WorldWideScience

Sample records for characterize potential health

  1. The red mud accident in Ajka (Hungary): characterization and potential health effects of fugitive dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelencsér, András; Kováts, Nóra; Turóczi, Beatrix; Rostási, Ágnes; Hoffer, András; Imre, Kornélia; Nyirő-Kósa, Ilona; Csákberényi-Malasics, Dorottya; Tóth, Ádám; Czitrovszky, Aladár; Nagy, Attila; Nagy, Szabolcs; Ács, András; Kovács, Anikó; Ferincz, Árpád; Hartyáni, Zsuzsanna; Pósfai, Mihály

    2011-02-15

    As a result of a tragic industrial accident, a highly alkaline red mud sludge inundated settlements and agricultural areas near Ajka, Hungary on October 4, 2010. One of the major concerns about the aftermaths of the accident is the potential health effects of vast amounts of fugitive dust from red mud sediment. Thus, we studied the chemical and physical properties of particles of red mud and its respirable fugitive dust, and performed toxicity measurements. Under unfavorable meteorological conditions dry red mud sediment could emit very high amounts of respirable alkaline particles into the air. The number size distribution of fugitive dust peaks above 1 μm aerodynamic diameter; therefore, its inhalation is unlikely to affect the deep regions of the lungs. No significant mineralogical or elemental fractionation was observed between the sediment and dust, with the major minerals being hematite, cancrinite, calcite, and hydrogarnet. Although the high resuspension potential and alkalinity might pose some problems such as the irritation of the upper respiratory tract and eyes, based on its size distribution and composition red mud dust appears to be less hazardous to human health than urban particulate matter.

  2. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; An, Lawrence C

    2010-12-01

    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments - Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students.

  3. Using Market Research to Characterize College Students and Identify Potential Targets for Influencing Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Guo, Hongfei; Windle, Michael; Thomas, Janet L.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; An, Lawrence C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing campaigns, such as those developed by the tobacco industry, are based on market research, which defines segments of a population by assessing psychographic characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests). This study uses a similar approach to define market segments of college smokers, to examine differences in their health behaviors (smoking, drinking, binge drinking, exercise, diet), and to determine the validity of these segments. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18–25 years completed a 108-item online survey in fall 2008 assessing demographic, psychographic (i.e., attitudes, interests), and health-related variables. Among the 753 students reporting past 30-day smoking, cluster analysis was conducted using 21 psychographic questions and identified three market segments – Stoic Individualists, Responsible Traditionalists, and Thrill-Seeking Socializers. We found that segment membership was related to frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, and limiting dietary fat. We then developed three messages targeting each segment and conducted message testing to validate the segments on a subset of 73 smokers representing each segment in spring 2009. As hypothesized, each segment indicated greater relevance and salience for their respective message. These findings indicate that identifying qualitatively different subgroups of young adults through market research may inform the development of engaging interventions and health campaigns targeting college students. PMID:25264429

  4. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  5. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T; Daniels, J I; Hall, L C

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to accomplish two objectives. The first was to provide to the US Air Force and the regulatory community quantitative procedures that they might want to consider using for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to better characterize potential health risk. Such methods could be used at sites where populations may now or in the future be faced with using groundwater contaminated with low concentrations of the chemical trichloroethylene (TCE). The second was to illustrate and explain the application of these procedures with respect to available data for TCE in ground water beneath an inactive landfill site that is undergoing remediation at Beale Air Force Base in California. The results from this illustration provide more detail than the more traditional conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of risk, also computed for purposes of comparison. Application of the procedures described in this report can lead to more reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for potentially exposed populations at specific sites.

  6. Methods for characterizing fine particulate matter using ground observations and remotely sensed data: potential use for environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Limaye, Ashutosh S; Rickman, Douglas L; Quattrochi, Dale A; Estes, Maurice G; Qualters, Judith R; Sinclair, Amber H; Tolsma, Dennis D; Adeniyi, Kafayat A; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2009-07-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surface fitting daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It presents a methodology for estimating daily spatial surfaces of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using the B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surface-fitting techniques, leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA's satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate PM2.5 exposure estimates. This paper shows that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM,2. not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM,2. than either dataset alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5-estimated surfaces. The results of this study also show that although the IDW technique can introduce some numerical artifacts that could be due to its interpolating nature, which assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points, the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors in general, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with high accuracy is critical.

  7. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  8. Combustion-generated nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: their comparative characterization and potential for adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Soto, K F; Garza, K M; Guerrero, P A; Martinez, F; Esquivel, E V; Ramirez, D A; Shi, Y; Bang, J J; Venzor, J

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1) and ultrafine (PM0.1), or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM), tire particulate matter (TPM), wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC)) along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary) nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day) and longer term (2 week) in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined.

  9. Combustion-Generated Nanoparticulates in the El Paso, TX, USA / Juarez, Mexico Metroplex: Their Comparative Characterization and Potential for Adverse Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venzor, III

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the collection of fine (PM1 and ultrafine (PM0.1, or nanoparticulate, carbonaceous materials using thermophoretic precipitation onto silicon monoxide/formvar-coated 3 mm grids which were examined in the transmission electron microscope (TEM. We characterize and compare diesel particulate matter (DPM, tire particulate matter (TPM, wood burning particulate matter, and other soot (or black carbons (BC along with carbon nanotube and related fullerene nanoparticle aggregates in the outdoor air, as well as carbon nanotube aggregates in the indoor air; and with reference to specific gas combustion sources. These TEM investigations include detailed microstructural and microdiffraction observations and comparisons as they relate to the aggregate morphologies as well as their component (primary nanoparticles. We have also conducted both clinical surveys regarding asthma incidence and the use of gas cooking stoves as well as random surveys by zip code throughout the city of El Paso. In addition, we report on short term (2 day and longer term (2 week in vitro assays for black carbon and a commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate sample using a murine macrophage cell line, which demonstrate significant cytotoxicity; comparable to a chrysotile asbestos nanoparticulate reference. The multi-wall carbon nanotube aggregate material is identical to those collected in the indoor and outdoor air, and may serve as a surrogate. Taken together with the plethora of toxic responses reported for DPM, these findings prompt concerns for airborne carbonaceous nanoparticulates in general. The implications of these preliminary findings and their potential health effects, as well as directions for related studies addressing these complex issues, will also be examined.

  10. Health Educational Potentials of Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The field of health promotion technology has been in an exponential growth in recent years and smart phone applications, exer-games and self-monitoring devices has become part of fitness activities and health education. In this work-in-progress-paper theoretical perspectives for categorising...

  11. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  12. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to identify and characterize groups with poor mental health defined by the SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) scale. Methods: The study is based on the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2005 and includes 10,082 participants (16 years or older). Data were...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...

  13. Microfinance: untapped potential for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B

    2014-11-01

    Microfinance has recently come under criticism for not meeting its potential for poverty reduction and its exploitation by for-profit entities. Access to finance still remains limited for many of the world’s poor. This re-examination of microfinance should not impede its proliferation and development into a tool to improve health for the underserved. There are significant returns on microfinance investments in health at the household level. Microfinance that allows the consumption of goods and services that can improve health can also lead to increased savings and productivity making it a financially viable and powerful tool for both health improvement and development.

  14. Methods for Characterizing Fine Particulate Matter Using Satellite Remote-Sensing Data and Ground Observations: Potential Use for Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda S.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental / hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC s) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It described a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM2.5 concentrations using B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surfacing techniques and leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA s satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM2.5 estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM2.5 not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM2.5 than either data set alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5 estimated surfaces. The results of this paper have shown that the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces in the year studied. However the IDW mean annual composite surface had more numerical artifacts, which could be due to the interpolating nature of the IDW that assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper improve temporal and spatial resolutions and establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with good accuracy levels is critical.

  15. Health Promoting Schools: Consensus, Strategies, and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Gagnon, Faith A.; Stewart, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize a consensus statement generated on the current challenges, strategies, and potential of health promoting schools (HPS) at a 2011 colloquium at the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study where 40 people from five continents came together to share their global and regional experience surrounding…

  16. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated.

  17. Health insurance exchanges bring potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M Orry; Eggbeer, Bill

    2012-11-01

    The introduction of the state health insurance exchanges, as provided for in the Affordable Care Act, has many strategic implications for healthcare providers: Unprecedented transparency; The "Walmart Effect", with patients playing a greater role as healthcare consumers; A rise in narrow networks spurred by low prices and narrow geographies; The potential end of the cross subsidy of Medicare and Medicaid by commercial plans; The possible end of not-for-profit status for hospitals

  18. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk from Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water at Beale Air Force Base in California:Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2001-05-24

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability within a systematic probabilistic framework to integrate the joint effects on risk of distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such a framework was used to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub G}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA{sub c} based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely to occur due to any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The systematic probabilistic framework illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  19. Methods for Addressing Uncertainty and Variability to Characterize Potential Health Risk From Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Ground Water Beale Air Force Base in California: Integration of Uncertainty and Variability in Pharmacokinetics and Dose-Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K.T.

    1999-09-29

    Traditional estimates of health risk are typically inflated, particularly if cancer is the dominant endpoint and there is fundamental uncertainty as to mechanism(s) of action. Risk is more realistically characterized if it accounts for joint uncertainty and interindividual variability after applying a unified probabilistic approach to the distributed parameters of all (linear as well as nonlinear) risk-extrapolation models involved. Such an approach was applied to characterize risks to potential future residents posed by trichloroethylene (TCE) in ground water at an inactive landfill site on Beale Air Force Base in California. Variability and uncertainty were addressed in exposure-route-specific estimates of applied dose, in pharmacokinetically based estimates of route-specific metabolized fractions of absorbed TCE, and in corresponding biologically effective doses estimated under a genotoxic/linear (MA{sub g}) vs. a cytotoxic/nonlinear (MA{sub c}) mechanistic assumption for TCE-induced cancer. Increased risk conditional on effective dose was estimated under MA{sub G} based on seven rodent-bioassay data sets, and under MA, based on mouse hepatotoxicity data. Mean and upper-bound estimates of combined risk calculated by the unified approach were <10{sup -6} and <10{sup -4}, respectively, while corresponding estimates based on traditional deterministic methods were >10{sup -5} and >10{sup -4}, respectively. It was estimated that no TCE-related harm is likely occur due any plausible residential exposure scenario involving the site. The unified approach illustrated is particularly suited to characterizing risks that involve uncertain and/or diverse mechanisms of action.

  20. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassumspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash R Yende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.

  1. Characterizing mammography reports for health analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Carlos C; Patton, Robert M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2011-10-01

    As massive collections of digital health data are becoming available, the opportunities for large-scale automated analysis increase. In particular, the widespread collection of detailed health information is expected to help realize a vision of evidence-based public health and patient-centric health care. Within such a framework for large scale health analytics we describe the transformation of a large data set of mostly unlabeled and free-text mammography data into a searchable and accessible collection, usable for analytics. We also describe several methods to characterize and analyze the data, including their temporal aspects, using information retrieval, supervised learning, and classical statistical techniques. We present experimental results that demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the approach, since the results are consistent with the known features of the data, provide novel insights about it, and can be used in specific applications. Additionally, based on the process of going from raw data to results from analysis, we present the architecture of a generic system for health analytics from clinical notes.

  2. Potentials of telemedicine for green health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Audebert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurological facilities are traditionally centred in academic hospitals and often far away from the patients’ living area. Both, the transfer of patients to remote hospitals and inpatient treatment are associated with high energy consumption. Numbers of patients with neurological diseases are expected to increase along with the demographical changes and the environmental impact of neurological treatment should become a target for health policy, therefore. Positive effects have been demonstrated for the use of telemedicine by improving inpatient treatment in local community hospitals or avoiding hospital admissions via monitoring of complex diseases in outpatient settings. We discuss the potentials of telemedicine in the field of in- and outpatient neurological care as well as the need for more scientific evaluation on environmental impacts.

  3. Health potential for functional green teas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  4. Potential impact of fireworks on respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gouder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide use of fireworks with their consequent detrimental effect on the air quality is widely recognized with elevated ambient air levels of particulate matter and its several metallic components and gases identified in several studies carried out during such events. Exposed individuals may be at risk following inhalation of such produced pollutants. This review focuses on the impact of fireworks on air quality and the potential effect of fireworks on the respiratory system of healthy individuals as well as those suffering from underlying respiratory diseases, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This applies not only to spectators including children but also to pyrotechnicians themselves. An extensive Medline search revealed that a strong evidence of the impact of fireworks on respiratory health is lacking in susceptible as well as healthy individuals with no formal studies on COPD or asthma, other than a few case reports in the latter. The implementation of global strategies to control the use of fireworks and hence improve air quality could possibly reduce their likely detrimental effect on human respiratory health in exposed individuals, but clearly a more targeted research is needed.

  5. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  6. Potentials for health promotion at worksite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2013-01-01

    an important role. It reveals that a ‘one size fits all’ approach to food focused interventions, aiming at developing consistent mental, social and physical foodscapes for bus drivers, will almost certainly fail. Workplace based health promotion activities in multiethnic environments need to take different...... health perceptions into account. This paper suggests that active involvement of the workforce, respect for diversity in health perceptions and in relation to norms regarding how health and food are valued, are key elements in the creation of new and healthier ‘ethnodishes’ in future health promotion...

  7. Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2012-09-01

    During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.

  8. Modification and characterization of potential bioelectronic interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Greben, Kyrylo

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, planar biocompatible dielectric and metal surfaces, modified with self-assembling organic monolayers and functionalized gold nanoparticles are studied. In the field of bioelectronics, adhesion and guiding of cells (especially neurons) on a substrate is of great importance, and withal a hard challenge. Optimization and engineering of properties of a carrier (biocompatible inorganic substrates) can potentially improve the contact between cells and substrates, increase ...

  9. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  10. Vitamin D and Bone Health; Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Strain

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and significant economic and health costs. Vitamin D is a secosteriod hormone essential for calcium absorption and bone mineralization which is positively associated with bone mineral density [BMD]. It is well-established that prolonged and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Sub-optimal vitamin D status has been reported in many populations but it is a particular concern in older people; thus there is clearly a need for effective strategies to optimise bone health. A number of recent studies have suggested that the role of vitamin D in preventing fractures may be via its mediating effects on muscle function (a defect in muscle function is one of the classical signs of rickets and inflammation. Studies have demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation can improve muscle strength which in turn contributes to a decrease in incidence of falls, one of the largest contributors to fracture incidence. Osteoporosis is often considered to be an inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with increased bone metabolism. The immunoregulatory mechanisms of vitamin D may thus modulate the effect of these cytokines on bone health and subsequent fracture risk. Vitamin D, therefore, may influence fracture risk via a number of different mechanisms.

  11. MELATONIN: POTENTIAL UTILITY FOR IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel J REITER; Fatih GULTEKIN; Luis J FLORES; Ma Pilar TERRON; Dun-Xian TAN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the beneficial actions of melatonin in various experimental conditions/diseases and identifies where the use of melatonin may be helpful in improving public health. The nightly use of melatonin supplements by humans often improves their sleep and helps correct the circadian dyssynchronization associated with “jet lag”. Additionally, melatonin has been found effective in curtailing the growth of a variety of experimental cancers. Mechanistically, this is achieved by melatonin’s ability to limit fatty acid uptake, especially linoleic acid, by tumor cells. Fatty acids are growth factors for many tumors. Additionally, melatonin inhibits the elevated telomerase activity of tumor cells thus making them more fragile and vulnerable to chemotherapies. Melatonin also may inhibit angiogenesis in tumors by suppressing endothelin-1 production and the indole interferes with the stimulatory action of steroids on hormone-responsive tumors. As an ubiquitously-acting antioxidant, melatonin reduces cardiac damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury (heart attack and during I/R to the brain (stroke. Melatonin also limits the toxicity of amyloid  peptide and of neurofibrillary tangles, two of the cardinal signs of Alzheimer’s disease. Collectively, these data suggest supplementation with melatonin, whose endogenous levels decrease with age, may improve the quality of life in the aged and, as a consequence, be beneficial for public health generally. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 131-158

  12. A New Method for Characterizing Single Parametric Model Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.S. Vyas; P.N. Gajjar; B.Y. Thakore; A.R. Jani

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach of characterizing single parametric model potential is proposed by equating total pair wise force to zero.Our well-established single parametric model potential is characterized using the proposed idea and compared the obtained parameter with parameters computed by previously used approaches.Thus characterized pseudopotential is then tested to compute total energy of alkali metals.The results establish the reliability of proposed idea of making total pair wise force to zero in determining the parameter of the pseudopotential.

  13. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  14. Hass avocado composition and potential health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mark L; Davenport, Adrienne J

    2013-01-01

    Hass avocados, the most common commercial avocado cultivars in the world, contain a variety of essential nutrients and important phytochemicals. Although the official avocado serving is one-fifth of a fruit (30 g), according to NHANES analysis the average consumption is one-half an avocado (68 g), which provides a nutrient and phytochemical dense food consisting of the following: dietary fiber (4.6 g), total sugar (0.2 g), potassium (345 mg), sodium (5.5 mg), magnesium (19.5 mg), vitamin A (43 μg), vitamin C (6.0 mg), vitamin E (1.3 mg), vitamin K1 (14 μg), folate (60 mg), vitamin B-6 (0.2 mg), niacin (1.3 mg), pantothenic acid (1.0 mg), riboflavin (0.1 mg), choline (10 mg), lutein/zeaxanthin (185 μg), phytosterols (57 mg), and high-monounsaturated fatty acids (6.7 g) and 114 kcals or 1.7 kcal/g. The avocado oil consists of 71% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 13% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 16% saturated fatty acids (SFA), which helps to promote healthy blood lipid profiles and enhance the bioavailability of fat soluble vitamins and phytochemicals from the avocado or other fruits and vegetables, naturally low in fat, which are consumed with avocados. There are eight preliminary clinical studies showing that avocado consumption helps support cardiovascular health. Exploratory studies suggest that avocados may support weight management and healthy aging.

  15. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  16. Potential food contaminants and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Lall, Shyam Bala; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2002-03-01

    The potential toxicants in food are derived from natural or industrial sources. Compounds like lectins and glycoalkaloids that are toxic to man are naturally present in some vegetables like potatoes or legumes. A wide variety of marine toxins mostly produced by dinoflagellates occurring secondarily in molluscs and mussels are usually ingested by human beings causing poisoning. On the other hand, toxic compounds find their way into food during manufacture, storage, or transportation. These include largely the industrial contaminants, persistent organic pollutants (POP), pesticides, heavy metals, and toxins of fungal and bacterial origin. Further, toxic compounds like higher alcohols may be produced as byproducts during processing. Migration of compounds from packaging materials into packaged food like contamination with lead from solder in certain metal cans is well known. Additives (emulsifiers, preservatives, and antioxidants) could also influence the quality of foods. Solvent residues may find their way into food as a result of their use in extraction processes like the use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride in decaffeination of coffee. In addition, poor hygiene, storage, and preparation may also lead to food contamination by various microbes and ova or cysts of nematodes. The problem of food contamination can be overcome to a great extent by regular surveillance and monitoring programmes and strict implementation of food and adulteration act. In the present review some of these aspects of food contamination have been discussed in detail.

  17. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  18. Towards unlocking eHealth potential in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamäki, Jyri

    2016-01-01

    eHealth characterizes not only a technical development, but also a state-of-mind, a way of thinking, an attitude, and a commitment for networked, global thinking, to improve healthcare locally, regionally, and worldwide by using information and communication technology. This paper studies eHealth security from three interrelated angles: security as enabler of trust (empowering users and co-creating trust among EU-citizens); security as technological innovations (open security solutions); and ...

  19. Opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In January 2015, the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) published its final opinion on "Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields." The purpose of this document was to update previous SCENIHR opinions in the light of recently available information since then, and to give special consideration to areas that had not been dealt with in the previous opinions or in which important knowledge gaps had been identified.

  20. A taxonomy characterizing complexity of consumer eHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Connie V; Matthews, Lisa A; Kaufman, David R

    2009-11-14

    There are a range of barriers precluding patients from fully engaging in and benefiting from the spectrum of eHealth interventions developed to support patient access to health information, disease self-management efforts, and patient-provider communication. Consumers with low eHealth literacy skills often stand to gain the greatest benefit from the use of eHealth tools. eHealth skills are comprised of reading/writing/numeracy skills, health literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, and scientific literacy [1]. We aim to develop an approach to characterize dimensions of complexity and to reveal knowledge and skill-related barriers to eHealth engagement. We use Bloom's Taxonomy to guide development of an eHealth literacy taxonomy that categorizes and describes each type of literacy by complexity level. Illustrative examples demonstrate the utility of the taxonomy in characterizing dimensions of complexity of eHealth skills used and associated with each step in completing an eHealth task.

  1. Ethnography: use, potentialities and limits in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caprara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnography is used more and more often to study different subjects in health domain: the functioning and evaluation of healthcare systems; epidemiological research; laboratorial scientific research; biotechnology research; genetic research, among others. Certain methodological questions arise from critical reading of these works: How has ethnographic research evolved over the last few decades? What elements characterize ethnographic research as applied to healthcare? This paper seeks to reflect on these questions through two successive developments: 1. the evolution of the ethnographic method and its use in research on health; 2. the methodological aspects of an ethnographic study conducted with elderly people in the city of Fortaleza, focusing on participant observation.

  2. [Health care research: potential beneficiary of big data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegscheider, Karl; Koch-Gromus, U

    2015-08-01

    Health care research focuses on the description and analysis of the health care system and its requirements. Research-derived innovations are the subject of trials and evaluation of the transfer to daily routine. For this purpose health care research has developed a broad theory-based spectrum of methods. On the other hand, the concept of big data is an new informatics-driven approach to large data sets independent of content. With its technical vocabulary the concept of big data does not easily fit into traditional health care research. Central tasks of health care research such as the generation of theories, norm-oriented evaluations or proof of causality can neither be supported nor replaced by big data. However, the concept of big data has the potential to support health care research, with traditional tasks such as data linkage, analysis of health care paths, quick access to up-to-date data on the distribution and acceptance of health care services, as well as prediction and the generation of hypotheses. The prerequisite for all this is a trust-based linkage of different medical and nonmedical data sources on the basis of the legal regulation of data access and data protection.

