividual distances for male-male and male-female dyads are consistent with an OMU-based organization, but alternative interpretations of these data are possible. The distribution of interindividual distances collected during the peak breeding season differed from those collected year-round, indicating seasonal changes in the spatial organization of Cacajao calvus ucayalii. We suggest a high degree of flexibility may characterize the social organization of Cacajao calvus ucayalii, which may form OMUs under certain conditions. Further studies with identifiable individuals, thus far not possible in Cacajao, are required to confirm the social organization.

  1. Developing Good Habits of Learning English from Senior One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益琴

    2009-01-01

    Senior one is the most important period of the whole senior stage, it h necessary for students to form good habits of learning at the beginning. Based on the discussion of necessity of forming good habits, this paper talks about the methods of cultivating students' good habits of learning and concludes that good habits can benefit them a lot.

  2. Make the High School Library a "Habit" for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    How long does it take to form a habit? Recent research done at the University College London by Phillippa Lally and colleagues suggest it takes an average of sixty-six days to form a new habit. Other research indicates that rewards make habits easier to form, but it takes repetition to form a habit. A literature review conducted for Pearson…

  3. The Search for Worlds Like Our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; White, Glenn J.; Absil, Olivier; Defrère, D.; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna; Karlsson, Anders; Gondoin, Phillipe; den Hartog, Roland; D'Arcio, Luigi; Stankov, Anna-Maria; Kilter, Mikael; Erd, Christian; Beichman, Charles; Coulter, Daniel; Danchi, William; Devirian, Michael; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver P.; Lunine, Jonathan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets -- particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life -- constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus 300 BC: Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist. Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts - atoms - also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the scientific

  4. The search for worlds like our own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridlund, Malcolm; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Franck; White, Glenn J; Absil, Olivier; Defrère, Denis; Hanot, C; Stam, Daphne; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna; Karlsson, Anders; Gondoin, Phillipe; den Hartog, Roland; D'Arcio, Luigi; Stankov, Anna-Maria; Kilter, Mikael; Erd, Christian; Beichman, Charles; Coulter, Daniel; Danchi, William; Devirian, Michael; Johnston, Kenneth J; Lawson, Peter; Lay, Oliver P; Lunine, Jonathan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets-particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus approximately 300 BC: "Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist." Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts-atoms-also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning-not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than 6 our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the

  5. Caracterização do mercado consumidor de "água aromatizada": hábitos e motivações para o consumo Characterization of the consumer market of "flavored water": habits and motivations for the consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Endo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O produto preparado líquido aromatizado, comercialmente conhecido como "água aromatizada" e recém-lançado no mercado brasileiro, é vendido com o apelo de saúde e inovação. No entanto, por se tratar de um produto pouco familiar aos hábitos de consumo da população brasileira, as motivações para o seu consumo ainda são desconhecidas. Diante deste contexto, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o perfil dos consumidores da cidade mineira de Juiz de Fora quanto ao produto, por meio de uma pesquisa de mercado realizada em junho de 2007. Para o levantamento dos dados, utilizou-se uma pesquisa descritiva direta e estruturada (survey com 303 consumidores, por meio da aplicação de questionários estruturados. A faixa etária predominante (40,3% situou-se entre 20 e 30 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (65%, com elevada escolaridade e renda familiar entre 1 e 6 salários mínimos (52,8%. Dos indivíduos entrevistados, 37% disseram que consumiram o produto motivados principalmente pelo fator novidade. Destes, 20,5% confundiram o produto com refrigerantes de baixa gaseificação. A maioria dos respondentes demonstrou desconhecer o produto, fato que pode estar relacionado a falta de divulgação nos estabelecimentos comerciais e pelas empresas através da mídia local.The flavored drink commercially known as "flavored water" and recently launched in the Brazilian market is sold with health and innovation appeal. However, since it is not very familiar product to the habits of consumption of the Brazilian population, the motivation for its consumption is still unknown. The present study evaluated the behavior patterns of 303 consumers of the city of Juiz de Fora (MG, Brazil, towards the product through a market survey conducted in June 2007. A direct, descriptive, and structured survey was carried out using a structured questionnaire. The majority of the respondents (40.3% were within the age group between 20 and 30 years old and were

  6. Domain morphology controlled crystal habits in PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudhe, C.M., E-mail: chandraguptadudhe@gmail.com; Khambadkar, S.J.

    2015-11-05

    Various crystal habits and associated domain structures in PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals synthesized by a modified sol–gel method have been studied. Structural and morphological characterizations of synthesized nanoparticles have been done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found from the -z coordinates of O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} that the Ti–O{sub 6} octahedra were distorted slightly, favorable for the ferroelectric nature. TEM images show butterfly like, plate like, irregular sphere like and oval-shaped habits of the nanocrystals. 90° and 180° domain structures in these crystal habits were explored from their morphologies and appearance in the field of views. The mutual association between the crystal habit and the direction spontaneous polarization P{sub s} due to domain structures was explored. Domain wall energies of 90° and 180° domains were also estimated from the kinetic process of domain nucleation. - Highlights: • Various crystal habits of PbTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles were examined by TEM. • 90° and 180° domains were explored in the nanocrystal. • Crystal habits and domain structures were correlated. • Domain wall energies were estimated.

  7. The power of habits: Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; De Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snackin

  8. A New Look at Habits and the Habit-Goal Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a…

  9. Reading Habits and Attitudes of UMSKAL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective reading is essential for success in acquiring a foreign language (Mikulecky 2008. Students have to read a wide range of textbooks and related materials at the tertiary level. Lack of adequate reading habit is, therefore, bound to impede students’ progress towards mastery of a foreign language. This study investigated reading habits and attitudes on reading of the undergraduate students attending ESL courses at a public university in Malaysia. For data collection, a 35 item questionnaire based on the Adult Survey of Reading Attitude (ASRA from the work of Smith (1991 were designed and administered on around 314 students. The questionnaire investigated the students’ general habit, preferences, and attitude towards reading. This study was based on the following research questions: What are the reading habits of these undergraduate students? What are the attitudes of these students to reading as a useful language learning skill? What are the reading preferences of these undergraduate students? The research findings through qualitative analysis revealed that the undergraduate students had an overall positive attitude towards reading in spite of their minimal enjoyment of it and the resulting anxieties and difficulties they face. Based on the findings, few recommendations were made to improve reading among those undergraduates. Keywords: Reading habits, attitude towards reading, reading preferences, ESL

  10. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Dressing, Courtney D; Scharf, Caleb A; Raymond, Sean N

    2010-01-01

    Radiative equilibrium studies that place Earth-like exoplanets on different circular orbits from the parent star do not fully sample the range of plausible habitability conditions in planetary systems. In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen "snowball" state poses a threat to the habitability. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. Since, for constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1-e^2)^(-1/2), one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis to scale as (1-e^2)^(-1/4). We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity...

  11. Temporal trends in breast cancer presentation in the third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyanwu Stanley NC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Third world breast cancer is characterized by late presentation, occurrence at relatively young ages and dismal mortality. This poor outcome has encouraged patients to patronize quacks and alternative healers. Public control measures have targeted mainly public education and provision of screening facilities. Recent reports from the developed world indicate a high association with obesity, tobacco and alcohol, habits which though not currently very popular in the third world are nevertheless increasingly accepted. Methods A prospective study initiated in 1985 for all breast cancer patients attending 4 hospitals located in the Eastern Nigeria heartland where the author practiced. On attendance to hospital detailed epidemiological data including social habits were collected from patients. Results Reports from our first series [1987–97] showed some improvement in terms of earlier presentation compared to a historical control of earlier reports from the sub-region. Reports from the present study showed that this improvement has not been maintained probably as a result of diversion of public health campaign finances to HIV/AIDS. However there is an increasing mean age of presentation due to a higher representation of above 70 years age group and a significant reduction in parity. Alcohol intake and smoking have remained at low levels among the patients. Conclusion There is need to take another look at cancer public health campaign mechanisms in the face of competing demands from HIV. Public control measures should include among others teaching of Breast Self Examination [BSE] to patients, Clinical Breast Examination [CBE] to health workers and opportunistic CBE to all patients. Strenuous efforts should be made to break the vicious cycle of late presentation, poor treatment outcome and reluctance of patients to present to health facilities because of poor outcome.

  12. Ocean worlds exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2017-02-01

    Ocean worlds is the label given to objects in the solar system that host stable, globe-girdling bodies of liquid water-"oceans". Of these, the Earth is the only one to support its oceans on the surface, making it a model for habitable planets around other stars but not for habitable worlds elsewhere in the solar system. Elsewhere in the solar system, three objects-Jupiter's moon Europa, and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan-have subsurface oceans whose existence has been detected or inferred by two independent spacecraft techniques. A host of other bodies in the outer solar system are inferred by a single type of observation or by theoretical modeling to have subsurface oceans. This paper focusses on the three best-documented water oceans beyond Earth: those within Europa, Titan and Enceladus. Of these, Europa's is closest to the surface (less than 10 km and possibly less than 1 km in places), and hence potentially best suited for eventual direct exploration. Enceladus' ocean is deeper-5-40 km below its surface-but fractures beneath the south pole of this moon allow ice and gas from the ocean to escape to space where it has been sampled by mass spectrometers aboard the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Titan's ocean is the deepest-perhaps 50-100 km-and no evidence for plumes or ice volcanism exist on the surface. In terms of the search for evidence of life within these oceans, the plume of ice and gas emanating from Enceladus makes this the moon of choice for a fast-track program to search for life. If plumes exist on Europa-yet to be confirmed-or places can be located where ocean water is extruded onto the surface, then the search for life on this lunar-sized body can also be accomplished quickly by the standards of outer solar system exploration.

  13. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M⊙ < M < 1.64 M⊙. Key Words: Habitability—Habitable zone—Anthropic—Red dwarfs—Initial mass function. Astrobiology 17, 61–77. PMID:28103107

  14. On the dynamical habitability of Trojan planets in exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.; Funk, B.; Bazsó, Á.; Eggl, S.

    2017-03-01

    Besides the hierarchical configurations exoplanets have been observed in so far, Earth-analogs can theoretically exist in co-orbital motion with giant planets. Those so-called Trojan planets share the same orbit as their Jovian hosts, trailing or leading by approximately 60 degrees in mean anomaly. If a giant planet was situated in the habitable zone (HZ) of an exoplanetary system coorbital terrestrial worlds could in principle also be habitable provided their orbits are "tame enough". In this paper, we study the dynamical properties of Earth-like Trojan planets in their host stars' respective HZs. We investigate the orbital stability of possible Trojan planets near the Lagrangian equilibrium points L_4 and L_5 for several candidate systems. Our numerical simulations have been carried out using the planar three-body problem, in case the extrasolar system contains only one known planet and the n-body problem with more than one planet in the system. We study the stability region around the equilibrium points and counted the number of stable orbits concentrating on the dependencies between the semimajor axis, the eccentricity and the argument of perihelion of the Trojan planet. We found that of the investigated 14 systems 6 support stable Trojan planets in the system's HZ, namely HD 5891, HD 28185, WASP-41, HD 11755, HD 221287 and HD 13908.

  15. A Catalog of Stellar Evolution Profiles and the Effects of Variable Composition on Habitable Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truitt, Amanda; Spacek, Alexander; Probst, Luke; Dietrich, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present stellar evolution models for 0.5 - 1.2 \\Msol at scaled metallicities of 0.1 - 1.5 Z\\sol and O/Fe values of 0.44 - 2.28 O/Fe\\sol. The time dependent evolution of habitable zone boundaries are calculated for each stellar evolution track based on stellar mass, effective temperature, and luminosity parameterizations. The rate of change of stellar surface quantities and the surrounding habitable zone position are strong functions of all three quantities explored. The range of orbits that remain continuously habitable, or habitable for at least 2 Gyr, are provided. The results show that the detailed chemical characterization of exoplanet host stars and a consideration of their evolutionary history are necessary to assess the likelihood that a planet found in the instantaneous habitable zone has had sufficient time to develop a biosphere capable of producing detectable biosignatures. This model grid is designed for use by the astrobiology and exoplanet communities to efficiently characterize the time evol...

  16. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  17. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  18. The Five Habits of the Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Pherson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Often analysts will observe that they do not have enough time to use Structured Analytic Techniques. When presented with this challenge by analysts in the UK Cabinet Office, the author came up with the following response: Develop these five habits when you have time so that when time is short you have developed a capacity to use them instinctively. This article describes the Five Habits of the Master Thinker in detail, reviews how they were selected, and explores how they can most easily be inculcated into how an analyst processes information.

  19. New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.

  20. Family eating habits, family support and subjective well-being in university students in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesly; Orellana, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To characterize typologies of university students according to the perception of their families’ eating habits. Material and method: A questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 372 students of both genders at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instrument...... included: the Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL) and the Family Resources Scale (FRS). Estimated weight and height were asked about as well as sociodemographic variables. Results: Using an exploratory...... as with the overall satisfaction with life and in the food domain....

  1. [Nutritional habits, sleep and sexual life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georges; Vlatkovic, Dejan; Abraham, Livia

    2015-12-09

    Eating habits not only include nourishment, but also an emotional outlet, which can encompass the intensity of appetit, food preferences. Food in general could be perhaps the underline cause for conflicts within the couple. Surprisingly, eating could take priority over sexuality.

  2. Newspaper Readership Habits in the Black Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R. Arnold

    This is a report of a survey conducted to determine newspaper readership habits of persons living within the circulation of the "Amsterdam News," a black weekly published in New York City. The survey was conducted with the purpose of increasing advertising revenues and assisting the management of the "Amsterdam News" with…

  3. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  4. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  5. Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?

    CERN Document Server

    Selsis, Franck; Levrard, B; Paillet, J; Ribas, I; Delfosse, X

    2007-01-01

    Radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at habitable distance from M-type stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses below 10 Earth masses were reported in a triple system around the M-type star Gliese 581. Using results from atmospheric models and constraints from the evolution of Venus and Mars, we assess the habitability of planets Gl 581c and Gl 581d and we discuss the uncertainties affecting the habitable zone (HZ) boundaries determination. We provide simplified formulae to estimate the HZ limits that may be used to evaluate the astrobiological potential of terrestrial exoplanets that will hopefully be discovered in the near future. Planets Gl 581c and 'd' are near, but outside, what can be considered as the conservative HZ. Planet 'c' receives 30% more energy from its star than Venus from the Sun, with an increased radiative forcing caused by the spectral energy distribution of Gl 581. Its habitability cannot however be positively ruled out by theoretical models due to u...

  6. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  7. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  8. Stability of habitable exomoons of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Suman; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy

    2015-12-01

    Among the currently known Kepler circumbinary planets, three, namely Kepler-453b, Kepler-16b, and Kepler-47c are in the binary habitable zone (HZ). Given the large sizes of these planets, it is unlikely that they would be habitable. However, similar to the giant planets in our solar system, these planets may have large moons, which orbit their host planets while in the HZ. These exomoons, if exist, present viable candidates for habitability. As a condition for habitability, the planet-moon system has to maintain its orbital stability for long time. Usually, the empirical formula by Holeman & Wiegert (1999) is used as a measure of orbital stability in circumbinary systems. However, this formula was obtained by assuming planets to be test particles and therefore does not include possible perturbation of the planet on the binary. In this work, we present results of more realistic calculations of stability of circumbinary planets where the interactions between planets and their central binaries are taken into account. We map the region of stability, which in this case will be specific to each system, and determine the range of the orbital parameters of the moons for which their orbits will be long-term stable.

  9. Tidal obliquity evolution of potentially habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Stellar insolation has been used as the main constraint on a planet's habitability. However, as more Earth-like planets are discovered around low-mass stars (LMSs), a re-examination of the role of tides on the habitability of exoplanets has begun. Those studies have yet to consider the misalignment between a planet's rotational axis and the orbital plane normal, i.e. the planetary obliquity. We apply two equilibrium tide theories to compute the obliquity evolution of terrestrial planets orbiting in the habitable zones around LMSs. The time for the obliquity to decrease from an Earth-like obliquity of 23.5 deg to 5 deg, the 'tilt erosion time', is compared to the traditional insolation habitable zone (IHZ) as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and stellar mass. We also compute tidal heating and equilibrium rotation caused by obliquity tides. The Super-Earth Gl581d and the planet candidate Gl581g are studied as examples for tidal processes. Earth-like obliquities of terrestrial planets in the IHZ arou...

  10. Stable isotope ratios and uric acid preservation in termites belonging to three feeding habits in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayasu, I; Hyodo, F; Takematsu, Y; Sugimoto, A; Inoue, T; Kirtibutr, N; Abe, T

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios and uric acid concentrations in termites sampled from a dry evergreen forest in Thailand, were determined across three kinds of feeding habits. Feeding habits of Microcerotermes crassus, which is an abundant wood-feeder, and Dicuspiditermes makhamensis, a common soil-feeding termite, were confirmed by isotopic signatures. Lichen feeding termites (Hospitalitermes birmanicus, H. bicolor and H. ataramensis) were characterized by low delta15N values, suggesting that they assimilated nitrogen deposited from the atmosphere. There was also a significant difference in uric acid concentrations between termites representing different feeding habits. No significant relationships were found between uric acid concentrations and delta15N or delta13C in Hospitalitermes. However, delta15N values were correlated with C/N ratios in H. birmanicus, except in one colony of H. ataramensis. delta13C values in both species were negatively correlated with C/N ratios.

  11. Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Habits for TV, Video ... negative effects that violent video games can have. Internet Safety Become computer literate. Learn how to block ...

  12. Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical and Biological Limits on Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, C.

    2014-03-01

    For life forms like us, the most important feature of the Earth is its habitability. Understanding habitability and using that knowledge to locate the nearest habitable planet may be crucial for our survival as a species. Over the past decade, expectations that the universe could be filled with habitable planets have been bolstered by the increasingly large overlap between terrestrial environments known to harbor life and the variety of environments on newly detected rocky exoplanets. The inhabited and uninhabited regions on Earth tell us that temperature and the presence of water are the main constraints that can be used in a habitability classification scheme for rocky planets. Our compilation and review of recent exoplanet detections suggests that the fraction of stars with planets is ~ 100%, and that the fraction with rocky planets may be comparably large. We review extensions to the circumstellar habitable zone including an abiogenesis habitable zone and the galactic habitable zone.

  13. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  14. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  15. Solvent screening and crystal habit of metformin hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Bouhelassa, Mohamed; Nouar, Abderrahim; Veesler, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    A multi-well setup with video-microscopy was used to study the influence of solvent on solubility, nucleation, and crystallization of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API): metformin hydrochloride (MET.HCl). Starting with 13 solvents covering a wide variety of polarity and proticity, we found 63 crystallization medium for MET.HCl solid generation: good solvents, good co-solvents and anti-solvent systems. For toxicological reasons, we limited the number of crystallization medium to 18: 3 good solvents (class 3), 3 good co-solvent systems and 12 anti-solvent systems. In order to study the influence of crystallization medium on nucleation temperature, crystal habit and polymorphism of MET.HCl, crystallization was studied by a cooling temperature method. Different crystal habits were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopies, and solid phase were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, indicating that all the crystals correspond to the thermodynamic stable polymorphic form A of MET.HCl. Finally, the enthalpy of fusion and the melting temperature of MET.HCl were determined by DSC and confirmed the X-ray powder diffraction results.

  16. The Effect of Giant Planets on Habitable Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The giant planets in the Solar System likely played a large role in shaping the properties of the Earth during its formation. To explore their effects, we numerically model the growth of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars with and without Jupiter and Saturn analog companions. Employing state-of-the-art dynamical formation models that allow both accretion and collisional fragmentation, we perform hundreds of simulations and quantify the specific impact energies of all collisions that lead to the formation of an Earth-analog. Our model tracks the bulk compositions and water abundances in the cores and mantles of the growing protoplanets to constrain the types of giant planet configurations that allow the formation of habitable planets. We find significant differences in the collisional histories and bulk compositions of the final planets formed in the presence of different giant planet configurations. Exoplanet surveys like Kepler hint at a paucity of Jupiter analogs, thus these analyses have important implications for determining the frequency of habitable planets and also support target selection for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  17. Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R

    2013-01-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets mu Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at it's furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves it's largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar ...

  18. Families Should Cultivate Children’s Good Habits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "HABITS—character—fate," this is the summary of Mr. Li, head of the senior high group of the No. 35 High School in Beijing, who has been teaching for dozens of years. He believes the habits that a person cultivates will finally decide his fate. In other words, the most important factor in determining a person’s fate is not his disposition, but his habits. Habits can help change one’s disposition. An ancient admonition says, "The habits

  19. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  20. Can there be additional rocky planets in the Habitable Zone of tight binary stars with a known gas giant?

    CERN Document Server

    Funk, Barbara; Eggl, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Locating planets in HabitableZones (HZs) around other stars is a growing field in contemporary astronomy. Since a large percentage of all G-M stars in the solar neighbourhood are expected to be part of binary or multiple stellar systems, investigations of whether habitable planets are likely to be discovered in such environments are of prime interest to the scientific community. As current exoplanet statistics predicts that the chances are higher to find new worlds in systems that are already known to have planets, we examine four known extrasolar planetary systems in tight binaries in order to determine their capacity to host additional habitable terrestrial planets. Those systems are Gliese 86, gamma Cephei, HD 41004 and HD 196885. In the case of gamma Cephei, our results suggest that only the M dwarf companion could host additional potentially habitable worlds. Neither could we identify stable, potentially habitable regions around HD 196885 A. HD 196885 B can be considered a slightly more promising target ...

  1. UV habitable zones around M stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, there was a paradigm-shift in order to consider terrestrial planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars, as suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Here we analyze the influence of UV boundary conditions to three planetary systems around dM (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020). We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) (Buccino et al. 2006) to these cases and show that during the quiescent UV output there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ in order to trigger biogenic processes. We also analyze the cases of two other M flare stars and show that the flares of moderate intensity could provide the necessary energy to trigger those biogenic processes, while the strong flares not necessary rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  2. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  3. Nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon-O'Brien, H; Lachapelle, D; Gagnon, P F; Larocque, I; Maheu-Robert, L F

    1996-01-01

    The habit of sucking is the first coordinated muscular activity of the infant. There are essentially two forms of sucking: the nutritive form which provides essential nutrients, while non-nutritive sucking insures a feeling of warmth and a sense of security. This review gives a description of the anatomy and physiology of sucking together with the influence of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (conventional or orthodontic nipples) on the dentofacial structures of the infant. Factors involved in the choice of feeding are also discussed. Children who do not have access to unrestricted breastfeeding or bottle-fed children may satisfy their instinctive sucking urge with a pacifier. This paper presents the different types of pacifiers (conventional or orthodontic) along with the beneficial effects provided by pacifiers. Detrimental effects caused by incorrect use of pacifiers or digit-sucking habits are also summarized. Health professionals should inform expectant mothers about the dentofacial advantages of breastfeeding.

  4. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-01-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the Habitable Zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planets' atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not favor one planet type. Instead the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid...

  5. SLEEP HABITS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Neera; Varun; Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is part of the rhythm of life; without a good sleep the mind is less adaptive, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep-wake cycle of medical students is quite different and sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, occurrence of napping episodes during the day. This study was designed to assess sleep habits in first year medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants of this study were healthy medical students of first year MBBS course of S...

  6. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  7. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  8. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing.

  9. Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrino, M.

    2002-01-01

    As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

  10. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  11. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-02-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83–0714442.5, whose 4.5–5.2 μm spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 109 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  12. The detectability of habitable exomoons with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Awiphan, Supachai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the detectability of habitable exomoons orbiting around giant planets in M-dwarf systems using Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) and Transit Timing Durations (TDVs) with Kepler-class photometry is investigated. Light curves of systems with various configurations were simulated around M-dwarf hosts of mass 0.5 Msun and radius 0.55 Rsun. Jupiter-like giant planets which offer the best potential for hosting habitable exomoons were considered with rocky super-Earth-mass moons. The detectability is measured by using the phase-correlation between TTV and TDV signals. Since the TDV signal is typically weaker than the TTV signal, confirmation of an exomoon detection will depend on being able to detect a TDV signal. We find that exomoons around planets orbiting within the habitable zone of an M-dwarf host star can produce both detectable TTV and TDV signatures with Kepler-class photometry. While aliasing between the planet period and moon period may hinder exomoon detection, we also find some strong corr...

  13. Dietary Habits and Health Related Behaviors in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN- IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi-Soleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has a growing global epidemic with several risk factors including lifestyle habits, physical activity, and prolonged screen time. This study aimed to compare the dietary habits and self-reported health behaviors in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional nationwide study was conducted in the framework of the fourth survey of a national school-based surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non‑communicable disease (CASPIAN-IV Study. Participants were 14,880 students aged 6-18 years from 30 provinces in Iran. The World Health Organization- Global Student Health Survey questionnaire was utilized to assess their relationship with peers, body image, dietary, life-style and smoking habits, physical activity, and violence behaviors. Apart from the questionnaire, additional information on dietary habits was obtained as well. The Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results: Boys had higher proportions of obesity (P

  14. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series of targeted measures adopted by specialized physicians whose main aim is to fight and reduce, in the shortest period possible, the prevalence of childhood obesity. Overeating, often unaware of energy dense foods and beverages, and a sedentary lifestyle habits as well the increase of body weight. The wrong timing of meals, jumping breakfast, eating few fruit and vegetables all day long and drinking sugary and/or carbonated drinks are more frequent and deep-rooted habits among children. To correct these habits and promote a healthy eating it is necessary to plan targeted interventions.

  15. Habitability of the Goldilocks Planet Gliese 581g: Results from Geodynamic Models

    CERN Document Server

    von Bloh, W; Franck, S; Bounama, C

    2011-01-01

    Aims: In 2010, detailed observations have been published that seem to indicate another super-Earth planet in the system of Gliese 581 located in the midst of the stellar climatological habitable zone. The mass of the planet, known as Gl 581g, has been estimated as between 3.1 and 4.3 Earth masses. In this study, we investigate the habitability of Gl 581g based on a previously used concept that explores its long-term possibility of photosynthetic biomass production, which has already been used to gauge the principal possibility of life regarding the super-Earths Gl 581c and Gl 581d. Methods: A thermal evolution model for super-Earths is used to calculate the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The habitable zone is determined by the limits of photosynthetic biological productivity on the planetary surface. Models with different ratios of land / ocean coverage are pursued. Results: The maximum time span for habitable conditions is attained for water worlds at a position of about 0.14+/-0.015 AU, wh...

  16. Star Masses and Star-Planet Distances for Earth-like Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents statistical estimates for the location and duration of habitable zones (HZs) around stars of different mass. The approach is based upon the assumption that Earth's location, and the Sun's mass, should not be highly atypical of inhabited planets. The results support climate-model-based estimates for the location of the Sun's HZ except models giving a present-day outer-edge beyond 1.64 AU. The statistical approach also demonstrates that there is a habitability issue for stars smaller than 0.65 solar masses since, otherwise, Earth would be an extremely atypical inhabited world. It is difficult to remove this anomaly using the assumption that poor habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars results from unfavorable radiation regimes either before, or after, their stars enter the main sequence. However, the anomaly is well explained if poor habitability results from tidal locking of planets in the HZs of small stars. The expected host-star mass for planets with intelligent life then has a 95% confidence range of 0.78 M⊙ planets with at least simple life is 0.57 M⊙ < M < 1.64 M⊙.

  17. Superflares on Sun-Like Stars: Bane of Habitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T.

    2014-04-01

    A key aspect of planetary habitability is the existence of rare, but catastrophic events. One Earthly example is the attribution of several geological mass extinctions to asteroid collisions. Indeed, the Late Heavy Bombardment, during which the 600 Myr old Earth was pummeled persistently by impactors over a period of perhaps a hundred Myr, likely significantly delayed the permanent foothold of life on our planet. Another, less well known, example is the proposed existence of "superflares" on Sun-like stars. Although the quantity of energy in a superflare is negligible compared with the time-integrated X-ray dose from the quiescent multi-MK corona, the quality of the radiation (i.e., composition dominated by gamma rays) released from the transient, but extreme, outburst is what could be of concern to the survival of primitive lifeforms struggling for existence on a semi-habitable world. However, existing reports of superflares mainly involve interpretations of historical materials, such as long-term astronomical plate collections; there are very few concrete examples of such events observed by modern techniques at the most relevant wavelengths, namely ultraviolet or X-rays. The lack of good examples is mostly because these rare events are, well, rare. However, a recent HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph program to record the ultraviolet spectrum of young (~50 Myr) solar analog EK Draconis, fortuitously captured a giant, hour-long FUV transient, in hot lines like the C IV 155 nm doublet (T~100,000 K), and very toasty Fe XXI 124 nm coronal forbidden line (~10 MK). If translated into the equivalent GOES 0.1-0.8 nm X-ray fluence, the event would correspond to an X25000-class flare (most extreme observed on the Sun might reach as high as a mere X50). The EK Dra giant flare, as viewed with the excellent wavelength resolution, broad coverage, and high sensitivity of COS, provides the opportunity to deduce properties of such events to help inform possible impacts on planetary

  18. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mchaffy, P. M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  19. Habitability in the Solar System and New Planetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Pauli Erik

    2013-01-01

    Definition of habitability depends on the organisms under consideration. One way to determine habitability of some environment is to compare its certain parameters to environments where extremophilic micro-organisms thrive on Earth. We can also define more common habitability criteria from the life as we know it. These criteria include basic elements, liquid water and an energy source. We know that some locations in our Solar System provide at least some of these limits and criteria. This article describes the aims and technical specifications of some planetary missions, such as NASAs MSL in 2012, ESAs ExoMars missions in 2016 and 2018, and JUICE in 2033. These missions will explore habitability of Mars, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Here we compare defined habitability criteria to instrumentation documentation to determine whether these missions could validate the habitability of Mars and those Jovian moons. These missions have about 13 habitability assessment related instruments for Mars, 3 for Europa, 5 f...

  20. Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Lally, Phillippa

    2013-10-01

    Habit formation is thought to aid maintenance of physical activity, but little research is available into determinants of habit strength aside from repeated performance. Previous work has shown that intrinsically motivated physical activity, underpinned by inherent satisfaction derived from activity, is more likely to be sustained. We explored whether this might reflect a tendency for self-determined activity to become more strongly habitual. A sample of 192 adults aged 18-30 completed measures of motivational regulation, intention, behaviour, and habit strength. Results showed that self-determined regulation interacted with past behaviour in predicting habit strength: prior action was more predictive of habit strength among more autonomously motivated participants. There was an unexpected direct effect of self-determined regulation on habit strength, independently of past behaviour. Findings offer possible directions for future habit formation work.

  1. Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.

  2. Determining Habitability: Which exoEarths should we search for life?

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the next few years, the first Earth-mass planets will be discovered around other stars. Some of those worlds will certainly lie within the classical "habitable zone" of their parent stars, and we will quickly move from knowing of no exoEarths to knowing many. For the first time, we will be in a position to carry out a detailed search for the first evidence of life beyond our Solar System. However, such observations will be hugely taxing and time consuming to perform, and it is almost certain that far more potentially habitable worlds will be known than it is possible to study. It is therefore important to catalogue and consider the various effects which make a promising planet more or less suitable for the development of life. In this work, we review the various planetary, dynamical and stellar influences that could influence the habitability of exoEarths. The various influences must be taken in concert when we attempt to decide where to focus our first detailed search for life. While there is no guara...

  3. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  4. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 childre...

  5. IMMANUEL WALLERSTEIN'S WORLD SYSTEM THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed, among others by the Immanuel Wallerstein. Professor Wallerstein writes in three domains of world-systems analysis: the historical development of the modern world-system; the contemporary crisis of the capitalist world-economy; the structures of knowledge. The American anlyst rejects the notion of a "Third World", claiming there is only one world connected by a complex network of economic exchange relationship. Our world system is characterized by mechanisms which bring about a redistribution of resources from the periphery to the core. His analytical approach has made a significant impact and established an institutional base devoted to the general approach.

  6. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...... of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively...

  7. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  8. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  9. Polar Growth Habit of KABO Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The polar growth habit of KABO crystal was discussed by the growth-units model of anionic coordination-polyhedra (ACP), and the relationship between stabilities of incorporation of those growth-units into various group faces and their corresponding morphologies was studied. It is put forward that the growth interface of crystal will be concave when negative plane is used as growth interface. Concave growth interface is very unfavorable for the quality of the crystal, because it is unsuitable for the transfer of the latent heat and impurities released during the deposition.

  10. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-01-01

    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  11. Cosmic Initial Condition for a Habitable Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of chaotic inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the eternal bubble production is that what is the essential condition to have a universe being habitable ? In this work we investigate the minimum amount of e-folding for the inflationary area that results in the large scale structure formation at least in the linear regime. We extended this question to the sufficient condition of having enough initial baryonic asymmetry for the formation of the stars, planets and consequently life in the universe.

  12. Europa Clipper: A Multiple Flyby Mission Concept to Explore Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G. W.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Vance, S. D.

    2012-09-01

    Europa is a potentially habitable world that is likely to be geologically and chemically active today. Many well-defined and focused science questions regarding past and present habitability may be addressed by exploring Europa. The National Research Council's 2011 Planetary Decadal Survey placed Europa science among its highest priorities, but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept, which was prioritized in the Survey, was incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, NASA initiated a study to consider more fiscally viable Europa mission scenarios. Among the options considered, a multipleflyby mission concept (now named the "Europa Clipper") was found to have exceptional science merit while also meeting the challenge from NASA and the Decadal Survey for a reduced-scope Europa mission relative to JEO.

  13. New Worlds Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  14. Genetics of growth habit and development of new coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd) varieties with trailing habit and bright color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Quesenberry, Kenneth; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    A high level of genetic variability for growth habit types is observed in tetraploid, cultivated coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd). Very few cultivars with trailing habit exist, and those that are available generally have dark green or purple foliage color. Coleus with trailing growth habit is desirable as it increases its utility for use in hanging baskets, mixed containers, and as ground cover. There is a lack of published information on the genetic mechanism controlling growth habit and the development of new trailing types with orange colors. Two commercial cultivars, "Red Trailing Queen" (RQ) with trailing habit and "Sedona" (S) with upright stature, were selfed and crossed (RQ x S) to produce self and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced by selfing plants in the F(1) population. For each population analyzed, growth habit was rated on a visual 1-5 phenotypic scale, where 1 = upright, 2 = semi-upright, 3 = prostrate, 4 = semitrailing, and 5 = trailing. Genotypes were assigned to each phenotype, assuming that upright was dominant to trailing. In this study, growth habit was observed to be controlled by a single gene (U) with additive effects, with upright growth habit designated with a UUUU genotype and trailing growth habit designated with a uuuu genotype. In addition, foliage color was rated on a visual 1-5 phenotypic scale, and purple foliage color was found to be dominant to yellow-orange color. Several new coleus selections with trailing growth habit and orange foliage color were successfully developed.

  15. Tic disorders: when habit forming neural systems form habits of their own?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, J F; Yeh, C B; Cohen, D J

    2001-12-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related conditions are prevalent disorders affecting as many as 0.3-3% of the population. They are frequently chronic and can be associated with marked impairment and disability. Although clinical care has improved over the past decade, a significant number of patients fail to respond adequately or experience intolerable side effects. The etiology of these disorders is unknown. Compelling evidence suggests that the vulnerability to develop TS and OCD is mediated by both genetic and environmental factors, and that neural systems located in the basal ganglia and functionally related brain structures are involved in their pathogenesis. Based on explicit models of pathogenesis for TS and OCD and building on work accomplished over the past two decades, an array of clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, neuroimaging, epidemiological neurobiological, and treatment studies have been completed or are underway at the Child Study Center at Yale University. A multidisciplinary team of investigators has joined forces to test specific hypotheses through the integration and translation of basic and clinical neuroscience research. All subjects have been studied using identical clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, neurobiological, and pharmacological techniques. Current conceptualizations of TS have been shaped by advances in clinical phenomenology, genetics, systems neuroscience and the emerging understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in implicit learning and habit formation, neuroimmunology and psychopharmacology. An appreciation of the premonitory urges that precede tics and temporal dynamics of tics have provided useful viewpoints from which to regard the natural history of TS. While the long-term outcome of TS can be relatively benign, the presence of comorbid conditions such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), OCD or a major affective disorder can have lasting untoward consequences. The

  16. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  17. Critical Dietary Habits in Early Childhood: Principles and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Mathilde; Alexy, Ute; Schürmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The adequacy of a diet is usually evaluated based on nutrient intake. As people eat foods but not nutrients, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) are needed. To evaluate dietary habits in infants and young children, the following stepwise approach is suggested: (1) develop country-specific FBDG to identify the potential of common nonfortified foods to ensure adequate nutrient intake and (2) examine potential 'critical' dietary patterns if main food groups are excluded, such as in vegetarian diets or if a family's precarious social status leads to food constraints. The German FBDG for infant and child nutrition demonstrate that a well-designed mixture of common foods results in an adequate supply of nutrients, except for vitamin D, iodine and iron. The following solutions are feasible to address deficiencies in these critical nutrients: routine supplementation (vitamin D), fortified complementary food consumption or supplementation for infants as well as inclusion of table salt in the family diet for children (iodine), and individual pediatric care for infants at risk (iron). In the exclusion of food groups of animal origin from vegetarian diets, several nutrients are at risk of becoming deficient if not substituted. Existing studies characterizing vegetarian children are rare. These were mainly published in the 1980s and 1990s and were biased towards a high social status. Thus, firm conclusions on today's dietary practices and health statuses of European vegetarian children cannot be drawn. A social gradient exists for food patterns and dietary quality in children, but energy intake need not necessarily be affected. Scenarios in Germany suggest that families on unemployment assistance can afford to eat a diet compliant with German FBDG only if they restrict food selection to basic food. Yet, the question of how families cope with financial constraints in everyday life remains. In conclusion, well-designed FBDG provide various opportunities to identify critical

  18. Exploring New Potentials in Preventing Unhealthy Computer Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process...... including experts in the field of computer-related injuries, The Habit-Aware Mouse prototype was developed. It provides high-accuracy sensing of whether a user's fingers are hovering above the mouse. This kind of hovering is known to cause pains in the forearm. The integration of trans-parent sensing...... in existing products enables medical researchers to gain new insights on unhealthy habits. The Habit-Aware Mouse is a diagnostic sensing tool to get detailed knowledge about the user's unhealthy computer habits. Sensing is the first step to enable feedback, preventing injuries from finger hovering....

  19. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Arney, Giada; Meadows, Victoria S; Wolf, Eric T; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (tau ~ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-...

  20. UV habitable zones around M stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade there was a change in paradigm, which led to consider that terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars can also be suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Since many dMe stars emit large amount of UV radiation during flares, in this work we analyze the UV constrains for living systems on Earth-like planets around dM stars. We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ; Buccino, A.P., Lemarchand, G.A., Mauas, P.J.D., 2006. Icarus 183, 491-503) to the three planetary systems around dM stars (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020) observed by IUE and to two M-flare stars (AD Leo and EV Lac). In particular, HIP 74995 hosts a terrestrial planet in the LW-HZ, which is the exoplanet that most resembles our own Earth. We show, in general, that during the quiescent state there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ to trigger the biogenic processes and that this energy could be provided by flares of moderate intensity, while strong flares do not necessarily rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  1. Inflatable habitation for the lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.

    1992-01-01

    Inflatable structures have a number of advantages over rigid modules in providing habitation at a lunar base. Some of these advantages are packaging efficiency, convenience of expansion, flexibility, and psychological benefit to the inhabitants. The relatively small, rigid cylinders fitted to the payload compartment of a launch vehicle are not as efficient volumetrically as a collapsible structure that fits into the same space when packaged, but when deployed is much larger. Pressurized volume is a valuable resource. By providing that resource efficiently, in large units, labor intensive external expansion (such as adding additional modules to the existing base) can be minimized. The expansive interior in an inflatable would facilitate rearrangement of the interior to suite the evolving needs of the base. This large, continuous volume would also relieve claustrophobia, enhancing habitability and improving morale. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of inflatable habitat design, including structural, architectural, and environmental considerations. As a specific case, the conceptual design of an inflatable lunar habitat, developed for the Lunar Base Systems Study at the Johnson Space Center, is described.

  2. Good Study Habits-The key to learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language is slow and cumulative. No one can learn a language in 24 hours as many advertisements promise you. In fact, people work all their lives to learn languages. So it is important for all the people to develop study habits because de⁃veloping good habits in learning English will greatly increase studying efficiency and give twice the result with half the effort. In other words, good study habits are the keys to learning English.

  3. The Benefits of Developing Habits of Mind to English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2007-01-01

    In ordinary human life,something can be two different things at the same time. Habit can also be a theory and a solution. In this thesis I will introduce the reasons why we should develop habits of mind and the benefits to English learners. In this way English learners can master some better learning methods and scientific habits of mind to direct and improve their English learning.

  4. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  5. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  6. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  7. Exploring the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Freire, Gabriela Mesquita; Cárdenas, Abel Belizario Cahuana; Suarez de Deza, José Enrique Espasa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Oliveira,Luciana Butini; Boj Quesada JR, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in deciduous dentition. Methods A cross-sectional observational survey was carried out in 275 children aged 3 to 6 years and included clinical evaluations of malocclusions and structured interviews. Statistical significance for the association between feeding habits and the development of malocclusion was determined using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. In additi...

  8. Exoplanet Habitability: Effects of Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-05-01

    We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the 'habitable zone'. TVJ

  9. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  10. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species. PMID:27479072

  11. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  12. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  13. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  14. Organic products: consumption habits and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia-Crina Petrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine consumption habits and perceptions onecological food products. The main results are: 85% of the respondents perceive the dominantcharacteristic organic food “healthy”; more than half of the respondents (60% states to have no orlittle trust in sellers claims about a product being eco in the absence of organic label; half of therespondents declare they spent less than 50 lei (0-11.11 Euro on organic food and 40% of therespondents declare they spent between 51-200 lei (11.12-44.44. Euro on organic food; almost 20%of the sample bought organic cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy and almost 10% bought biscuits,meat, oil during the last year; 80% of the respondents are willing to pay for 1 liter of organic milk upto 44% more compared to supermarket price and 80% more compared to small farmers’ price.

  15. Lifeboat habitability and effects on human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Jonathan T.; Simoes Re, Antonio J. [National Research Council of Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email: Jonathan.power@nrc.ca, email: Antonio.simoesre@nrc.ca

    2010-07-01

    When an accident occurs offshore, lifeboats are the principal means used to evacuate shipping and offshore industries. However, in the International Maritime Organization Lifesaving Appliances code, no criteria are established as to habitability and the effects on human of those evacuation craft. The aim of this project was to study the impact of prolonged occupancy on the human body. This study was carried out in a SOLAS lifeboat in Conception Bay with 2 persons on-board wearing immersion suit systems; measurements of their skin temperature, deep body temperature and heart rate while doing their tasks were conducted. Results showed that when the lifeboat is sealed, the thermal comfort is quickly reduced with occupants sweating. This study highlighted that hatches and immersions suits should be kept open when possible to reduce the thermal strain on the occupants and that properly designed ventilation systems should be installed in lifeboats.