  3. "Bring Your Own Device": Considering Potential Risks to Student Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Schools in Australia and internationally are increasingly adopting a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach to teaching and learning. The review: While discussion of a BYOD approach has taken place, there is a dearth of consideration of the potential impact of BYOD policy on student health. Implementation of a BYOD policy…

  4. Potential Health Benefits of Deep Sea Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samihah Zura Mohd Nani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea water (DSW commonly refers to a body of seawater that is pumped up from a depth of over 200 m. It is usually associated with the following characteristics: low temperature, high purity, and being rich with nutrients, namely, beneficial elements, which include magnesium, calcium, potassium, chromium, selenium, zinc, and vanadium. Less photosynthesis of plant planktons, consumption of nutrients, and organic decomposition have caused lots of nutrients to remain there. Due to this, DSW has potential to become a good source for health. Research has proven that DSW can help overcome health problems especially related to lifestyle-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and skin problems. This paper reviews the potential health benefits of DSW by referring to the findings from previous researches.

  5. [Municipal Health Promotion in Germany: Duties, Rights and Potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, U; Volkenand, K

    2016-10-18

    Municipalities have an overarching structure in health promotion. Due to the right to self-government, municipalities are in charge of both voluntary and obligatory tasks. Some of the original and fundamental tasks can be summarized as "services to the public". Current common definitions do not include the term "health promotion". In the present study, a sub-target of a joint project, legal acts, requirements and recommendations were researched and analyzed. The results show substantive cornerstones of health promotion in various regulations of different disciplines. Based on these findings, health promotion can be interpreted as being part of services to the public. Currently the regulations for education, social tasks, environmental and consumer protection constitute the legal framework for community health promotion, but also include constitutions. They range from public international law to municipal resolutions. Quality management and also quality development are already an integral part in some communal departments. The management of structures, processes and results arises from commitments or measurable targets. In contrast, quality management for health promotion is not based on binding requirements. Specifications of other neighboring sectors (e. g. education, social sector) demonstrate the potential and effectiveness of legal policy guidelines, seen as a frame. A transparent communication about the current regulations is indispensable for formulating future guidelines. The German National Prevention Act opens opportunities for municipalities. However, its interpretation and local engagement will still guide the practice of communal health promotion.

  6. Relationship of children's anxiety to their potential dental health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F A

    1980-08-01

    In this study of 200 New Zealand schoolchildren aged 7-13 years, a questionnaire interview was used to gain information related to estimating dental anxiety and general illness anxiety. Information related to sociodemographic differences, belief differences, and an estimate of potential health behaviour was also collected. Oral examinations were performed and the number of dental restorations present recorded. Dental anxiety was associated with memory of pain during a dental visit. The number of restorations present, and a history of pain during a dental visit, were important predictors of illness anxiety. Neither dental anxiety nor illness anxiety operating alone provided an estimate of future dental health behaviour. Dental anxiety and illness anxiety operated through a complex interplay of variables. A stepwise multiple regression technique was used to determine the possible pathways to potential dental health behaviour. Perceived vulnerability to dental caries and perceived severity of dental disease were important in the prediction of potential denture wearing; school attended and ethnic background were useful predictors of potential extraction seeking; and school grade and level of perceived internal control were predictors of potential preventive visitation.

  7. Oral health technicians in Brazilian primary health care: potentials and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Dulce Maria Lucena de; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Machado, Maria de Fátima Antero Sousa; Martins, Cleide Lavieri; Frazão, Paulo

    2014-07-01

    Different perspectives on the role of mid-level workers in health care might represent a constraint to health policies. This study aimed to investigate how different agents view the participation of oral health technicians in direct activities of oral healthcare with the goal of understanding the related symbolic dispositions. Theoretical assumptions related to inter-professional collaboration and conflicts in the field of healthcare were used for this analysis. A researcher conducted 24 in-depth interviews with general dental practitioners, oral health technicians and local managers. The concepts of Pierre Bourdieu supported the data interpretation. The results indicated inter-professional relations marked by collaboration and conflict that reflect an action space related to different perspectives of primary care delivery. They also unveiled the symbolic devices related to the participation of oral health technicians that represent a constraint to the implementation of oral health policy, thus reducing the potential of primary health care in Brazil.

  8. Investigating impacts of positional error on potential health care accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Scott; Wilson, Kathi; Shah, Tayyab Ikram; Gersher, Sarina; Elliott, Tina

    2012-04-01

    Accessibility to health services at the local or community level is an effective approach to measuring health care delivery in various constituencies in Canada and the United States. GIS and spatial methods play an important role in measuring potential access to health services. The Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA) method is a GIS based procedure developed to calculate potential (spatial) accessibility as a ratio of primary health care (PHC) providers to the surrounding population in urban settings. This method uses PHC provider locations in textual/address format supplied by local, regional, or national health authorities. An automated geocoding procedure is normally used to convert such addresses to a pair of geographic coordinates. The accuracy of geocoding depends on the type of reference data and the amount of value-added effort applied. This research investigates the success and accuracy of six geocoding methods as well as how geocoding error affects the 3SFCA method. ArcGIS software is used for geocoding and spatial accessibility estimation. Results will focus on two implications of geocoding: (1) the success and accuracy of different automated and value-added geocoding; and (2) the implications of these geocoding methods for GIS-based methods that generalise results based on location data.

  9. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, Robert B. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2004-07-12

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

  11. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  12. Flavonoids:emerging trends and potential health benefits%Flavonoids: emerging trends and potential health benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj K.Keservani; Anil K.Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely used in industry for the prevention of various diseases.In daily life we are directly in touch with flavonoids due to their presence in different beverages,fruits and vegetables.Flavonoids are mainly used as a coloring agent in plants,antioxidant and nutritional food for human.Flavonoids have explicit role in UV filtration,symbiotic nitrogen fixation and floral pigmentation.Flavonoids have potential for different biological activities like chelation of metals,decreasing platelets aggregation and cell signaling etc.

  13. Spatial characterization of electric potentials generated by pulsed microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandagor, V; Cela, C J; Sanders, C A; Greenbaum, E; Lazzi, G; Humayun, M S; Zhou, D M; Castro, R; Gaikwad, S; Little, J

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a report on the in situ characterization of stimulating microelectrodes in the context of multielectrode retinal prosthetic implants. The experimental system approximately replicates the geometric and electrical parameters of Second Sight Medical Products' Argus II Retinal Implant. Topographic maps of electric potentials have been prepared for a 60 electrode structure in which selected electrodes were stimulated with biphasic repetitively pulsed charge densities at 100 microC·cm(-2). Surface contour maps were prepared using a 10 microm diameter recording electrode.

  14. Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava (Phaeophyceae): biological activities and potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Isuru; Yoon, Na Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The importance of bioactive derivatives as functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and characterization of novel functional ingredients with biological activities from seaweeds have gained much attention. Ecklonia cava Kjellman is an edible seaweed, which has been recognized as a rich source of bioactive derivatives mainly, phlorotannins. These phlorotannins exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, antihypertensive, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition, radioprotective, and antiallergic activities. This review focuses on biological activities of phlorotannins with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals.

  15. Potential occupational health hazards in the microelectronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, J

    1983-02-01

    The microelectronics industry is a major user of a wide variety of chemicals and other toxic materials. In the recent past semiconductor manufacturers have located in many countries and brought a new set of challenging clinical problems to occupational physicians. California, an area with a significant history in the statistical study of health and safety in the microelectronics industry, presents some evidence of potential health hazards in the semiconductor manufacturing process. The Semiconductor Industry Study done in California in 1981 explains the application of many toxic materials in the semiconductor manufacturing process, including a variety of solvents, acids, and metals such as arsenic. The Study documents the extensive use of dopant gases, primarily arsine, phosphine and diborane. Further study is necessary to assure the health and safety of microelectronics workers, particularly in the application of dopant gases.

  16. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.

  17. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies.

  18. Characterizing the transmission potential of zoonotic infections from minor outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Kucharski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transmission potential of a novel infection depends on both the inherent transmissibility of a pathogen, and the level of susceptibility in the host population. However, distinguishing between these pathogen- and population-specific properties typically requires detailed serological studies, which are rarely available in the early stages of an outbreak. Using a simple transmission model that incorporates age-stratified social mixing patterns, we present a novel method for characterizing the transmission potential of subcritical infections, which have effective reproduction number R<1, from readily available data on the size of outbreaks. We show that the model can identify the extent to which outbreaks are driven by inherent pathogen transmissibility and pre-existing population immunity, and can generate unbiased estimates of the effective reproduction number. Applying the method to real-life infections, we obtained accurate estimates for the degree of age-specific immunity against monkeypox, influenza A(H5N1 and A(H7N9, and refined existing estimates of the reproduction number. Our results also suggest minimal pre-existing immunity to MERS-CoV in humans. The approach we describe can therefore provide crucial information about novel infections before serological surveys and other detailed analyses are available. The methods would also be applicable to data stratified by factors such as profession or location, which would make it possible to measure the transmission potential of emerging infections in a wide range of settings.

  19. Characterization, antioxidant potential and cytotoxic study of mangaba fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fagundes Assumpção

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangaba (Hancornia speciosa stands out and has a great potential for economic exploitation and researches have suggested relevant results regarding the nutritional and functional value of this food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to chemically and physicochemically characterize the mangaba fruit harvested in the Middle Araguaia region. It was evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, volatile compounds, preliminary photochemical studies of phenolic components and the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic extract fruits against Artemia salina. The mean pH, the total titratable acidity and the value for reducing sugars conclude that the mangaba possesses the characteristics appropriate for both fresh consumption and for processing. Between the mean values measured, the fruits presented high fiber content and a low caloric value. The analysis of the antioxidant potential revealed a significant activity and in the volatile compounds analysis, esters were the major class presents. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenols, flavonoids and tannins were present in the ethanolic extract of mangaba and a significant activity in the cytotoxicity assay was observed.

  20. The representation of health care services in Mexican television: potential consequences for health subjectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Rojas Rajs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the representation of health services in Mexican television, considering that television plays an important role in the production and reproduction of the social meanings of health. A descriptive study analyzed the contents of 672 hours of continuous television (media flows broadcast in Mexico in 2011, examining advertising, television shows and newscasts. The analysis of all these messages shows that the representation of private care services predominates. When public care services are mentioned, the communication is mainly regarding the Seguro Popular de Salud [Popular Health Insurance, for those with low incomes], while the social security model of care is underrepresented. We therefore conclude that television favors the two first models of health care. This kind of representation could hold potential consequences for health subjectivities.

  1. Wheat aleurone: separation, composition, health aspects, and potential food use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Fred; Hemery, Youna; Price, Ruth; Anson, Nuria Mateo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last three decades substantial attention has been given to the role of dietary fiber in health and disease, in particular diabetes, cardiovascular disease, intestinal health, and some types of cancer. As a result the food industry started to add back fiber to refined foods and develop fiber rich foods. Scientists suggested that whole grain foods are superior to foods enriched with fibers obtained/synthesized using enzyme treatment, and thermal or chemical processing because the content of bioactive components and micronutrients in whole grain is more abundant. This triggered interest in how to isolate the micronutrient rich aleurone fiber fraction from wheat. Aleurone is a single cell layer at the inner site of the bran. It contains most of the minerals, vitamins, phenolic antioxidants, and lignans of the wheat grain. Novel milling and dry-fractionation techniques have recently allowed for full-scale separation of aleurone cells from the other layers of wheat bran, yielding a fiber rich concentrate which potentially contains many of the "whole grain kernel bioactives," which recently have been used in a variety of studies. The present review highlights available data on aleurone isolation, composition, intestinal physiology, and its metabolism and potential health benefits as well as its use in food.

  2. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  3. Distribution and potential health risk of groundwater uranium in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woosik; Oh, Jungsun; Choung, Sungwook; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Yun, Uk; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Hyun Koo

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure even to extremely low specific radioactivity of natural uranium in groundwater results in kidney problems and potential toxicity in bones. This study was conducted to assess the potential health risk via intake of the groundwater containing uranium, based on the determination of the uranium occurrence in groundwater. The groundwater was investigated from a total of 4140 wells in Korea. Most of the groundwater samples showed neutral pH and (sub-)oxic condition that was influenced by the mixing with shallow groundwater due to long-screened (open) wells. High uranium contents exceeding the WHO guideline level of 30 μg L(-1) were observed in the 160 wells located mainly in the plutonic bedrock regions. The statistical analysis suggested that the uranium component was present in groundwater by desorption and re-dissolution processes. Predominant uranium phases were estimated to uranyl carbonates under the Korean groundwater circumstances. These mobile forms of uranium and oxic condition facilitate the increase of potential health risk downgradient. In particular, long-term intake of groundwater containing >200 μg U L(-1) may induce internal exposure to radiation as well as the effects of chemical toxicity. These high uranium concentrations were found in twenty four sampling wells of rural areas in this study, and they were mainly used for drinking. Therefore, the high-level uranium wells and neighboring areas must be properly managed and monitored to reduce the exposure risk for the residents by drinking groundwater.

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on potential health and environmental effects of synthetic fossil fuel technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This symposium included five sessions. Session I dealt with the technology for contending with harmful effluents primarily from coal conversion processes. Session II was designed to address the need for the systematic application of existing capabilities to the collection and characterization of materials of importance to the life scientists. Session III had the underlying theme of the health effects research - biologists, chemists, and technologists working together to confront the problems of the emerging industries. Session IV provided the most recent data in the areas of atmospheric, solid, and liquid releases. Session V dealt with effects on humans and on those people who may potentially be affected by the toxic material that they produce. In summary, the sessions were: technology, chemical, characterization, biological effects, environmental and ecological effects and occupational health effects. 29 pages were included.

  5. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: potential role in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities.

  6. Health and wholeness undergraduate course in Uganda: Potential public health impact and transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L Fountain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 26,000 students at a major Christian University in Uganda have completed a single semester course on Health and Wholeness. While common in other higher education contexts, general education courses and health education courses in particular are uncommon in the Africa higher education context. This course therefore is a bold initiative by Uganda Christian University. The course is designed to help students in a wide range of programs understand how to promote and improve health in their own lives as well as their homes, communities, workplace, and society. Students learn about the definitions of health and wholeness. They discuss hygiene; nutrition; sanitation, water, and land use; common occurring health problems, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections; sexuality; first aid and early intervention; family health, dependence, fitness and life skills, and leadership for a healthy society. Through discussion, students are expected to identify factors that hinder or enhance health. Challenges and lessons learned in the course include confronting cultural practices, improving critical analysis skills, addressing information at the right technical level, and improving behavior change. Because graduates come from, and move on to, virtually all facets of economic, civil, and social life in Uganda and beyond, this course could carry tremendous potential to improve the public’s health.

  7. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yende, Subhash R; Harle, Uday N; Chaugule, Bhupal B

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.

  8. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  9. Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina L. Leckie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.

  10. Bioavailability, metabolism and potential health protective effects of dietary flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea

    Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several epidemiologi......Dietary flavonoids constitute an important group of potential health protective compounds from fruits, vegetables, and plant-based products such as tea and wine. The beneficial effects of a diet high in flavonoids on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been shown in several....... The present thesis was initiated with two objectives. One objective was to investigate the bioavailability and metabolism of the dietary important flavonoids hesperetin and naringenin from commercial, hesperidin-fortified, and enzymatically treated orange juice. The other objective was to explore...... the association between exposure to dietary flavonoids and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a nested case-control study. The bioavailability and metabolism of hesperetin and naringenin was investigated by analysing urine and plasma from 16 subjects after consumption of three treatments of orange juice...

  11. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial strains exhibiting ligninolytic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandounas Luaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand on the range of products which can be obtained from lignocellulosic biomass, the lignin component should be utilized as feedstock for value-added chemicals such as substituted aromatics, instead of being incinerated for heat and energy. Enzymes could provide an effective means for lignin depolymerization into products of interest. In this study, soil bacteria were isolated by enrichment on Kraft lignin and evaluated for their ligninolytic potential as a source of novel enzymes for waste lignin valorization. Results Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization, the organisms were identified as Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001, Pseudomonas sp LD002 and Bacillus sp LD003. The ligninolytic capability of each of these isolates was assessed by growth on high-molecular weight and low-molecular weight lignin fractions, utilization of lignin-associated aromatic monomers and degradation of ligninolytic indicator dyes. Pandoraea norimbergensis LD001 and Pseudomonas sp. LD002 exhibited best growth on lignin fractions, but limited dye-decolourizing capacity. Bacillus sp. LD003, however, showed least efficient growth on lignin fractions but extensive dye-decolourizing capacity, with a particular preference for the recalcitrant phenothiazine dye class (Azure B, Methylene Blue and Toluidene Blue O. Conclusions Bacillus sp. LD003 was selected as a promising source of novel types of ligninolytic enzymes. Our observations suggested that lignin mineralization and depolymerization are separate events which place additional challenges on the screening of ligninolytic microorganisms for specific ligninolytic enzymes.

  12. Potential of NMR Spectroscopy in the Characterization of Nonconventional Oils

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    Abdul Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy was applied for the characterization of two biomass based pyrolysis oil samples. The samples were extracted in various solvents and the extracts were investigated by both 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent evaluation of the integrated analytical data revealed chemical information regarding semiquantitative estimation of various functional groups. This information could not have been obtained readily from the individual spectroscopic techniques. Semiquantitative estimation of the various functional groups allowed a comparison of the extraction efficiency of these groups in various solvents. The method is based on the premise that although the number of individual molecular species in pyrolysis oil liquid is large, most of these species are composed of a limited number of functional groups. The methodology provided information on the concentration of chemical functionalities that are potentially useful for synthetic modifications and may help to guide the use of pyrolysis oil as a chemical feedstock. The approach described is expected to be generally applicable to complex mixture of hydrocarbon oils such as bio-oils, oil sands bitumen, and coal pyrolysis oils.

  13. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  14. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  15. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn. is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane, leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  16. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  17. Progress in nanoparticles characterization:Sizing and zeta potential measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Xu

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of various nanoparticles is on the center stage in nanotechnology development. The subjects for nanoparticles characterization are focused on particle size and particle surface charge determinations. This article summarizes the latest development in particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering and surface charge determination using electrophoretic light scattering for nano- or even sub-nanoparticles in concentrated suspensions.

  18. Potential health concerns of dietary phosphorus: cancer, obesity, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B

    2013-10-01

    Adult Americans typically consume on average 1400 mg, or more, of phosphorus (P) daily in meals, which almost doubles the recommended dietary allowance. After a meal phosphorus is rapidly absorbed at a high efficiency and hormonal mechanisms act swiftly to maintain the serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration within fairly narrow limits. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) reduce serum phosphate during postprandial periods through homeostatic actions on the kidney. However, it is speculated that exposure of cells to a brief high-serum Pi concentration may signal alterations in cell functions that lead to deleterious effects. Elevation of serum FGF-23 or PTH may also be harmful to specific cell types. Examples of possible adverse health effects include cancer, obesity, and hypertension. Here I review potential mechanisms through which high-P intake may contribute to cell metabolic abnormalities and the development of chronic disease; high-dietary phosphorus, especially from foods processed with phosphate salts, may be associated with these chronic diseases. Further investigation is needed to establish the significance of high-phosphate diets within a large segment of the U.S. population with normal renal function.

  19. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  20. Potentially harmful elements in house dust from Estarreja, Portugal: characterization and genotoxicity of the bioaccessible fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumejeaud, Sophie; Reis, Amelia Paula; Tassistro, Virginie; Patinha, Carla; Noack, Yves; Orsière, Thierry

    2016-10-22

    Due to their behavioral characteristics, young children are vulnerable to the ingestion of indoor dust, often contaminated with chemicals that are potentially harmful. Exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is currently exacerbated by their widespread use in several industrial, agricultural, domestic and technological applications. PHEs cause adverse health effects on immune and nervous systems and can lead to cancer development via genotoxic mechanisms. The present study is an integrated approach that aims at assessing the genotoxicity of bioaccessible PHEs following ingestion of contaminated house dust. A multidisciplinary methodology associating chemical characterization of five house dust samples, extraction of the bioaccessible PHEs in gastric extracts by the unified BARGE method, determination of the bioaccessible fraction and in vitro genotoxicity of gastric extracts in adenocarcinoma gastric human (AGS) cells was developed. The five gastric extracts induced dose-dependent genotoxicity in AGS cells. Copper (bioaccessible concentration up to 111 mg/kg) was probably the prevalent PHE inducing primary DNA damage (up to 5.1-fold increase in tail DNA at 0.53 g/l of gastric extract). Lead (bioaccessible concentration up to 245 mg/kg) was the most prevalent PHE inducing chromosome-damaging effects (r = 0.55; p health risks.

  1. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  2. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse.

  3. Potential Health Effects of Enzymatic Protein Hydrolysates from Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Sedighi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlorella vulgaris is a multi-cellular edible algal species with abundant proteins. Extraction of high value protein fractions for pharmaceutical and nutritional applications can significantly increase the commercial value of microalga biomasses. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the Chlorella vulgaris abundant protein.Materials and Methods: This study examined the antimicrobial and anticancer effects of peptides from a hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris protein with 62 kDa molecular weight. Protein hydrolysis was done by pepsin as a gastrointestinal protease, and was monitored through protein content measurement, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and high performance liquidchromatography measurements. Inhibitory effect of the produced peptides on Escherichia coli cells and breast cancer cell lines was assayed.Results and Conclusion: Hydrolyzed peptides induced a decrease of about 34.1% in the growth of Escherichia coli, and the peptides of 3 to 5 kDa molecular weight had strong impact on the viability of breast cancer cells with IC50 value of 50 μg μl-1. The peptide fractions demonstrating antimicrobial and anti-cancer activities have the potential for use as functional food ingredients for health benefits. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae proteinscould be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  4. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.

  5. Complexity: a potential paradigm for a health promotion discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.

  6. FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALITIES REGARDING DRUGS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aparecida de Barros

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.