  16. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Obliquity

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S; Scharf, Caleb A

    2008-01-01

    Without the stabilizing influence of the Moon, the Earth's obliquity could vary significantly. Extrasolar terrestrial planets with the potential to host life may therefore have large obliquities or be subject to strong obliquity variations. We revisit the habitability of oblique planets with an energy balance climate model (EBM) allowing for dynamical transitions to ice-covered snowball states as a result of ice-albedo feedback. Despite the great simplicity of our EBM, it captures reasonably well the seasonal cycle of global energetic fluxes at Earth's surface. It also performs satisfactorily against a full-physics climate model of a highly oblique Earth, in an unusual regime of circulation dominated by heat transport from the poles to the equator. Climates on oblique terrestrial planets can violate global radiative balance through much of their seasonal cycle, which limits the usefulness of simple radiative equilibrium arguments. High obliquity planets have severe climates, with large amplitude seasonal vari...

  17. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...... between 0.93 and 1.0 (sensitivity), 0.90 and 0.98 (specificity), and 0.79 and 0.98 (kappa). Spearman's correlation coefficients for number of cigarettes smoked/day varied between 0.87 and 0.97; mean differences were all close to zero. Accuracy of recall tended to diminish with increasing alcohol intake...

  18. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  19. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...

  20. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  1. Postcranial morphology and the locomotor habits of living and extinct carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua X; Meachen, Julie A; Sakai, Stacey A

    2013-02-01

    Members of the order Carnivora display a broad range of locomotor habits, including cursorial, scansorial, arboreal, semiaquatic, aquatic, and semifossorial species from multiple families. Ecomorphological analyses from osteological measurements have been used successfully in prior studies of carnivorans and rodents to accurately infer the locomotor habits of extinct species. This study uses 20 postcranial measurements that have been shown to be effective indicators of locomotor habits in rodents and incorporates an extensive sample of over 300 individuals from more than 100 living carnivoran species. We performed statistical analyses, including analysis of variance (ANOVA) and stepwise discriminant function analysis, using a set of 16 functional indices (ratios). Our ANOVA results reveal consistent differences in postcranial skeletal morphology among locomotor groups. Cursorial species display distal elongation of the limbs, gracile limb elements, and relatively narrow humeral and femoral epicondyles. Aquatic and semiaquatic species display relatively robust, shortened femora and elongate metatarsals. Semifossorial species display relatively short, robust limbs with enlarged muscular attachment sites and elongate claws. Both semiaquatic and semifossorial species have relatively elongate olecranon process of the ulna and enlarged humeral and femoral epicondyles. Terrestrial, scansorial, and arboreal species are characterized by having primarily intermediate features, but arboreal species do show relatively elongate manual digits. Morphological indices effectively discriminate locomotor groups, with cursorial and arboreal species more accurately classified than terrestrial, scansorial, or semiaquatic species. Both within and between families, species with similar locomotor habits converge toward similar postcranial morphology despite their independent evolutionary histories. The discriminant analysis worked particularly well to correctly classify members of the

  2. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Zuluaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ, defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  3. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Bagenal, F.; Barr, A. C.; Bills, B. G.; Blaney, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Connerney, J. E.; Kurth, W. S.; McGrath, M. A.; Moore, J. M.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Smith, D. E.; Garner, G. J.; Magner, T. J.; Cooke, B. C.; Mallder, V.; Crum, R.

    2011-12-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes. The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options. In its preliminary findings, the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives. An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit. An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing. This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources. More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, which is better suited to handle larger masses and higher data volumes. Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over multiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile. Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission concepts, minimizing new development while achieving the key Europa science objectives. We

  4. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, J. I.; Salazar, J. F.; Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Poveda, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet) how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  5. Habitability of enceladus: planetary conditions for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher D; Liang, Mao-Chang; Yung, Yuk L; Kirschivnk, Joseph L

    2008-08-01

    The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed with the overlying ice shell on Myr time scales. We hypothesize that Enceladus' plume, tectonic processes, and possible liquid water ocean may create a complete and sustainable geochemical cycle that may allow it to support life. We discuss evidence for surface/ocean material exchange on Enceladus based on the amounts of silicate dust material present in the Enceladus' plume particles. Microphysical cloud modeling of Enceladus' plume shows that the particles originate from a region of Enceladus' near surface where the temperature exceeds 190 K. This could be consistent with a shear-heating origin of Enceladus' tiger stripes, which would indicate extremely high temperatures ( approximately 250-273 K) in the subsurface shear fault zone, leading to the generation of subsurface liquid water, chemical equilibration between surface and subsurface ices, and crustal recycling on a time scale of 1 to 5 Myr. Alternatively, if the tiger stripes form in a mid-ocean-ridge-type mechanism, a half-spreading rate of 1 m/year is consistent with the observed regional heat flux of 250 mW m(-2) and recycling of south polar terrain crust on a 1 to 5 Myr time scale as well.

  6. Hegemonia e imperialismo: caracterizações da ordem mundial capitalista após a Segunda Guerra Mundial Hegemony and imperialism: characterizations of the capitalist world order after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Saggioro Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos conceitos de hegemonia e imperialismo é intercalado na literatura de Relações Internacionais para explicar uma ordem internacional hierárquica sob dominação de uma potência. O termo "imperialismo" é utilizado em geral por marxistas, enfatizando o elemento da coerção, que, diferentemente do imperialismo clássico, hoje se dá de forma opaca e indireta. Já "hegemonia" é usado de forma ampla por teóricos críticos, realistas e institucionalistas, enfatizando elementos do consenso, como regras, normas e instituições internacionais. O período de dominação dos EUA é caracterizado por ambos os termos.The use of the concepts of hegemony and imperialism is interspersed in the literature of International Relations to explain a hierarchical international order under the domination of one power. The term "imperialism" is generally used by Marxists, to emphasize elements of coercion, which, differently than in classic imperialism, takes place today in a more opaque and indirect form. "Hegemony" is used broadly by critical theorists, realists and institutionalists, emphasizing elements of consensus, such as rules, norms and international institutions. The period of U.S. dominance has been characterized with both terms.

  7. The Impact Environment of Ancient Mars: Implications for Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, O.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The impact bombardment periods that likely affected ancient (Noachian and pre-Noachian) Mars are (i) the post-accretionary elevated impactor flux, commonly known as the "heavy bombardment" and (ii) a putative increase in the number of impact events around 4.0 Ga, commonly known as the "late heavy bombardment" (LHB). These events would have affected the biological potential of Mars by melting and fracturing the crust, depositing large amounts of impact ejecta, generating hydrothermal systems, delivering elements essential for life, and likely increasing the temperature of the Martian atmosphere. We model two types of post-accretionary bombardments: (i) a classical exponential decay and (ii) a sawtooth timeline, characterized by faster-than-exponential decay and reduced total mass. Likewise, two types of LHB are modeled: (i) a classic "spike," centered at 3.9 Ga and lasting ~100 Myr, and (ii) a "sawtooth" LHB, characterized by a sudden increase in the number of impacts at ~4.1 Ga, overall lower delivered mass, and a longer duration. Partial results of these simulations are summarized in Table 1. To estimate habitable volumes in hydrothermal environments, surface temperatures of 1 °C and -63 °C were tested. Even in the latter case, life may have persevered in a global aquifer underneath a layer of permafrost termed the cryosphere. Over 105-106of the impact craters that formed during the LHB and post-accretionary bombardment, respectively, would have accessed this global aquifer via cryospheric melt-through, resulting in a subsurface plumbing network between individual impact-induced hydrothermal systems. Table 1. Summary of impact simulation results. Bombardment type Total mass delivered (kg) Largest impactor (km) Percent of crust melted Percent resurfaced Classic post-accretion 6.5 × 1020 492 8.2% 100% Classic LHB 1.0 × 1020 246 1.6% 36% Sawtooth post-accretion 1.6 × 1020 310 2.6% 46% Sawtooth LHB 2.8 × 1019 196 0.5% 10% Figure 1. A 3-dimensional model

  8. A 'snapshot' of physical activity and food habits among private school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Erin M; Cunningham, Solveig A; Thorpe, Sara; Patil, Shailaja S

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about increasing obesity in poorer parts of the world, including India, have often been premised in terms of global shifts in activity levels and caloric consumption. Lifestyle changes have been documented in large cities, but we do not know whether these changes are reaching young people in less urban locations. This study used photo journals to explore children's perceptions of their food and activity habits in a remote Indian city. Children expressed interest in active pastimes, learning, and health, and indicated traditional, modern, local, and global influences in their lives. Findings offer context for research and interventions.

  9. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series ...

  10. A broken self-possession: Responsive agency in habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Line Ryberg

    2016-01-01

    even non-rational acts like habits, obsessive behaviour, and psychopathological symptoms to be personal in a strong sense. The paper dwells on the structure of self-experience in habits to reveal how temporal displacements, disintegration and self-alienation are at the root of human self...

  11. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Systems with three Jupite...

  12. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school teachers' geometric…

  13. Duty, Habit, and Meaning: Different Faces of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2001-01-01

    All elements of an active lifestyle need not be meaningful. Good active habits of living can be generated without significant reliance on excitement or other kinds of notable meaning. The development of active living habits depend partly on enlightened social policy, but such policies are rare in the United States. Consequently, kinesiologists…

  14. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process. References Nowak AJ, et al. Oral habits and orofacial development in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 8, 2015. Ask your dentist about thumb, finger and pacifier habits. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. http://www.aapd. ...

  15. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...

  16. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  17. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Erve, van 't Sanne; Hoof, van Joris; Pruyn, Ad; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential stim

  18. Dietary Habits Prone to Lifestyle-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M.; Uyama, O.; Kaji, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relations among dietary habits, bone mineral density (BMD), visceral fat area (VFA), and arterial stiffness and recommend better dietary habits. Methods: One hundred and six men and 381 women (aged 18-84) received a health checkup and answered questionnaires, with subsequent measurements of BMD (speed of sound), VFA…

  19. Making Ethics a Habit in Your Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkel, Susan Neiburg

    1993-01-01

    Suggests family activities related to moral values: (1) instilling the giving habit; (2) using stories and games to trigger moral reflection; (3) encouraging earth ethics; (4) developing the moral opinion habit; (5) making moral reminders part of the home decor; (6) using every opportunity to teach; and (7) sharing holidays with others. (GLR)

  20. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  1. MAGNETIC SHIELDING OF EXOMOONS BEYOND THE CIRCUMPLANETARY HABITABLE EDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, René [McMaster University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Zuluaga, Jorge I., E-mail: rheller@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: jzuluaga@fisica.udea.edu.co [FACom - Instituto de Física - FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-10-20

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. However, formation models predict that moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. Here we synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, or they will be in wide orbits where they will not be affected by the planetary magnetosphere. Saturn-like planets have stronger fields, and Jupiter-like planets could coat close-in habitable moons soon after formation. Moons at distances between about 5 and 20 planetary radii from a giant planet can be habitable from an illumination and tidal heating point of view, but still the planetary magnetosphere would critically influence their habitability.

  2. On the habitability of exoplanets orbiting Proxima Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Madeleine; Rodriguez, Lien

    2014-01-01

    We apply a mathematical model for photosynthesis to quantitatively assess the habitability of a hypothetical planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, inside the so called habitability zone. Results suggest significant viability for primary biological productivity, provided living organisms have evolved to reach the ability of using infrared light for photosynthesis.

  3. Effects of impurities on growth habit of KDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of metaphosphate, boric acid and quaternary ammonium cations with different concentration on the growth habit of KDP crystal are reported. The results are analyzed and discussed, which show that the effects of different impurities on the growth habit of KDP are not the same. It is due to the different adsorption mechanism of the impurities.

  4. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  5. Circumstellar Habitable Zones of Binary Star Systems in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Haghighipour, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Binary and multiple systems constitute more than half of the total stellar population in the Solar neighborhood (Kiseleva-Eggleton and Eggleton 2001). Their frequent occurrence as well as the fact that more than 70 (Schneider et al. 2011) planets have already been discovered in such configurations - most noteably the telluric companion of alpha Centauri B (Dumusque et al. 2012) - make them interesting targets in the search for habitable worlds. Recent studies (Eggl et al. 2012b, Forgan 2012) have shown, that despite the variations in gravitational and radiative environment, there are indeed circumstellar regions where planets can stay within habitable insolation limits on secular dynamical timescales. In this article we provide habitable zones for 19 near S-Type binary systems from the Hipparchos and WDS catalogues with semimajor axes between 1 and 100 AU. Hereby, we accounted for the combined dynamical and radiative influence of the second star on the Earth-like planet. Out of the 19 systems presented, 17 of...

  6. Exploring Mars for Evidence of Habitable Environments and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mars has been more similar to that of Earth than has the climate of any other planet in our Solar System. But Mars still provides a valuable alternative example of how planetary processes and environments can affect the potential presence of life elsewhere. For example, although Mars also differentiated very early into a core, mantle and crust, it then evolved mostly if not completely without plate tectonics and has lost most of its early atmosphere. The Martian crust has been more stable than that of Earth, thus it has probably preserved a more complete record of its earliest history. Orbital observations determined that near-surface water was once pervasive. Orbiters have identified the following diverse aqueous sedimentary deposits: layered phyllosilicates, phyllosilicates in intracrater fans, plains sediments potentially harboring evaporitic minerals, deep phyllosilicates, carbonate-bearing deposits, intracrater clay-sulfate deposits, Meridiani-type layered deposits, valles-type layered deposits, hydrated silica-bearing deposits, and gypsum plains. These features, together with evidence of more vigorous past geologic activity, indicate that early climates were wetter and perhaps also somewhat warmer. The denser atmosphere that was required for liquid water to be stable on the surface also provided more substantial protection from radiation. Whereas ancient climates might have favored habitable environments at least in some localities, clearly much of the Martian surface for most of its history has been markedly less favorable for life. The combination of dry conditions, oxidizing surface environments and typically low rates of sedimentation are not conducive to the preservation of evidence of ancient environments and any biota. Thus a strategy is required whereby candidate sites are first identified and then characterized for their potential to preserve evidence of past habitable environments. Rovers are then sent to explore the most promising

  7. Investigating Socioscientific Issues via Scientific Habits of Mind: Development and Validation of the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Muammer; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey (SHOMS) developed to explore public, science teachers' and scientists' understanding of habits of mind (HoM). The instrument contained 59 items, and captures the seven SHOM identified by Gauld. The SHOM was validated by administration to two cohorts of pre-service science teachers:…

  8. Individual specialization in the foraging habits of female bottlenose dolphins living in a trophically diverse and habitat rich estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Sam; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stolen, Megan; Barros, Nélio B; Gandhi, Hasand; Stricker, Craig A; Wells, Randall S

    2015-06-01

    We examine individual specialization in foraging habits (foraging habitat and trophic level) of female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, by analyzing time series of stable isotope (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) values in sequential growth layer groups within teeth. The isotope data provide a chronology of foraging habits over the lifetime of the individual and allowed us to show that female bottlenose dolphins exhibit a high degree of individual specialization in both foraging habitat and trophic level. The foraging habits used by adult females are similar to those they used as calves and may be passed down from mother to calf through social learning. We also characterized the foraging habits and home range of each individual by constructing standard ellipses from isotope values and dolphin sightings data (latitude and longitude), respectively. These data show that Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphins forage within a subset of the habitats in which they are observed. Moreover, females with similar observational standard ellipses often possessed different foraging specializations. Female bottlenose dolphins may demonstrate individual specialization in foraging habits because it reduces some of the cost of living in groups, such as competition for prey.

  9. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  10. Atmospheric escape, redox evolution, and planetary habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Through the greenhouse effect, the presence and composition of an atmosphere is critical for defining a (conventional) circumstellar habitable zone in terms of planetary surface temperatures suitable for liquid water. Lack of knowledge of planetary atmospheres is likely to frustrate attempts to say with any certainty whether detected terrestrial-sized exoplanets may or may not be habitable. Perhaps an underappreciated role in such considerations is the evolutionary effect of atmospheric escape for determining atmospheric composition or whether an atmosphere exists in the first place. Whether atmospheres exist at all on planets is demonstrably connected to the effect of integrated atmospheric escape. When we observe our own Solar System and transiting exoplanets, the existence of an atmosphere is clearly delineated by a relative vulnerability to thermal escape and impact erosion. The prevalence of thermal escape as a key evolutionary determinant for the presence of planetary atmosphere is shown by a relationship between the relative solar (or stellar) heating and the escape velocity. Those bodies with too much stellar heating and too smaller escape velocity end up devoid of atmospheres. Impact erosion is evident in the relationship between impact velocity and escape velocity. Escape due to impacts is particularly important for understanding the large differences in the atmospheres of giant planet moons, such as Ganymede versus Titan. It is also significant for Mars-sized planets. The oxidation state of atmospheres is important for some theories of the origin of life (where an early reducing atmosphere is helpful for organic synthesis) and the evolution of advanced life (where free molecular oxygen is the best source of high energy metabolism). Surfaces on some relatively small planets and moons are observed to have evolved to an oxidized state, which theory and observation can explain through atmospheric escape. There are several examples in the Solar System where a

  11. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo; Bengenal; Bar; Bills; Blankenship; Connerney; Kurth; McGrath; Moore; Prockter; Senske; Smith; Garner; Magner; Hibbard; Cooke

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (1EO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings (May, 2011), the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives, An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing, This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources, More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, that is better situated to handle larger masses and higher data volumes, and which aims to limit radiation exposure, Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over mUltiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile, Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission

  12. Exoplanetary Atmospheres—Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Agúndez, Marcelino; Moses, Julianne I.; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, including transit spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and direct imaging. In addition to chemical detections, we discuss the advances in determining chemical abundances in these atmospheres and how such abundances are being used to constrain exoplanetary formation conditions and migration mechanisms. Finally, we review recent theoretical work on the atmospheres of habitable exoplanets, followed by a discussion of future outlook of the field.

  13. Exoplanetary Atmospheres—Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Moses, Julianne I; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, including transit spectroscopy, Doppler spectroscopy, and direct imaging. In addition to chemical detections, we discuss the advances in determining chemical abundances in these atmospheres and how such abundances are being used to constrain exoplanetary formation conditions and migration mechanisms. Finally, we review recent theoretical work on the atmospheres of habitable exoplanets, followed by a discussion of future outlook of the field. PMID:28057962

  14. Hydrothermal preparation and crystal habit of X-zeolite powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shao-hua; ZHANG Shu-gen; WANG Da-wei; FANG Ke-ming

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of X-zeolite powder was investigatedin hydrothermal system, the crystal growth process of X-zeolite in hydrothermal condition was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and infrared ray. The results show that X-zeolite powder with uniform granularity and intact crystal shape can be obtained in hydrothermal system of acid-treated stellerite-NaOH-NaAl(OH)4-H2O; the crystallite size is in the range of 2 - 3μm. The best reaction time of hydrothermal preparation is 6 h. The formation phases of X-zeolite crystal are as follows: dissolution of feedstocks → formation of [SiO4]4- and [AlO4]5- tetrahedron, many-membered ring,β cage → formation of crystal nucleus and nano-particle → aggregation growth of nano-particle → coalescence growth of crystallite. The crystal habits of X-zeolite are intimately related with crystallization orientation ofβ cage in crystal and with its coupling stability on every crystal face family.

  15. Orbiter, Flyby and Lander Mission Concepts for Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Coauthors: R. T. Pappalardo (1), F. Bagenal (2), A. C. Barr (3), B. G. Bills (1), D. L. Blaney (1), D. D. Blankenship (4), W. Brinckerhoff (5), J. E. P. Connerney (5), K. Hand (1), T. Hoehler (6), W. Kurth (7), M. McGrath (8), M. Mellon (9), J. M. Moore (6), D. A. Senske (1), E. Shock (10), D. E. Smith (11), T. Gavin (1), G. Garner (1), T. Magner (12), B. C. Cooke (1), R. Crum (1), V. Mallder (12), L. Adams (12), K. Klaasen (1), G. W. Patterson (12), and S. D. Vance (1); 1: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA; 2: University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA; 3: Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 4: University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX, USA; 5: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA; 6: NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, USA; 7: University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 8: NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA; 9: Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO, USA; 10: Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; 11: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; 12: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. Introduction: Assessment of Europa's habitability requires understanding whether the satellite possesses the three "ingredients" for life: water, chemistry, and energy. The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey [1] placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept [2] is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, in April 2011, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider Europa mission options that might be more feasible over the next decade from a programmatic perspective. The ESDT has studied three Europa mission concepts: a Europa orbiter, a Europa multiple-flyby mission, and a Europa lander. These share an overarching goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability

  16. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  17. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  18. Prospects for Extrasolar "Earths" in Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W; Sleep, P N

    2005-01-01

    We have shown that Earth-mass planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones (HZs) of most of a sample of nine of the 102 main-sequence exoplanetary systems confirmed by 19 November 2003. In a preliminary extrapolation of our results to the other systems, we estimate that roughly a half of these systems could have had an Earth-mass planet confined to the HZ for at least the most recent 1000 Ma. The HZ migrates outwards during the main-sequence lifetime, and so this proportion varies with stellar age. About two thirds of the systems could have such a planet confined to the HZ for at least 1000 Ma at sometime during the main-sequence lifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list for exploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached this conclusion by launching putative Earth-mass planets in various orbits and following their fate with mixed-variable symplectic and hybrid integrators. Whether the Earth-mass planets could form in the HZs of the exoplanetary sy...

  19. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  20. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  1. Hydrogen Greenhouse Planets Beyond the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas, and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H2-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the "classical" habitable zone defined for CO2 greenhouse atmospheres. Using a 1-D radiative-convective model we find that 40 bars of pure H2 on a 3 Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280K out to 1.5AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H2, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H2-He are possible, and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protect...

  2. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  3. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  4. Reading Newspapers Is A Good Habit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Newspapers are important media. They can provide all kinds of latest news from both at home and abroad, which can help us understand the world better. Newspapers can also make our life rich. In newspapers, we can read stories about a variety of people, find weather reports, introductions to new books, advertisements on traveling, and so on. As English learners,

  5. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  6. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  7. Habitability issues for long-term habitation in space ship; Uchusen no kankyo to choki kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

    1999-04-05

    The International Space Station which will start its actual operation in 2004, provides a big step for human beings to expand their habitation territory into space, since it should play a role as a junction port for future shuttle missions between our Earth and the lunar base and also for manned exploration toward Mars. In the present paper, cuurent status of environmental conditions of the space ship and some risks and difficulty which onboard crews may face during their long stay are viewed from biomedical points. (author)

  8. The search for exomoons and the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Campanella, Giammarco

    2009-01-01

    Since planets were first discovered outside our own Solar System in 1992 (around a pulsar) and in 1995 (around a main sequence star), extrasolar planet studies have become one of the most dynamic research fields in astronomy. Now that more than 370 exoplanets have been discovered, focus has moved from finding planets to characterise these alien worlds. As well as detecting the atmospheres of these exoplanets, part of the characterisation process undoubtedly involves the search for extrasolar moons. A review on the current situation of exoplanet characterization is presented in Chapter 3. We focus on the characterization of transiting planets orbiting very close to their parent star since for them we can already probe their atmospheric constituents. By contrast, the second part of the Chapter is dedicated to the search for extraterrestrial life, both within and beyond the Solar System. The characteristics of the Habitable Zone and the markers for the presence of life (biosignatures) are detailed. In Chapter 4 ...

  9. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  10. TRAPPIST-UCDTS: A prototype search for habitable planets transiting ultra-cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magain P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ∼1000 nearest ultra-cool stars (spectral type M6 and latter represent a unique opportunity for the search for life outside solar system. Due to their small luminosity, their habitable zone is 30–100 times closer than for the Sun, the corresponding orbital periods ranging from one to a few days. Thanks to this proximity, the transits of a habitable planet are much more probable and frequent than for an Earth-Sun analog, while their tiny size (∼1 Jupiter radius leads to transits deep enough for a ground-based detection, even for sub-Earth size planets. Furthermore, a habitable planet transiting one of these nearby ultra-cool star would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the detection of possible biosignatures, notably with the near-to-come JWST. Motivated by these reasons, we have set up the concept of a ground-based survey optimized for detecting planets of Earth-size and below transiting the nearest Southern ultra-cool stars. To assess thoroughly the actual potential of this future survey, we are currently conducting a prototype mini-survey using the TRAPPIST robotic 60cm telescope located at La Silla ESO Observatory (Chile. We summarize here the preliminary results of this mini-survey that fully validate our concept.

  11. TRAPPIST-UCDTS: A prototype search for habitable planets transiting ultra-cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, M.; Jehin, E.; Fumel, A.; Magain, P.; Queloz, D.

    2013-04-01

    The ˜1000 nearest ultra-cool stars (spectral type M6 and latter) represent a unique opportunity for the search for life outside solar system. Due to their small luminosity, their habitable zone is 30-100 times closer than for the Sun, the corresponding orbital periods ranging from one to a few days. Thanks to this proximity, the transits of a habitable planet are much more probable and frequent than for an Earth-Sun analog, while their tiny size (˜1 Jupiter radius) leads to transits deep enough for a ground-based detection, even for sub-Earth size planets. Furthermore, a habitable planet transiting one of these nearby ultra-cool star would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the detection of possible biosignatures, notably with the near-to-come JWST. Motivated by these reasons, we have set up the concept of a ground-based survey optimized for detecting planets of Earth-size and below transiting the nearest Southern ultra-cool stars. To assess thoroughly the actual potential of this future survey, we are currently conducting a prototype mini-survey using the TRAPPIST robotic 60cm telescope located at La Silla ESO Observatory (Chile). We summarize here the preliminary results of this mini-survey that fully validate our concept.

  12. Numerical quantification of habitability in serpentinizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The likely presence of liquid water in contact with olivine-bearing rocks on Mars, the detection of serpentine minerals and of methane emissions possibly consistent with serpentinization, and the observation of serpentine-associated methane-cycling communities on Earth have all led to excitement over the potential of such systems to host life on Mars, even into the present day. However, the habitability of subsurface serpentinizing systems on Mars does not necessarily follow from these qualitative observations. In particular, while the production of H2 during serpentinization could provide methanogens with a needed substrate, the alkaline conditions and corresponding potential for carbon limitation that arise in concert are negatives against which H2 supply must be balanced. We considered this balance via a coupled geochemical-bioenergetic model that weighs the outputs of serpentinization against the metabolic requirements of methanogenesis, in an energetic frame of reference. Serpentinization is modeled using the "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) whereby ultramafic harzburgite rocks are reacted with oxygen and sulfate depleted seawater. Reaction kinetics are not explicitly considered, but comparable effects of partial reaction are approximated by assuming post-reaction dilution of equilibrated fluids. The output of GWB serves as the input to the bioenergetic model, which calculates methanogenic energy yields based on spherically-symmetrical diffusion of substrates to a cell followed by reaction at the diffusion-limited rate. Membrane selectivity for substrate transport is explicitly considered. Results will be report updates for two scenarios: (i) High temperature serpentinization followed by cooling and transport of equilibrated fluid to a lower temperature regime accessible to biology; (ii) Serpentinization within the biologically-tolerated range of temperatures. Such coupled models demonstrate that environmental variability with respect to both water-rock reaction

  13. Cosmological Aspects of Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Safonova, M.; Murphy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Habitable zone (HZ) defines the region around a start within which planets may support liquid water at their surfaces, which is supposed to be the necessary factor for origination and development of life on the planet. Currently we know about 30 planets inside HZ. The most interesting question is that of possibility of existence of complex life on the planets. As several space-based project aimed at searching of traces of life at exoplanets are presently being worked out, the problem of elaboration of criteria for selection out of the list of planets inside HZ those which most probably host life acquires supreme importance. It is usually implicitly assumed that planets inside HZ may host life, not taking into consideration such an important factor as the planet age. On the other hand the crucial importance of the factor meets the eye immediately. In fact, if we consider a life similar to that on the Earth, it is obvious, that planets younger than 1 Gyr can hardly bear even primitive life-forms because life needs time to originate and develop. Moreover, as a part of biochemical and metabolic processes are endothermic, and, therefore, threshold, the process of life origination may prove extremely sensitive even to tiny HZ parameter variations. Still a most of the discovered planets are known to orbit young stars (stellar population I), no older than several mullions of years. So a considerable number of planets sure HZ inhabitants may prove too young to be really inhabitable. On the other hand, 12-13 Gyr old planetary systems (population II) may happen to be more probable bearers of life. In spite of the fact that such systems are, in the average more distant from us that the population I stars, estimations of possibility of direct detection of traces of metabolism on those systems are quite optimistic, if we bear in mind planetary systems of old law-mass K-stars.

  14. NMDA receptors in dopaminergic neurons are crucial for habit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei Phillip; Li, Fei; Wang, Dong; Xie, Kun; Wang, Deheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z

    2011-12-22

    Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit-learning tasks, while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal-directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that dopaminergic neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses; however, their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning.

  15. The Influence of Volcanic Aerosols on Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Howard; Horton, Daniel Ethan

    2017-01-01

    On rocky planetary bodies such as Proxima Centuri b, the detection of sulphate aerosols may indicate volcanism and tectonic activity; ingredients hypothesized to be necessary for planetary habitability. However, due to the effect of atmospheric aerosols on a planet’s energy balance, coupled with eruption constituent and frequency uncertainties, the potential impact of volcanic activity on planetary habitability remains unresolved. Here, we employ multi-column climate models in conjunction with a parameter space approach to test the effect of volcanic aerosols on planetary climate with various climate sensitivities. Preliminary results indicate that volcanic activity could provide a means of extending the inner edge of the habitable zone (IHZ), depending on eruption constituents and frequency. Previous work using transit spectra simulations have demonstrated the possibility of detecting transient aerosols of volcanic origin. Our work investigates the range of habitability implications detection of such aerosols would imply.

  16. The Habitable Zone of the Binary System Kepler-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sarah; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We report on the current results and envisioned future work from our study of the binary star system Kepler-16, which consists of a K-type main-sequence star and an M dwarf as well as a circumbinary Saturnian planet, Kepler-16b. We focus on the calculation of the location and extent of the habitable zone while considering several criteria for both the inner and outer boundaries previously given in the literature. In particular, we investigate the impact of the two stellar components (especially Kepler-16A) as well as of the system’s binarity regarding the provision of circumbinary habitability. Another aspect of our work consists in a careful assessment of how the extent of the system’s habitable zone is impacted by the relative uncertainties of the stellar and system parameters. Finally, we comment on the likelihood of habitable objects in the system by taking into account both radiative criteria and the need of orbital stability.

  17. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  18. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  19. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  20. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol abuse, gambling and even compulsive use of computers and social media. Dr. Russell Poldrack, a neurobiologist ... they can replace a bad habit, even drug addiction, with another behavior, like exercising. "It doesn't ...

  1. Relationship between sleep habits, anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle habits in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, J; Bui-Xuan, G; Fardy, P S; Mikulovic, J

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to explore the relationship between sleep habits and overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in French adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This observational study was conducted on 535 French adolescents with intellectual deficiency. Sleep habits were analyzed and related to anthropometric measures, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Adolescents completed the questionnaire during an interview with the principle investigator. Sleep timing behaviour was classified into 4 sleep patterns: Early-bed/Early-rise, Early-bed/Late-rise, Late-bed/Late-rise, and Late-bed/Early-rise. Of 573 eligible participants, 125 were excluded because of missing data on age, weight or height. The number of participants identified in each of the four sleep patterns was as follows: Early-bed/Early-rise, N=59 (15.4%), Early-bed/Late-rise, N=164 (43%), Late-bed/Early-rise, N=56 (15%), Late-bed/Late-rise N=102 (27%). Adolescents who woke up early were more active than those from the late rise group (padolescents who are sedentary was higher in late rise vs. early rise subjects (padolescents with intellectual deficiency. Sleep behaviours should be considered in planning health promotion strategies.

  2. Habit and Heterogeneity in the Youthful Demand for Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael J.; Philip J. Cook

    1995-01-01

    Observed patterns of youthful drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit formation, and not unobserved characteristics. Consequently, restriction...

  3. Habits: bridging the gap between personhood and personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Frederic eWagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH at a specific point in time (synchronic, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI over time (diachronic are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. The acquisition of habits therefore rests upon PI over time; that is, the temporal extension of personal decisions is the necessary condition for the possible development of habits. Conceptually, habits can thus be seen as a bridge between synchronic and diachronic timescales of a person’s life. In order to investigate the empirical mediation of this temporal linkage, we draw upon the neuronal mechanisms underlying DM; in particular on the distinction between internally and externally guided DM. Externally guided DM relies on external criteria at a specific point in time (synchronic; on a neural level, this has been associated with lateral frontal and parietal brain regions. In contrast, internally guided DM is based on the person’s own preferences that involve a more longitudinal and thus diachronic timescale, which has been associated with the brain’s intrinsic activity. Habits can be considered to reflect a balance between internally and externally guided DM, which implicates a particular temporal balance between diachronic and synchronic elements, thus linking two different timescales. Based on such evidence, we suggest a habit-based neurophilosophical approach of PH and PI by focusing on the empirically-based linkage between the synchronic and diachronic elements of habits. By doing so, we propose to link together what philosophically has been described and analyzed

  4. Eating attitudes anda habits on adolescents in the Pilsen region

    OpenAIRE

    CÍROVÁ, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the eating habits of pupils at elementary schools and of the third-year students of high school. The theoretical part deals with the definition of teenagers and adolescents eating habits and attitudes, the principles of a healthy diet, fluid intake, the most common eating disorders, metabolic disorders and obesity. The practical part contains the research carried out at selected elementary and secondary schools. Results are compared by gender, education level a...

  5. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  6. NUTRITION HABITS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCIES OF MEDICAL FACULTY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNAL, Ayşe Emel; GÜRTEKİN, Başak; ÖZEL, Sevda; ERBİL, Suna; AYVAZ, Özkan; Güngör, Günay

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective: Medical faculty students may develop irregular eating habits for reasons such as their social – economic situations, adaptation to faculty life, dormitory or their new environment.  As a result, some students eventually ignore their basic food requirements and have a diet that is cabohydrate, saturated fat and cholesterol rich. Our aim was to search the nutritional habits and food consumption of medical faculty students in order to provide a healthy diet advice.Material and...

  7. The Inhabitance Paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability" to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have put theoretically impressive boundaries on this: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using exactly that kind of model, I'll show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", temperate climate and a post-runaway climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. Furthermore, the radial extent of the temperature climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres. The width of the habitable zone is determined by the atmospheric inventories of di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Yet Earth teaches us that these abundances are very heavily influenced (perhaps even controlled) by biology. This is paradoxical: the habitable zone seeks to define the region a planet should be capable of harbouring life; yet whether the planet is inhabited will determine whether the climate may be habitable at any given distance from the star. This matters, because future life detection missions may use habitable zone boundaries in mission design. A historical view of solar system exploration helps frame the problem; robotic exploration of the outer solar system revealed the un-imagined nature of the Jovian and Saturnian moons, whilst showing that the Venusian jungle died long ago. Prediction will fall to data but the unexpected may emerge. To soften that fall we should revise the paradigm of habitability to acknowledge that habitability depends on inhabitance; for life as we know it is a planetary scale--and planet dominating--phenomenon.

  8. The reading habits of parents of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...

  9. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  10. Character of cellulase activity in the guts of flagellate-free termites with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Bing-Rong; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Xiao, Wei-Liang; Li, Qiu-Jian; Zhong, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose digestion in termites (Isoptera) is highly important for ecological reasons and applications in biofuel conversion. The speciose Termitidae family has lost flagellates in the hindgut and developed diverse feeding habits. To address the response of cellulase activity to the differentiation of feeding habits, a comparative study of the activity and distribution of composite cellulases, endo-β-1,4-glucanase, and β-glucosidase was performed in seven common flagellate-free termites with three feeding habits: the humus-feeding termites Sinocapritermes mushae (Oshima et Maki), Malaysiocapritermes zhangfengensis Zhu, Yang et Huang and Pericapritermes jiangtsekiangensis (Kemner); the fungus-growing termites Macrotermes barneyi Light and Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki); and the wood-feeding termites Nasutitermes parvonasutus (Shiraki) and Havilanditermes orthonasus (Tsai et Chen). The results showed that in diverse feeding groups, the wood-feeding group had the highest total composite cellulase and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, while the fungus-growing group had the highest β-glucosidase activity. In terms of the distribution of cellulase activity in the alimentary canals, the cellulase activities in wood-feeding termites were concentrated in the midgut, but there was no significant difference between all gut segments in humus-feeding termites. As for the fungus-growing termites, the main site of composite cellulase activity was in the midgut. The endo-β-1,4-glucanase activity was restricted to the midgut, but the primary site of β-glucosidase activity was in the foregut and the midgut (Mac. barneyi). The functions of the gut segments apparently differentiated between feeding groups. The results suggest that the differentiation of feeding habits in flagellate-free termites was characterized by the distribution of cellulases in the gut rather than by variations in cellulase activity.

  11. Sleep habits and circadian preference in Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo M; Bruni, Oliviero; Lucidi, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Violani, Cristiano

    2007-06-01

    Sleep habits and circadian preference (morningness/eveningness, M/E) have been extensively analyzed in adolescents and young adults, while few studies were conducted on children and early adolescents. Aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental changes of circadian preference and to analyze its relationship with sleep habits, sleep problems and circadian preference in a large sample by means of a school-based survey. One thousand seventy-three participants (50.8% boys and 49.2% girls; mean age = 10.6; range = 8-14 years), recruited from four schools randomly extracted within the district of Rome, completed a modified version of School Sleep Habits Survey developed by Carskadon et al. The questionnaire included items about sleep habits during schooldays and weekends; a Sleepiness Scale; a Sleep-Wake Problems Behaviour Scale; a Morningness/Eveningness scale. The results show a consistent age-related change in sleep habits, particularly in the weekends. The difference in sleep duration between schooldays and weekends increases linearly with age. No gender difference was observed in morningness/eveningness, while a significant linear increase in evening preference was found with increasing ages. M/E total scores correlated significantly with both self-reported sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness indicating a higher prevalence of sleep complaints in evening-type subjects. Overall, the present results support the existence of consistent age-related changes in sleep habits and M/E dimension in the 8- to 14-year age range.

  12. Incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Andrija; Vućićević-Boras, Vanja; Miletić, Ivana; Bozić, Darko; Vukelja, Milko

    2002-09-01

    Recognition and elimination of an oral habit is of utmost importance in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is not probable that the influence of such a factor can lead to the alteration of gingival dimension, but a cofactor role of oral habits in the development of gingival recession has been acclaimed. The purpose of this study was to present cross-sectional data from an epidemiological study performed in two urban settlements in Zagreb, Croatia. The study was performed in 1025 children, in an attempt to try and discover the incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 11 years. About 33.37% of the screened population exhibited oral habits, such as nail and object biting, non-nutritive sucking, simple tongue thrusting and lip or cheek biting. Chi-square test analysis showed no statistically significant differences between sex and age groups, a result that does not exclude the oral habits from aetiology of the periodontal pathology. We can conclude that oral habits are a frequent finding, although the cause relation to periodontitis has yet to be cleared completely.

  13. Frequency of parafunctional oral habits in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A O L; Guimarães, A S; Ciamponi, A L; Marie, S K N

    2007-05-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent conditions encountered in the daily practice of dentists who treat special-needs patients and it seems that parafunctional oral habits are often present in such individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of parafunctional habits in individuals with CP. Sixty-five patients with CP were evaluated through a questionnaire and clinical observation, regarding the following habits: pacifier-sucking, finger-sucking, biting objects, tongue interposition, and bruxism. The results showed that nine (13.8%) patients presented with pacifier-sucking, four (6.1%) showed finger-sucking, 12 (18.4%) had the habit of biting objects, 27 (41.5%) presented with tongue interposition, and 24 (36.9%) had eccentric bruxism. The significance of the presence of oral parafunctional habits in individuals with CP, revealed in this study, justifies the need to establish protocols for adequate prevention and clinical intervention in order to minimize the deleterious consequences that may result from such habits.

  14. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, T; Galán, A F; Marín, I; Domínguez, A

    2006-05-01

    The objective was to analyze variations in dental arch width in relation to oral habits. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar distance were determined in relation to certain oral habits in 1297 children (ages 3 to 6 years). After an oral examination, the parents of each child completed a questionnaire about oral habits, including the use of a dummy or a bottle (or both), finger sucking, mouth breathing, breast- or bottle-feeding, and duration of these habits. Data were subjected to statistical analysis by the chi-square test for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables with homogeneous variances. Statistical significance was P habits, the maxillary intercanine distance was less in children who used a dummy, especially one of a round design (P = .003). The maxillary intercanine distance was also less in children who breathed through their mouth (P = .002). In most cases, dummy use and mouth breathing were associated with a reduction in the intercanine distance in the maxillary arch. A dummy habit leads to a reduction in maxillary arch width, and mouth breathing causes a reduction in the size of both arches.

  15. Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the World Trade Center (WTC) in lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioy, Paul J; Weisel, Clifford P; Millette, James R; Eisenreich, Steven; Vallero, Daniel; Offenberg, John; Buckley, Brian; Turpin, Barbara; Zhong, Mianhua; Cohen, Mitchell D; Prophete, Colette; Yang, Ill; Stiles, Robert; Chee, Glen; Johnson, Willie; Porcja, Robert; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Hale, Robert C; Weschler, Charles; Chen, Lung Chi

    2002-01-01

    The explosion and collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) was a catastrophic event that produced an aerosol plume impacting many workers, residents, and commuters during the first few days after 11 September 2001. Three bulk samples of the total settled dust and smoke were collected at weather-protected locations east of the WTC on 16 and 17 September 2001; these samples are representative of the generated material that settled immediately after the explosion and fire and the concurrent collapse of the two structures. We analyzed each sample, not differentiated by particle size, for inorganic and organic composition. In the inorganic analyses, we identified metals, radionuclides, ionic species, asbestos, and inorganic species. In the organic analyses, we identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, pesticides, phthalate esters, brominated diphenyl ethers, and other hydrocarbons. Each sample had a basic pH. Asbestos levels ranged from 0.8% to 3.0% of the mass, the PAHs were > 0.1% of the mass, and lead ranged from 101 to 625 microg/g. The content and distribution of material was indicative of a complex mixture of building debris and combustion products in the resulting plume. These three samples were composed primarily of construction materials, soot, paint (leaded and unleaded), and glass fibers (mineral wool and fiberglass). Levels of hydrocarbons indicated unburned or partially burned jet fuel, plastic, cellulose, and other materials that were ignited by the fire. In morphologic analyses we found that a majority of the mass was fibrous and composed of many types of fibers (e.g., mineral wool, fiberglass, asbestos, wood, paper, and cotton). The particles were separated into size classifications by gravimetric and aerodynamic methods. Material 53 microm in diameter. The results obtained from these samples can be used to understand the contact and types of exposures to

  16. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Enamul Hoque; Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin; Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak; Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the...