  7. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduct

  8. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  9. Characterization of autochthonous Lactobacillus paracasei strains on potential probiotic ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Radulović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from traditional made cheeses constitute a reservoir of unexplored potential in biotechnology. In this study four autochthonous lactobacilli strains, isolated from traditional white brined cheeses and identified as Lactobacillus paracasei (08, 564, 05 and 02, were investigated on potential probiotic ability. The investigation comprised sensitivity to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, antimicrobial activity against wide range of pathogens, antibiotic resistance as well as autoaggregation ability. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was used as referent strain. Three tested strains grew well in simulated gastrointestinal conditions, but their sensitivity was greater on bile acids and pancreatin compared with pepsin low pH 2.5. The examined strains had different sensitivity to antibiotics, but three strains showed very good antimicrobial activity to pathogens. All strains demonstrated very good autoaggregation ability. For three of four examined strains of Lb. paracasei probiotic potential was similar with referent strain Lb. rhamnosus GG, determined in vitro

  10. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  11. Structural Identification and Characterization of Potential Impurities of Azelnidipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshbabu Kapavarapu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Azelnidipine (AZL is a pale yellowish white tablet (16mg with diameter of 9.2mm and thickness of 3.3mm. A reverse phase performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of AZL in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. During the synthesis of bulk drug of AZL, we observed four impurities. All the impurities were detected by a gradient high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method. LC-MS was performed to identify the mass number of these impurities. A thorough study was carried out to characterize the impurities. These impurities were synthesized, characterized and were co-injected with the sample containing impurities and are found to be matching with the impurities present in the sample. Based on the complete spectral analysis (UV, IR, NMR and MS these impurities were characterized as 1 Azelnidipine Stage-I para impurity [Impurity 1], whose molecular formula is C14 H15 NO5 and molecular weight is 277.27, 2 Azelnidipine Intermediate [Impurity 2], whose molecular formula is C14H15NO5 and molecular weight is 277.27, 3 4-Nitro Azelnidipine [Impurity 3], whose molecular formula is C33H34N4O6 and molecular weight is 582.65 and, 4 2-Nitro Azelnidipine [Impurity 4], whose molecular formula is C33H34N4O6 and molecular weight is 582.65. The proposed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The method was accurate, precise, specific and rapid found to be suitable for the quantitative analysis of the drug and dosage form.

  12. Development and Characterization of Nisin Nanoparticles as Potential Alternative for the Recurrent Vaginal Candidiasis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Letícia Coli Louvisse; Todaro, Valerio; Sathler, Plinio Cunha; da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Rodrigues Pereira; do Carmo, Flávia Almada; Costa, Cleonice Marques; Toma, Helena Keiko; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; de Sousa, Valeria Pereira; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was the development and characterization of nisin-loaded nanoparticles and the evaluation of its potential antifungal activity. Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida sp. considered as one of the major public health problem currently. The discovery of antifungal agents that present a reduced or null resistance of Candida sp. and the development of more efficient drug release mechanisms are necessary for the improvement of candidiasis treatment. Nisin, a bacteriocin commercially available for more than 50 years, exhibits antibacterial action in food products with potential antifungal activity. Among several alternatives used to modulate antifungal activity of bacteriocins, polymeric nanoparticles have received great attention due to an effective drug release control and reduction of therapeutic dose, besides the minimization of adverse effects by the preferential accumulation in specific tissues. The nisin nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsification and solvent evaporation methods. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. Antifungal activity was accessed by pour plate method and cell counting using Candida albicans strains. The in vitro release profile and in vitro permeation studies were performed using dialysis bag method and pig vaginal mucosa in Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The results revealed nisin nanoparticles (300 nm) with spherical shape and high loading efficiency (93.88 ± 3.26%). In vitro test results suggest a promising application of these nanosystems as a prophylactic agent in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and other gynecological diseases.

  13. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  14. Optical characterization of vitreous structure in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Khoshnevis, Matin; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Sebag, J.

    2015-03-01

    Patients with myopic vitreopathy (MV) and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) see floaters, which often can degrade contrast sensitivity to a significant extent. The floaters are associated with irregularly shaped vitreous opacities. In contrast, asteroid hyalosis (AH), which is characterized by microscopic, spherical, white asteroid bodies (ABs) that move with vitreous displacement during eye movements, does not interfere significantly with vision. We hypothesize that the irregular surface of vitreous opacities associated with MV distinguish MV from AH and its smooth-surfaced ABs. A finite-element model was developed to characterize the light-scattering field of vitreous opacities in MV and AH. Vitreous opacities were modeled as spherical bodies and illuminated by a plane wave of light in the optical wavelength of 400-1000 nm. The model has provisions to add random perturbations to the spherical surfaces to vary light-scattering properties and mimic disturbances in vision from simple diffraction rings to more-complex patterns. Samples of ex vivo porcine vitreous (0.4-0.5 ml) were placed in a custom spectrophotometer and the static, light-scattering field of the sample was measured in the spectral range of 400-1000 nm with a resolution of 0.3 nm. Model solutions mimicking healthy vitreous and AH were experimentally validated using a laboratory optical apparatus. Model-based estimates of scattering cross-sections of calibrated gold nanoparticles were found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulation results potentially can complement experimental data to quantitatively characterize vitreous opacities and distinguish between structures that significantly impact vision, such as those due to myopic vitreopathy and aging, from those that have little impact, like ABs. Such techniques to determine the structural significance of vitreous opacification would be very useful in selecting patients for surgery as well as evaluating the efficacy of

  15. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.

  16. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  17. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  18. An axiomatic characterization of the potential decisiveness index

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Freixas; Montserrat Pons

    2015-01-01

    Let us consider that somebody is extremely interested in increasing the probability of a proposal to be approved by a certain committee and that to achieve this goal he/she is prepared to pay off one member of the committee. In a situation like this one, and assuming that vote-buying is allowed and free of stigma, which voter should be offered a bribe? The potential decisiveness index for simple games, which measures the effect that ensuring one positive vote produces for the probability of p...

  19. Isolation and characterization of a potential transposable element from Wolbachia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wolbachia are a group of Rickettsia-like bacteria which parasitize the cells of a wide range of anthropoid. These microorganisms are associated with the reproductive and developmental abnormalities io their hosts. To study the molecular mechanism underlying such phenomena, we analyzed the genomic difference between Wolbachia with different cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenotype using representational difference analysis method. A potential transposable element, which exists in the strong CI-inducing strain wRi, was isolated. This element was designated as Wolbachia insertion sequence element (WISE).

  20. Regional characterization of freshwater Use in LCA: modeling direct impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Marie; Bulle, Cécile; Bayart, Jean-Baptiste; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2011-10-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology that quantifies potential environmental impacts for comparative purposes in a decision-making context. While potential environmental impacts from pollutant emissions into water are characterized in LCA, impacts from water unavailability are not yet fully quantified. Water use can make the resource unavailable to other users by displacement or quality degradation. A reduction in water availability to human users can potentially affect human health. If financial resources are available, there can be adaptations that may, in turn, shift the environmental burdens to other life cycle stages and impact categories. This paper proposes a model to evaluate these potential impacts in an LCA context. It considers the water that is withdrawn and released, its quality and scarcity in order to evaluate the loss of functionality associated with water uses. Regionalized results are presented for impacts on human health for two modeling approaches regarding affected users, including or not domestic uses, and expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). A consumption and quality based scarcity indicator is also proposed as a midpoint. An illustrative example is presented for the production of corrugated board with different effluents, demonstrating the importance of considering quality, process effluents and the difference between the modeling approaches.

  1. Characterization of a New Heat Dissipation Matric Potential Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Krebs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture sensors can help to reduce the amount of water needed for irrigation. In this paper we describe the PlantCare soil moisture sensor as a new type of heat dissipation sensor, its calibration and the correction for temperature changes. With the PlantCare sensor it is possible to measure the matric potential indirectly to monitor or control irrigation. This sensor is based on thermal properties of a synthetic felt. After a defined heating phase the cooling time to a threshold temperature is a function of the water content in the synthetic felt. The water content in this porous matrix is controlled by the matric potential in the surrounding soil. Calibration measurements have shown that the sensor is most sensitive to −400 hPa and allows lower sensitivity measurements to −800 hPa. The disturbing effect of the temperature change during the measurement on the cooling time can be corrected by a linear function and the differences among sensors are minimized by a two point calibration.

  2. Review of Potential Characterization Techniques in Approaching Energy and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. LePoire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Societal prosperity is linked to sustainable energy and a healthy environment. However, tough global challenges include increased demand for fossil fuels, while approaching peak oil production and uncertainty in the environmental impacts of energy generation. Recently, energy use was identified as a major component of economic productivity, along with capital and labor. Other environmental resources and impacts may be nearing environmental thresholds, as indicated by nine planetary environmental boundaries, many of which are linked to energy production and use. Foresight techniques could be applied to guide future actions which include emphasis on (1 energy efficiency to bridge the transition to a renewable energy economy; (2 continued research, development, and assessment of new technologies; (3 improved understanding of environment impacts including natural capital use and degradation; (4 exploration of GDP alternative measures that include both economic production and environmental impacts; and (5 international cooperation and awareness of longer-term opportunities and their associated potential scenarios. Examples from the U.S. and the international community illustrate challenges and potential.

  3. Active and retired public employees' health insurance: potential data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2014-12-01

    Employer-provided health insurance for public sector workers is a significant public policy issue. Underfunding and the growing costs of benefits may hinder the fiscal solvency of state and local governments. Findings from the private sector may not be applicable because many public sector workers are covered by union contracts or salary schedules and often benefit modifications require changes in legislation. Research has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently large and representative data on public sector employees. This article highlights data sources researchers might utilize to investigate topics concerning health insurance for active and retired public sector employees.

  4. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  5. Characterization of potential ionizing radiation biomarkers by a proteomic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guipaud, O.; Vereycken-Holler, V.; Benderitter, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Radiopathologie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Royer, N.; Vinh, J. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio-induced lesions are tissue specific, hardly predictable, and can arise months or years later. The finding of prognostic bio-markers is of fundamental relevance for the settlement of therapeutic or preventive strategies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a proteomic study was applied to look for differentially expressed proteins, i.e. potential bio-markers candidates, in mouse serums after a local irradiation of the dorsal skin. Our results clearly indicated that serum protein content was dynamically modified after a local skin irradiation. A set of specific proteins were early down- or up-regulated and could turn out to be good candidates as diagnostic or prognostic bio-markers. (author)

  6. Evaluating the educational potential of health PSAs with preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Piotrowski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Children learn from a variety of televised programs, including the short public service announcements (PSAs) that air between children's programs. PSAs are designed to repetitively expose children to important content ranging from the benefits of reading to health-related messages. The purpose of th

  7. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  8. Teaching Classroom Management-- A Potential Public Health Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Ruth; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Norman, Shelley; Ingarfield, Sara; Sharkey, Siobhan; Logan, Stuart; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the feasibility of a classroom management course as a public health intervention. Improved socio-emotional skills may boost children's developmental and academic trajectory, while the costs of behaviour problems are enormous for schools with considerable impact on others' well-being.…

  9. Health cost risk : A potential solution to the annuity puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Nijman, Theo; Werker, Bas

    2016-01-01

    We find that health cost risk lowers optimal annuity demand at retirement. If medical expenses can be sizeable early in retirement, full annuitisation at retirement is no longer optimal because agents do not have enough time to build a liquid wealth buffer. Furthermore, large deviations from optimal

  10. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  11. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  12. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a di...

  13. Characterization of potential ABA receptors in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Zheng, Chuanlin; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-02-01

    Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress-related genes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a key endogenous messenger in a plant's response to such stresses. A novel ABA binding mechanism which plays a key role in plant cell signaling cascades has recently been uncovered. In the absence of ABA, a type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) interacts and inhibits the kinase SnRK2. Binding of ABA to the PYR/PYLs receptors enables interaction between the ABA receptor and the PP2C protein, and abrogates the SnRK2 inactivation. The active SnRK2 is then free to activate the ABA-responsive element Binding Factors which target ABA-dependent gene expression. We used the grape as a model to study the ABA perception mechanism in fruit trees. The grape ABA signaling cascade consists of at least seven ABA receptors and six PP2Cs. We used a yeast two-hybrid system to examine physical interaction in vitro between the grape ABA receptors and their interacting partners, and found that twenty-two receptor-PP2C interactions can occur. Moreover, quantifying these affinities by the use of the LacZ reporter enables us to show that VvPP2C4 and VvPP2C9 are the major binding partners of the ABA receptor. We also tested in vivo the root and leaf gene expression of the various ABA receptors and PP2Cs in the presence of exogenic ABA and under different abiotic stresses such as high salt concentration, cold and drought, and found that many of these genes are regulated by such abiotic environmental factors. Our results indicate organ specificity in the ABA receptor genes and stress specificity in the VvPP2Cs. We suggest that VvPP2C4 is the major PP2C involved in ABA perception in leaves and roots, and VvRCAR6 and VvRCAR5 respectively, are the major receptors involved in ABA perception in these organs. Identification, characterization and manipulation of the central players in the ABA signaling cascades in fruit trees is

  14. Characterization of Uranium Tolerance and Biomineralization Potential of Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to its high toxicity and mobility, U(VI) poses a major environmental threat to ecosystems. The ubiquitous aerobic bacterium Caulobacter cresecentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation because of its ability to survive in low-nutrient environments (5, 6), tolerate high U concentrations and mineralize U(VI) aerobically through the formation of uranyl phosphate (U-Pi) precipitates. Despite these attractive environmental properties, both a systems level understanding of the adaptive response pathways involved in U tolerance and the environmental conditions affecting the biomineralization process and stability of biogenic U-Pi minerals remain limited. By measuring changes in both mRNA and protein expression during exposure to high U levels, we have identified the core stress response pathways involved in U tolerance. Pathways associated with heat shock, lipospolysaccharide biosynthesis and transport, outer membrane lipoprotein transport and outermembrane assembly were highly induced at both the RNA and protein levels. Correspondingly, removal of integral components of proteolysis pathways including clpA, clpS and degP significantly reduced U tolerance under biomineralization conditions. Surprisingly, in contrast to many other heavy metals, U did not cause oxidative stress or DNA damage. Together, these analyses indicate that U predominately targets the outermembrane and causes mis-folding of both cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic proteins. Efforts are currently underway to characterize the morphological and structural properties of biogenic U-Pi minerals and the environmental factors that influence their production and stability. Preliminary AFM studies suggest that U-Pi minerals formed under biomineralization conditions appear morphologically distinct from those formed abiotically between U(VI) and inorganic phosphate. Additionally, we observed that biomineralization tolerates a wide pH range (pH 6-9). Our long-range goal is the development of a

  15. Identification and characterization of a phytase of potential commercial interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne; Walsh, Gary

    2004-06-10

    Phytases catalyse the hydrolytic degradation of phytic acid and its salts and are added to monogastric animal feed to ameliorate the negative environmental and nutritional consequences of dietary phytate. Screening of 58 microbial strains identified a phytase produced by Rhizopus oligosporus ATCC 22959 that displayed physicochemical characteristics likely to render it of potential industrial interest. The 124 kDa enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and chromatofocusing. The monomeric glycosylated enzyme (30.5% total carbohydrate) displayed maximum activity at 65 degrees C and pH 5.0. It displayed a Km of 10.4 microM, a Vmax of 1.32 nmols(-1) and a Kcat of 51 s(-1). It is acid tolerant, retaining full activity after incubation at pH 2.0 for 6h. HPLC analysis indicated the enzyme's ability to almost completely degrade phytate. Substrate specificity studies showed its ability to dephosphorylate several additional phosphorylated molecules. Activity was unaffected or moderately stimulated by a range of metal ions with only Ca2+ exerting a modest (13%) inhibitory effect. The enzyme is significantly more thermostable at 80 degrees C and retains a significantly greater proportion of maximal activity at physiological temperatures than do two commercial phytases tested for comparative purposes. This may render it of industrial interest.

  16. Potential Environmental and Health Impacts of High Land Application of Cheese Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale experiment was carried out to study the transformation and transport of nitrogenous compounds in soils receiving high application rates of cheese whey (twice the nitrogen requirement for crops. The experimental apparatus consists of 36 soil columns constructed of 20 cm inside diameter PVC pipes. Three types of soil (sandy loam, loam and sandy clay loam and three soil depths (60, 120, 180 cm were studied. The average monthly rainfall for the summer period in Halifax was used. The nitrogen in the soil was subject to biological transformations and downward movement in the soil. There were indications of the mineralization and nitrification processes taking place in the soil. The soil type and depth appeared to affect these processes. The ammonia volatilization occurred during the first 75 days with most (90 % of the NH3 loss taking place during the first 30 days. The amount of nitrogen losses to the air is about 3.41 kg/ha (0.59% of the total nitrogen. The amount of organic nitrogen lost in the leachates was 3.0-4.14 kg/ha (0.52-0.71% of the total nitrogen whereas the amount of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen lost in the leachates was 18.63-24.09 kg/ha (3.54-4.56% of the total nitrogen. The presence of nitrite nitrogen in the leachate at high concentrations is a potential health hazard. Although cheese whey has been reported to have the potential to improve soil conditions, excess application has the potential of degrading soils and causing health problems. Additional research is, therefore, needed to better characterize the physical and chemical characteristics of soils receiving continuous high applications of cheese whey and their impact on crop yield and the qualities of groundwater and air.

  17. [Mental health nursing work: contradictions and current potentialities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alice G Bottaro; Alessi, Neiry Primo

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to identify contradictions and challenges that are present nowadays in mental health nursing work, in the context of the Psychiatric Reform, on the basis of the historical-social construction of this working process. The Psychiatric Reform presupposes a new design of work purpose and instruments, which still have little visibility in nursing practice, and the possibility for the person in mental suffering to achieve the subject-citizen condition - way of being and work purpose - which is directly related with the subject-citizen awareness of the nursing worker.

  18. Health Literacy and Health Information Technology Adoption: The Potential for a New Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry-Flynn, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Donovan, Erin E; Pounders, Kathrynn

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately one-half of American adults exhibit low health literacy and thus struggle to find and use health information. Low health literacy is associated with negative outcomes including overall poorer health. Health information technology (HIT) makes health information available directly to patients through electronic tools including patient portals, wearable technology, and mobile apps. The direct availability of this information to patients, however, may be complicated by misunderstanding of HIT privacy and information sharing. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether health literacy is associated with patients’ use of four types of HIT tools: fitness and nutrition apps, activity trackers, and patient portals. Additionally, we sought to explore whether health literacy is associated with patients’ perceived ease of use and usefulness of these HIT tools, as well as patients’ perceptions of privacy offered by HIT tools and trust in government, media, technology companies, and health care. This study is the first wide-scale investigation of these interrelated concepts. Methods Participants were 4974 American adults (n=2102, 42.26% male, n=3146, 63.25% white, average age 43.5, SD 16.7 years). Participants completed the Newest Vital Sign measure of health literacy and indicated their actual use of HIT tools, as well as the perceived ease of use and usefulness of these applications. Participants also answered questions regarding information privacy and institutional trust, as well as demographic items. Results Cross-tabulation analysis indicated that adequate versus less than adequate health literacy was significantly associated with use of fitness apps (P=.02), nutrition apps (P<.001), activity trackers (P<.001), and patient portals (P<.001). Additionally, greater health literacy was significantly associated with greater perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness across all HIT tools after controlling for demographics

  19. The Indian and Chinese health biotechnology industries: potential champions of global health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Sarah E; Kettler, Hannah E; Singer, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    India and China have made major progress toward establishing research- and innovation-based health biotechnology sectors. Local health needs, including diseases that predominantly affect the poor, have driven much of this success. We argue that emerging domestic firms can play an important role as reliable and high-quality suppliers of existing products and as innovators for global health needs. Indeed, these firms' participation may make existing global health approaches more sustainable. However, global health stakeholders, including international donors and the Indian and Chinese governments, will need to fashion incentives for these companies to retain a strategic focus on the global poor.

  20. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia.

  1. Physicochemical properties and potential health effects of nanoparticles from pulverized coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU DunXi; XU MingHou; YAO Hong; LIU XiaoWei; ZHOU Ke; WEN Chang; LI Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are thought to induce more severe health impacts than larger particles. The nanoparti-cles from coal-fired boilers are classified into three size fractions with a 13-stage low pressure impactor. Their physicochemical properties are characterized by the high-resolution field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results show that coal-derived nanoparticles mainly consist of individual primary particles of 20-150 nm and their aggregates. Inor-ganic nanoparticles primarily contain ash-forming elements and their aggregates have a dense struc-ture. Organic nanoparticles are dominated by the element carbon and their aggregates have a loose structure. Nanoparticles from the same boiler have a similar composition and are primarily composed of sulfur, refractory elements and alkali/alkaline elements. Some transition and heavy metals are also detected. For different boilers, greater differences are observed in the production of the nanoparticles and their composition, possibly due to the use of low-NOx burners. Coal-derived nanoparticles have a small size, large specific surface area and complicated chemical composition, and thus are potentially more harmful to human health.

  2. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  3. Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of vegetables containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements enter the human body. Once entered, heavy metals are deposited in bone and fat tissues, overlapping noble minerals. Slowly released into the body, heavy metals can cause an array of diseases. This study aimed to investigate the concentrations of cadmium, nickel, lead, cobalt and chromium in the most frequently consumed foodstuff in the São Paulo State, Brazil and to compare the heavy metal contents with the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. A value of intake of heavy metals in human diets was also calculated to estimate the risk to human health. Vegetable samples were collected at the São Paulo General Warehousing and Centers Company, and the heavy metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All sampled vegetables presented average concentrations of Cd and Ni lower than the permissible limits established by the Brazilian legislation. Pb and Cr exceeded the limits in 44 % of the analyzed samples. The Brazilian legislation does not establish a permissible limit for Co contents. Regarding the consumption habit of the population in the São Paulo State, the daily ingestion of heavy metals was below the oral dose of reference, therefore, consumption of these vegetables can be considered safe and without risk to human health.

  4. Potential health effects of exposure to carcinogenic compounds in incense smoke in temple workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navasumrit, Panida; Arayasiri, Manasawee; Hiang, Ohmar May Tin; Leechawengwongs, Manoon; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Choonvisase, Suppachai; Chantchaemsai, Samroeng; Nakngam, Netnapa; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2008-05-09

    Incense smoke is a potential hazard to human health due to various airborne carcinogens emitted from incense burning. This study aimed to evaluate the potential health effects of exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incense smoke in temple workers. Exposure and health risks were assessed through the measurement of ambient exposure as well as through the use of biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. Ambient air measurement showed that incense burning generates significantly higher levels of airborne benzene (Pincense burning may increase health risk for the development of cancer in temple workers.