  17. How to improve the air quality over mega-cities in China? – Pollution characterization and source analysis in Shanghai before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three field campaigns were conducted before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, aiming to understand the response of secondary aerosol components to both control measures and human activities. In spring, PM2.5 averaged 34.5 ± 20.9 μg m−3 with a severe pollution episode influenced by a floating dust originating from northwestern China on 26–28 April, right before the opening of the Expo. With the approaching of Expo, significant increasing trend of SNA (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ concentrations was observed from 20 April 20 to 2 May, attributing to the enhanced human activities. Nitrate had the most significant daily increasing rate of 1.1 μg m−3 d−1 due to enhanced vehicle emission. In summer, two intensive pollution episodes were found to be a mixed pollution of SNA with biomass burning due to loose control of post-harvest straw burning. Compared to the spring and summer of 2009, NO3− increased 12–15% while SO42− showed reductions of 15–30%. Continuous desulphurization of SO2 emission from power plants in recent years was responsible for the lowered SO42−, while enhanced traffic emission due to tremendous Expo visitors was the major contributor to the increased NO3−. In the autumn phase of the Expo before the closing of the Expo (20–30 October, the air quality over Shanghai was much better than ever before. However, the air quality rapidly plummeted as soon as the Expo was announced closed. SNA increased 3–6 folds to be 42.1 and 68.2 μg m−3 on 31 October and 1 November, respectively, as compared to 20–30 October. Of which, nitrate increased most with ~ 5–8 folds, indicating the serious impact from enhanced vehicle emission. The anthropogenic Ca as a tracer from construction dust increased from 2.88 ± 1.85 μg m−3 during the Expo to be 6.98 ± 3.19 μg m−3 during the post-Expo period, attributing to the resumption of construction works after the Expo. Compared to the autumn of 2009, all the

  18. How to improve the air quality over megacities in China: pollution characterization and source analysis in Shanghai before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three field campaigns were conducted before, during, and after the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, aiming to understand the response of secondary aerosol components to both control measures and human activities. In spring, PM2.5 (particulate matter averaged 34.5 ± 20.9 μg m−3 with a severe pollution episode influenced by a floating dust originating from northwestern China on 26–28 April, right before the opening of the expo. With the approaching expo a significant increasing trend of SNA (SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ concentrations was observed from 22 April to 2 May, attributed to the enhanced human activities. Nitrate had the most significant daily increasing rate of 1.1 μg m−3d−1 due to enhanced vehicle emission. In summer, two intensive pollution episodes were found to be a mixed pollution of SNA with biomass burning due to loose control of post-harvest straw burning. In the autumn phase of the expo, before the closing of the expo (20–30 October, the air quality over Shanghai was much better than ever before. However, the air quality rapidly plummeted as soon as the expo was announced closed. SNA increased 3–6 fold to be 42.1 and 68.2 μg m−3 on 31 October and 1 November, respectively, as compared to 20–30 October. Of which, nitrate increased most ~5–8 fold, indicating the serious impact from enhanced vehicle emission. Compared to the spring and summer of 2009, NO3− increased 12–15% while SO42− showed reductions of 15–30%. Continuous desulfurization of SO2 emission from power plants in recent years was responsible for the lowered SO42−, while increased traffic emission from the tremendous number of expo visitors was the major contributor to the increased NO3−. Compared to the autumn of 2009, all the ion components increased in 2010, owing to the lifting of emission control measures after the expo. SO42− was found least increased while NO3− and Ca2+ had tremendous increases of 150 and 320%, respectively. The

  19. Can we expect habitable niches for cyanobacteria on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Leya, Thomas; Brown, Sarah; Cockell, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The most resistant cyanobacteria can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible similar to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species are foreseen to be exposed during the next ESA-space-exposure experiment BIOMEX either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of the species were still exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions and some of the results will be presented and might serve for future investigations as references. We will emphasize that in parallel monitoring of environmental parameters on Mars analog field sites was performed as well as partly in space and in the simulation chambers. This experimental combination might help to get a better impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity of the tested cyanobacteria in complete different planetary environments comparing characterized habitats on our home planet Earth with those we might expect according to recently observed data on Mars. The outcome of this work could be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new combination of different experimental and biological approaches and to evaluate and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  20. [A longitudinal study on dietary habits and the primary socialization of these habits in young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, C A

    2010-01-01

    The Family Influences on Food Intake study (FIFI), is a longitudinal study on dietary habits of young children and the primary socialization of these habits during childhood and during the transition into adolescence. Special attention is paid to the development, validation and feasibility of instruments measuring as well dependent as independent variables useful for large scale surveys. Parents of preschool children from the first year (+/-3 years of age) of 56 school departments were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire biennially. Data of 862 children was available for the first measurement (2008). A web based dietary record tool was developed to investigate the relative validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the study. Two hundred and seventeen parents completed the online tool for three non-consecutive days. The feasibility of the online data collection is investigated and the reported intake is compared with the FFQ estimates. Associations between nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the children's mothers and dietary patterns of the children (FFQ) are investigated as well as relations between parent and child characteristics and fruit and vegetable intake. Additionally, 70 teachers completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the school food policy. The teachers' responses are compared with responses of parents from a previous study. Finally, the feasibility of an animated web based fruit and vegetables preferences tool, to be used in the follow up surveys, has been investigated in 4-6 years old (n=139 for fruit and n=135 for vegetables). The findings are summarized in the present paper.

  1. Astrometric Detection of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zones of Nearby Stars with SIM PlanetQuest

    CERN Document Server

    Catanzarite, J; Tanner, A; Unwin, S; Yu, J; Catanzarite, Joseph; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    SIM PlanetQuest (Space Interferometry Mission) is a space-borne Michelson interferometer for precision stellar astrometry, with a nine meter baseline, currently slated for launch in 2015. One of the principal science goals is the astrometric detection and orbit characterization of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. Differential astrometry of the target star against a set of reference stars lying within a degree will allow measurement of the target star's reflex motion with astrometric accuracy of 1 micro-arcsecond in a single measurement. We assess SIM's capability for detection (as opposed to characterization by orbit determination) of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby solar-type stars. We compare SIM's performance on target lists optimized for the SIM and Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronograph (TPF-C) missions. Performance is quantified by three metrics: minimum detectable planet mass, number and mass distribution of detected planets, and completeness of detections...

  2. Beyond Self-Tracking and Reminders: Designing Smartphone Apps That Support Habit Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Stawarz, K. M.; Cox, A. L.; Blandford, A.

    2015-01-01

    Habit formation is an important part of behavior change interventions: to ensure an intervention has long-term effects, the new behavior has to turn into a habit and become automatic. Smartphone apps could help with this process by supporting habit formation. To better understand how, we conducted a 4-week study exploring the influence of different types of cues and positive reinforcement on habit formation and reviewed the functionality of 115 habit formation apps. We discovered that relying...

  3. Habitability of Mars: hyperthermophiles in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, David; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Felipe, Gomez; Mironov, Vasilii; Blamey, Jenny; Ramos, Miguel; Ángel de Pablo, Miguel; Castro, Miguel; Boehmwald, Freddy

    This is a first microbiological study of volcanic permafrost carried out on Kluchevskaya volcano group (Kamchatka Peninsula) and Deception Island (Antarctica). By culture-and culture-independent methods we showed the presence of viable hyper(thermophilic) microorganisms and their genes within volcanic permafrost. The optimal temperature for sulfide producing bacteria was 65, whereas acetogens and methanogens were able to produce acetate and methane at temperatures up to 75o C, while sulphur-reducers showed optimal growth at 85-92o C. Hy-per(thermophiles) were never found in permafrost outside the volcanic areas before. The only way they are to appear within a frozen material is a concurrent deposition during the eruption, together with products associated with volcano heated subsurface geothermal oases. The elo-quent evidence to the hypothesis is the presence among clones of the sequences affiliated with (hyper)thermophilic bacteria, both, aerobic and anaerobic, in the environmental DNA derived from ashes freshly deposited on snow in close proximity to volcano Shiveluch (Kamchatka) and aerobic bacteria incubated at 80o C from ashes freshly deposited on the top of Llaima Vol-cano glacier (Andes). Thus, in the areas of active volcanism the catastrophic geological events transports the life from the depths to the surface and this life from high-temperature ecological niches might survive in permafrost over a long period of time. The results obtained give insights for habitability of Mars. Terrestrial permafrost represents a possible ecosystem for Mars as an Earth-like cryogenic planet. But permafrost on Earth and Mars vary in age, from a few million years on Earth to a few billion years on Mars. Because such difference in age, the longevity of life forms preserved within terrestrial permafrost may only serve as an approximate model for Mars. On the other hand, numerous ancient extinct volcanoes are known on Mars. Their past eruptions periodically burn-through the

  4. Water-rich planets: How habitable is a water layer deeper than on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, L.; Höning, D.; Rivoldini, A.; Heistracher, C.; Zimov, N.; Journaux, B.; Lammer, H.; Van Hoolst, T.; Bredehöft, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Water is necessary for the origin and survival of life as we know it. In the search for life-friendly worlds, water-rich planets therefore are obvious candidates and have attracted increasing attention in recent years. The surface H2O layer on such planets (containing a liquid water ocean and possibly high-pressure ice below a specific depth) could potentially be hundreds of kilometres deep depending on the water content and the evolution of the proto-atmosphere. We study possible constraints for the habitability of deep water layers and introduce a new habitability classification relevant for water-rich planets (from Mars-size to super-Earth-size planets). A new ocean model has been developed that is coupled to a thermal evolution model of the mantle and core. Our interior structure model takes into account depth-dependent thermodynamic properties and the possible formation of high-pressure ice. We find that heat flowing out of the silicate mantle can melt an ice layer from below (in some cases episodically), depending mainly on the thickness of the ocean-ice shell, the mass of the planet, the surface temperature and the interior parameters (e.g. radioactive mantle heat sources). The high pressure at the bottom of deep water-ice layers could also impede volcanism at the water-mantle boundary for both stagnant lid and plate tectonics silicate shells. We conclude that water-rich planets with a deep ocean, a large planet mass, a high average density or a low surface temperature are likely less habitable than planets with an Earth-like ocean.

  5. Profiles of exercise motivation, physical activity, exercise habit, and academic performance in Malaysian adolescents: A cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Malaysian adolescents’ profiles of exercise motivation, exercise habit strength, academic performance, and levels of physical activity (PA) using cluster analysis.Methods: The sample (n = 300) consisted of 65.6% males and 34.4% females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 0.49. Statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis.Results: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cluster groups. Cluster 1 is characterized by a moderate level of PA, relatively high in...

  6. Exploring exercise behavior, intention and habit strength relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, G J; Rhodes, R E

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relevance of integrating exercise habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Data were obtained from 538 undergraduate students [mean age=21.19 (SD=2.57); 28.4% males] using validated questionnaires and analyzed using regression analysis and discriminant function analysis. Findings indicated that exercise has both a cognitive and an automatic component and that stronger exercise habits make exercise less intentional, with the intention-exercise relationship nearly three times stronger at lower levels of exercise habit strength than at higher levels. Further, outcome expectancies regarding health and weight management resulting from sufficient exercise did not significantly differ between most profiles that were created from exercise behavior, motivation and habit strength. The results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of incorporating measures of exercise habit strength in order to further our understanding of relevant determinants of exercise behavior. Results also indicate that health outcomes of sufficient exercise are generally well known, implying that persuasive strategies should rather shift in emphasis toward instilling a sense of exercise confidence in various situations. This potentially valuable information may allow for a more thorough understanding of exercise determinants and the development of more effective interventions that target increased exercise levels.

  7. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth.

  8. Oral habits in children--a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, S R; Munshi, A K

    1998-06-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted upon 4,590 school children to find the prevalence of oral habits in Mangalore in relation to their age and sex and to find the correlation, if any, between the habits and the malocclusion status. We noted that 29.7% of the population had habits of which 3. 1% had digit sucking, 4.6% mouth breathing, 3.02% tongue thrusting, 6.2% bruxism, 6% lip/cheek biting, 12.7% nail biting, 9.8% pencil biting and 0. 09% masochistic habits respectively. Digit sucking, pencil biting and tongue thrust were highly prevalent among Group 1 (3-6 years) children. Mouth breathing and bruxism were significant in Group 2 (7-12 years) cases whereas lip/cheek biting and nail biting were more common in Group 3 (13-16 years) cases. Digit sucking, tongue thrust, mouth breathing and bruxism were more prevalent among the boys whereas lip/cheek biting, nail biting and pencil biting were more prevalent among the girls. 28.95% of the children in Group 2 and 3 with habits had malocclusion. There was a significant correlation between class I type 2, class II div 1 and tongue thrust and mouth breathing whereas children with digit sucking showed a high correlation with class I type 2 malocclusion.

  9. Ionic Strength Is a Barrier to the Habitability of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Powell, Mark G.; Hallsworth, John E.; Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-06-01

    The thermodynamic availability of water (water activity) strictly limits microbial propagation on Earth, particularly in hypersaline environments. A considerable body of evidence indicates the existence of hypersaline surface waters throughout the history of Mars; therefore it is assumed that, as on Earth, water activity is a major limiting factor for martian habitability. However, the differing geological histories of Earth and Mars have driven variations in their respective aqueous geochemistry, with as-yet-unknown implications for habitability. Using a microbial community enrichment approach, we investigated microbial habitability for a suite of simulated martian brines. While the habitability of some martian brines was consistent with predictions made from water activity, others were uninhabitable even when the water activity was biologically permissive. We demonstrate experimentally that high ionic strength, driven to extremes on Mars by the ubiquitous occurrence of multivalent ions, renders these environments uninhabitable despite the presence of biologically available water. These findings show how the respective geological histories of Earth and Mars, which have produced differences in the planets' dominant water chemistries, have resulted in different physicochemical extremes which define the boundary space for microbial habitability.

  10. Abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, S; Rafieian, M; Ghafari, R

    2005-01-01

    Any kind of stress has a negative effect on the mood of people and stress resulting from war is no exception. Stress from war has not only has effects on war veterans but also on the families. Children of these families have been more susceptible to abnormal oral habits. In this observational, analytical and historical research, attempts have been made to determine the prevalence of abnormal oral habits in the children of war veterans (martyrs, freed prisoners of war and war cripples) and compare them with a control group. In this study of 520 children aged between 7 and 11 years were (238 in the study group and 282 in the control group), information was gathered via a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the students. Analysis of the received information showed that the prevalence of para functional and abnormal oral habits was more in the study group (P = 0.005). The prevalence rate was highest in children, whose family members had been both crippled and freed prisoners of war, while the rate was lowest in children whose parents had been only prisoners of war without any lasting physical injury. Most of these children had acquired these habits at the age of seven and these abnormal habits were most prevalent in children aged eight and nine.

  11. The habitability of super-Earths in Gliese 581

    CERN Document Server

    Von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Franck, S

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The planetary system around the M star Gliese 581 consists of a hot Neptune (Gl 581b) and two super-Earths (Gl 581c and Gl 581d). The habitability of this system with respect to the super-Earths is investigated following a concept that studies the long-term possibility of photosynthetic biomass production on a dynamically active planet. Methods: A thermal evolution model for a super-Earth is used to calculate the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The habitable zone is determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Models with different ratios of land / ocean coverage are investigated. Results: The super-Earth Gl 581c is clearly outside the habitable zone, since it is too close to the star. In contrast, Gl 581d is a tidally locked habitable super-Earth near the outer edge of the habitable zone. Despite the adverse conditions on this planet, at least some primitive forms of life may be able to exist on its surface.

  12. Magnetic shielding of exomoons beyond the circumplanetary habitable edge

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2013-01-01

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants, rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. But formation models predict moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. We here synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, ...

  13. Review on the Role of Planetary Factors on Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Noack, L.

    2016-11-01

    In this work various factors on the habitability were considered, focusing on conditions irrespective of the central star's radiation, to see the role of specific planetary body related effects. These so called planetary factors were evaluated to identify those trans-domain issues where important information is missing but good chance exit to be filled by new knowledge that might be gained in the next decade(s). Among these strategic knowledge gaps, specific issues are listed, like occurrence of radioactive nucleides in star forming regions, models to estimate the existence of subsurface liquid water from bulk parameters plus evolutionary context of the given system, estimation on the existence of redox gradient depending on the environment type etc. These issues require substantial improvement of modelling and statistical handling of various cases, as "planetary environment types". Based on our current knowledge it is probable that subsurface habitability is at least as frequent, or more frequent than surface habitability. Unfortunately it is more difficult from observations to infer conditions for subsurface habitability, but specific argumentation might help with indirect ways, which might result in new methods to approach habitability in general.

  14. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and its association with parafunctional habits among senior-secondary school children of Lucknow, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are defined as heterogeneous group of psychological disorders, commonly characterized by orofacial pain, chewing dysfunction, or both. Aim: To determine the prevalence of TMD and to describe the association between parafunctional habits and signs and symptoms of TMD among 15–17-year-old school children in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 407 school children aged 15–17-year-old. A single, trained, calibrated investigator interviewed the participants according to Fonseca's Anamnestic Questionnaire-1994, which provided information on the prevalence of TMD, followed by the clinical examination of temporomandibular joint (TMJ according to WHO (1997. Chi-square test and Univariate and Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis were used. Results: The prevalence of TMD was (22.4%. There was no statistically significant association was found between age, (P = 0.81 gender (P = 0.09 and TMD. Nail-biting (88.3% was the most common habit, followed by clenching/grinding (68.4% and mouth breathing (53.4%. However, habits and TMJ symptoms were found statistically significant P < 0.01 or P < 0.001 associated to TMD. Further, adjusted (age and gender logistic regression analysis revealed that digit-sucking, mouth breathing, nail biting, and clenching has made a significant contribution to prediction (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The habits especially digit-sucking, mouth breathing, nail biting, and clenching had statistically significantly associated with TMD.

  15. Revenir vers les habitants, revenir sur les territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élizabeth Auclair

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Le développement durable se voulait un projet de civilisation, mais le concept a vite été fragilisé par la suprématie des intérêts économiques, et par l’enfermement dans des préoccupations d’ordre environnemental. Dans la période de crise actuelle, on s’interroge : comment veut-on vivre ? avec quelles valeurs ? dans quelles villes et dans quels territoires? Il s’agit ici de voir comment les arts et la culture peuvent contribuer à cet objectif du « vivre ensemble ». Au-delà de positionnements opportunistes, on observe qu’une meilleure prise en compte de la culture, dans ses différentes acceptions, peut promouvoir des approches transversales, reposant sur les valeurs de solidarité, de respect de la diversité culturelle, de démocratie locale et de citoyenneté, et remettre ainsi les habitants au cœur des politiques et des projets de territoires. La recomposition du paysage culturel que l’on observe en France, notamment autour des agendas 21 de la culture et des nouveaux territoires de l’art, témoigne de la part d’artistes, élus et autres professionnels de la culture d’une volonté de travailler au plus près de la population afin de monter des projets qui remettent la culture au cœur des politiques locales.Sustainable development was supposed to be a “civilization” concept, but the power of the economic interests and the pressure of the environmental issues have fragilized the concept. With the recent world crisis, many questions now arise: we must change our model, but how do we want to live, with which values and indicators, in what kind of towns and territories? In this article we propose to analyse how cultural development can help to reach the aim of “living together”. Indeed, taking into account cultural diversity and initiating local activities enables to develop new kinds of projects with the inhabitants, and to promote essential values such as local democracy, solidarity, tolerance

  16. On the habitability of a stagnant-lid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Nicola; Stracke, Barbara; Godolt, Mareike; Ruedas, Thomas; Grenfell, John Lee; Höning, Dennis; Nikolaou, Athanasia; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2016-04-01

    Whether plate tectonics is a recurrent feature of terrestrial bodies orbiting other stars or is unique to the Earth is unknown. The stagnant-lid may rather be the most common tectonic mode through which terrestrial bodies operate. Here we model the thermal history of the mantle, the outgassing evolution of H2O and CO2, and the resulting climate of a hypothetical planet with the same mass, radius, and composition as the Earth, but lacking plate tectonics. We employ a 1-D model of parameterized stagnant-lid convection to simulate the evolution of melt generation, crust production, and volatile extraction over a timespan of 4.5 Gyr, focusing on the effects of three key mantle parameters: the initial temperature, which controls the overall volume of partial melt produced; the initial water content, which affects the mantle rheology and solidus temperature; and the oxygen fugacity, which is employed in a model of redox melting to determine the amount of carbon stored in partial melts. We assume that the planet lost its primordial atmosphere and use the H2O and CO2 outgassed from the interior to build up a secondary atmosphere over time. Furthermore, we assume that the planet may possess an Earth-like ocean. We calculate the atmospheric pressure based on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in basaltic magmas at the evolving surface pressure conditions. We then employ a 1-D radiative-convective, cloud-free stationary atmospheric model to calculate the resulting atmospheric temperature, pressure and water content, and the corresponding boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) accounting for the evolution of the Sun's luminosity with time but neglecting escape processes. The interior evolution is characterized by a large initial production of partial melt accompanied by the formation of crust that rapidly grows until its thickness matches that of the stagnant lid so that the convecting sublithospheric mantle prevents further crustal growth. Even for initial water concentrations in

  17. Exploring JWST's Capability to Constrain Habitability on Simulated Terrestrial TESS Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Luke; Britt, Amber; Batalha, Natasha; Schwieterman, Edward; Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Mandell, Avi; Planetary Systems Laboratory; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2017-01-01

    In the following, we have worked to develop a flexible "observability" scale of biologically relevant molecules in the atmospheres of newly discovered exoplanets for the instruments aboard NASA's next flagship mission, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We sought to create such a scale in order to provide the community with a tool with which to optimize target selection for JWST observations based on detections of the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey (TESS). Current literature has laid the groundwork for defining both biologically relevant molecules as well as what characteristics would make a new world "habitable", but it has so far lacked a cohesive analysis of JWST's capabilities to observe these molecules in exoplanet atmospheres and thereby constrain habitability. In developing our Observability Scale, we utilized a range of hypothetical planets (over planetary radii and stellar insolation) and generated three self-consistent atmospheric models (of dierent molecular compositions) for each of our simulated planets. With these planets and their corresponding atmospheres, we utilized the most accurate JWST instrument simulator, created specically to process transiting exoplanet spectra. Through careful analysis of these simulated outputs, we were able to determine the relevant parameters that effected JWST's ability to constrain each individual molecular bands with statistical accuracy and therefore generate a scale based on those key parameters. As a preliminary test of our Observability Scale, we have also applied it to the list of TESS candidate stars in order to determine JWST's observational capabilities for any soon-to-be-detected planet in those solar systems.

  18. Bad eating habits as the main cause of obesity among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźbicka, Karolina; Rachoń, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest medical problems of the 21st century. Regrettably, the problem affects more and more children and adolescents. 10% of world's school-aged children have an excess body weight and a quarter of these children are obese. In Europe every fifth school-aged child suffers from an excess body weight. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish adolescents is about 14%. An excess body weight can be the consequence of genetic factors, endocrine disorders or certain drugs. However, "simple obesity" is the most common, consequence of providing too much energy from food products in comparison to energy expenditure (caloric excess). Today's lifestyle promotes the development of obesity. The lack of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and energy-rich diet are the main causes of an excess body fat accumulation. Because of improper eating behaviours children consume an excess amount of energy; and their diet is deficient in elements necessary for proper development. The examples of such bad eating habits are: snacking highly processed and calorie-rich foods between meals eating in front of the TV screen, skipping breakfasts, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages, "eating out" frequently and "emotional eating". Bad eating behaviours are crucial factors for the development of obesity. Eating habits are usually formed in early childhood and parents play a very important role in their development.

  19. The Differences between Chinese and Western Eating Habits and Etiquette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻达; 肖琦姝

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, the interactions between different cultures have been increasingly in⁃tensified. People of different culture background, word views and values may inevitably encounter diverse problems and conse⁃quently misunderstanding and conflict may arise in cross-cultural communication. This calls for our research into different cul⁃tures so that we can find our problem-solving methods and strategies. Diet that contains eating habits and etiquette is the necessi⁃ty in the life and also the development of human beings, which is a good way to know different country ’s culture. So the eating habits and etiquette are problems that are worth our attention. The author here will study the differences between Chinese and Western eating habits and etiquette through the conception, cooking methods, ingredients, order of serving dishes, sense of eat⁃ing, dining etiquette, historical and cultural reasons.

  20. Plate tectonics and planetary habitability: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2012-07-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a radically new view on Earth dynamics: convection in the mantle has been speeding up despite its secular cooling, and the operation of plate tectonics has been facilitated throughout Earth's history by the gradual subduction of water into an initially dry mantle. The role of plate tectonics in planetary habitability through its influence on atmospheric evolution is still difficult to quantify, and, to this end, it will be vital to better understand a coupled core-mantle-atmosphere system in the context of solar system evolution.

  1. Ultraviolet Radiation Constraints around the Circumstellar Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, A P; Mauas, P J D; Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to inhibit photosynthesis, induce DNA destruction and cause damage to a wide variety of proteins and lipids. In particular, UV radiation between 200-300 nm becomes energetically very damaging to most of the terrestrial biological systems. On the other hand, UV radiation is usually considered one of the most important energy source on the primitive Earth for the synthesis of many biochemical compounds and, therefore, essential for several biogenesis processes. In this work, we use these properties of the UV radiation to define the bounderies of an ultraviolet habitable zone. We also analyze the evolution of the UV habitable zone during the main sequence stage of the star. We apply these criteria to study the UV habitable zone for those extrasolar planetary systems that were observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). We analyze the possibility that extrasolar planets and moons could be suitable for life, according to the UV constrains presented in this work and othe...

  2. THE VALUE OF IT HABIT IN MICROBLOGS ON BRAND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence and potential value of microblogs, many marketers have leveraged this technology to build brand community for broadcasting products and attracting consumers. However, from a marketing point of view, few studies address how practitioners can benefit from microblogs in terms of building brand loyalty. This study investigates the effects of IT habit on brand loyalty within microblogs. We develop a research model and empirically test it using data collected from a survey on a Chinese microblog site. The findings suggest that consumers’ habit of using microblogs to follow their preferred brands can significantly affect their brand loyalty. Satisfaction, importance, and social interaction are found to be important antecedents of IT habit. Theoretical and practical implications are offered.

  3. Consumer satisfaction and confirmation of habits of comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Andersen, Christian; Andersen, Morten Purup

    2014-01-01

    as a bundle of habits. It is the assumption that advertising that supports an inductive effect particularly appeals to the cognitive tendency of habit formation in the consumer. Second, it is asked whether advertisements that predominantly invite inductive processes of comprehension also influence......The purpose of this article is twofold: First, within a Peircean framework it shall be demonstrated how there is a relation between the compositional structure of certain types of print advertisements and their bringing about inductive comprehension, and how the consumer can be understood...... the formation of consumer satisfaction; the perspective is that of the confirmation paradigm within advertisement research. Inductive advertisements support cognitive habit formation through confirmation, and the confirmation paradigm explains exactly consumer satisfaction with reference to confirmation. Hence...

  4. Spacecraft Habitable Volume: Results of an Interdisciplinary Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, David J.; Connolly, Janis; Howard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration Framework Team posed the question: "Is 80 cubic meters per person of habitable volume acceptable for a proposed Deep Space Habitat?" The goal of the workshop was to address the "net habitable volume" necessary for long-duration human spaceflight missions and identify design and psychological issues and mitigations. The objectives were: (1) Identify psychological factors -- i.e., "stressors" -- that impact volume and layout specifications for long duration missions (2) Identify mitigation strategies for stressors, especially those that can be written as volume design specifications (3) Identify a forward research roadmap -- i.e., what future work is needed to define and validate objective design metrics? (4) Provide advisories on the human factors consequences of poor net habitable volume allocation and layout design.

  5. Limit cycles can reduce the width of the habitable zone

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Batalha, Natasha E; Harman, Chester E; Kasting, James F

    2016-01-01

    The liquid water habitable zone (HZ) describes the orbital distance at which a terrestrial planet can maintain above-freezing conditions through regulation by the carbonate-silicate cycle. Recent calculations have suggested that planets in the outer regions of the habitable zone cannot maintain stable, warm climates, but rather should oscillate between long, globally glaciated states and shorter periods of climatic warmth. Such conditions, similar to 'Snowball Earth' episodes experienced on Earth, would be inimical to the development of complex land life, including intelligent life. Here, we build upon previous studies with an updated an energy balance climate model to calculate this 'limit cycle' region of the habitable zone where such cycling would occur. We argue that an abiotic Earth would have a greater CO$_2$ partial pressure than today because plants and other biota help to enhance the storage of CO$_2$ in soil. When we tune our abiotic model accordingly, we find that limit cycles can occur but that pr...

  6. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  7. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Augusta Barufaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students. Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6. Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  8. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  9. The Diversity of Chemical Composition and the Effects on Stellar Evolution and Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Amanda; Young, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    For my dissertation under the supervision of Dr. Young, I investigate how stars of different mass and composition evolve, and how stellar evolution impacts the location of the habitable zone around a star. Current research into habitability of exoplanets focuses mostly on the concept of the classical HZ - the range of distances from a star over which liquid water could exist on a planet's surface - determined primarily by the host star's luminosity and spectral characteristics. With the ever-accelerating discovery of new exoplanets, it is imperative to develop a more complete understanding of what factors play a role in creating the “habitable” conditions of a planet. I discuss how stellar evolution is integral to how we define a HZ, and how this work will apply to the search for habitable Earth-like planets in the future.I developed a catalog of stellar evolution models for Sun-like stars with variable compositions; masses range from 0.1-1.2 Msol (spectral types M4-F4) at scaled metallicities of 0.1-1.5 Zsol, and O/Fe, C/Fe, and Mg/Fe values of 0.44-2.28, 0.58-1.72, and 0.54-1.84, respectively. I use a spread in abundance values based on observations of variability in nearby stars. It is important to understand how specific elements (and not just total metallicity) can impact evolutionary lifetime. The time-dependent HZ boundaries have also been calculated for each stellar track. Additionally, I recently created a grid of models for M-dwarfs, and I am currently working to make preliminary estimates of stellar activity vs. age for each representative star in the catalog.My results indicate that to gauge the habitability potential of a given system, both the evolutionary history as well as the detailed chemical characterization of the host star must be considered. This work can be used to assess whether a planet discovered in the HZ of its star has had sufficient time to develop a biosphere capable of producing detectable biosignatures. The catalog is designed

  10. [A comparison of the life habits of abstemious patients and drinkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Serrano, C; Díaz Martínez, R; Romero, M; Villatoro, J; Nava, A; Reséndiz, A; Parra, M E; Sánchez, L; Cerrud, J

    1990-01-01

    The life habits of 358 males abstemious (ABS) and 248 male risky or with harmful alcohol consumption (BRD) are compared; selected from the patients attending to a clinic of familiar medicine, of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) and to General Hospital of the Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia (SSA). BRD are different from ABS because of a sedentary life, tobacco consumption, higher frequency of other drug use, poor nutrition, over weighted and poor physical condition. The difference between ABS and BRD is not only due to the alcohol consumption and related problems, but two groups of individuals with different ways of life. The present paper shows the first Mexican results of an International Multicentric Investigation coordinated by World Health Organization (WHO).

  11. The efficacy of habit reversal therapy for tics, habit disorders, and stuttering: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Karina S; Malouff, John M; Thorsteinsson, Einar T; Bhullar, Navjot

    2011-07-01

    A meta-analysis based on 575 participants in 18 studies found Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT) to be an efficacious intervention for a wide variety of maladaptive repetitive behaviors, including stuttering, tics, nail biting, temporomandibular disorder, thumb sucking, and mixed repetitive oral-digital habits. Compared to control conditions, HRT showed a large effect size pre-treatment to final post-treatment assessment, d=0.80. Moderator analyses revealed significant treatment effects for HRT for most moderator levels, indicating that HRT is efficacious in a number of variations for a variety of types of maladaptive behaviors, across a wide range of sample characteristics. The findings provide substantial support for the efficacy of HRT for disorders it is commonly used to treat. The findings are consistent with recent arguments for the classification of HRT as a well-established treatment for tic and habit disorders.

  12. Characterizing Distant Worlds with Asterodensity Profiling

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M

    2013-01-01

    Eclipsing systems, such as transiting exoplanets, allow one to measure the mean stellar density of the host star under various idealized assumptions. Asterodensity Profiling (AP) compares this density to an independently determined value in order to check the validity of the assumptions and ultimately extract useful information on the nature of the target system. Several phenomena can invalidate said assumptions, with the most well-known example being the so-called photo-eccentric effect. This effect has been exploited by numerous authors to measure the orbital eccentricities of individual planets and also the ensemble distribution using the Kepler planetary candidates. In this work, we provide analytic formulae for five other physical effects which can induce AP deviations: i) the photo-blend effect ii) the photo-spot effect iii) the photo-timing effect iv) the photo-duration effect and v) the photo-mass effect. We find that these effects can easily reproduce large AP deviations and so we caution that extrac...

  13. Exoplanetary Atmospheres - Chemistry, Formation Conditions, and Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Moses, Julianne I; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the atmospheres of extrasolar planets is the new frontier in exoplanetary science. The last two decades of exoplanet discoveries have revealed that exoplanets are very common and extremely diverse in their orbital and bulk properties. We now enter a new era as we begin to investigate the chemical diversity of exoplanets, their atmospheric and interior processes, and their formation conditions. Recent developments in the field have led to unprecedented advancements in our understanding of atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets and the implications for their formation conditions. We review these developments in the present work. We review in detail the theory of atmospheric chemistry in all classes of exoplanets discovered to date, from highly irradiated gas giants, ice giants, and super-Earths, to directly imaged giant planets at large orbital separations. We then review the observational detections of chemical species in exoplanetary atmospheres of these various types using different methods, incl...

  14. Shanghai Highlight: World Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The proposals regarding the Shanghai Expo attracted the World Expo committee great concern. During the two sessions, the Shanghai World Expo organizer promised that they will play more active role in holding the expo. Though the world is suffering the global crisis, the organizer be-lieved that this is a rare opportunity and as the World Expo 2010 to be held in Shanghai could help China overcome economic dif-ficulties and lift the world out of the crisis shadow.

  15. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  16. Saving and Habit Formation : Evidence from Dutch Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Teppa, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of habit formation in individual preferences over consumption and saving.We closely relate to Alessie and Lusardi's (1997) model as we estimate a model which is based on their closed-form solution, where saving is expressed as a function of lagged saving and other regr

  17. Preliminary studies on some aspects of Kikuyu food habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Description of a research project. The studies cover general aspects of Kikuyu food habits such as foods presently in use, the classification of foods and food preferences for children. The emphasises is on the methods employed in these studies which can also be used elsewhere to obtain information

  18. Chemical Evolution and the Galactic Habitable Zone of M31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carigi, Leticia; Garcia-Rojas, Jorge; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    We have computed the Galactic Habitable Zones (GHZs) of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) based on the probability of terrestrial planet formation, which depends on the metallicity (Z) of the interstellar medium, and the number of stars formed per unit surface area. The GHZ was obtained from a chemical evo

  19. The Role of Sports in Kindergarten Teachers' Recreational Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the sports in the recreational habits of kindergarten teachers. The survey population comprises kindergarten teachers who are employed in the province of Gaziantep. The sample constitutes a total of 378 kindergarten teachers determined by circumstantial method. The survey developed by Tunçel was…

  20. Habit-based asset pricing with limited participation consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther; Bach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  1. Habit-based Asset Pricing with Limited Participation Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Møller, Stig Vinther

    We calibrate and estimate a consumption-based asset pricing model with habit formation using limited participation consumption data. Based on survey data of a representative sample of American households, we distinguish between assetholder and non-assetholder consumption, as well as the standard...

  2. Exploring exercise behavior, intention and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Rhodes, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relevance of integrating exercise habit strength within the framework of the theory of planned behavior. Data were obtained from 538 undergraduate students [mean age=21.19 (SD=2.57); 28.4% males] using validated questionnaires and analyzed using regressio

  3. Coordination polyhedron growth mechanism model and growth habit of crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new growth mechanism model, coordination polyhedron growth mechanism model, is introduced from the angle of the coordination of anion and cation to each other at the interface. It is pointed out that the force driving the growth unit to enter the crystal lattice is the electrostatic attraction force between ions, whose relative size can be approximately measured by the electrostatic bond strength (EBS) that reaches a nearest neighbor anion (or cation) in the parent phase from a cation (or anion) at the interface. The growth habits of NaCl, ZnS, CaF2 and CsI crystals are discussed, and a new growth habit rule is proposed as follows. When the growth rate of a crystal is determined by the step generation rate, the growth habit of this crystal is related to the coordination number of the ion with the smallest coordination rate at the interface of various crystal faces. The smaller the coordination number of the ion at the interface, the faster the growth rate of corresponding crystal face. When the growth of a crystal depends on the step movement rate, the growth habit of this crystal is related to the density of the ion with the smallest coordination rate at the interface of various crystal faces. The smaller the densities of the ion at the interface is, the faster the growth rate of corresponding crystal face will be.

  4. Habits, Priming and the Explanation of Mindless Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence on the influences of automatic and unconscious processes on our actions. In this article I introduce some representative examples of this growing body of evidence, chosen so as to form a diverse group of related mindless phenomena: habits, skills, priming and nudges. I...... on the old story of Buridan’s ass (Sect. 4)....

  5. Make Handwashing a Habit (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-13

    Regular handwashing helps prevent the spread of potentially harmful germs. This podcast discusses the importance of making proper handwashing (with soap and water) a regular habit.  Created: 10/13/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/13/2016.

  6. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, an

  7. Adjusting Lecture Style to Accommodate Student Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socash, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The reasons behind the reading habits of undergraduate MIS students were examined to learn from the students' point of view why many don't read the textbook. Willingness to work hard on homework and project assignments and an appreciation of what is expected of them appears to be in place. However, carrots, sticks, ruses and requests all meet with…

  8. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  9. An Algebraic-Habits-of-Mind Perspective on Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, E. Paul; Mark, June; Cuoco, Al

    2010-01-01

    More important than infusing courses and curricula with modern content is to give students the tools to use and understand mathematics--including some that does not yet exist. A curriculum organized around habits of mind tries to close the gap between what users and makers of mathematics do and what they say. These cross-journal articles are…

  10. A new conceptual design approach for habitative space modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, C.; Bisegna, F.; Gugliermetti, F.; Marchetti, M.

    2014-04-01

    Existing Space modules were designed to meet the standards established by NASA, basically oriented to functionality. In future Space environments a high level of habitability in long duration missions will become a priority: besides comfort and ergonomics, these habitats will require the application of criteria to address human needs for living in confined environments.

  11. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    1997-01-01

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Ou

  12. The Ancient Habitability of Gale Crater, Mars, after Four Years of Exploration by Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Mars Science Laboratory Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed in August 2012 with the goal of assessing the habitability of environments dating from the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, a time when Mars was undergoing a major climatic change from wetter to drier conditions. The stratified and mineralogically diverse foothills of Gale crater's central mound, Aeolis Mons, retain a record of this key period. Prior to reaching Aeolis Mons, ancient habitable environments were found on the surrounding plains. At Yellowknife Bay, geological, geochemical, and mineralogical analyses of the lacustrine Sheepbed mudstone indicated a near-neutral pH and low salinity environment with the key chemical elements required by life and potential sources of energy to fuel microbial metabolism. As the rover traversed across the plains, evidence for ancient fluvial and deltaic systems pointed toward the hypothesis that lower Aeolis Mons was built up from sediments deposited within a series of lakes that once filled the central basin of the crater. Upon reaching the mountain in September 2014, Curiosity found an array of fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian strata that also show a complex pattern of post-depositional alteration. The basal outcrops that form the lowest stratigraphic unit of Aeolis Mons, the Murray formation, are characterized predominantly by mudstones with minor intercalated sandstones. The mudstone facies show abundant fine-scale planar laminations throughout the Murray formation succession and are interpreted to record deposition in an ancient lacustrine system in Gale crater. Curiosity has explored 40 m of the ~ 200-m thick Murray formation. If the entire section is lacustrine, it would imply that lakes were stable in Gale crater over a period of at least millions of years, challenging present climate models that cannot account for the temperate and humid conditions needed to sustain long-lived open lakes on early Mars. This presentation will review how Curiosity's geological and

  13. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P

  14. Habitable zone lifetimes of exoplanets around main sequence stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Andrew J; Claire, Mark W; Osborn, Hugh; Watson, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The potential habitability of newly discovered exoplanets is initially assessed by determining whether their orbits fall within the circumstellar habitable zone of their star. However, the habitable zone (HZ) is not static in time or space, and its boundaries migrate outward at a rate proportional to the increase in luminosity of a star undergoing stellar evolution, possibly including or excluding planets over the course of the star's main sequence lifetime. We describe the time that a planet spends within the HZ as its "habitable zone lifetime." The HZ lifetime of a planet has strong astrobiological implications and is especially important when considering the evolution of complex life, which is likely to require a longer residence time within the HZ. Here, we present results from a simple model built to investigate the evolution of the "classic" HZ over time, while also providing estimates for the evolution of stellar luminosity over time in order to develop a "hybrid" HZ model. These models return estimates for the HZ lifetimes of Earth and 7 confirmed HZ exoplanets and 27 unconfirmed Kepler candidates. The HZ lifetime for Earth ranges between 6.29 and 7.79×10⁹ years (Gyr). The 7 exoplanets fall in a range between ∼1 and 54.72 Gyr, while the 27 Kepler candidate planets' HZ lifetimes range between 0.43 and 18.8 Gyr. Our results show that exoplanet HD 85512b is no longer within the HZ, assuming it has an Earth analog atmosphere. The HZ lifetime should be considered in future models of planetary habitability as setting an upper limit on the lifetime of any potential exoplanetary biosphere, and also for identifying planets of high astrobiological potential for continued observational or modeling campaigns.

  15. A genealogical map of the concept of habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A

    2014-01-01

    The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain, and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviorism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike). This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism). Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research.