  5. Health and wholeness undergraduate course in Uganda: Potential public health impact and transferability

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas L Fountain; Edward Mukooza; Edward Kanyesigye

    2016-01-01

    Over 26,000 students at a major Christian University in Uganda have completed a single semester course on Health and Wholeness. While common in other higher education contexts, general education courses and health education courses in particular are uncommon in the Africa higher education context. This course therefore is a bold initiative by Uganda Christian University. The course is designed to help students in a wide range of programs understand how to promote and improve health in their o...

  6. Human health risk assessment of nitrosamines and nitramines for potential application in CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnum, S; Rundén-Pran, E; Fjellsbø, L M; Dusinska, M

    2014-07-01

    Emission and accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere exert an environmental and climate change challenge. An attempt to deal with this challenge is made at Mongstad by application of amines for CO2 capture and storage (CO2 capture Mongstad (CCM) project). As part of the CO2 capture process, nitrosamines and nitramines may be emitted. Toxicological testing of nitrosamines and nitramines indicate a genotoxic potential of these substances. Here we present a risk characterization and assessment for five nitrosamines (N-Nitrosodi-methylamine (NDMA) N-Nitrosodi-ethylamine (NDEA), N-Nitroso-morpholine (NNM), N-Nitroso-piperidine (NPIP), and Dinitroso-piperazine (DNP)) and two nitramines (N-Methyl-nitramine (NTMA), Dimethyl-nitramine (NDTMA)), which are potentially emitted from the CO2 capture plant (CCP). Human health risk assessment of genotoxic non-threshold substances is a heavily debated topic, and no consensus methodology exists internationally. Extrapolation modeling from high-dose animal exposures to low-dose human exposures can be crucial for the final risk calculation. In the work presented here, different extrapolation models are discussed, and suggestions on applications are given. Then, preferred methods for calculating derived minimal effect level (DMEL) are presented with the selected nitrosamines and nitramines.

  7. Characterization of the Potential Hazards Associated with Potential RCRA Treatment Noncompliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-20

    The purpose of this document is to provide a hazard evaluation of the noncompliances and whether any new actions are required to mitigate potential risk to the worker or the public. In short, we have reviewed the noncompliances and have concluded that the possibility of exothermic reactions leading to radioactive release is not credible, and in one case, inconceivable, stemming from the fact that the majority fraction of the waste is compatible with organic absorbents and neutralizers. It is not expected that the noncompliances would generate or produce uncontrolled flammable fumes, gases, extreme heat, pressure, fire, explosions, or violent reactions.

  8. Cyber-Management of People with Chronic Disease: A Potential Solution to eHealth Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, E-Liisa; Armstrong, Kylie; Usher, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The evolving eHealth agenda presents a range of potential opportunities for the management and prevention of chronic disease. This paper identifies issues and barriers to the uptake of eHealth and describes a strategy ("Healthy Outcomes for Australians"[C]-HOFA) for creating a central knowledge filter and cyber space method for tracking health…

  9. Bioactive sterols from marine resources and their potential benefits for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Van Ta, Quang

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive agents from marine resources have shown their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, increase knowledge on novel functional ingredients with biological activities from marine animal and microbe has gained much attention. Sterols are recognized as potential in development functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical agents. Marine resources, with a great diversity, can be a very interesting natural resource of sterols. This chapter focuses on biological activities of marine animal and microbe sterols with potential health beneficial applications in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  11. Advancing the right to health through global organizations: The potential role of a Framework Convention on Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent

    2013-06-14

    Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes.

  12. Comparative Analysis: Potential Barriers to Career Participation by North American Physicians in Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Rhee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physician interest in global health, particularly among family physicians, is reflected by an increasing proliferation of field training and service experiences. However, translating initial training involvement into a defined and sustainable global health career remains difficult and beset by numerous barriers. Existing global health literature has largely examined training experiences and related ethical considerations while neglecting the role of career development in global health. To explore this, this paper extrapolates potential barriers to global health career involvement from existing literature and compares these to salary and skills requirements for archetypal physician positions in global health, presenting a framework of possible barriers to sustained physician participation in global health work. Notable barriers identified include financial limitations, scheduling conflicts, security/family concerns, skills limitations, limited awareness of opportunities, and specialty choice, with family practice often closely aligned with global health experience. Proposed solutions include financial support, protected time, family relocation support, and additional training. This framework delineates barriers to career involvement in global health by physicians. Further research regarding these barriers as well as potential solutions may help direct policy and initiatives to better utilize physicians, particularly family physicians, as a valuable global health human resource.

  13. Towards a systematic characterization of the potential of demand side management

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhans, David

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing share of electric energy produced from non-dispatchable renewable sources both energy storage and demand side management might gain tremendously in importance. While there has been significant progress in general properties and technologies of energy storage, the systematic characterization of features particular to demand side management such as its intermittent, time-dependent potential seems to be lagging behind. As a consequence, the development of efficient and sustainable strategies for demand side management and its integration into large-scale energy system models are impeded. This work introduces a novel framework for a systematic time-resolved characterization of the potential for demand side management. It is based on the specification of individual devices both with respect to their scheduled demand and their potential of load shifting. On larger scales sector-specific profiles can straightforwardly be taken into account. The potential for demand side management is then specifie...

  14. Physicochemical Characterization and Enhancement of the Antioxidant Potential of Ocimum gratissimum Enriched Pepper Soup Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucky Arueya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum enriched pepper-soup mix continues to remain an indigenous soup delicacy consumed for its nutritional and health benefits. There is however paucity of scientific data underlying its significance which could be further explored to advantage. In this study, dry soup mix was prepared from scent leaf (15%, ginger (30%, black pepper (25%, African nutmeg (17.5% and scent pepper (12.5% and evaluated for proximate, anti-oxidative and sensory properties using standard methods. The mix was reformulated to include 10% modified cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta flour (thickener, 5% fresh and dried tea (Camellia sinensis leaf following which it was re-characterized Concentration-dependent scavenging activity was observed for the entire samples with nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of scent leaf enriched soup (750 &muμg/mL exhibiting the highest value 77% compared to 57.7% for soup containing cocoyam. Total phenol, flavonoid contents and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity differed in all the reformulated samples (p50% in DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed as a result of tea leaf addition. The moisture, fat, crude fiber, ash, protein of the enhanced scent leaf enriched pepper-soup mix was 7.55, 28.4, 8.0, 6.2% and 11.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in the sensory qualities (color, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability between scent leaf and enhanced tea leaf pepper soup mix. The antioxidant potential, nutrient content and sensory attributes of this enhanced pepper soup mix holds great promise in further combating oxidative stress as in some disease conditions and rapid ageing.

  15. Exploring the potential of Web 2.0 to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M Chris; Fleisher, Linda; Slamon, Rachel E; Bass, Sarah; Kandadai, Venk; Beck, J Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses use of the Internet and Web 2.0 technologies by racial and ethnic minorities and explores the potential opportunities and challenges in leveraging Web 2.0 approaches to impact health disparities. These opportunities and challenges include developing approaches and methods to (a) identify strategies for integrating social media into health promotion interventions focused on major health-related issues that affect members of medically underserved groups; (b) amalgamate techniques to leverage and connect social-media technologies to other evidence-informed online resources; (c) integrate health communication best practices, including addressing health literacy issues; (d) capitalize on social networking to enhance access and communication with health care providers; and (e) advance current efforts and ongoing expansion of research participation by individuals from underserved communities.

  16. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit

  17. The Substance Content in Synthetic Dyes Snacks and Potential Health Disorders in SD Maccini Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Mallongi, Anwar; Yuliarni; Manyullei, Syamsuar

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of synthetic dyes for coloring materials snacks in the school environment can be harmful to the health of students. This study aims to determine whether the snacks in elementary Maccini Makassar contain synthetic dyes (Rhodamine B and methanyl yellow) as well as potential health problems caused. This type of research is descriptive survey and laboratory tests. From the entire population of snacks sold in school environments as many as 17 kinds and all 6th grade students Maccini Makassar...

  18. The potential for social media to educate farm families about health and safety for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Social media has the potential to reach farm families to educate them about health and safety for children. It offers advantages over traditional approaches because of the shorter time between creation and distribution and because of the greater reach and engagement possible. Recommendations are provided for how government agencies and the private sector can learn about and use social media to promote health and safety for children as a supplement to traditional approaches.

  19. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community.

  20. Personalized medicine and access to health care: potential for inequitable access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Kelly A; Avard, Denise; Simard, Jacques; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-02-01

    Personalized medicine promises that an individual's genetic information will be increasingly used to prioritize access to health care. Use of genetic information to inform medical decision making, however, raises questions as to whether such use could be inequitable. Using breast cancer genetic risk prediction models as an example, on the surface clinical use of genetic information is consistent with the tools provided by evidence-based medicine, representing a means to equitably distribute limited health-care resources. However, at present, given limitations inherent to the tools themselves, and the mechanisms surrounding their implementation, it becomes clear that reliance on an individual's genetic information as part of medical decision making could serve as a vehicle through which disparities are perpetuated under public and private health-care delivery models. The potential for inequities arising from using genetic information to determine access to health care has been rarely discussed. Yet, it raises legal and ethical questions distinct from those raised surrounding genetic discrimination in employment or access to private insurance. Given the increasing role personalized medicine is forecast to play in the provision of health care, addressing a broader view of what constitutes genetic discrimination, one that occurs along a continuum and includes inequitable access, will be needed during the implementation of new applications based on individual genetic profiles. Only by anticipating and addressing the potential for inequitable access to health care occurring from using genetic information will we move closer to realizing the goal of personalized medicine: to improve the health of individuals.

  1. Isolation of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum from Siahmezgi cheese and its characterization as a potentially probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjatolah Zamani

    2016-03-01

    β- galactosidase and hemolytic activity as well as antibiotic susceptibility. In addition, antibacterial activity of the isolated strains against E. coli O157 and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium ATCC 14028 was determined. Results: One strain, labeled as Lb3 showed the highest tolerance to low pH, bile and simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. This strain exhibited resistance to Streptomycin, Vancomycin and Polymixin B as well as effective antibacterial activity against two Gram negative pathogens, lacking hemolytic activity as well as high β- galactosidase activity. Finally, the strain Lb3 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 using biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing assay. Discussion and conclusion: In the present work, a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP55 was isolated from traditionally produced Siahmezgi cheese. The bacterium displayed good probiotic properties and could be used in dairy industry.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  3. Isolation gowns in health care settings: Laboratory studies, regulations and standards, and potential barriers of gown selection and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc Balci, F. Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Although they play an important role in infection prevention and control, textile materials and personal protective equipment (PPE) used in health care settings are known to be one of the sources of cross-infection. Gowns are recommended to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in certain settings; however, laboratory and field studies have produced mixed results of their efficacy. PPE used in health care is regulated as either class I (low risk) or class II (intermediate risk) devices in the United States. Many organizations have published guidelines for the use of PPE, including isolation gowns, in health care settings. In addition, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation published a guidance document on the selection of gowns and a classification standard on liquid barrier performance for both surgical and isolation gowns. However, there is currently no existing standard specific to isolation gowns that considers not only the barrier resistance but also a wide array of end user desired attributes. As a result, infection preventionists and purchasing agents face several difficulties in the selection process, and end users have limited or no information on the levels of protection provided by isolation gowns. Lack of knowledge about the performance of protective clothing used in health care became more apparent during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. This article reviews laboratory studies, regulations, guidelines and standards pertaining to isolation gowns, characterization problems, and other potential barriers of isolation gown selection and use. PMID:26391468

  4. Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Latiful Bari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The estimated daily intake value, THQ, along with the aggregate hazard index value, indicated a potential risk to consumers through consumption of contaminated chicken. Therefore, the study results clearly demonstrate heavy metals accumulation in chicken due to feeding SCW-based feed. The contaminated chicken further transfers these heavy metals to humans through ingestion. Hence, there is a potential human health risk through consumption of contaminated chicken meat.

  5. The Brain Drain Potential of Students in the African Health and Nonhealth Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Crush

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The departure of health professionals to Europe and North America is placing an intolerable burden on public health systems in many African countries. Various retention, recall, and replacement policies to ameliorate the impact of this brain drain have been suggested, none of which have been particularly successful to date. The key question for the future is whether the brain drain of health sector skills is likely to continue and whether the investment of African countries in training health professionals will continue to be lost through emigration. This paper examines the emigration intentions of trainee health professionals in six Southern African countries. The data was collected by the Southern African Migration Program (SAMP in a survey of final-year students across the region which included 651 students training for the health professions. The data also allows for the comparison of health sector with other students. The analysis presented in this paper shows very high emigration potential amongst all final-year students. Health sector students do show a slightly higher inclination to leave than those training to work in other sectors. These findings present a considerable challenge for policy makers seeking to encourage students to stay at home and work after graduation.

  6. The Necessity and Basic Directions of Improving the Procedure for the Formation and Use of the Resource Potential of Health Care in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolbneva Deniza V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the status and main problems of the resource provision of Ukraine’s health care system and identify the most appropriate and relevant directions of improving the procedure for its formation and use in the context of the current social and economic transformations. The study considers indicators characterizing the status of funding expenditures on the functioning of the health system for the past 4 years, the plan for the current year and the forecast for the following one. This made it possible to make a conclusion about the budget model and residual principle of funding the branch; the insufficient amount of expenditures on health care; the inefficiency, illegality and irrationality of their implementation by the existing network of health care institutions; the low level of the state and regional control over the resource potential of Ukraine’s health care system. To overcome these negative trends and ensure the health system reform in accordance with the Strategy for Sustainable Development “Ukraine – 2020”, there considered a mechanism of state control over resources provision of the health care system, the implementation of which will improve the quality of health of the population, provide full access to health services, increase the level of funding and efficiency of using the resource potential of the health care system. There also proposed a number of measures which, in the authors’ opinion, will create sufficient conditions for improving the procedure of forming and using the branch resource potential.Prospects for further research are developing a mechanism for attracting additional sources to the branch funding, studying and adapting experience of leading countries of the world in reforming the health system, improving the classification of financial resources of health care institutions.

  7. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  8. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  9. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  10. A characterization for a graphic sequence to be potentially C_r-graphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let r 3, n r and π = (d1, d2, . . . , dn) be a graphic sequence. If there exists a simple graph G on n vertices having degree sequence π such that G contains Cr (a cycle of length r) as a subgraph, then π is said to be potentially Cr-graphic. Li and Yin (2004) posed the following problem: characterize π = (d1, d2, . . . , dn) such that π is potentially Cr-graphic for r 3 and n r. Rao and Rao (1972) and Kundu (1973) answered this problem for the case of n = r. In this paper, this problem is solved completely.

  11. Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Jason W; Meruva, Naren; Huang, Chorng B; Wilkinson, Celeste T; Ballentine, Regina; Smith, Donna C; Werley, Michael S; McKinney, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    E-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.

  12. Web site review. Carolinas HealthCare recognized Internet marketing potential early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Since the early days of the Internet, administrators Carolinas HealthCare System in Charlotte, NC, have appreciated its potential as a marketing tool. This places a lot of expectations on the Web site, www.carolinashealthcare.org, which is managed by the marketing-public relations department. Find out how the well-established site fulfills its mission and more.

  13. Caregiver Mental Health and Potentially Harmful Caregiving Behavior: The Central Role of Caregiver Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Gordon; Kosberg, Jordan I.; Durkin, Daniel W.; Dooley, W. Keith; DeCoster, Jamie; Williamson, Gail M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Caregivers feeling stress and experiencing mental health problems can be at risk for engaging in abusive acts against elderly care recipients. Potentially harmful behavior (PHB) was used as a measure of caregivers' engagement in, or fear of engagement in, behavior that places dependent care recipients at risk of physical and/or…

  14. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eFissler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control, and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  15. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  16. Potential community and public health impacts of medically supervised safer smoking facilities for crack cocaine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleson Megan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is growing evidence of the public health and community harms associated with crack cocaine smoking, particularly the risk of blood-borne transmission through non-parenteral routes. In response, community advocates and policy makers in Vancouver, Canada are calling for an exemption from Health Canada to pilot a medically supervised safer smoking facility (SSF for non-injection drug users (NIDU. Current reluctance on the part of health authorities is likely due to the lack of existing evidence surrounding the extent of related harm and potential uptake of such a facility among NIDUs in this setting. In November 2004, a feasibility study was conducted among 437 crack cocaine smokers. Univariate analyses were conducted to determine associations with willingness to use a SSF and logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding variables (p

  17. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schrader, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control), and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages) improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  18. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mäkitalo; Christian Maurice; Yu Jia; Björn Öhlander

    2014-01-01

    Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD). A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphi...

  19. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for potential use in animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Yaneisy; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Boucourt, Ramón; Balcázar, José L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Moreira-Silva, João; Rodríguez, Zoraya; Fuertes, Héctor; Nuñez, Odalys; Albelo, Nereyda; Halaihel, Nabil

    2016-10-01

    In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4). Subsequently, these bacteria were characterized for their growth capabilities, lactic acid production, acidic pH and bile salts tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonistic activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain LB-31, which showed the best characteristics, was selected for further analysis. This strain was administered to broilers and showed the ability of modulating the immune response and producing beneficial effects on morpho-physiological, productive and health indicators of the animals.

  20. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their health beneficial potentials: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Behare, Pradip; Rana, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Manoj; Arora, Sanu; Morotta, Fransesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2011-01-01

    It has been well recognized that dietary proteins provide a rich source of biologically active peptides. Today, milk proteins are considered the most important source of bioactive peptides and an increasing number of bioactive peptides have been identified in milk protein hydrolysates and fermented dairy products. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins offer a promising approach for the promotion of health by means of a tailored diet and provide interesting opportunities to the dairy industry for expansion of its field of operation. The potential health benefits of milk protein-derived peptides have been a subject of growing commercial interest in the context of health-promoting functional foods. Hence, these peptides are being incorporated in the form of ingredients in functional and novel foods, dietary supplements and even pharmaceuticals with the purpose of delivering specific health benefits.

  1. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  2. Identification of potential opinion leaders in child health promotion in Sweden using network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldbrandsson Karin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opinion leaders are often local individuals with high credibility who can influence other people. Robust effects using opinion leaders in diffusing innovations have been shown in several randomized controlled trials, for example regarding sexually transmitted infections (STI, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention, mammography rates and caesarean birth delivery rates. In a Cochrane review 2010 it was concluded that the use of opinion leaders can successfully promote evidence-based practice. Thus, using opinion leaders within the public health sector might be one means to speed up the dissemination of health promoting and disease preventing innovations. Social network analysis has been used to trace and map networks, with focus on relationships and positions, in widely spread arenas and topics. The purpose of this study was to use social network analysis in order to identify potential opinion leaders at the arena of child health promotion in Sweden. Results By using snowball technique a short e-mail question was spread in up to five links, starting from seven initially invited persons. This inquiry resulted in a network consisting of 153 individuals. The most often mentioned actors were researchers, public health officials and paediatricians, or a combination of these professions. Four single individuals were mentioned by five to seven other persons in the network. These individuals obviously possess qualities that make other professionals within the public health sector listen to and trust them. Conclusions Social network analysis seemed to be a useful method to identify influential persons with high credibility, i.e. potential opinion leaders, at the arena of child health promotion in Sweden. If genuine opinion leaders could be identified directed measures can be carried out in order to spread new and relevant knowledge. This may facilitate for public health actors at the local, regional and national level to more

  3. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  4. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong-Rin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  5. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  6. Human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from environmental matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Elom, Nwabueze

    2012-01-01

    In assessing human health risk of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), it is not the concentration of PTEs in the environmental matrices that is of greatest concern but the fraction that is absorbed into the body via the exposure pathways. The determination of this fraction (i.e. the bioaccessible fraction) through the application of bioaccessibility protocols is the focus of this work. The study investigated human health risk of PTEs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn) from oral ingestion of s...

  7. Potential health risks related to carcinogens in the atmospheric environment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, B R; Mohan, M; Sidhu, K S

    1996-10-01

    In India, rapid urbanization and industrialization have contributed positively toward meeting the materialistic needs of the citizens, but have also resulted in contamination of the atmospheric environment. This paper deals with the assessment of potential health risks posed by carcinogenic substances, namely cadmium, chromium, and nickel, present in certain atmospheric environments in India. Average air concentrations of these carcinogenic metals have been assessed for different states and regions of India (C. R. Krishnamurti and P. Vishwanathan, Toxic Metals in the Indian Environment, Tata/McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1991). Based on these assessments, both individual and societal risks have been estimated in different states of the country, and comparisons were made. Reported concentration, release sources, potential health risks including cancer risk estimates, and ambient air interim guidelines are discussed. The reported environmental releases and cancer risk from cadmium are minimal. There is a potential for increased respiratory cancer risk from exposure to chromium and nickel in some northern Indian states. These metals are irritants to nasal passages and the respiratory tract. Chromium is also corrosive to mucus membranes. They have the potential to cause chronic respiratory problems. Since it appears that these metals may cause some adverse health effects in humans, exposure to these ambient air pollutants should be minimized by managing the release of these contaminants to the environment. There is a need for the development and strict enforcement of national and state regulatory standards.

  8. Characterization of CNT-MnO2 nanocomposite by electrophoretic deposition as potential electrode for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darari, Alfin; Ardiansah, Hafidh Rahman; Arifin, Rismaningsih, Nurmanita; Ningrum, Andini Novia; Subagio, Agus

    2016-04-01

    Energy crisis that occured in Indonesia suggests that energy supply could not offset the high rate request and needs an electric energy saving device which can save high voltage, safety, and unlimited lifetime. The weakness of batteries is durable but has a low power density while the capacitor has a high power density but it doesn't durable. The renewal of this study is CNT-MnO2 thin film fabrication method using electrophoretic deposition. Electrophoretic deposition is a newest method to deposited CNT using power supply with cheap, and make a good result. The result of FTIR analysis showed that the best CNT-MnO2 composition is 75:25 and C-C bond is detected in fingerprint area. The result is electrode thin film homogen and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks 2θ=26,63° is characterization of graphite, and 2θ=43,97° is characterization of diamond Carbon type and measured by Scherrer formula results 52,3 nm material average size .EIS test results its capacitance about 7,86 F. from the data it can be concluded that CNT-MnO2 potential electrode very promising for further study and has a potential to be a high capacitance, and fast charge supercapacitor which can be applied for electronic devices, energy converter, even electric car.