  16. A genealogical map of the concept of habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier E Barandiaran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviourism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike. This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism. Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and

  17. A genealogical map of the concept of habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A.

    2014-01-01

    The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provide an overview of the richness of this notion and as a guide for further re-appraisal. We identify 77 thinkers and their influences, and group them into seven schools of thought. Two major trends can be distinguished. One is the associationist trend, starting with the work of Locke and Hume, developed by Hartley, Bain, and Mill to be later absorbed into behaviorism through pioneering animal psychologists (Morgan and Thorndike). This tradition conceived of habits atomistically and as automatisms (a conception later debunked by cognitivism). Another historical trend we have called organicism inherits the legacy of Aristotle and develops along German idealism, French spiritualism, pragmatism, and phenomenology. It feeds into the work of continental psychologists in the early 20th century, influencing important figures such as Merleau-Ponty, Piaget, and Gibson. But it has not yet been taken up by mainstream cognitive neuroscience and psychology. Habits, in this tradition, are seen as ecological, self-organizing structures that relate to a web of predispositions and plastic dependencies both in the agent and in the environment. In addition, they are not conceptualized in opposition to rational, volitional processes, but as transversing a continuum from reflective to embodied intentionality. These are properties that make habit a particularly attractive idea for embodied, enactive perspectives, which can now re-evaluate it in light of dynamical systems theory and complexity research

  18. A model of habitability within the Milky Way galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowanlock, M G; Patton, D R; McConnell, S M

    2011-11-01

    We present a model of the galactic habitable zone (GHZ), described in terms of the spatial and temporal dimensions of the Galaxy that may favor the development of complex life. The Milky Way galaxy was modeled using a computational approach by populating stars and their planetary systems on an individual basis by employing Monte Carlo methods. We began with well-established properties of the disk of the Milky Way, such as the stellar number density distribution, the initial mass function, the star formation history, and the metallicity gradient as a function of radial position and time. We varied some of these properties and created four models to test the sensitivity of our assumptions. To assess habitability on the galactic scale, we modeled supernova rates, planet formation, and the time required for complex life to evolve. Our study has improved on other literature on the GHZ by populating stars on an individual basis and modeling Type II supernova (SNII) and Type Ia supernova (SNIa) sterilizations by selecting their progenitors from within this preexisting stellar population. Furthermore, we considered habitability on tidally locked and non-tidally locked planets separately and studied habitability as a function of height above and below the galactic midplane. In the model that most accurately reproduces the properties of the Galaxy, the results indicate that an individual SNIa is ∼5.6× more lethal than an individual SNII on average. In addition, we predict that ∼1.2% of all stars host a planet that may have been capable of supporting complex life at some point in the history of the Galaxy. Of those stars with a habitable planet, ∼75% of planets are predicted to be in a tidally locked configuration with their host star. The majority of these planets that may support complex life are found toward the inner Galaxy, distributed within, and significantly above and below, the galactic midplane.

  19. Action Research: Factors Influencing Recognition of Geographical Locations on a World Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Sandra F.

    This study was conducted to help teachers decide what factors govern high school students' knowledge of geography. Information was gathered about the students' background, including: gender, exposure to a course of study in world history, overall grade point average, travel experience outside the United States, and habits of reading newspapers and…

  20. X-ray Multiple Diffraction Topographic Imaging Technique For Growth History Study of Habit Modifying Impurity Doped Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI X.; MA C.; K. J. Robert; M. C. Miller

    2004-01-01

    A novel crystal characterization instrument has been built up in which a combination of X-ray multiple diffraction and X-ray topography is applied to enabling the cross-correlation between micro-crystallographic symmetry and its spatial dependence in relation to lattice defects. This facility is used to examine, in a selfconsistent manner, growth sector-dependant changes to both the crystallographic structure and the lattice defects associated with the action of habit-modifying additives in a number of representative crystal growth systems. In addition, the new instrument can be used to probe micro-crystallographic aspects (such as distortion to crystal symmetry) and relate these in a spatially resolved manner to the crystal defect structure in crystals doped with known habit modifiers.

  1. Worlds beyond our own

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    We give a popular account of the present state of the research in the field of extra-solar planetary systems, popularly termed as exoplanets, with a brief overview of the techniques employed. We also discuss the question of habitability and the possibility of finding intelligent life elsewhere in the Milky Way. We conclude with a brief exposition on the less explored territory of exomoons.

  2. The rotation of planets hosting atmospheric tides: from Venus to habitable super-earths

    CERN Document Server

    Auclair-Desrotour, Pierre; Mathis, Stéphane; Correia, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The competition between the torques induced by solid and thermal tides drives the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets and super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of low-mass stars. The tidal responses of the atmosphere and telluric core are related to their respective physical properties and strongly depend on the tidal frequency. The resulting torque determines the possible equilibrium states of the planet's spin. We compute here an analytic expression for the total tidal torque exerted on a Venus-like planet. This expression is used to characterize the equilibrium rotation of the body. Close to the star, the solid tide dominates. Far from it, the thermal tide drives the rotational dynamics of the planet. The transition regime corresponds to the habitable zone, where prograde and retrograde equilibrium states appear. We demonstrate the strong impact of the atmospheric properties and of the rheology of the solid part on the rotational dynamics of Venus-like planets, highlighting the key role played ...

  3. Oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of public school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pivotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index of schoolchildren in public elementary school in the city of Itajaí-SC. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional research. The sample consisted of children enrolled in the first year of elementary level in public schools of Itajaí-SC in 2011. Data collection was performed through registration of the children’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians about the characterization of schoolstudent’s oral hygiene. Results: The study evaluated 202 schoolstudent. Regarding daily toothbrushing, 121 (59.9% reported that an adult is responsible for carrying out this procedure for the child and 81 (40.1% reported the own child performs brushing. Brushing frequency for 128 (63.4% children was three times a day and floss was not used by 137 (68% of them. In 114 (56.4% of the schoolchildren was found an OHI-S classified as reasonable hygiene (1.3 to 2. Regarding how to deal with the oral hygiene of children, 140 (69% parents stated having already received such information and the source cited by 118 (58.4% was the dentist. Conclusion: Schoolchildren presented oral hygiene habits with deficiency in dental plaque removal and flossing, resulting in a reasonable OHI-S. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p455

  4. Food habits and risk of cardiovascular disease in schoolchildren from Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorene Gonçalves Coelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between food habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in schoolchildren of the city Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based sample of 738 schoolchildren aged 6-14 years. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting demographic, socioeconomic, biochemical, clinical, and anthropometric data. Food intake was determined by a food-frequency questionnaire. Food habits were evaluated according to the adapted Recommended Food Score. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to assess how food consumption was associated with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: The schoolchildren presented a dietary pattern characterized by low consumption of healthy foods. Association of cardiovascular risk factors showed that the consumption of foods according to the adapted Recommended Food Score was negatively and significantly associated with tetrapolar percentage of body fat (p=0.030 and systolic blood pressure (p=0.049 in children aged 6-9 years. CONCLUSION: Children's dietary patterns proved to be an important determinant of some of the cardiovascular risk factors studied. Thus, food intake assessment is a primary tool for the prevention and early intervention on cardiovascular risk factors during childhood.

  5. Nutritional status and nutritional habits of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer - preliminary investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The ageing in men, the most frequent pathologic lesions affecting the prostatic gland in this period are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PC, the course of which may be infl uenced by the improper nutritional status of patients and their nutritional habits. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the nutritional status and eating habits of men diagnosed and treated for one of the above diseases. Material and metods. The nutritional status of 30 male patients with clinically confi rmed and treated disease of the prostatic gland, including 15 men (aged 51-75 years with BPH and 15 men (aged 51-73 years with PC, was evaluated based on their BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR parameters. In turn, the energy and nutritive value of 90 daily food rations (DFRs was evaluated. Finally, calculations were made for the Key’s index of diet atherogenicity, resultant Glycemic Index (GI and Glycemic Load (GL. Results. Higher values of the BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR parameters were noted in the men with PC, they were also characterized by a higher incidence of peripheral subcutaneous obesity and visceral obesity. The DFRs of the men were characterized by a low energy value and by a low intake of available carbohydrates, dietary fi ber, K, Ca, Mg, vitamins D and C, and fl uids at a simultaneously high intake of total and animal protein, cholesterol, Na, P, Fe, Cu as well as vitamins B2 and PP. The contribution of energy derived from the basic nutrients diverged from the recommended values. In addition, the DFRs were characterized by high values of Key’s index and 24-h GL. Differences in meeting the RDA for selected nutrients between the analysed groups of men were statistically signifi cant. Conclusions. The improper nutritional status of the men may result from their incorrect nutritional habits which fail to improve their health status, and even predispose them to the development of some diet-dependent diseases. In view of that

  6. Deglaciation and the Evolution of Planetary Lake Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Haberle, C.; Moersch, J. E.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Sommaruga, R.; Fleming, E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Echeverria, A.; Parro, V.; Blanco, Y.; Rivas, L.; Demergasso, C.; Bebout, L.; Chong, G.; Rose, K.; Smith, T.; Pedersen, L.; Lee, S.; Fong, T.; Wettergreen, D.; Tambley, C.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the Planetary Lake Lander project (PLL) is to deploy an adaptive robotic lake lander in the Central Andes of Chile, where ice is melting at an accelerated rate. Deglaciation subjects lakes to interannual variability, raising questions about its impact on metabolic activity and biogeochemical cycles, lake habitat, ecosystem, and biodiversity. Documenting these questions contributes to a better understanding of the changes affecting Earth's glacial lake ecosystems, and may shed light on how life adapted during past deglaciations. From an astrobiological perspective, it brings new insights into the evolution of Mars habitability during comparable geological periods. Further, the robotic exploration of glacial lakes confronts us with challenges analogous to those that will be faced by future planetary missions to Titan's planetary seas. PLL, thus, bridges planets along an intertwined pathway where the study of one planet informs on the evolution of others and on the technological challenges associated with their exploration. During our field field campaign In November 2011, we characterized the physical, geological, and biological environment of Laguna Negra (33.65S -70.13W) a 6-km large, 300 m deep glacial lake, and generated an environmental database to baseline the adaptive system that will be used in the future by the lake lander to autonomously monitor the lake.Time series show changes in precipitation over the past decades, and in temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological stations and a stream gauge are tracking daily and seasonal changes at high resolution. Data are correlated to daily vertical profiles performed by the lake lander to monitor physico-chemical changes. Bathymetric maps reveal the bottom topography, and isolated habitats. Most dominant spectral units have been defined in ASTER near- and thermal infrared. They were sampled from spectra and hand specimens in the field and are now being characterized for mineralogic compositions

  7. Scientific habits of mind: A reform of structure and relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Linda Beth

    This research was designed to broaden current elementary science reform efforts by including the voices of our young scientists. Ten high school students who were defined as possessing both coherent science knowledge and scientific habits of mind were selected for the study. Through a three-part series of in-depth, phenomenological interviews, these students revealed early childhood experiences from birth through age ten to which they attributed their development of science knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Educational connoisseurship and criticism provided the framework through which the experiences were analyzed. The research revealed the overwhelming role of scientific habits of mind in the current success of these young scientists. Scientific habits of mind were developed through the structures and relationships in the home. Parents of the participants provided a non-authoritarian, fun, playful, tolerant atmosphere in which messes and experimentation were the norm. Large blocks of uninterrupted, unstructured time and space that "belonged" to the child allowed these children to follow where curiosity led. Frequently, the parent modeled scientific habits of mind. Good discipline in the minds of these families had nothing to do with punishments, rewards, or rules. The parents gave the children responsibilities, "free rein," and their trust, and the children blossomed in that trust and mutual respect. Parents recognized and supported the uniqueness, autonomy, interests, and emotions of the child. Above all, the young scientists valued the time, freedom, patience, and emotional support provided by their parents. For girls, construction toys, hot wheels, sand boxes, and outdoor experiences were particularly important. Art classes, free access to art media, sewing, music, and physical activity facilitated observational skills and spatial relationship development. The girls knew that doing traditionally masculine and feminine activities were acceptable and

  8. Television viewing, food preferences, and food habits among children: a prospective epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Nielsen, Birgit Margrethe Nøhr; Kristensen, Peter L

    2011-01-01

    the development of food preferences. Our aim was therefore, to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between TV viewing habits and food preferences and habits, respectively. We hypothesized that more TV viewing was associated with less healthy concomitant and future food preferences and food...... habits....

  9. Uncovering Reading Habits of University Students in Uganda: Does ICT Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlay, Samali V.; Sabi, Humphrey M.; Tsuma, Clive K.; Langmia, Kehbuma

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can improve reading habits among university students. We also investigated the influence of home culture, school culture and disposable income on reading habit. Our main objective was to assess the effect of ICT on the reading habit of particularly university students in…

  10. Habit, identity, and repetitive action: a prospective study of binge-drinking in UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, B.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; Lally, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Repeated action can lead to the formation of habits and identification as ‘the kind of person’ that performs the behaviour. This has led to the suggestion that identity-relevance is a facet of habit. This study explores conceptual overlap between habit and identity, and examines where th

  11. The Role of Work Habits in the Motivation of Food Safety Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsz, Verlin B.; Nickell, Gary S.; Park, Ernest S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors considered work habits within an integrated framework of motivated behavior. A distinction made between automatic and controlled action led to 2 measures of work habits: a habit strength measure reflecting the 4 characteristics of automaticity and a measure of work routines under conscious control. Workers at a turkey processing plant…

  12. What determines video game use? The impact of users’ habits, addictive tendencies, and intentions to play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Jung, Y.; Vorderer, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the role of intentions, habits, and addictive tendencies in people’s video game use. Although both habits and addictive tendencies may determine higher amounts of video game use, the present study examines whether the impact of habits and addictive tendencies on video game

  13. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit stren

  14. The Importance of Cultivating Democratic Habits in Schools: Enduring Lessons from "Democracy and Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David T.; James, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that democratic habits remain as vital for education and culture today as they were when Dewey published "Democracy and Education" in 1916. We take our point of departure from his treatment of habit and education in the book. Dewey dissolves the stereotypical notion that habits refer solely to mechanical,…

  15. Recognized by the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Danxia gets added to world heritage list as a natural site On August 1,2010,UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee inscribed China Danxia as a natural site in the world heritage list at its 34th session held from July 25 to August 3 this year in Brasilia,capital of Brazil.

  16. Associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in a Hong Kong Chinese working population--the "Better Health for Better Hong Kong" (BHBHK) health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary T C; Chan, Juliana C N; Tong, Spencer D Y; Chan, Amy W Y; Wong, Patrick T S; Hui, Stanley S C; Kwok, Ruby; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2007-01-01

    Diet and nutritional status have been shown to play pivotal roles in the occurrence of many chronic diseases. In this study, we examined the patterns of dietary habits and their relationships with risk factors for cardiovascular and chronic diseases in Hong Kong working populations. In April 2000, a 5-year territory-wide health promotion campaign supported by the Li Ka Shing Foundation was launched in Hong Kong by the Health InfoWorld of Hospital Authority. Between July 2000 and March 2002, 4841 Chinese subjects [2375 (49.1%) men and 2466 (50.9%) women, mean age: 42.4 +/- 8.9 years (median: 43.0 years, range: 17-83 years)] from the general working class were recruited. Subjects were randomly selected using computer generated codes according to the distribution of occupational groups. A dietary questionnaire was used to assess 6 core dietary habits: daily fruit intake, vegetable intake, fluid intake, sugary drinks, regularity of daily meals and number of dining out each day. Overall, men had a worse cardiovascular risk profile and less desirable dietary habits than women. Those who had more unhealthy dietary habits were more likely to be obese and current smokers. Using logistic regression analysis with the dietary habits as independent variables, we found that obesity, smoking and constipation were independently associated with various unhealthy dietary patterns. In conclusion, there were close associations between dietary habits and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong. More effective community education about healthy lifestyle is required in Hong Kong.

  17. Habit reversal vs negative practice treatment of self-destructive oral habits (biting, chewing or licking of the lips, cheeks, tongue or palate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, N H; Nunn, R G; Frantz-Renshaw, S E

    1982-03-01

    Ten patients with oral habits such as biting, chewing licking, or pushing of the cheeks, lips, teeth, or palate were randomly assigned to either habit reversal treatment or to negative practice treatment. Treatment was given in a single 2-hr session. The patients receiving negative practice treatment showed a mean reduction of about 65%, those receiving the habit reversal treatment showed a mean reduction of about 99% during the 22-months of follow-up.

  18. Climate Stability of Habitable Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The carbon-silicate cycle regulates the atmospheric $CO_2$ content of terrestrial planets on geological timescales through a balance between the rates of $CO_2$ volcanic outgassing and planetary intake from rock weathering. It is thought to act as an efficient climatic thermostat on Earth and, by extension, on other habitable planets. If, however, the weathering rate increases with the atmospheric $CO_2$ content, as expected on planets lacking land vascular plants, the carbon-silicate cycle feedback can become severely limited. Here we show that Earth-like planets receiving less sunlight than current Earth may no longer possess a stable warm climate but instead repeatedly cycle between unstable glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. This has implications for the search for life on exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby stars.

  19. Understanding the Reading Habits of Children in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Majid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Leisure reading contributes significantly to improving language competencies of children. This study investigates the reading habits and preferences of children, motivations behind reading, and their attitudes towards reading. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting data and 440 upper primary students participated in the study. The findings suggest that a majority of the participating students were motivated to read for academically-related reasons, such as to improve language skills and to obtain better grades in examinations. Reading was the third most preferred leisure activity after hobbies and playing on computer or the Internet. It was also found that girls were generally more avid readers than boys. This paper offers certain suggestions for promoting reading habits among children.

  20. Assessing Circumbinary Habitable Zones using Latitudinal Energy Balance Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to describe circumbinary habitable zones have been concerned with the spatial extent of the zone, calculated analytically according to the combined radiation field of both stars. By contrast to these "spatial HZs", we present a numerical analysis of the "orbital HZ", a habitable zone defined as a function of planet orbital elements. This orbital HZ is better equipped to handle (for example) eccentric planet orbits, and is more directly connected to the data returned by exoplanet observations. Producing an orbital HZ requires a large number of climate simulations to be run to investigate the parameter space - we achieve this using Latitudinal Energy Balance Models (LEBMs), which handle the insolation of the planet by both stars (including mutual eclipses), as well as the planetary atmosphere's ability to absorb, transfer and lose heat. We present orbital HZs for several known circumbinary planetary systems: Kepler-16, Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-47 and PH-1. Generally, the orbital HZs at zer...

  1. Bonding Energy and Growth Habit of Lithium Niobate Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of crystallographic structure of lithium niobate (LN), the bonding energy was quantitatively calculated by the bond valence sum model, which was employed to investigate the crystal growth. A possible relationship between the crystal growth habit and chemical bonding energy of LN crystals are found. It is found that the higher the bond energy, the slower the growth rate, and the more important the plane. The analytical results indicate that (012) plane is the most influential face for the LN crystal growth, which consists well with the standard card (JCPDS Card: 20-0631) and our previous experimental observation. The current work shows that the chemical bond analysis of LN crystals allows us to predict its growth habit and thus to obtain the expected morphology during the spontaneous growth.

  2. Habitability of extrasolar planets and tidal spin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-12-01

    Stellar radiation has conservatively been used as the key constraint to planetary habitability. We review here the effects of tides, exerted by the host star on the planet, on the evolution of the planetary spin. Tides initially drive the rotation period and the orientation of the rotation axis into an equilibrium state but do not necessarily lead to synchronous rotation. As tides also circularize the orbit, eventually the rotation period does equal the orbital period and one hemisphere will be permanently irradiated by the star. Furthermore, the rotational axis will become perpendicular to the orbit, i.e. the planetary surface will not experience seasonal variations of the insolation. We illustrate here how tides alter the spins of planets in the traditional habitable zone. As an example, we show that, neglecting perturbations due to other companions, the Super-Earth Gl581d performs two rotations per orbit and that any primordial obliquity has been eroded.

  3. M Star Astrosphere Size Fluctuations and Habitable Planet Descreening

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David S

    2009-01-01

    Stellar astrospheres--the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar winds--are continually influenced by their passage through the fluctuating interstellar medium (ISM). Inside dense interstellar regions, an astrosphere may be compressed to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from the full flux of Galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call ``descreening.'' Recent papers (Yeghikyan and Fahr, Pavlov et al.) have suggested such global consequences as severe ozone depletion and glaciation. Using a ram-pressure balance model that includes gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent star mass. We derive a dependence on the parent-star mass M due to gravitational focusing for densities larger than about 100 (M/M_\\odot)^{-2} cm^{-3}. We calculate the interstellar densities required to descreen plane...

  4. Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lange, P; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal......, epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects...... who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits...

  5. THEO Concept Mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Shannon M; Phillips-Lander, Charity M; Stavros, E Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D; Sun, Vivian Z; Powell, Kathryn E; Steuer, Casey J; O'Rourke, Joesph G; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K; Leung, Cecilia W S; Petro, Elaine M; Wynne, J Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J; Mitchell, Karl L

    2016-01-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it-- liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources-- are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spe...

  6. On the edge of habitability and the extremes of liquidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Thomson, Erik S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    The physical and biological mechanisms that extend the equilibrium domain of liquid water into the ice region of the bulk phase diagram are examined in view of their importance for the enhancement of planetary habitability. The physical phenomena studied are the premelting of ice, which allows for films of liquid water at temperatures well below freezing, and the wetting of hygroscopic salts with the persistence of briny films even for thermodynamic conditions remote from those of bulk liquid water. Organisms are known to produce a variety of frost-suppressing substances, one of which, the anti-freeze protein, is described here. In this article, we provide a synthesis of theoretical and experimental studies whilst extending ideas into new territory as we address the question of habitability.

  7. Evolution of a climbing habit promotes diversification in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2004-10-07

    Key innovations are traits that are associated with the particular evolutionary 'success' of some taxonomic groups. Climbing plants depend on the availability of physical support to reach the canopy and thereby prevent shading by neighbouring plants. The present article shows that the evolution of a climbing habit in flowering plants constitutes a key innovation. A literature survey identified 48 pairs of sister groups from 45 families of flowering plants for which information on phylogenetic relationships, growth habit and species richness was available. In 38 cases, the climbing taxa were more diverse than their non-climbing sister groups. This pattern was highly significant. The same result was found when separate analyses were carried out for herbaceous and woody climbing plants, which differ in their constraints for successfully reaching a support.

  8. MENGELOLA KEUANGAN SECARA SYARIAH DALAM RANGKA MENUMBUHKAN GOOD MONEY HABIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The wealth owned by Muslim basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to ‚pay themselves‛ first than other interests. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocate it to charity, the primary consumption, and plans for the future. Whereas the  ‚spontaneous‛ type might probably refuses to make a financial planning.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2557 

  9. Mengelola Keuangan Secara Syariah dalam Rangka Menumbuhkan Good Money Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aini Masruroh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The wealth owned by Muslims basically is a trust from Allah that must be spent or distributed responsibly. Good habit in spending money is reflected on how the person makes a financial decision of his own. The main aspect in conducting the financial plan is the ability to save and invest. A person is qualified as having good money habits if he is able to pay themselves first that other interest. Meaning that each earn he have, he is able to allocated it to charity, the primary consumption, and plans for the future. Whereas the spontaneous type might probably refuses to make a financial planningDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2111

  10. Analysis of the relationship between food habits and health students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podrigalo L.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes nutrition of students, based on the assessment of frequency of consumption of basic food products. The study involved 50 students aged 21-22 years. Set that the nutrition of the majority of students is irrational, in the daily life of young people there is a number of risk factors associated with inadequate intake of healthy food products. Have far-reaching enough food habits due to the consumption of so-called "food waste". The analysis of the correlation relationship between nutrition, mental performance and lifestyle factors, confirmed that a violation of the rules of a healthy diet affects the performance efficiency, increases the likelihood of bad habits. Slow food culture, lack of knowledge of young people on healthy food cause the need for appropriate health education.

  11. Habitability of extrasolar planets and tidal spin evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Leconte, Jérémy

    2011-01-01

    Stellar radiation has conservatively been used as the key constraint to planetary habitability. We review here the effects of tides, exerted by the host star on the planet, on the evolution of the planetary spin. Tides initially drive the rotation period and the orientation of the rotation axis into an equilibrium state but do not necessarily lead to synchronous rotation. As tides also circularize the orbit, eventually the rotation period does equal the orbital period and one hemisphere will be permanently irradiated by the star. Furthermore, the rotational axis will become perpendicular to the orbit, i.e. the planetary surface will not experience seasonal variations of the insolation. We illustrate here how tides alter the spins of planets in the traditional habitable zone. As an example, we show that, neglecting perturbations due to other companions, the Super-Earth Gl581d performs two rotations per orbit and that any primordial obliquity has been eroded.

  12. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Narita, Norio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium(IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current ...

  13. On the inclination and habitability of the HD 10180 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Gelino, Dawn M., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    There are numerous multi-planet systems that have now been detected via a variety of techniques. These systems exhibit a range of both planetary properties and orbital configurations. For those systems without detected planetary transits, a significant unknown factor is the orbital inclination. This produces an uncertainty in the mass of the planets and their related properties, such as atmospheric scale height. Here we investigate the HD 10180 system, which was discovered using the radial velocity technique. We provide a new orbital solution for the system which allows for eccentric orbits for all planets. We show how the inclination of the system affects the mass/radius properties of the planets and how the detection of phase signatures may resolve the inclination ambiguity. We finally evaluate the Habitable Zone properties of the system and show that the g planet spends 100% of an eccentric orbit within the Habitable Zone.

  14. Climate stability of habitable Earth-like planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menou, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    The carbon-silicate cycle regulates the atmospheric CO2 content of terrestrial planets on geological timescales through a balance between the rates of CO2 volcanic outgassing and planetary intake from rock weathering. It is thought to act as an efficient climatic thermostat on Earth and, by extension, on other habitable planets. If, however, the weathering rate increases with the atmospheric CO2 content, as expected on planets lacking land vascular plants, the carbon-silicate cycle feedback can become severely limited. Here we show that Earth-like planets receiving less sunlight than current Earth may no longer possess a stable warm climate but instead repeatedly cycle between unstable glaciated and deglaciated climatic states. This has implications for the search for life on exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby stars.

  15. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gadamer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

  16. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most...

  17. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  18. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption. Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’ was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  19. Scenarios of giant planet formation and evolution and their impact on the formation of habitable terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-04-28

    In our Solar System, there is a clear divide between the terrestrial and giant planets. These two categories of planets formed and evolved separately, almost in isolation from each other. This was possible because Jupiter avoided migrating into the inner Solar System, most probably due to the presence of Saturn, and never acquired a large-eccentricity orbit, even during the phase of orbital instability that the giant planets most likely experienced. Thus, the Earth formed on a time scale of several tens of millions of years, by collision of Moon- to Mars-mass planetary embryos, in a gas-free and volatile-depleted environment. We do not expect, however, that this clear cleavage between the giant and terrestrial planets is generic. In many extrasolar planetary systems discovered to date, the giant planets migrated into the vicinity of the parent star and/or acquired eccentric orbits. In this way, the evolution and destiny of the giant and terrestrial planets become intimately linked. This paper discusses several evolutionary patterns for the giant planets, with an emphasis on the consequences for the formation and survival of habitable terrestrial planets. The conclusion is that we should not expect Earth-like planets to be typical in terms of physical and orbital properties and accretion history. Most habitable worlds are probably different, exotic worlds.

  20. Dietary Habits Are Associated With School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    Several studies suggest that dietary habits are associated with poor academic performance. However, few studies have evaluated these relations after adjusting for numerous confounding factors. This study evaluated the frequency of various diet items (fruit, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk) and the regularity of meal times (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) all at once.A total of 359,264 participants aged from 12 to 18 years old were pooled from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) for the 2009 to 2013 period. Dietary habits over the last 7 days were surveyed, including the regularity of consuming breakfast, lunch and dinner and the frequency of eating fruits, soft drinks, fast foods, instant noodles, confections, vegetables, and milk. Physical activity, obesity, region of residence, subjective assessment of health, stress level, economic level, and parental education level were collected from all of the study participants. School performance was classified into 5 levels. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of dietary habits for school performance were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the effects of diet factors on school performance while considering the effects of other variables on both diet factors and school performance.Frequent intakes of breakfast (AOR = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.20-2.48), fruits (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.62-1.86), vegetables (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.37-1.61), and milk (AOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.28-1.43) were related to high levels of school performance (each with P performance (each with P performance and dietary habits that find a positive association with eating breakfast and consuming fruits and milk and a negative relation with soft drinks, instant noodles, fast foods, and confections.

  1. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Strzemecka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers, working underground. The results were subjected to statistical analysis based on STATISTICA v. 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland software. Results. Nearly half of respondents reported regular consumption of meals (40.0% Interviewees admitted having warm meals during the day (81.4%. The most frequently consumed meal during the day was the hot one (50.9%, three meals and more were consumed the least frequently (8.1%. Almost half of respondents considered their eating habits as inappropriate (46.3%. Among those, nearly half (68.2% stated that shift – work is the reason for their nutrition habits. More than half of respondents (66.0% admitted that shift work hampers regular consumption of meals. Conclusions. Shift work makes nourishment and regular consumption difficult. It contributes to the limited amount of warm meals eaten during the day. In order to maintain preventive health care and the improvement of quality of life, shift workers should be provided with an easier access to meals (including warm one at specified times of the day.

  2. Dietary habits during adolescence - results of the Belgian Adolux Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2001-01-01

    STUDY: To analyse the usual dietary habits of Belgian adolescents from a high cardiovascular risk population. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire (57 items) was administered to the whole sample. Complementary questions specified some types of food (eg fat content). A subgroup of 234 adolescents gave detailed information on portion size (picture book and food samples). SETTING: Twenty-four secondary schools in the Belgian province of Luxembourg. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,526 adolesce...

  3. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Juliana Souza Oliveira; Debora França dos Santos; Elizabeth Fujimori; Sandra Mary Lima Vasconcelos; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos; Bruno Mendes Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects ...

  4. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Baranauskas, Marius; Stukas, Rimantas; Tubelis, Linas; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Šurkienė, Genė; Švedas, Edmundas; Giedraitis, Vincentas Rolandas; Dobrovolskij, Valerij; Abaravičius, Jonas Algis

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures. Materials and me...

  5. An extended assessment of bowel habits in a general population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Massimo Bellini; Filippo Pucciani; Renato Bocchini; Antonio Bove; Pietro Alduini; Edda Battaglia; Paolo Bruzzi; Italian Constipation Study Group

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bowel habits are difficult to study, and most data on defecatory behaviour in the general population have been obtained on the basis of recalled interview. The objective assessment of this physiological function and its pathological aspects continues to pose a difficult challenge. The aim of this prospective study was to objectively assess the bowel habits and related aspects in a large sample drawn from the general population.METHODS: Over a two-month period 488 subjects were prospectively recruited from the general population and asked to compile a daily diary on their bowel habits and associated signs and symptoms (the latter according to Rome II criteria). A total of 298 (61%) participants returned a correctly compiled record, so that data for more than 8 000 patient-days were available for statistical analysis.RESULTS: The average defecatory frequency was once per day (range of 0.25-3.25) and was similar between males and females. However, higher frequencies of straining at stool (P=0.001), a feeling of incomplete emptying and/or difficult evacuation (P=0.0001), and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation (P=0.046) were reported by females as compared to males.CONCLUSION: This study represents one of the first attempts to objectively and prospectively assess bowel habits in a sample of the general population over a relatively long period of time. The variables we analyzed are coherent with the criteria commonly used for the clinical assessment of functional constipation, and can provide a useful adjunt for a better evaluation of constipated patients.

  6. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Al-Roomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are considered the main factors associated with several diet-related diseases in the Arab Gulf countries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe the dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. A cross-sectional study was carried out amongst male and female secondary school students selected using the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. A sample size of 735 subjects (339 males and 396 females, aged 15–18 years, was selected from government schools from all the governorates of Bahrain. Skipping breakfast was significantly greater in females (62.8% compared to males (37.2%, (P<0.01. About 88% of adolescents snacked during school break, 70.7% procuring food from the school canteen. Fruit was not consumed by about 27.7% of respondents (33.5% males, 66.5% females and the gender difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Fish and lentils were less preferred, while chicken was more popular. There was no significant difference between gender and frequency of eating fast food. About 8.4% of respondents reported not eating burgers, with 68.8% preferring regular size burgers. Furthermore, 24.4% preferred large portions of potato chips (53.1% male, 46.9% female. About 29.8% watched TV for more than 5 hours a day (51.2% females, 48.8% males. About 69% of males practiced sports everyday as against 30.8% of females (P<0.01 and 81.6% of those who participated in sport activity outside school were males compared to 18.4% of females. It seems that the adolescents in Bahrain are moving toward unhealthy dietary habits and lifestyles, which in turn will affect their health status in the future. Promoting healthy lifestyle and eating habits should be given a priority in school health programs.

  7. Interactions between sleep habits and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Morris, Drew M; Donnelly, Janet; Feigl, Hayley B

    2015-01-01

    Good sleep habits and effective self-control are important components of successful functioning. Unfortunately chronic sleep loss and impaired self-control are common occurrences for many individuals which can lead to difficulty with daily self-control issues such as resisting impulses and maintaining attentive behavior. Understanding how self-control is depleted and how good sleep habits may help replenish and maintain the capacity for self-control is an important issue. A sleep-deprived individual who has expended the necessary resources for self-control is at an increased risk for succumbing to impulsive desires, poor attentional capacity, and compromised decision making. To date, few studies have investigated how sleep and self-control are inter-related. The goal of this mini-review is to explore the intersection between sleep habits and self-control and encourage researchers to focus on a new area of research that integrates what are at present largely separate areas in psychology and human neurosciences.

  8. The inhabitance paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability"' to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have identified theoretically impressive boundaries for this zone: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using the same class of climate model, I show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", moist temperate climate, hot moist climate and a post-runaway dry climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. The radial extent of the temperate climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres, but can be widened with di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The width of the habitable zone...

  9. Dietary habits in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Maria; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Lykeridou, Katerina; Iliadis, Iakovos; Michala, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The phenotype of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to worsen with weight gain, increased ingestion of carbohydrates and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits in a group of adolescent girls with PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their eating habits and a recall dietary diary, from which their caloric and macronutrient intake was calculated. Results were compared with those from a group of normal controls. Thirty-five women with PCOS and 46 controls were included. Girls with PCOS were less likely to have cereals for breakfast (20.7 versus 66.7%) and as a result consumed less fibre than controls. They were more likely to eat an evening meal (97.1 versus 78.3%) and eat this over an hour later when compared to controls. Despite having comparable body mass indexes, girls with PCOS ate a daily surplus calorie average of 3% versus controls that had a negative calorie intake of 0.72% (p = 0.047). Ameliorating eating habits early in adolescence in girls with PCOS may improve future metabolic concerns related to a genetic predisposition and worsened by an unhealthy lifestyle.

  10. Oral habits of temporomandibular disorder patients with malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukie; Motegi, Etsuko; Nomura, Mayumi; Kawamura, Sakura; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hideharu

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between oral habits and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder in patients who had sought orthodontic treatment by analyzing their present and past history. The subjects were 57 female patients (average age: 23 years and 6 months old) who had visited the "Temporomandibular Disorder Section" in our orthodontic department. Their chief complaints were the symptom of TMJ and the abnormalities of occlusion such as maxillary protrusion, open bite, crowding, mandibular protrusion, cross bite, deep bite, edge-to-edge bite, and spacing. Their present conditions and past histories were examined and evaluated. The most typical primary symptom was joint sound (23 patients, 40.0%). The second was joint sound and pain (15 patients, 26.3%). Of the symptoms present at the time of examination, the most prevalent were joint sound and pain (20 patients, 35.1%). The 48 patients (82.8%) had significant oral habits. Unilateral chewing was seen in 35 patients (72.9%), bruxism in 27 (56.3%), abnormality of posture in 14 (29.2%), habitual crunching in 10 (20.8%) and resting the check on the hand in 4 (8.3%), respectively. When comparing the primary symptoms to those at the time of examination, the patients with unilateral chewing and bruxism tended to have more complicated symptoms. In conclusion, the TMD symptoms of the patients with notable oral habits did not change or become worse during a period of about 5 years.

  11. The Galactic Habitable Zone I. Galactic Chemical Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    González, G; Ward, P; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Brownlee, Donald; Ward, Peter

    2001-01-01

    We propose the concept of a "Galactic Habitable Zone" (GHZ). Analogous to the Circumstellar Habitable Zone (CHZ), the GHZ is that region in the Milky Way where an Earth-like planet can retain liquid water on its surface and provide a long-term habitat for animal-like aerobic life. In this paper we examine the dependence of the GHZ on Galactic chemical evolution. The single most important factor is likely the dependence of terrestrial planet mass on the metallicity of its birth cloud. We estimate, very approximately, that a metallicity at least half that of the Sun is required to build a habitable terrestrial planet. The mass of a terrestrial planet has important consequences for interior heat loss, volatile inventory, and loss of atmosphere. A key issue is the production of planets that sustain plate tectonics, a critical recycling process that provides feedback to stabilize atmospheric temperatures on planets with oceans and atmospheres. Due to the more recent decline from the early intense star formation ac...

  12. Dietary habits and behaviors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Kotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Manabu; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika

    2014-02-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of health problems in Western (industrialized) countries. Moreover, the incidence of infantile NAFLD is increasing, with some of these patients progressing to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. These trends depend on dietary habits and life-style. In particular, overeating and its associated obesity affect the development of NAFLD. Nutritional problems in patients with NAFLD include excess intake of energy, carbohydrates, and lipids, and shortages of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Although nutritional therapeutic approaches are required for prophylaxis and treatment of NAFLD, continuous nutrition therapy is difficult for many patients because of their dietary habits and lifestyle, and because the motivation for treatment differs among patients. Thus, it is necessary to assess the nutritional background and to identify nutritional problems in each patient with NAFLD. When assessing dietary habits, it is important to individually evaluate those that are consumed excessively or insufficiently, as well as inappropriate eating behaviors. Successful nutrition therapy requires patient education, based on assessments of individual nutrients, and continuing the treatment. In this article, we update knowledge about NAFLD, review the important aspects of nutritional assessment targeting treatment success, and present some concrete nutritional care plans which can be applied generally.

  13. Mapping α Centauri AB for Possible Habitable Planets

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    Quarles, Billy L.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    2016-06-01

    The alpha Centauri AB star system, our closest stellar neighbors, has been studied for many decades and ACESat (Belikov et al. AAS Meeting #225, #311.01, 2015) is a proposed space mission designed to directly image Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of both of these stars. The alpha Centauri system is older than our Sun, so any resident planets are expected to occupy long-lived orbits. We evaluate the extent of these trajectories where planets are able to orbit for billion-year timescales. The distribution of long-lived orbits is mapped to the sky plane to indicate regions where planets may appear relative to each stellar component. Our results confirm qualitatively those of Wiegert & Holman (Astron. J. 113, 1445, 1997) regarding the approximate size of the regions of stable orbits, which are larger for retrograde orbits relative to the binary than for prograde orbits. Moreover, we find that orbits beyond each star’s habitable zone are affected by a dynamical imprint from the binary orbit due to mean motion resonances and the Lidov-Kozai Mechanism. Stable planets can exist near the plane of the binary orbit within each stellar habitable zone, whereas highly inclined orbits are typically short-lived. These results are of special interest as they can guide the search process of our stellar neighbors in future missions.

  14. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Haslan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Methods of Efficient Study Habits and Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2010-02-01

    We want to discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with the most efficient techniques needed to help students improve their study skills. We focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the students who conscientiously use the methods of efficient study habits achieve higher results than those students who do not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the students, but the efficiency and quality of actions so that the student can function at peak efficiency. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. )

  16. Temporomandibular disorders and parafunctional oral habits: an anamnestic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Oliveira Melchior

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and severity of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD, the frequency of parafunctional oral habits and the correlation between the variables by means of the patients' perception regarding their problem. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with TMD, through a clinical examination of their masticatory system, answered the questions of a previously published protocol concerning the signs and symptoms most frequently reported in the literature. RESULTS: According to the results from the non parametric statistical analysis, the frequency for the following signs and symptoms was significant: Fatigue and muscle pain, joint sounds, tinnitus, ear fullness, headache, chewing impairment and difficulty to yawn (p<0.01 and otalgia (p<0.05. As to the parafunctional oral habits, there was a significant presence of teeth clenching during the day and night (p<0.01 and teeth grinding at night (p<0.05. The variable correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between symptom frequency and severity; age was correlated with the presence of otalgia, cervical pain and teeth sensitivity, besides being correlated with muscle and joint pain severity. Habit frequency was negatively correlated with age. TMD duration was also positively correlated with the symptoms of tinnitus, ear fullness, muscle and joint pain. CONCLUSION: The study results showed that the anamnestic assessment using ProDTMMulti can predict the severity of the TMD case.

  17. Exomoon habitability constrained by energy flux and orbital stability

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2012-01-01

    Detecting massive satellites of extrasolar planets has now become feasible, which led naturally to questions about their habitability. In a previous study we presented constraints on the habitability of moons from stellar and planetary illumination as well as from tidal heating. Here I refine our model by including the effect of eclipses on the orbit-averaged illumination. Moons in low-mass stellar systems must orbit their planet very closely to remain bound, which puts them at risk of strong tidal heating. I first describe the effect of eclipses on stellar illumination of satellites. Then I calculate the orbit-averaged energy flux including illumination from the planet and tidal heating. Habitability is defined by a scaling relation at which a moon loses its water by the runaway greenhouse process. As a working hypothesis, orbital stability is assumed if the moon's orbital period is less than 1/9 of the planet's orbital period. Due to eclipses, a satellite in a close orbit can experience a reduction in orbit...

  18. The Case for a Gaian Bottleneck: The Biology of Habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Aditya; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    The prerequisites and ingredients for life seem to be abundantly available in the Universe. However, the Universe does not seem to be teeming with life. The most common explanation for this is a low probability for the emergence of life (an emergence bottleneck), notionally due to the intricacies of the molecular recipe. Here, we present an alternative Gaian bottleneck explanation: If life emerges on a planet, it only rarely evolves quickly enough to regulate greenhouse gases and albedo, thereby maintaining surface temperatures compatible with liquid water and habitability. Such a Gaian bottleneck suggests that (i) extinction is the cosmic default for most life that has ever emerged on the surfaces of wet rocky planets in the Universe and (ii) rocky planets need to be inhabited to remain habitable. In the Gaian bottleneck model, the maintenance of planetary habitability is a property more associated with an unusually rapid evolution of biological regulation of surface volatiles than with the luminosity and distance to the host star.

  19. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio; Enomoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-12-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium (IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current Earth, depending on the amount of active surface area for this mechanism. We conclude that titania may act as a potential source of false signs of life on habitable exoplanets.Reference:Narita N. et al.,Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13977 (2015)http://www.nature.com/articles/srep13977

  20. Effects of postural education on daily habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J; Borras, P A; Ortega, F B; Cantallops, J; Ponseti, X; Palou, P

    2011-04-01

    A group-randomized controlled trial was carried out to investigate the effects of a postural education program on daily life habits related to low back pain in children. The study sample included 137 children aged 10.7 years. 6 classes from 2 primary schools were randomly allocated into an experimental group (EG) (N=63) or a control group (CG) (N=74). The EG received a postural education program over 6 weeks consisting of 6 sessions, while the CG followed the usual school curriculum. A questionnaire was completed by the participants at pretest, post-test and 3 months after the intervention finished. The outcomes collected were: correct use of sofa, stooping correctly, take care to sit correctly at home/school and frequent posture change on chair at home/school. A sum score was computed from the 6 items. To examine the effect of the intervention, we used repeated measures analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA); with baseline, post-test and follow-up outcome values as dependent variables, study group as fixed factor, and sex and age as covariates. Single healthy items mostly improved after the intervention and remained improved after 3 month follow-up in EG, while no substantial changes were observed in the CG. Healthy habits score was significantly increased at post-test compared to baseline in the EG (P0.6). The results suggest that children are able to learn healthy daily life habits which might contribute to future prevention of low back pain.