  9. The Italian Hub of Population Biobanks as a potential tool for improving public health stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Elena; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Santoro, Filippo; Belardelli, Filippo; Federic, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    In Italy, a country that is experiencing the decentralization of health services from central to regional level of government, the Minister of Health is proposing stewardship as a model of governance for the public health system. Stewardship favors efficiency in the policy decision-making process, based on reciprocal trust, and tends to be more ethical. The embryonic proposal to test stewardship in the field of population-based research was advanced during the launching conference Challenges and Opportunities of the Italian Hub of Population Biobanks (HIBP) held in 2012 in Rome. Resources collected by population biobanks (i.e., blood and its derivatives, and/or DNA isolated from any type of biological samples and relative associated data) have, in fact, a recognized scientific value for the investigation of links between genetics, health and life style, and epidemiological outcomes through population biobank-based studies, and are essential to planning effective and qualified interventions for public health. The current economic crisis requires a strong push to rationalize investment in health policies. In particular, population biobank-based studies require financial commitment, often of long duration, for the realization of their goals. Thus, innovative solutions to allow fast integration of scientific knowledge into political health strategy are required. During the conference in Rome, it was proposed to test the stewardship model by its application to the inter-relationship between population biobank-based studies and disease prevention. Stewardship minimizes barriers to innovation and uses information more effectively to better develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. In the months following the conference, the proposal was defined more clearly, and the HIBP network became a potential tool for testing and implementing this model in the Italian Public Health prevention system.

  10. Characterizing the effects of the protein environment on the reduction potentials of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Bradley Scott; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    The reduction potentials of electron transfer proteins are critically determined by the degree of burial of the redox site within the protein and the degree of permanent polarization of the polypeptide around the redox site. Although continuum electrostatics calculations of protein structures can predict the net effect of these factors, quantifying each individual contribution is a difficult task. Here, the burial of the redox site is characterized by a dielectric radius R(p) (a Born-type radius for the protein), the polarization of the polypeptide is characterized by an electret potential ϕ(p) (the average electrostatic potential at the metal atoms), and an electret-dielectric spheres (EDS) model of the entire protein is then defined in terms of R(p) and ϕ(p). The EDS model shows that for a protein with a redox site of charge Q, the dielectric response free energy is a function of Q(2), while the electret energy is a function of Q. In addition, R(p) and ϕ(p) are shown to be characteristics of the fold of a protein and are predictive of the most likely redox couple for redox sites that undergo different redox couples.

  11. Development and physicochemical characterization of alginate composite film loaded with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvanian, Masoud; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Ng, Shiow-Fern

    2016-02-10

    Previously, studies have demonstrated that topical application of simvastatin can promote wound healing in diabetic mice via augmentation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to formulate and characterize simvastatin in alginate-based composite film wound dressings. Biopolymers used for composite films were sodium alginate blended with pectin or gelatin. The films were prepared and characterized based on their physical properties, surface morphology, mechanical strength and rheology. Then, in vitro drug releases from the films were investigated and, finally, the cell viability assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity profile. From the pre-formulation studies, alginate/pectin composite film showed to possess desirable wound dressing properties and superior mechanical properties. The in vitro drug release profile revealed that alginate/pectin film produced a controlled release drug profile, and cell viability assay showed that the film was non-toxic. In summary, alginate/pectin composite film is suitable to be formulated with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.

  12. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study.

  13. Potentialities of some surface characterization techniques for the development of titanium biomedical alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Vanzillotta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone formation around a metallic implant is a complex process that involves micro- and nanometric interactions. Several surface treatments, including coatings were developed in order to obtain faster osseointegration. To understand the role of these surface treatments on bone formation it is necessary to choose adequate characterization techniques. Among them, we have selected electron microscopy, profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS to describe them briefly. Examples of the potentialities of these techniques on the characterization of titanium for biomedical applications were also presented and discussed. Unfortunately more than one technique is usually necessary to describe conveniently the topography (scanning electron microsocopy, profilometry and/or AFM and the chemical state (XPS of the external layer of the material surface. The employment of the techniques above described can be useful especially for the development of new materials or products.

  14. Tectonic characterization of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; O'Leary, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    Tectonic characterization of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is needed to assess seismic and possible volcanic hazards that could affect the site during the preclosure (next 100 years) and the behavior of the hydrologic system during the postclosure (the following 10,000 years) periods. Tectonic characterization is based on assembling mapped geological structures in their chronological order of development and activity, and interpreting their dynamic interrelationships. Addition of mechanistic models and kinematic explanations for the identified tectonic processes provides one or more tectonic models having predictive power. Proper evaluation and application of tectonic models can aid in seismic design and help anticipate probable occurrence of future geologic events of significance to the repository and its design.

  15. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  16. Potential determinants of deductible uptake in health insurance: How to increase uptake in The Netherlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winssen, K P M; van Kleef, R C; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-12-01

    In health insurance, voluntary deductibles are offered to the insured in return for a premium rebate. Previous research has shown that 11 % of the Dutch insured opted for a voluntary deductible (VD) in health insurance in 2014, while the highest VD level was financially profitable for almost 50 % of the population in retrospect. To explain this discrepancy, this paper identifies and discusses six potential determinants of the decision to opt for a VD from the behavioral economic literature: loss aversion, risk attitude, ambiguity aversion, debt aversion, omission bias, and liquidity constraints. Based on these determinants, five potential strategies are proposed to increase the number of insured opting for a VD. Presenting the VD as the default option and providing transparent information regarding the VD are the two most promising strategies. If, as a result of these strategies, more insured would opt for a VD, moral hazard would be reduced.

  17. Biological activities and potential health benefits of fucoxanthin derived from marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Pangestuti, Ratih

    2011-01-01

    The importance of marine algae as sources of functional ingredients has been well recognized due to their valuable health beneficial effects. Therefore, isolation and investigation of novel bioactive ingredients with biological activities from marine algae have attracted great attention. Among functional ingredients identified from marine algae, fucoxanthin has received particular interest. Fucoxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Fucoxanthin has been reported to exhibit various beneficial biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and neuroprotective activities. In this chapter, the currently available scientific literatures regarding the most significant activities of fucoxanthin are summarized.

  18. The e-health literacy framework: A conceptual framework for characterizing e-health users and their interaction with e-health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Norgaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In current e-health research and development there is a need for a broader understanding of the capabilities and resources required for individuals to use and benefit from e-health services, i.e. their e-health literacy. The aim of this study was to develop a new conceptualisation of e-health literacy with consideration of the experiences of a wide range of stakeholders and in alignment with current technologies. Concept mapping was used to generate a comprehensive and grounded model of e-health literacy. Concept mapping workshop participants included patients, health professionals and medical informatics experts. Eight workshops, carried out in Denmark and United Kingdom, generated 450 statements, separated into 128 clusters. Through an inductive structured analysis, seven domains were identified: 1. Ability to process information, 2. Engagement in own health, 3. Ability to engage actively with digital services, 4. Feeling safe and in control, 5. Motivation to engage with digital services, 6. Having access to systems that work, and 7. Digital services that suit individual needs. These empirically derived domains form an e-health literacy framework (eHLF and provide new insights into the user’s ability to understand, access and use e-health technologies. The eHLF offers a framework for evaluating an individual’s or a population’s capacity to understand, use and benefit from technology to promote and maintain their health. Such a framework also provides a potential checklist for the development and improvement of e-health services.

  19. Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Cleared for Public Release Distribution unlimited Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in...THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... up to their interviews, which is more than 2.5 times the predicted number (1,134). Furthermore, our multinomial logit models substantially

  20. Potential Antitumor Dendrimers: Synthesis and Characterizations of Rhenium(Ⅰ) and Cis-platin Containing Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xinxin; Chit-Kay Chu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The chemistry of dendrimers is a fast developing field and has brought about a tsunami of research activity since Vogtle reported the first preparation in 1978. These hyperbranched macromolecules have grown out of chemists' imagination and have challenged synthetic chemists with their architectural complexity and intriguity. The potentials of these macromolecules are extensive and are synthesized using both organic and inorganic cores from which different scaffoldings are built, and upon which functionalities are attached for specific applications. The synthesis and characterizations of cisplatin and rhenium(Ⅰ) containing PAMAM derivatives will be discussed.

  1. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.;

    2014-01-01

    Salicornia bigelovii straw was characterized and evaluated as a potential lignocellulosic bioethanol feedstock. S. bigelovii used in the study was grown in the United Arab Emirates using saltwater (40. ppt) for irrigation. Salt removal was performed prior to pretreatment to protect the processing...... equipment and avoid inhibition of enzymes and yeast. Composition of the washed biomass was comparable to traditional lignocellulosic biomasses with relatively high glucan and xylan content (26 and 22. g/100. gDM, respectively) but with lower lignin content (7. g/100. gDM). The washed feedstock was subjected...

  2. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  3. Primary Intraosseous Smooth Muscle Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential: Original Report and Molecular Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Lauren; Siegal, Gene P.; Frampton, Garrett M.; Rodriguez, Michael G.; McKee, Svetlana; Conry, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of primary intraosseous smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) which is analogous to borderline malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors so designated. The tumor presented in the femur of an otherwise healthy 30-year-old woman. Over a 3-year period, the patient underwent 11 biopsies or resections and 2 cytologic procedures. Multiple pathologists reviewed the histologic material including musculoskeletal pathologists but could not reach a definitive diagnosis. However, metastases eventually developed and were rapidly progressive and responsive to gemcitabine and docetaxel. Molecular characterization and ultrastructural analysis was consistent with smooth muscle origin, and amplification of unmutated chromosome 12p and 12q segments appears to be the major genomic driver of this tumor. Primary intraosseous STUMP is thought to be genetically related to leiomyosarcoma of bone, but likely representing an earlier stage of carcinogenesis. Wide excision and aggressive follow-up is warranted for this potentially life-threatening neoplasm. PMID:27994831

  4. Isolation, structural characterization, and potential applications of hemicelluloses from bamboo: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Pai; She, Diao

    2014-11-04

    Bamboo is one of the mostly fast growing natural resources and has great potential to be used as a valuable feedstock for biorefinery. The hemicelluloses, next to cellulose, represent a diverse group of polysaccharides in plant cell wall. Elucidation and understanding of the hemicelluloses from bamboo play an important role in the efficient conversion of bamboo into biofuels and bioproducts. This review summarized the recent reports on hemicelluloses from bamboo, including immunohistochemical localization, focused on extraction and purification methods, chemical components, characterization of structural features, as well as physicochemical properties. In addition, attention was also paid to derivatives prepared from bamboo hemicelluloses and to potential applications of bamboo hemicelluloses in a variety of areas such as biomaterials, biofuel, and food.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Genes Involved in Leishmania Pathogenesis: The Potential for Drug Target Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and characterizing Leishmania donovani genes and the proteins they encode for their role in pathogenesis can reveal the value of this approach for finding new drug targets. Effective drug targets are likely to be proteins differentially expressed or required in the amastigote life cycle stage found in the patient. Several examples and their potential for chemotherapeutic disruption are presented. A pathway nearly ubiquitous in living cells targeted by anticancer drugs, the ubiquitin system, is examined. New findings in ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers in Leishmania show how disruption of those pathways could point to additional drug targets. The programmed cell death pathway, now recognized among protozoan parasites, is reviewed for some of its components and evidence that suggests they could be targeted for antiparasitic drug therapy. Finally, the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system is involved in secretion of many virulence factors. How disruptions in this pathway reduce virulence as evidence for potential drug targets is presented.

  6. Minerals and vitamins in bone health: the potential value of dietary enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Guéguen, Léon; Palacios, Cristina; Shearer, Martin J; Weaver, Connie M

    2009-06-01

    Nutrition is important to bone health, and a number of minerals and vitamins have been identified as playing a potential role in the prevention of bone diseases, particularly osteoporosis. Despite this, there is currently no consensus on maximum levels to allow in food or as dietary supplements. The benefits of supplementation of populations at risk of osteoporosis with Ca and vitamin D are well established. Prolonged supplementation of Ca and vitamin D in elderly has been shown to prevent bone loss, and in some intervention studies to prevent fragility fractures. Although P is essential to bone health, the average intake is considered to be more than sufficient and supplementation could raise intake to adverse levels. The role of vitamin K in bone health is less well defined, though it may enhance the actions of Ca and vitamin D. Sr administered in pharmacological doses as the ranelate salt was shown to prevent fragility fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, there is no hard evidence that supplementation with Sr salts would be beneficial in the general population. Mg is a nutrient implicated in bone quality, but the benefit of supplementation via foodstuffs remains to be established. A consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health should balance the risks, for example, exposure of vulnerable populations to values close to maximal tolerated doses, against evidence for benefits from randomised clinical trials, such as those for Ca and vitamin D. Feedback from community studies should direct further investigations and help formulate a consensus on dietary supplementation for bone health.

  7. Characterization of Coconut Shell Ash for Potential Utilization in Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B Madakson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shell ash is agricultural waste. The waste is produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific applications. This paper mainly deals with identification of characteristics of coconutshell ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. Density, Particle size, Refractoriness, SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of the coconut shell ash. The results were compared and it was observed that the ash possesses nearly same chemical phases and other functional groups as reinforcement like fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash that have been in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for automobile applications. Hence, coconut shell ash can be used as a low costreinforcement in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs.

  8. Physicochemical Characterization and Potential Prebiotic Effect of Whey Protein Isolate/Inulin Nano Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jeon, Na-Eun; Kim, Jin Wook; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Yun, Sung Seob; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Lee, Won-Jae

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the impacts of concentration levels of whey protein isolate (WPI) and inulin on the formation and physicochemical properties of WPI/inulin nano complexes and to evaluate their potential prebiotic effects. WPI/inulin nano complexes were produced using the internal gelation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analyzer were used to assess the morphological and physicochemical characterizations of nano complexes, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol in nano complexes was studied using HPLC while the potential prebiotic effects were investigated by measuring the viability of probiotics. In TEM micrographs, the globular forms of nano complexes in the range of 10 and 100 nm were successfully manufactured. An increase in WPI concentration level from 1 to 3% (w/v) resulted in a significant (pnano complexs while inulin concentration level did not affect the size of nano complexes. The polydispersity index of nano complexes was below 0.3 in all cases while the zeta-potential values in the range of -2 and -12 mV were observed. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol was significantly (pnano complexes exhibited similar viability of probiotics with free inulin and had significantly (pnano complexes and had potential prebiotic effect.

  9. Experimental creation and characterization of random potential energy landscapes exploiting speckle patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Bewerunge, J

    2016-01-01

    The concept of potential energy landscapes is applied in many areas of science. We experimentally realize a random potential energy landscape (rPEL) to which colloids are exposed. This is achieved exploiting the interaction of matter with light. The optical set-up is based on a special diffuser, which creates a top-hat beam containing a speckle pattern. This is imposed on colloids. The effect of the speckle pattern on the colloids can be described by a rPEL. The speckle pattern as well as the rPEL are quantitatively characterized. The distributions of both, intensity and potential energy values, can be approximated by Gamma distributions. They can be tuned from exponential to approximately Gaussian with variable standard deviation, which determines the contrast of the speckles and the roughness of the rPEL. Moreover, the characteristic length scales, e.g. the speckle size, can be controlled. By rotating the diffuser, furthermore, a flat potential can be created and hence only radiation pressure exerted on the...

  10. Characterization of atomized extract of Opuntia ficusindica (L. Mill. and assessment of its pharmaceutical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Maria Pereira Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the many traditional uses of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. and the widespread employment of dry extracts in herbal medicine and phytocosmetics, the aim of this study is to characterize an atomized extract of O. ficus-indica cladodes, as well as to analyze its phytochemical composition and assay the total phenol content. In addition, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and photoprotective activities of the extract and its capacity to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase were assessed, with a view to its pharmaceutical use. The physicochemical characterization was performed by pharmacopoeial tests, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Phytochemicals were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and total phenols by spectroscopy in the visible region. Antioxidant activity was detected by the method of free radical (DPPH● scavenging and antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method, while inhibition of tyrosinase was estimated by the diphenolase activity assay and photoprotective activity by a spectrophotometric method. The pharmacopeial tests, IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis enabled the atomized extract to be characterized. Concerning the potential for pharmaceutical use, it was found that, under the study conditions, the extract did not show any antioxidant, antimicrobial or photoprotective activity. However, it did show a modest tyrosinase inhibitory capacity. The originality of the proposed research on O. ficus-indica in the pharmaceutical field should be emphasized, as it opens new prospects for the study of a species that is so abundant and adapted to Brazilian semi-arid regions.

  11. [[Characterization of the potential geographical distribution area of parrot species in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia Vázquez, Alexis Herminio; Escalona Segura, Griselda

    2014-12-01

    Psittacidae family is one of the most endangered groups in Mexico, since many of their habitats are disappearing. In this research, we characterized the land cover of the potential geographical distribu- tion area of eight extant parrot species within the Yucatan Peninsula. We used the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and species historical records. To externally validate the models, we used presence and absence records from field observations (2010-2012). To characterize the distribution area, we used the vegetation and land use maps of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). The models showed a good performance, according to the values of the area under the curve (AUC), which ranged between 0.88-0.95 with the training data and between 0.82-0.91 with test data. We located most of the species in sites where the models predicted their presence. In the Peninsula, over 76% of the parrots' potential geographical distribution area is forested, except for Amazona oratrix. The subhumid tropical forest is the best represented, and the livestock for land use. The most affected species within the Peninsula are: Amazona farinosa and A. oratrix. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is the most important area for parrots' protection in the Peninsula. Knowing the characteristics of distribution areas is an essential part in the establishment of parrots' conservation strategies.

  12. Isihlambezo: utilization patterns and potential health effects of pregnancy-related traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, C A; Veale, D J

    1997-04-01

    Isihlambezo is a herbal decoction used by many Zulu women in South Africa as a preventative health tonic during pregnancy. Though the practice is cited by ethnographers and medical practitioners, few studies have focused on specific elements of isihlambezo use and preparation. Moreover, though some evidence exists suggesting negative effects of its ingestion, the maternal-fetal health impact and toxicity of isihlambezo have not been adequately studied. We examined two aspects of this traditional antenatal health practice: (1) the potential impact of urbanization and access to Western clinic-based care on popularity and utilization patterns of isihlambezo, and (2) the potential maternal-fetal health effects of its use. Interviews were conducted among rural and urban women in clinic and non-clinic settings regarding socio-behavioral aspects of isihlambezo use. The pharmacology of certain plant ingredients of isihlambezo was investigated through laboratory assays, literature review, and interviews with traditional healers. There were significant differences by area of interview in nearly all aspects of isihlambezo use examined. Though isihlambezo was most popular among urbanites and clinic non-attenders, it was considered an important antenatal health care alternative by the majority of women surveyed. Mixing traditional and clinic-based antenatal care was also strongly advocated. Pharmacological analysis suggested the possibility of both therapeutic and harmful consequences of isihlambezo. It was suggested that the following factors might contribute the popularity of isihlambezo among urban women: high cost and inferior quality of clinic care, use of isihlambezo as a means of adapting to urbanization-related stress, and socio-cultural transition.

  13. The Potential Impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vogli, Roberto; Renzetti, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes. However, the TTIP chapter on Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) that expand and extend patent monopolies, and delay the availability of generic drugs, are likely to cause underutilization of needed medications among vulnerable populations. The TTIP's Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) arbitration system, a mechanism that allows transnational companies (TNCs) to sue governments when a policy or law reduces the value of their investment, is likely to generate a negative impact on regulations aimed at increasing access to healthcare, and reducing tobacco, alcohol consumption, and diet-related diseases. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) of the TTIP is expected to weaken regulations in the food and agricultural sectors especially in the EU, with potentially negative effects on food safety and foodborne diseases. Finally, the ISDS is likely to infringe the ability of governments to tackle environmental problems such as climate change deemed to be the most important global health threat of the century. Our review concludes by discussing policy implications and the effect of the TTIP on democracy, national sovereignty and the balance of power between large TNCs and governments. It also discusses the adoption of an evidence-based precautionary principle

  14. Non-intrusive characterization of the redox potential of landfill leachate plumes from self-potential data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, T.; Linde, N.; Revil, A.; Castermant, J.

    2007-07-01

    Contaminant plumes (e.g., associated with leakages from municipal landfills) provide a source of natural electrical potentials (or "self-potentials") recordable at the Earth's surface. One contribution to these self-potentials is associated with pore water flow (i.e., the "streaming potential"), and the other is related to redox conditions. A contaminant plume can be regarded as a "geobattery": the source current potentially results from the degradation of the organic matter by micro-organisms, which produces electrons. These electrons are then carried by nanowires that connect bacteria and thorough metallic particles that precipitate in areas of strong redox potential gradient. In the case of the Entressen landfill (South of France), reported here, the hydraulic head differences measured in piezometers outside the contaminant plume is strongly linked to the surface self-potential signals, with a correlation coefficient of - 0.94. We used a Bayesian method that combines hydraulic head and self-potential data collected outside the contaminated area to estimate the streaming potential component of the collected self-potential data. Once the streaming potential contribution was removed from the measured self-potentials, the correlation coefficient between the residual self-potentials and the measured redox potentials in the aquifer was 0.92. The slope of this regression curve was close to 0.5, which was fairly consistent with both finite element modelling and the proposed geobattery model.

  15. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.T. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qiu, J.W. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wang, X.W. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhong, Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Lan, C.Y. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls04@zsu.edu.cn; Shu, W.S. [School of Life Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: ls53@zsu.edu.cn

    2006-09-15

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents. - Carambola fruit can accumulate high levels of cadmium and may be a health risk for humans.

  16. Potential for early warning of maalria in India using NOAA-AVHRR based vegetation health indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, R. C.; Kogan, Felix; Singh, Neeru; Singh, R. P.; Dash, A. P.

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in India with about 1 82 million cases annually and 1000 deaths As per World Health Organization WHO estimates about 1 3 million Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs are lost annually due to malaria in India Central peninsular region of India is prone to malaria outbreaks Meteorological parameters changes in ecological conditions development of resistance in mosquito vectors development of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasite and lack of surveillance are the likely reasons of outbreaks Based on satellite data and climatic factors efforts have been made to develop Early Warning System EWS in Africa but there is no headway in this regard in India In order to find out the potential of NOAA satellite AVHRR derived Vegetation Condition Index VCI Temperature Condition Index TCI and a cumulative indicator Vegetation Health Index VHI were attempted to find out their potential for development of EWS Studies were initiated by analysing epidemiological data of malaria vis-a-vis VCI TCI and VHI from Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan and Tumkur and Raichur districts of Karnataka Correlation coefficients between VCI and monthly malaria cases for epidemic years were computed Positive correlation 0 67 has been found with one-month lag between VCI and malaria incidence in respect of Tumkur while a negative correlation with TCI -0 45 is observed In Bikaner VCI is found to be negatively related -0 71 with malaria cases in epidemic year of 1994 Weekly

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Health Risks of Potentially Toxic Elements in Settled Dust over Beijing Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Wan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine levels, health risks, sources, and spatial distributions of potentially toxic elements in settled dust over Beijing urban area, 62 samples were collected mostly from residential building outdoor surfaces, and their <63 μm fractions were measured for 12 potentially toxic elements. The results show that V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Ba in dust are from predominantly natural sources, whereas Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb mostly originate from anthropogenic sources. Exposure to these elements in dust has significant non-cancer risks to children but insignificant to adults. Cancer risks of Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact are below the threshold of 10−6–10−4 but As via dust ingestion shows a tolerable risk. The non-cancer risks to children are contributed mainly (75% by As, Pb, and Sb, and dominantly (92% via dust ingestion, with relatively higher risks mainly occurring in the eastern and northeastern Beijing urban areas. Although Cd, Zn, and Cu in dust are heavily affected by anthropogenic sources, their health risks are insignificant. Source appointments suggest that coal burning emissions, the dominant source of As, are likely the largest contributors to the health risk, and traffic-related and industrial emissions are also important because they contribute most of the Pb and Sb in dust.

  18. Health Benefits of Anthocyanins and Their Encapsulation for Potential Use in Food Systems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basharat; Gul, Khalid; Wani, Ali Abas; Singh, Preeti

    2016-10-01

    Anthocyanins are one of the six subgroups of large and widespread group of plant constituents known as flavonoids. These are responsible for the bright and attractive orange, red, purple, and blue colors of most fruits, vegetables, flowers and some cereal grains. More than 600 structurally distinct anthocyanins have been identified in nature. Earlier, anthocyanins were only known for their coloring properties but now interest in anthocyanin pigments has intensified because of their possible health benefits as dietary antioxidants, which help to prevent neuronal diseases, cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and many such others diseases. Ability of anthocyanins to counter oxidants makes them atherosclerosis fighters. Therefore, anthocyanin-rich foods may help to boost overall health by offering an array of nutrients. However, the incorporation of anthocyanins into food and medical products is a challenging task due to their low stability toward environmental conditions during processing and storage. Encapsulation seems to be an efficient way to introduce such compounds into these products. Encapsulating agents act as a protector coat against ambient adverse conditions such as light, humidity, and oxygen. Encapsulated bioactive compounds are easier to handle and offer improved stability. The main objective of this review is to explore health benefits of anthocyanins and their extraction, characterization, encapsulation, and delivery.

  19. In-Situ Characterization of Potential-Induced Degradation in Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules Through Dark I–V Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Hacke, Peter; Singh, Jai Prakash; Chai, Jing; Wang, Yan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Aberle, Armin G.; Khoo, Yong Sheng

    2017-01-01

    A temperature correction methodology for in-situ dark I-V(DIV) characterization of conventional p-type crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID) is proposed.

  20. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gizeli S.; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:24895632

  1. Bone marrow concentrate for autologous transplantation in minipigs. Characterization and osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herten, M; Grassmann, J P; Sager, M; Benga, L; Fischer, J C; Jäger, M; Betsch, M; Wild, M; Hakimi, M; Jungbluth, P

    2013-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow plays an increasing role in the treatment of bone, cartilage and tendon healing disorders. Cell-based therapies display promising results in the support of local regeneration, especially therapies using intra-operative one-step treatments with autologous progenitor cells. In the present study, bone marrow-derived cells were concentrated in a point-of-care device and investigated for their mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics and their osteogenic potential. Bone marrow was harvested from the iliac crest of 16 minipigs. The mononucleated cells (MNC) were concentrated by gradient density centrifugation, cultivated, characterized by flow cytometry and stimulated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Cell differentiation was investigated by histological and immunohistological staining of relevant lineage markers. The proliferation capacity was determined via colony forming units of fibroblast and of osteogenic alkaline-phosphatase-positive-cells. The MNC could be enriched 3.5-fold in nucleated cell concentrate in comparison to bone marrow. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a positive signal for the MSC markers. Cells could be differentiated into the three lines confirming the MSC character. The cellular osteogenic potential correlated significantly with the percentage of newly formed bone in vivo in a porcine metaphyseal long-bone defect model. This study demonstrates that bone marrow concentrate from minipigs display cells with MSC character and their osteogenic differentiation potential can be used for osseous defect repair in autologous transplantations.

  2. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizeli S. Gimenez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.

  3. Biochemical and functional characterization of Parawixia bistriata spider venom with potential proteolytic and larvicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gizeli S; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L; Fernandes, Carla F C; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Stábeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications.

  4. Potential health implications of water resources depletion and sewage discharges in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristovski, Kiril D; Pacemska-Atanasova, Tatjana; Olson, Larry W; Markovski, Jasmina; Mitev, Trajce

    2016-08-01

    Potential health implications of deficient sanitation infrastructure and reduced surface water flows due to climate change are examined in the case study of the Republic of Macedonia. Changes in surface water flows and wastewater discharges over the period 1955-2013 were analyzed to assess potential future surface water contamination trends. Simple model predictions indicated a decline in surface water hydrology over the last half century, which caused the surface waters in Macedonia to be frequently dominated by >50% of untreated sewage discharges. The surface water quality deterioration is further supported by an increasing trend in modeled biochemical oxygen demand trends, which correspond well with the scarce and intermittent water quality data that are available. Facilitated by the climate change trends, the increasing number of severe weather events is already triggering flooding of the sewage-dominated rivers into urban and non-urban areas. If efforts to develop a comprehensive sewage collection and treatment infrastructure are not implemented, such events have the potential to increase public health risks and cause epidemics, as in the 2015 case of a tularemia outbreak.

  5. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.......The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...

  6. Networked Learning and Network Science: Potential Applications to Health Professionals' Continuing Education and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Alvaro; Parboosingh, John

    2015-01-01

    Prior interpersonal relationships and interactivity among members of professional associations may impact the learning process in continuing medical education (CME). On the other hand, CME programs that encourage interactivity between participants may impact structures and behaviors in these professional associations. With the advent of information and communication technologies, new communication spaces have emerged that have the potential to enhance networked learning in national and international professional associations and increase the effectiveness of CME for health professionals. In this article, network science, based on the application of network theory and other theories, is proposed as an approach to better understand the contribution networking and interactivity between health professionals in professional communities make to their learning and adoption of new practices over time.

  7. Science-based health innovation in Rwanda: unlocking the potential of a late bloomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Mike

    2010-12-01

    developing its health innovation system, mainly due to political goodwill. The areas of greatest potential for Rwanda are in traditional plant technologies. However, there is need for investments in domestic skill development as well as infrastructure that will enhance innovation. Of foremost importance is the establishment of a platform to link the various actors in the health innovation system.

  8. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  9. European veterinary public health specialization: post-graduate training and expectations of potential employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Silvia; Dürr, Salome; Fahrion, Anna; Harisberger, Myriam; Papadopoulou, Christina; Zimmerli, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Residents of the European College of Veterinary Public Health (ECVPH) carried out a survey to explore the expectations and needs of potential employers of ECVPH diplomates and to assess the extent to which the ECVPH post-graduate training program meets those requirements. An online questionnaire was sent to 707 individuals working for universities, government organizations, and private companies active in the field of public health in 16 countries. Details on the structure and activities of the participants' organizations, their current knowledge of the ECVPH, and potential interest in employing veterinary public health (VPH) experts or hosting internships were collected. Participants were requested to rate 22 relevant competencies according to their importance for VPH professionals exiting the ECVPH training. A total of 138 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. While generic skills such as "problem solving" and "broad horizon and inter-/multidisciplinary thinking" were consistently given high grades by all participants, the importance ascribed to more specialized skills was less homogeneous. The current ECVPH training more closely complies with the profile sought in academia, which may partly explain the lower employment rate of residents and diplomates within government and industry sectors. The study revealed a lack of awareness of the ECVPH among public health institutions and demonstrated the need for greater promotion of this veterinary specialization within Europe, both in terms of its training capacity and the professional skill-set of its diplomates. This study provides input for a critical revision of the ECVPH curriculum and the design of post-graduate training programs in VPH.

  10. Review and assessments of potential environmental, health and safety impacts of MHD technology. Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an environmental, health and safety (EH and S) assessment and begin a site - specific assessment of these and socio - economic impacts for the magnetohydrodynamics program of the United States Department of Energy. This assessment includes detailed scientific and technical information on the specific EH and S issues mentioned in the MHD Environmental Development Plan. A review of current literature on impact-related subjects is also included. This document addresses the coal-fired, open-cycle MHD technology and reviews and assesses potential EH and S impacts resulting from operation of commercially-installed technology.

  11. Potential population health outcomes and expenditures of HIV vaccination strategies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elisa F; Brandeau, Margaret L; Owens, Douglas K

    2009-08-27

    Estimating the potential health benefits and expenditures of a partially effective HIV vaccine is an important consideration in the debate about whether HIV vaccine research should continue. We developed an epidemic model to estimate HIV prevalence, new infections, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies in the U.S. Vaccines with modest efficacy could prevent 300,000-700,000 HIV infections and save $30 billion in healthcare expenditures over 20 years. Targeted vaccination of high-risk individuals is economically efficient, but difficulty in reaching these groups may mitigate these benefits. Universal vaccination is cost-effective for vaccines with 50% efficacy and price similar to other infectious disease vaccines.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  13. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  14. Isolation and Characterization of Streptomycetes with-Plant Growth Promoting Potential from Mangrove Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Arora, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    A total of 66 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from mangroves of Andhra Pradesh, India, using various enrichment techniques and pretreatments. The samples were collected from Coringa mangrove ecosystem and pre-treated by enrichment with CaCO3, sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol, plated on the media supplemented with cycloheximide (50 mg/ml), nystatin (25 mg/ml) and nalidixic acid (50 mg/ml). The population count of actinomycetes fluctuated from 1.9 x 10(5) to 8.0 x 10(5)/g soil. Out of the isolated 66 actinomycetes, 8 isolates possessing plant growth promoting potential were further studied and characterized by physiological and biochemical traits and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as different species of Streptomycetes genera.

  15. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  16. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  17. Imidazole-based Potential Bi- and Tridentate Nitrogen Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Application in Asymmetric Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kulhánek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new imidazole-based potential bi- and tridentate ligands were synthesized and characterized. Whereas in the first series the α-amino acid and imidazole moieties were linked by an amino bond, in the second series the tridentate ligands, containing two imidazole groups, were separated by an amide bond. The first series was obtained by the reductive amination of 2-phenylimidazole-4-carboxaldehyde with α-amino acid esters. The tridentate ligands were prepared from 2-phenylimidazole-4-carboxylic acid and chiral amines. In the Henry reaction, the amines were revealed as a more reactive species than the less nucleophilic amides, however the enantiomeric excesses were generally poor.

  18. Polynitrosated polyesters: preparation, characterization, and potential use for topical nitric oxide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; da Silva, Regiane; de Oliveira, Marcelo G

    2005-01-01

    New nitric oxide (NO) donor macromolecules, containing multiple S-nitrosothiol (S-NO) groups covalently attached to the polymer backbone, were prepared through the polycondensation reaction of diols (ethylene glycol and poly(ethylene glycol)) with mercaptosuccinic acid, followed by the S-nitrosation of the SH groups by a gaseous NO/O2 mixture. The polynitrosated polyesters (PNPEs) obtained were characterized by IR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography and displayed biological activity as vasodilators, leading to local hyperaemia when applied topically on healthy skin. Kinetic measurements in either dry or aqueous conditions have shown that PNPEs can provide sustained NO release for more than 20 h at physiological temperature. Their increased viscosity at low temperatures greatly reduces the rate of NO release, allowing for their storage for more than 90 days at -20 degrees C without decomposition. These results indicate that PNPEs have potential for topical delivery of NO in biomedical applications.

  19. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus: technological potential for use in fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Micrococcaceae strains are applied to fermented sausage as starter cultures, where several members of this family are naturally found. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus xylosus from artisanal sausages produced in South Region of Brazil. From 89 isolates presenting catalase positive and coagulase negative activities, 25 strains were selected for phenotypic characterization. Nine strains identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by API-STAPH were evaluated for their nitrate reduction capacity, which showed satisfactory growth of the strains in the presence of nitrite and sodium chloride, demonstrating their potential for use as starter cultures in fermented sausage. The strains were also evaluated through genus and species-specific PCR, which showed only two as S. xylosus, differing from results found in phenotypic characterization.Cepas de Micrococcaceae são aplicadas em embutidos cárneos fermentados como culturas iniciadoras, onde vários membros desta família são naturalmente encontrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e caracterizar Staphylococcus xylosus de embutidos cárneos artesanais produzidos na região Sul do Brasil. Dos 89 isolados que apresentaram atividades positiva para catalase e negativa para coagulase, 25 cepas foram selecionadas para caracterização fenotípica. Nove cepas identificadas como Staphylococcus xylosus por API-STAPH foram avaliadas para capacidade de redução de nitratos e o crescimento satidfatório das cepas foi verificado na presença de nitrito e NaCl, demonstrando seu potencial para utilização como culturas iniciadoras em embutidos cárneos fermentados. As cepas foram ainda avaliadas quanto ao gênero e espécie através da reação em cadeia da polimerase e apenas duas cepas foram identificadas como S. xylosus, diferindo dos resultados encontrados na caracterização fenotípica.

  20. Characterization and antimicrobial potential of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from hypersaline environments of the Algerian Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Inès; Hassani, Imene Ikrame; l'Haridon, Stéphane; Chalopin, Morgane; Hacène, Hocine; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Halophilic archaea were isolated from different chotts and sebkha, dry salt lakes and salt flat respectively, of the Algerian Sahara and characterized using phenotypic and phylogenetic approaches. From 102 extremely halophilic strains isolated, forty three were selected and studied. These strains were also screened for their antagonistic potential and the production of hydrolytic enzymes. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis allowed the identification of 10 archaeal genera within the class Halobacteria: Natrinema (13 strains), Natrialba (12 strains), Haloarcula (4 strains), Halopiger (4 strains), Haloterrigena (3 strains), Halorubrum (2 strains), Halostagnicola (2 strains), Natronococcus, Halogeometricum and Haloferax (1 strain each). The most common producers of antimicrobial compounds belong to the genus Natrinema while the most hydrolytic isolates, with combined production of several enzymes, belong to the genus Natrialba. The strain affiliated to Halopiger djelfamassilliensis was found to produce some substances of interest (halocins, anti-Candida, enzymes). After partial purification and characterization of one of the strains Natrinema gari QI1, we found similarities between the antimicrobial compound and the halocin C8. Therefore, the gene encoding halocin C8 was amplified and sequenced.

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Virulence Potential of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Salmonid Cultures in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, R; Irgang, R; Sandoval, C; Moreno-Lira, P; Houel, A; Duchaud, E; Poblete-Morales, M; Nicolas, P; Ilardi, P

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we isolated, identified and characterized isolates of Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile for the first time. In 2010 and 2014, mortalities were observed in Atlantic salmon (average weight 25-30 and 480-520 g, respectively) at an aquaculture centre in Puerto Montt, Chile. Severe tail rots, frayed fins and, in some cases, damaged gills were detected. Wet smear analyses of these lesions revealed a high occurrence of Gram-negative, filamentous bacteria. Microbiological analysis of infected gill and tail tissues yielded six bacterial isolates. All were identified as T. dicentrarchi through polyphasic taxonomy, which included phenotypic characterization, 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. The latter method revealed a close relationship of the Chilean genotype with the T. dicentrarchi type strain and two Norwegian Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) isolates. The pathogenic potential of the TdChD05 isolate was assessed by challenging Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for one hour, which resulted in mean cumulative mortality rates of 65% and 93%, respectively, as well as clinical signs 14 days post-challenge. However, challenged Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) presented no mortalities or clinical signs of infection. These findings indicate that the geographical and host distribution of T. dicentrarchi is wider than previously established and that this bacterium may have negative impacts on salmonid cultures.

  2. Isolation of stem-like cells from spontaneous feline mammary carcinomas: Phenotypic characterization and tumorigenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Federica; Wurth, Roberto [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Ratto, Alessandra; Campanella, Chiara; Vito, Guendalina [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Thellung, Stefano [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Daga, Antonio [Laboratory of Translational Oncology, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Cilli, Michele [Animal Facility, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino - IST- Istituto Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro, L.go R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova Italy (Italy); Ferrari, Angelo [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D' Aosta, National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Piazza Borgo Pila, 16129, Genova (Italy); Florio, Tullio, E-mail: tullio.florio@unige.it [Section of Pharmacology, Dept. of Internal Medicine Di.M.I., and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research - University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Current carcinogenesis theory states that only a small subset of tumor cells, the cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells (TICs), are responsible for tumor formation and progression. Human breast cancer-initiating cells have been identified as CD44-expressing cells, which retain tumorigenic activity and display stem cell-like properties. Spontaneous feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is an aggressive cancer, which shows biological similarities to the human tumor counterpart. We report the isolation and phenotypic characterization of FMC-derived stem/progenitor cells, showing in vitro self-renewal, long-lasting proliferation and in vivo tumorigenicity. Twenty-one FMC samples were collected, histologically classified and characterized for the expression of Ki67, EGFR, ER-{alpha} and CD44, by immunohistochemistry. By culture in stem cell permissive conditions, we isolated, from 13 FMCs, a CD44-positive subpopulation able to survive and proliferate in vitro as mammospheres of different sizes and morphologies. When injected in NOD/SCID mice, FMC stem-like cells initiate tumors, generating cell heterogeneity and recapitulating the original histotype. In serum-containing medium, spheroid cells showed differentiation properties as shown by morphological changes, the loss of CD44 expression and tumorigenic potential. These data show that stem-defined culture of FMC enriches for TICs and validate the use of these cells as a suitable model for comparative oncology studies of mammary biology and testing therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating TICs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Feline mammary carcinoma contain a sub-population of stem-like cells expressing CD44 Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These grow as spheres in serum-free medium and self-renew Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated stem-like cancer cells initiate tumor in immunodeficient mice Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Xenografted tumors are phenotypically similar to the original tumor Black

  3. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gebreselema Gebreyohannes; Feleke Moges; Samuel Sahile; Nagappan Raja

    2013-01-01

    To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results: The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds.

  4. Incidents of potential public health significance identified using national surveillance of US poison center data (2008–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAW, R. K.; SHEIKH, S.; BRONSTEIN, A.; THOMAS, R.; SPILLER, H. A.; SCHIER, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers conduct national surveillance on data collected by US poison centers to identify incidents of potential public health significance (IPHS). The overarching goals of this collaboration are to improve CDC’s national surveillance capacity for public health threats, identify early markers of public health incidents and enhance situational awareness. The National Poison Data System (NPDS) is used as a surveillance system to automatically identify data anomalies. Purpose To characterize data anomalies and IPHS captured by national surveillance of poison center data over 5 years. Methods Data anomalies are identified through three surveillance methodologies: call-volume, clinical effect, and case-based. Anomalies are reviewed by a team of epidemiologists and clinical toxicologists to determine IPHS using standardized criteria. The authors reviewed IPHS identified by these surveillance activities from 2008 through 2012. Results Call-volume surveillance identified 384 IPHS; most were related to gas and fume exposures (n=229; 59.6%) with the most commonly implicated substance being carbon monoxide (CO) (n=92; 22.8%). Clinical-effect surveillance identified 138 IPHS; the majority were related to gas and fume exposures (n=58; 42.0%) and gastrointestinal complaints (n=84; 16.2%), and the most commonly implicated substance was CO (n=20; 14.4%). Among the 11 case-based surveillance definitions, the botulism case definition yielded the highest percentage of identified agent-specific illness. Conclusions A small proportion of data anomalies were designated as IPHS. Of these, CO releases were the most frequently reported IPHS and gastrointestinal syndromes were the most commonly reported illness manifestations. poison center data surveillance may be used as an approach to identify exposures, illnesses, and incidents of importance at the national and state level

  5. The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Clifford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the biological activity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra and its potential utility as a health promoting and disease preventing functional food. As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO availability and has emerged as a potential strategy to prevent and manage pathologies associated with diminished NO bioavailability, notably hypertension and endothelial function. Beetroot is also being considered as a promising therapeutic treatment in a range of clinical pathologies associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Its constituents, most notably the betalain pigments, display potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive activity in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this review is to discuss beetroot’s biological activity and to evaluate evidence from studies that specifically investigated the effect of beetroot supplementation on inflammation, oxidative stress, cognition and endothelial function.

  6. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajamul Rouf Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds. Phytochemicals play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. It contains various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. It is believed to have potential anti-HIV activity due to the presence of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA lectin or GNA-maize. A tablespoon of maize oil satisfies the requirements for essential fatty acids for a healthy child or adult. Decoction of maize silk, roots, leaves, and cob are used for bladder problems, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. Zein an alcohol-soluble prolamine found in maize endosperm has unique novel applications in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical areas. Resistant starch (RS from maize reduces the risk of cecal cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity-related complications. This review presents a detailed view on the nutritional and potential health benefits of maize.

  7. Biological activities and potential health benefits of polysaccharides from Poria cocos and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yichun

    2014-07-01

    Poria cocos has a long history of medicinal use in Asian countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand. It is a kind of edible and pharmaceutical mushroom. The chemical compositions of Poria cocos mainly include triterpenes, polysaccharides, steroids, amino acids, choline, histidine, etc. Great advances have been made in chemical and bioactive studies on Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) and their derivatives in recent decades. These PCP and their derivatives exhibit many beneficial biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Therefore, PCP and their derivatives have great potential for further development as therapy or adjuvant therapy for cancer, immune-modulatory and antiviral drugs. This paper presents an overview of biological activities and potential health benefits of PCP and their derivatives.

  8. Metabolism and Potential Health Effects of Carotenoids Following Digestion of Green Leafy Vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jane Nygaard

    Background: Green leafy vegetables are nutritionally valuable sources of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene, which are thought to have potential beneficial health effects on different aspects of vision. Bioavailability of these compounds is low, however, and depends on a complex set of factors...... potential. The usefulness of these results is, however, limited by the lack of validated in vitro-in vivo results. Aims: The present PhD thesis investigates liberation and in vitro accessibility of the carotenoids lutein and β-carotene following domestic kitchen preparation procedures for green leafy...... vegetables of different cultivars. The aim was furthermore to test the validity of in vitro accessibility as a possible predictor of the bioavailability of carotenoids from green leafy vegetables in healthy subjects and in patients with surgically altered gut absorption. Methods: Influence of cultivar type...

  9. Realizing the potential of mobile mental health: new methods for new data in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Staples, Patrick; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-08-01

    Smartphones are now ubiquitous and can be harnessed to offer psychiatry a wealth of real-time data regarding patient behavior, self-reported symptoms, and even physiology. The data collected from smartphones meet the three criteria of big data: velocity, volume, and variety. Although these data have tremendous potential, transforming them into clinically valid and useful information requires using new tools and methods as a part of assessment in psychiatry. In this paper, we introduce and explore numerous analytical methods and tools from the computational and statistical sciences that appear readily applicable to psychiatric data collected using smartphones. By matching smartphone data with appropriate statistical methods, psychiatry can better realize the potential of mobile mental health and empower both patients and providers with novel clinical tools.

  10. "Potential health benefits of lunasin: a multifaceted soy-derived bioactive peptide".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lule, Vaibhao Kisanrao; Garg, Sheenam; Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Hitesh; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, fermentation with proteolytic starter cultures, and gastrointestinal digestion. These peptides have positive impacts on a number of physiological functions in living beings. Lunasin, a soy-derived bioactive peptide, is one of the most promising among them. Lunasin encoded within 2S albumin (GM2S-1) gene, identified as a novel peptide extracted from soybean seed. It is composed of 43 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 5.5 kDa. Extensive scientific studies have shown that lunasin possesses inherent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous properties and could also play a vital role in regulating of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body. Its high bioavailability and heat stable nature allow its potential use as dietary supplement. The present review summarizes some of the potential health and therapeutic benefits of lunasin reported hitherto.

  11. Microbial characterization of probiotics--advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank; De Vuyst, Luc; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pot, Bruno; Dubois, Jean-Jacques; Daube, Georges

    2013-08-01

    When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling.

  12. Building Viable Fitness Brands: Importance of Brand Communication Strategies in Attracting Potential Health Club Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S. Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to empirically examine antecedents of sport consumer-based brand equity in the fitness segment of the sport industry (i.e., participatory sport. The proposed framework consisted of market-induced (e.g. word-of-mouth, electronic word-of-mouth and organization-induced antecedents (e.g. price, place that have been theoretically proposed, but not tested. An 18-item paper-based survey was administered to a convenience sample of health club prospects (N= 213. The questionnaire consisted of items measuring price (three items, brand awareness (two items, brand association (three items, electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM (three items, word-of-mouth (WOM (three items, and place (four items. The relationship between independent (i.e., price, place, WOM, eWOM and dependent variables (i.e., brand awareness, brand association within the proposed model were tested using a multiple linear regression analysis (MLR. The results of the proposed model indicated that the four proposed antecedents accounted for a total of 30% of the variance in brand awareness and 14% of the variance in brand association. Specifically, price and WOM were significant predictors of brand awareness as well as brand association. The findings suggest that organization controlled brand strategies such as price, and organic brand communications such as WOM, help shape the perceptions potential health club members have with the health club brand.

  13. Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion and increased UVB radiation: potential impacts to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fabo, Edward C

    2005-12-01

    Contrary to popular belief, stratospheric ozone depletion, and the resultant increase in solar UV-B (280-320 nm), are unlikely to fully recover soon. Notwithstanding the success of the Montreal Protocol in reducing the amount of ozone destroying chemicals into the stratosphere, the life-times of these compounds are such that even with full compliance with the Protocol by all countries, it will be decades before stratospheric ozone could return to pre-1980 levels. This raises the question, therefore, of what will happen to biological processes essential to the maintenance of life on earth which are sensitive to damage by increased UV-B radiation, particularly those involved with human health? The polar regions, because of the vagaries of climate and weather, are the bellwether for stratospheric ozone depletion and will, therefore, be the first to experience impacts due to increases in solar UV-B radiation. The impacts of these are incompletely understood and cannot be predicted with certainty. While some UV-B impacts on human health are recognized, much is unknown, unclear and uncertain. Thus, this paper attempts, as a first approximation, to point out potential impacts to the health and welfare of human inhabitants of the Arctic due to increased solar UV-B radiation associated with stratospheric ozone depletion. As will be seen, much more data is critically needed before adequate risk assessment can occur.

  14. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Kreuder Johnson, Christine; Bonde, Robert K; Auil Gomez, Nicole; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M Page; Osterhaus, A D M E; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  15. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sulzner

    Full Text Available The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus, a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  16. Metal contents in common edible ifsh species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman; Samir Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namelyOreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed asµg/g of wet tissue. Results:Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  17. The potential health effects of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits: phytochemical, chemotaxonomic and ethnobotanical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrom, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Most natural product research is market-driven and thus many plant species are overlooked for their health value due to lack of financial incentives. This may explain the limited information available about the health effects of the edible fruit species Melicoccus bijugatus, a member of the Sapindaceae family that grows mostly in the Caribbean and in parts of South America. However, recent phytochemical studies of these fruits have shed some light on their biological effects. In this review the health effects of M. bijugatus fruit pulp and seeds are assessed in relation to phytochemical and ethnobotanical studies, as well as chemotaxonomic information and medicinal uses of other Sapindaceae species. The chemistry of M. bijugatus fruits was found to be different than the other Sapindaceae fruits, although some of the medicinal uses were similar. Specific phenolics or sugars in M. bijugatus fruits may contribute to their therapeutic uses, especially for gastrointestinal problems, and to some extent toxicological effects. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of M. bijugatus fruits, which may be useful for predicting other medicinal uses, potential drug or food interactions and may benefit people where the fruits are prevalent and healthcare resources are scarce.

  18. Key components and potential benefits of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Anne E; Ashok, Annie P; Casey, Ellen K; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 40 years there has been a significant increase in the number of female athletes, as well as a rise in musculoskeletal injuries observed in women. There is sufficient evidence from past medical research identifying various musculoskeletal injuries and conditions that more commonly affect women, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, stress fractures, and anterior cruciate ligament tears. Several women's sports medicine and musculoskeletal health programs have been developed throughout the United States in an attempt to provide more tailored care to the female athlete. The goal of a comprehensive approach to women's musculoskeletal health is to create an interdisciplinary team to facilitate treatment for a variety of injuries and related conditions. This manuscript outlines the musculoskeletal conditions that commonly affect women and highlights the various etiologies of these sex disparities. We discuss the role of interdisciplinary women's musculoskeletal health and sports medicine programs, and define the potential benefits of such an approach. Future studies should focus on assessing the outcomes of multidisciplinary women's sports medicine programs as current literature in this area is lacking.

  19. Health assessment and seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzner, Kathryn; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Bonde, Robert K.; Gomez, Nicole Auil; Powell, James; Nielsen, Klaus; Luttrell, M. Page; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Aguirre, A. Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, inhabits fresh, brackish, and warm coastal waters distributed along the eastern border of Central America, the northern coast of South America, and throughout the Wider Caribbean Region. Threatened primarily by human encroachment, poaching, and habitat degradation, Antillean manatees are listed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The impact of disease on population viability remains unknown in spite of concerns surrounding the species' ability to rebound from a population crash should an epizootic occur. To gain insight on the baseline health of this subspecies, a total of 191 blood samples were collected opportunistically from wild Antillean manatees in Belize between 1997 and 2009. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals were established, and antibody prevalence to eight pathogens with zoonotic potential was determined. Age was found to be a significant factor of variation in mean blood values, whereas sex, capture site, and season contributed less to overall differences in parameter values. Negative antibody titers were reported for all pathogens surveyed except for Leptospira bratislava, L. canicola, and L. icterohemorrhagiae, Toxoplasma gondii, and morbillivirus. As part of comprehensive health assessment in manatees from Belize, this study will serve as a benchmark aiding in early disease detection and in the discernment of important epidemiologic patterns in the manatees of this region. Additionally, it will provide some of the initial tools to explore the broader application of manatees as sentinel species of nearshore ecosystem health.

  20. Characterization of stainless steel assisted bare gold nanoparticles and their analytical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lorente, A I; Simonet, B M; Valcárcel, M; Eppler, S; Schindl, R; Kranz, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2014-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, one-pot method to synthesize highly stable bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed. AuNPs have been synthesized from tetrachloroauric acid solution using steel or stainless steel as solid reducing agent, which can be reused. The proposed method yields bare gold nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure and room temperature for potentially producing large quantities. The obtained AuNPs have been characterized by SEM, TEM and AFM finding an average diameter of around 20 nm, polygonal yet nearly spherical shape and a narrow size distribution. The mechanism of reaction has been investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, ICP-OES and EDX analysis. The obtained dispersed gold nanoparticles proved to be stable if stored a 4 °C for over four months without the addition of a stabilizing agent. Their analytical potential as SERS substrate has been demonstrated and their performance compared with that showed by citrate-coated gold nanoparticles. Thanks to their unique properties, their use as analytical tools provides analytical processes with enhanced selectivity and precision.

  1. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  2. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.

  3. Characterization and antioxidant potential of Brazilian fruits from the Myrtaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina C; Steffens, Rosana S; Jablonski, André; Hertz, Plinho F; Rios, Alessandro de O; Vizzotto, Márcia; Flôres, Simone H

    2012-03-28

    The objective of this study is to evaluating the Brazilian biodiversity through physicochemical characterization and determination of antioxidant potential of three species from the Myrtaceae family, namely yellow guava (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine), guabiroba (Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg), and uvaia ( Eugenia pyriformis Cambess). Guabiroba had the greater quantity of phenolic compounds (9033 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g) and vitamin C (30.58 mg/g) and showed the best TSS/TTA (total soluble solid/total titratable acid) ratio (45.12). For the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) method, the guabiroba (507.49 μM Trolox/g) presented the highest antioxidant potential; however, in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method, uvaia (170.26 g/g DPPH) and guabiroba (161.29 g/g DPPH) were not statistically different. The uvaia outranked the other fruits with respect to its high carotenoid (909.33 μg/g) and vitamin A (37.83 μg/g) contents, and the yellow guava, although showing a lower bioactive compound content and antioxidant activity, nevertheless presented much higher values than many traditionally consumed fruits.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of iodobenzamide analogues: Potential D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.A.; Kung, H.F.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-01-01

    (S)-N-((1-Ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy-3-iodo-6- methoxybenzamide (({sup 123}I)IBZM) is a central nervous system (CNS) D-2 dopamine receptor imaging agent. In order to investigate the versatility of this parent structure in specific dopamine receptor localization and the potential for developing new dopamine receptor imaging agents, a series of new iodinated benzamides with fused ring systems, naphthalene (INAP) and benzofuran (IBF), was synthesized and radiolabeled, and the in vivo and in vitro biological properties were characterized. The best analogue of IBZM is IBF (21). The specific binding of ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) with rat striatal tissue preparation was found to be saturable and displayed a Kd of 0.106 {plus minus} 0.015 nM. Competition data of various receptor ligands for ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) binding show the following rank order of potency: spiperone greater than IBF (21) greater than IBZM greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than ({plus minus})-ADTN,6,7 greater than ketanserin greater than SCH-23390 much greater than propranolol. The in vivo biodistribution results confirm that ({sup 125}I)IBF (21) concentrated in the striatal area after iv injection into rats. The study demonstrates that ({sup 123}I)IBF (21) is a potential agent for imaging CNS D-2 dopamine receptors.

  5. Characterization and pollution potential assessment of Tunceli, Turkey municipal solid waste open dumping site leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbilek, Deniz; Öztüfekçi Önal, Ayten; Demir, Veysel; Uslu, Gulsad; Arslanoglu-Isık, Hilal

    2013-11-01

    Environmental monitoring of leachate quality from an open municipal solid waste dumping site in Tunceli, Turkey was studied in this research. The most commonly examined pollution parameters were determined on a seasonal basis. The annual average 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD₅) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values of station points were measured as 70 and 425 mg/L, respectively, and also the average BOD₅/COD ratio (a measure of biodegradability) was calculated as 0.20. The low ratio of biodegradability and slightly alkaline pH values in the leachate samples indicated that the site was characterized by methanogenic conditions. The mean ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) and corresponding phosphate (orthophosphate) values were assayed as 70 and 11 mg/L, respectively. The average solids content in the leachates was measured as 4,681 mg/L (total solids) and 144 mg/L (suspended solids). Very low concentrations of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the leachate samples were found and the concentration of cadmium was measured below detection limits. Excessive amount of nutrients and high organic and inorganic pollutant content in the leachates pose serious pollution potential to the environment. Since no drainage system or bio treatment exists in this open dumping site, high permeability of natural soil at the site and in the surrounding area and very fractured and crackled rocks under natural soil are indicators of high groundwater pollution potential in this site.

  6. Nano-characterization of two closely related melanoma cell lines with different metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostek, Justyna; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon; Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Mayr, Katrin; Pabijan, Joanna; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Chtcheglova, Lilia A; Lekka, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the most lethal types of skin cancer. Its progression passes through several steps, leading to the appearance of a new population of cells with aggressive biological potential. Here, we focused on the nano-characterization of two different melanoma cell lines with similar morphological appearance but different metastatic potential, namely, WM115 from vertical growth phase (VGP) and WM266-4 derived from metastasis to skin. The first cell line represents cells that progressed to the VGP, while the WM266-4 cell line denotes cells from the metastasis to skin. Exploring with a combination of atomic force and fluorescence microscopes, our goal was to identify cell surface characteristics in both cell lines that may determine differences in the cellular nano-mechanical properties. Cell elasticity was found to be affected by the presence of F-actin-based flexible ridges, rich in F-actin co-localized with β1 integrins in the studied cell lines. These results point out how progressive changes in the surface structure of melanoma cells can affect their bionanomechanical properties.

  7. Acronychiabaueri Analogue Derivative-Loaded Ultradeformable Vesicles: Physicochemical Characterization and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Martina; Primavera, Rosita; Fiorito, Serena; Cristiano, Maria Chiara; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Epifano, Francesco; Di Marzio, Luisa; Genovese, Salvatore; Celia, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Elastic and ultradeformable liposomes were synthesized and physicochemically characterized to make suitable topical formulations for delivering the anti-inflammatory and anticancer compound 3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic acid. The average sizes of elastic and ultradeformable liposomes are below 300 nm, while the size distribution and Z-potential are below 0.3 and - 25 mV, respectively. The presence of 3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic acid does not affect the physicochemical parameters of nanovesicles. Elastic and ultradeformable liposomes show a zero order release kinetic and are stable at room temperature for a long time with or without 3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic acid. The ultradeformable liposomes are more deformable than elastic liposomes. These differences may depend on sodium cholate derivatives making nanoformulations. The 3-(4'-geranyloxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-trans-propenoic acid-loaded elastic and ultradeformable liposomes can provide innovative nanotherapeutics-based natural compounds for the potential treatment of cutanous inflammation.

  8. Emerging Microfluidic Tools for Functional Cellular Immunophenotyping: A New Potential Paradigm for Immune Status Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eChen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and quantitative characterization of immune status of patients is of utmost importance for disease diagnosis and prognosis, evaluating efficacy of immunotherapeutics and tailoring drug treatments. Immune status of patients is often dynamic and patient-specific, and such complex heterogeneity has made accurate, real-time measurements of patient immune status challenging in the clinical setting. Recent advances in microfluidics have demonstrated promising applications of microfluidics for immune monitoring with minimum sample requirement and rapid functional immunophenotyping capability. This review will highlight recent developments of microfluidic platforms that can perform rapid and accurate cellular functional assays on patient immune cells. We will also discuss the future potential of integrated microfluidics to perform rapid, accurate, and sensitive cellular functional assays at a single-cell resolution on different types or subpopulations of immune cells, to provide an unprecedented level of information depth on the distribution of immune cell functionalities. We envision that such microfluidic immunophenotyping tools will allow comprehensive and systems-level immunomonitoring, unlocking the potential to transform experimental clinical immunology into an information-rich science.

  9. The diagnostic value of endothelial function as a potential sensor of fatigue in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Ohno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiko Ohno1,2, Teruto Hashiguchi1, Ryuichi Maenosono1, Hidetoshi Yamashita3, Yukio Taira3, Kazufumi Minowa3, Yoshihito Yamashita3, Yuko Kato3, Ko-ichi Kawahara1, Ikuro Maruyama11Department of Laboratory and Vascular Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan; 2Department of Community Health Nursing/Nursing Informatics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan; 3Kagoshima Seikyo General Hospital, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima Prefecture, JapanPurpose: Many epidemiological research studies have shown that vital exhaustion and psychosocial factors are associated with the occurrence of cerebrocardiovascular disease (CCVD. Fatigue is thought to induce endothelial dysfunction and may be linked to the occurrence of CCVD; however, no studies have investigated this potential link. We studied to determine the effect of fatigue on endothelial function in healthy subjects with no traditional CCVD risk factors or potential confounding factors to be controlled.Subjects and methods: Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT was used to evaluate endothelial function. The influence of the following parameters on endothelial function was analyzed in 74 office workers without traditional CCVD risk factors at health check-ups: endothelial function before and after work, subjective fatigue, lifestyle factors such as sleeping time, and psychosocial factors such as depression and social support.Results: Twenty-five subjects (33.8% had low endothelial function; reactive hyperemia (RH-PAT index <1.67, even though no abnormalities were reported in the health check-ups. There was no significant difference in endothelial function before versus after labor. Of note, endothelial function was associated with the individual’s level of subjective fatigue (t = 2.98, P = 0.008 and showed a daily fluctuation, sometimes to a pathological

  10. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  11. Cadmium contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees and its potential health risk in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Qiu, J W; Wang, X W; Zhong, Y; Lan, C Y; Shu, W S

    2006-09-01

    This study examines cadmium (Cd) contamination in orchard soils and fruit trees in Guangzhou, China, and assesses its potential health risk. Soils and tissues samples of three species of fruit trees were collected from three orchards. The average soil Cd concentration was 1.27, 1.84 and 0.68 mg/kg in orchards I, II, and III, respectively. The carambola (Averrhoa carambola) accumulated exceptionally high concentrations of Cd (7.57, 10.84, 9.01 and 2.15 mg/kg dw in root, twig, leaf and fruit, respectively), being 6.0-24 times and 4.0-10 times the corresponding tissue Cd in the longan (Dimocarpus longan) and wampee (Clausena lansium), respectively. Furthermore, all Cd concentrations (0.04-0.25 mg Cd/kg fw) of the fruits exceeded the tolerance limit of cadmium in foods of PR China (0.03 mg/kg fw). Our results indicate that the carambola tree has high Cd accumulation capacity and might be a Cd accumulator; and its fruit, among the three species of fruits studied, also poses the highest potential health risk to local residents.

  12. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods.

  13. PROFILE: Potential for Advanced Technology to Improve Air Quality and Human Health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STREETS; HEDAYAT; CARMICHAEL; ARNDT; CARTER

    1999-04-01

    / Air quality in most Asian cities is poor and getting worse. It will soon become impossible to sustain population, economic, and industrial growth without severe deterioration of the atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the city of Shanghai, the air-quality problems it faces over the next 30 years, and the potential of advanced technology to alleviate these problems. Population, energy consumption, and emission profiles are developed for the city at 0.1 degrees x 0.1 degrees resolution and extrapolated from 1990 to 2020 using sector-specific economic growth factors. Within the context of the RAINS-Asia model, eight technology scenarios are examined for their effects on ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate and their emission control costs. Without new control measures, it is projected that the number of people exposed to sulfur dioxide concentrations in excess of guidelines established by the World Health Organization will rise from 650,000 in 1990 to more than 14 million in 2020. It is apparent that efforts to reduce emissions are likely to have significant health benefits, measured in terms of the cost of reducing the number of people exposed to concentrations in excess of the guidelines ($10-50 annually per person protected). Focusing efforts on the control of new coal-fired power plants and industrial facilities has the greatest benefit. However, none of the scenarios examined is alone capable of arresting the increases in emissions, concentrations, and population exposure. It is concluded that combinations of stringent scenarios in several sectors will be necessary to stabilize the situation, at a potential cost of $500 million annually by the year 2020. KEY WORDS: Coal; China; Shanghai; Sulfur dioxide; Air quality; Health effects

  14. Development and analytical characterization of vitamin(s)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for potential food packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, Antonella, E-mail: antonellamaria.aresta@uniba.it; Calvano, Cosima Damiana [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy); Trapani, Adriana; Cellamare, Saverio [University of Bari, Department of Pharmacy-Drug Sciences (Italy); Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio; De Giglio, Elvira [University of Bari, Department of Chemistry (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Most vitamins are well-known natural antioxidant agents which can be usefully employed for foods preservation to increase their shelf life. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential of vitamin-based chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) for novel food packaging application. In particular, Vitamin C- and/or E-loaded CSNPs were formulated following the ionic gelation technique and using sulfobutylether-{beta}-cyclodextrin as cross-linking agent. The obtained CSNPs were characterized in terms of size and zeta potential measurements, leading to size range of 375-503 nm and zeta range values from +16.0 to +33.8 mV. At the solid-state, the same particles were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant potential of the produced vitamin(s) nanoparticulate formulations has been evaluated through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test, a rapid spectrophotometric assay. The standardized procedure was used on vitamin(s)-modified CSNPs systems to determine both the amount of active vitamin(s) loaded in CSNPs and their release performances by in vitro release studies. Of all, high vitamins association efficiency along with an improvement of their shelf life (also under light exposure up to 7 days) were achieved. Altogether, the results suggest that Vitamin E is available in a hydrophilic delivery system able to replace organic solvents usually used for the solubilization of this antioxidant agent. In conclusion, these nanocarriers represent a promising strategy for the co-administration of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in packaging materials intended for a better storage of hydrophilic and/or lipophilic food.

  15. Remote Sensing-Based Characterization of Settlement Structures for Assessing Local Potential of District Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nast

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, heating of houses and commercial areas is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. When considering the drastic impact of an increasing emission of greenhouse gases as well as the finiteness of fossil resources, the usage of efficient and renewable energy generation technologies has to be increased. In this context, small-scale heating networks are an important technical component, which enable the efficient and sustainable usage of various heat generation technologies. This paper investigates how the potential of district heating for different settlement structures can be assessed. In particular, we analyze in which way remote sensing and GIS data can assist the planning of optimized heat allocation systems. In order to identify the best suited locations, a spatial model is defined to assess the potential for small district heating networks. Within the spatial model, the local heat demand and the economic costs of the necessary heat allocation infrastructure are compared. Therefore, a first and major step is the detailed characterization of the settlement structure by means of remote sensing data. The method is developed on the basis of a test area in the town of Oberhaching in the South of Germany. The results are validated through detailed in situ data sets and demonstrate that the model facilitates both the calculation of the required input parameters and an accurate assessment of the district heating potential. The described method can be transferred to other investigation areas with a larger spatial extent. The study underlines the range of applications for remote sensing-based analyses with respect to energy-related planning issues.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant potential of vanadium encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R S; Reshmi, R; Jomon, S; Antu, K A; Riya, M P; Raghu, K G

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant potential of guar gum macroparticles (GGMs), vanadium oxide sulphate (VS) encapsulated guar gum macroparticles (GVMs), guar gum nanoparticles (GGNs), VS encapsulated guar gum nanoparticles (GVNs) and VS. GGNs and GVNs prepared by nanoprecipitation were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and particle size analysis to confirm the nanostructure of the particles. Particle size analysis revealed that GVNs possess a size of 239 nm, about 148 nm larger than that of GGNs. TEM imaging and EDAX data also confirmed the formation of fine spherical nanoparticles with vanadium incorporation. In addition the larger size of GVNs also confirmed the vanadium incorporation. MTT assay showed that concentrations up to 100 nM of GVNs for 24 h exposure did not induce significant toxicity when VS was toxic (16%) at 100 nM. Various in vitro antioxidant assays (total reducing power, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays) revealed significantly high antioxidant potential of GVNs compared to GGNs, VS, GGMs and GVMs. The IC50 of GVNs was 23.21 ± 2.1 μg mL(-1), 33.0 ± 2.93 μg mL(-1), 21 ± 1.98 μg mL(-1) and 22.79 ± 2.12 μg mL(-1) for DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, superoxide anion scavenging activity assays respectively. The cell line based assay also proved that the GVN was more effective in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging than VS against tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress in H9c2 cell lines. The overall results indicated that vanadium in combination with nano guar gum exhibits significantly high antioxidant potential.

  17. Natural Products from Chinese Medicines with Potential Benefits to Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Tao Che

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a progressive, systemic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass and microstructure, leading to reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. It is often associated with reduced quality of life and other medical complications. The disease is common in the aging population, particularly among postmenopausal women and patients who receive long-term steroidal therapy. Given the rapid growth of the aging population, increasing life expectancy, the prevalence of bone loss, and financial burden to the healthcare system and individuals, demand for new therapeutic agents and nutritional supplements for the management and promotion of bone health is pressing. With the advent of global interest in complementary and alternative medicine and natural products, Chinese medicine serves as a viable source to offer benefits for the improvement and maintenance of bone health. This review summarizes the scientific information obtained from recent literatures on the chemical ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants that have been reported to possess osteoprotective and related properties in cell-based and/or animal models. Some of these natural products (or their derivatives may become promising leads for development into dietary supplements or therapeutic drugs.

  18. Managing potential health risks from electric powerlines: a decision analysis caught in controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof; Eppel, Thomas; Adams, John; Neutra, Raymond; DelPizzo, Vincent

    2004-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, several epidemiological studies have found an association between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and health effects, including childhood leukemia and adult brain cancer. However, experts strongly disagree about whether this association is causal and, if so, how strong it is. In this article, we examine several alternatives to reduce EMFs from sources of the California power grid, including undergrounding distribution and transmission lines and reconfiguring or rephasing lines. The alternatives were evaluated in terms of the potential health risk reduction, cost, impacts on service reliability, property values, and many other consequences. Because of the uncertainty about an EMF-health link, the main effort was to determine the sensitivity of the decisions to the probability and seriousness of an EMF hazard. User-friendly computer models were developed to allow stakeholders to change the model assumptions and parameters to analyze the impacts of their own assumptions and estimates on the decision. The analysis clearly demonstrated that only four of the many concerns raised by the stakeholders could make a difference in the decision: health risks, costs, service reliability, and property values. Whether undergrounding, moderate alternatives for EMF reduction, or no change was the best decision depended on a few key factors, including the probability that EMF exposure is a hazard, the severity of this hazard, how the EMF reduction measures are financed, and the impacts on property values. While the analysis did not resolve the EMF issues, it showed that even in the most controversial settings, a little analysis goes a long way to clarifying the issues and to focus the debate.

  19. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence AR Seemungal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Terence AR Seemungal1, John R Hurst2, Jadwiga A Wedzicha21Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, UKAbstract: COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, health burden, mortality, inhaled steroids, long-acting bronchodilators, long-acting antimuscarinic agents, macrolide, disease management program

  20. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  1. Anaerobic sediment potential acidification and metal release risk assessment by chemical characterization and batch resuspension experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanno, M.P. di [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; Curutchet, G. [Univ. de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Technologia; CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ratto, S. [Univ. de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Catedra de Edafologia

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Sediments act as a sink for toxic substances (heavy metals, organic pollutants) and, consequently, dredged materials often contain pollutants which are above safe limits. In polluted anaerobic sediments, the presence of sulphides and redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulphide oxidation to sulphate, resulting in potential toxic metal release. The oxidation reaction is catalyzed by several microorganisms. Some clean up measures, such as dredging, can initiate the process. The aim of the present work is to assess the acidification and metal release risk in the event of sediment dredging and also to compare two different acid base account techniques with the resuspension results. The oxidation mechanism by means of inoculation with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: The sediments were chemically characterized (pH; organic oxidizable carbon; acid volatile sulphides; total sulphur; moisture; Cr, Cu and Zn aqua regia contents). A metal sequential extraction procedure (Community Bureau of Reference, BCR technique) was applied to calculate the Acid Producing Potential (APP) and Acid Consuming Capacity (ACC) of the sediment samples through Fe, Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} measurements. The acid base account was also performed by the Sobek methodology (Acid producing potential - AP - calculated with total sulphur and neutralization potential - NP - by titration of the remaining acid after a reaction period with the sample). Fresh sediments were placed in agitated shake flasks and samples were taken at different times to evaluate pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cr, Cu, Zn and Fe{sup 2+} concentration. Some of the systems were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess the biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Results: Sediment chemical characterization showed high organic matter content (5.4-10.6%), total sulphur (0.36-0.86%) and equivalent CaCO{sub 3

  2. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine

  3. Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Geoffrey

    2003-12-01

    Abstract Polyols are hydrogenated carbohydrates used as sugar replacers. Interest now arises because of their multiple potential health benefits. They are non-cariogenic (sugar-free tooth-friendly), low-glycaemic (potentially helpful in diabetes and cardiovascular disease), low-energy and low-insulinaemic (potentially helpful in obesity), low-digestible (potentially helpful in the colon), osmotic (colon-hydrating, laxative and purifying) carbohydrates. Such potential health benefits are reviewed. A major focus here is the glycaemic index (GI) of polyols as regards the health implications of low-GI foods. The literature on glycaemia and insulinaemia after polyol ingestion was analysed and expressed in the GI and insulinaemic index (II) modes, which yielded the values: erythritol 0, 2; xylitol 13, 11; sorbitol 9, 11; mannitol 0, 0; maltitol 35, 27; isomalt 9, 6; lactitol 6, 4; polyglycitol 39, 23. These values are all much lower than sucrose 65, 43 or glucose 100, 100. GI values on replacing sucrose were independent of both intake (up to 50 g) and the state of carbohydrate metabolism (normal, type 1 with artificial pancreas and type 2 diabetes mellitus). The assignment of foods and polyols to GI bands is considered, these being: high (> 70), intermediate (> 55-70), low (> 40-55), and very low (< 40) including non-glycaemic; the last aims to target particularly low-GI-carbohydrate-based foods. Polyols ranged from low to very low GI. An examination was made of the dietary factors affecting the GI of polyols and foods. Polyol and other food GI values could be used to estimate the GI of food mixtures containing polyols without underestimation. Among foods and polyols a departure of II from GI was observed due to fat elevating II and reducing GI. Fat exerted an additional negative influence on GI, presumed due to reduced rates of gastric emptying. Among the foods examined, the interaction was prominent with snack foods; this potentially damaging insulinaemia could be

  4. Separation, Characterization and Fouling Potential of Sludge Waters from Different Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Jinkai

    2011-07-01

    The major limitation, which hinders the wider application of membrane technology and increases the operating costs of membranes involved in wastewater treatment plants, is membrane fouling induced by organic matter. Extracellular polymeric products (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the two most mentioned major foulants in publications, for which the debate on precise definitions seems to be endless. Therefore, a concept of sludge water, which conceptually covers both EPS and SMP, has been developed in this research. A standard procedure of sludge water separation, which is centrifugation at 4000g for 15 min followed by 1.2μm glass fiber filter filtration, was established based on separation experiments with membrane tank sludge from the KAUST MBR wastewater treatment plant. Afterwards, sludge waters from the KAUST MBR WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and membrane tank as well as sludge waters from the Jeddah WWTP anoxic tank, aerobic tank and secondary effluent were produced through the previously developed standard procedure. The obtained sludge water samples were thereafter characterized with TOC/COD, LC-­‐OCD and F-­‐EEM, which showed that KAUST anoxic/ aerobic /membrane tank sludge waters had similar characteristics for all investigated parameters, yet the influent naturally had a higher DOC and biopolymer concentration. Moreover, lower TOC/COD, negligible biopolymers and low levels of humics were found in KAUST effluent. Compared with the KAUST MBR WWTP, the Jeddah WWTP’s sludge waters generally had higher DOC and biopolymer concentrations. To investigate sludge water fouling potential, the KAUST membrane tank sludge water as well as the Jeddah secondary effluent were filtrated through a membrane array consisting of an ultrafiltration (UF) Millipore RC10kDa at the first step followed by a nanofiltration (NF) KOCH Acid/Base stable NF200 at the second step. It was found that cake layer and standard blocking occurred simultaneously during both

  5. A case study of potential human health impacts from petroleum coke transfer facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourson, Michael L; Chinkin, Lyle R; MacIntosh, David L; Finn, Jennifer A; Brown, Kathleen W; Reid, Stephen B; Martinez, Jeanelle M

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a solid material created during petroleum refinement and is distributed via transfer facilities that may be located in densely populated areas. The health impacts from petcoke exposure to residents living in proximity to such facilities were evaluated for a petcoke transfer facilities located in Chicago, Illinois. Site-specific, margin of safety (MOS) and margin of exposure (MOE) analyses were conducted using estimated airborne and dermal exposures. The exposure assessment was based on a combined measurement and modeling program that included multiyear on-site air monitoring, air dispersion modeling, and analyses of soil and surfaces in residential areas adjacent to two petcoke transfer facilities located in industrial areas. Airborne particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) were used as a marker for petcoke. Based on daily fence line monitoring, the average daily PM10 concentration at the KCBX Terminals measured on-site was 32 μg/m(3), with 89% of 24-hr average PM10 concentrations below 50 μg/m(3) and 99% below 100 μg/m(3). A dispersion model estimated that the emission sources at the KCBX Terminals produced peak PM10 levels attributed to the petcoke facility at the most highly impacted residence of 11 μg/m(3) on an annual average basis and 54 μg/m(3) on 24-hr average basis. Chemical indicators of petcoke in soil and surface samples collected from residential neighborhoods adjacent to the facilities were equivalent to levels in corresponding samples collected at reference locations elsewhere in Chicago, a finding that is consistent with limited potential for off-site exposure indicated by the fence line monitoring and air dispersion modeling. The MOE based upon dispersion model estimates ranged from 800 to 900 for potential inhalation, the primary route of concern for particulate matter. This indicates a low likelihood of adverse health effects in the surrounding community. Implications: Handling of petroleum coke at

  6. Tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a distinct aqueous spearmint extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M. Nieman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive function can decline during the aging process and significantly reduce quality of life. Although a number of interventions have been investigated for cognitive dysfunction, including antioxidants, this prominent health concern emphasizes a need to explore methods to support cognitive health later in the life span. An aqueous extract from a proprietary spearmint line has been developed which contains a number of antioxidant compounds, including rosmarinic acid, at levels that are higher than found in commercially-bred spearmint. Therefore, this pilot trial assessed the tolerance, bioavailability, and potential cognitive health implications of a proprietary spearmint extract in men and women with self-reported memory impairment. Methods: Subjects consumed 900 mg/day spearmint extract for 30 days. The sample population (N = 11 was 73% female and 27% male with a mean age of 58.7 ± 1.6 y. Tolerability parameters were assessed at baseline and end of treatment visits. Computerized cognitive function tests were completed and blood was drawn at pre- and post-dose (0.5 to 4 h timepoints during baseline and end of treatment visits. Subjective cognition was also assessed at end of treatment. Results: No serious adverse events or clinically relevant findings were observed in any tolerability parameters. Plasma vanillic, caffeic, and ferulic acid sulfates, rosmarinic acid, and methyl rosmarinic acid glucuronide were detected in plasma following acute administration of the spearmint extract. Computerized cognitive function scores improved in reasoning (P =0.023 and attention/concentration (P = 0.002 after 30 days of supplementation. After acute administration, subjects had improved attention/concentration in two tests at 2 (P = 0.042 and P = 0.025 and 4 h (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002. Conclusions: The results from this pilot trial suggest that the spearmint extract, which contains higher rosmarinic acid content relative to extracts from

  7. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette C. Rohr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  9. Potential Occupational Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Biomass-Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Annette C.; Campleman, Sharan L.; Long, Christopher M.; Peterson, Michael K.; Weatherstone, Susan; Quick, Will; Lewis, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly being used for power generation; however, assessment of potential occupational health and safety (OH&S) concerns related to usage of biomass fuels in combustion-based generation remains limited. We reviewed the available literature on known and potential OH&S issues associated with biomass-based fuel usage for electricity generation at the utility scale. We considered three potential exposure scenarios—pre-combustion exposure to material associated with the fuel, exposure to combustion products, and post-combustion exposure to ash and residues. Testing of dust, fungal and bacterial levels at two power stations was also undertaken. Results indicated that dust concentrations within biomass plants can be extremely variable, with peak levels in some areas exceeding occupational exposure limits for wood dust and general inhalable dust. Fungal spore types, identified as common environmental species, were higher than in outdoor air. Our review suggests that pre-combustion risks, including bioaerosols and biogenic organics, should be considered further. Combustion and post-combustion risks appear similar to current fossil-based combustion. In light of limited available information, additional studies at power plants utilizing a variety of technologies and biomass fuels are recommended. PMID:26206568

  10. [Memorandum 'Development of health services research in Bavaria from the perspective of the Bavarian State Working Group 'Health Services Research (LAGeV)': status quo - potential - strategies'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, A; Braun, G E; Dahlhoff, G; Drexler, H; Engel, J; Gräßel, E; Häusler, E; Heide, H; Heuschmann, P U; Hörl, G; Imhof, H; Kaplan, M; Kasperbauer, R; Klemperer, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Kuhn, J; Lang, M; Langejürgen, R; Lankes, A; Leidl, R; Liebl, B; Loss, J; Ludewig, K; Mansmann, U; Melcop, N; Nagels, K; Nowak, D; Pfundner, H; Reuschenbach, B; Schneider, A; Schneider, W; Schöffski, O; Schreiber, W; Voigtländer, S; Wildner, M; Zapf, A; Zellner, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the memorandum on the development of health services research (HSR) in Bavaria is to operationalise the global objectives of the State Working Group "Health Services Research" (LAGeV) and to collectively define future topics, specific implementation steps, methods as well as ways of working for the future course of the LAGeV. The LAGeV is an expert committee that integrates and links the competencies of different actors from science, politics and health care regarding HSR and facilitates their cooperation. The memorandum is based on an explorative survey among the LAGeV members, which identified the status quo of health services research in Bavaria, potential for development, important constraints, promoting factors, specific recommendations as well as future topics for the further development of HSR in Bavaria. From the perspective of the LAGeV members, the 12 most important future topics are: 1) Interface and networking research, 2) Innovative health care concepts, 3) Health care for multimorbid patients, 4)Health care for chronically ill patients, 5) Evaluation of innovations, processes and technologies, 6) Patient orientation and user focus, 7) Social and regional inequalities in health care, 8) Health care for mentally ill patients, 9) Indicators of health care quality, 10) Regional needs planning, 11) Practical effectiveness of HSR and 12) Scientific use of routine data. Potential for development of HSR in Bavaria lies a) in the promotion of networking and sustainable structures, b) the establishment of an HSR information platform that bundles information and results in regard to current topics and aims to facilitate cooperation as well as c) in the initiation of measures and projects. The latter ought to pinpoint health care challenges and make recommendations regarding the improvement of health care and its quality. The cooperation and networking structures that were established with the LAGeV should be continuously expanded and be used to work

  11. Characterization of the Scientific Output of Health Professionals from Cienfuegos Visible in the Scopus Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniet Rojas Mesa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: the publication of the results from scientific research and projects ensures dissemination of science, exchange, feedback and update of its trends.Objective: to characterize the scientific output of health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the Provincial Medical Sciences Information Center including the publications by health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database from January 2007 to September 2013. The variables analyzed were: publications per year, topics discussed in the publications, most prolific authors, collaboration among institutions and countries as well as institutions according to the authors' affiliation. Results: 102 papers were retrieved, mostly by authors working in secondary care, specifically at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Provincial Hospital. A total of 141 authors are represented, 82 times as first authors and 230 as co-authors. Only 9.2 % appears five or more times. Most common topics are: cardiovascular diseases and public health. Collaboration with 13 institutions (nine papers with four national institutes and 30 with foreign institutions was observed. Conclusions: scientific output of health professionals from Cienfuegos visible in the Scopus database is still scant.

  12. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for National Institute of Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the National Institute of Health (NIH) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  13. Characterization of X-ray fields at the center for devices and radiological health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerra, F. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This talk summarizes the process undertaken by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) for establishing reference x-ray fields in its accredited calibration laboratory. The main considerations and their effects on the calibration parameters are discussed. The characterization of fields may be broken down into two parts: (1) the initial setup of the calibration beam spectra and (2) the ongoing measurements and controls which ensure consistency of the reference fields. The methods employed by CDRH for both these stages and underlying considerations are presented. Uncertainties associated with the various parameters are discussed. Finally, the laboratory`s performance, as evidenced by ongoing measurement quality assurance results, is reported.

  14. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    Every chemist, material scientist, physicist, engineer, or commercial enterprise involved in the synthesis and/or production of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) or nano-enabled products aspires to develop safe materials. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is a research discipline that involves the study of the possible adverse health and biological effects that nanomaterials may have on humans and environmental organisms and ecosystems. NanoEHS research has provided a body of experimental evidence indicating the possibility of hazardous outcomes as a result of the interactions of unique ENM physicochemical properties with similar scale processes occurring at a wide range of nano/bio interfaces, including at biomolecular, cellular, subcellular, organ, systemic, whole organism, or ecosystems levels. This projected hazard and risk potential warrants rigorous attention to safety assessment, safe use, safe implementation, benign design, regulatory oversight, governance, and public awareness to address the possibility and prevention of nanotoxicity, now or at any time in the future.1 Thus, we should understand the properties of the ENMs that are responsible for the toxicological response, so that we can re-engineer their physicochemical characteristics for risk prevention and safer ENM design.2 However, in spite of widespread use, no human toxicological disease or major environmental impact has been reported for ENMs. Thus, while “Nanotoxicology” is a thriving sub-discipline of Nano-EHS, the use of the “root” word toxicology may elicit a feeling that nanomaterials are inherently toxic despite the fact that toxicity has not been established in real-life use so far. As a community, we may want to rename this sub-discipline as “Nanosafety,” since the objective is to use toxicology information to guide the design of safer nanomaterials for use in medicine, biology, electronics, lighting systems, etc. At ACS Nano, we are interested in

  15. Bioengineered probiotics as a new hope for health and diseases: an overview of potential and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Vinod; Singh, Birbal; Mal, Gorakh; Nagpal, Ravinder; Hemalatha, Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Despite the use of microorganisms as therapeutics for over a century, the scientific and clinical admiration of their potential is a recent phenomenon. Genome sequencing and genetic engineering has enabled researchers to develop novel strategies, such as bioengineered probiotics or pharmabiotics, which may become a therapeutic strategy. Bioengineered probiotics with multiple immunogenic or antagonistic properties could be a viable option to improve human health. The bacteria are tailored to deliver drugs, therapeutic proteins or gene therapy vectors with precision and a higher degree of site specificity than conventional drug administration regimes. This article provides an overview of methodological concepts, thereby encouraging research and interest in this topic, with the ultimate goal of using designer probiotics as therapeutics in clinical practice.

  16. Benefits negotiation: three Swedish hospitals pursuit of potential electronic health record benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeansson, John S

    2013-01-01

    At the very heart of Swedish healthcare digitalisation are large investments in electronic health records (EHRs). These integrated information systems (ISs) carry promises of great benefits and value for organisations. However, realising IS benefits and value has, in general, proven to be a challenging task, and as organisations strive to formalise their realisation efforts a misconception of rationality threatens to emerge. This misconception manifests itself when the formality of analysis threatens to underrate the impact of social processes in deciding which potential benefits to pursue. This paper suggests that these decisions are the result of a social process of negotiation. The purpose of this paper is to observe three benefits analysis projects of three Swedish hospitals to better understand the character and management of proposed benefits negotiations. Findings depict several different categories of benefits negotiations, as well as key factors to consider during the benefits negotiation process.

  17. Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scapagnini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.

  18. Collecting Family Health History using an Online Social Network: a Nationwide Survey among Potential Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M.; O’Connell, Nathaniel S.; Qanungo, Suparna; Halbert-Hughes, Chanita; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Family health history (FHx) is one of the most important risk factors for disease. Unfortunately, collection and use of FHx is under-utilized in the clinical setting. Efforts to improve collection of FHx have had minimal impact. A novel approach to collect FHx using social networking capabilities is being explored. We conducted a nationwide survey of 5,258 respondents to 1- assess the interest in using an online social network for FHx, 2- identify if such a tool would have clinical utility, and 3- identify notable trends and potential concerns. We found survey respondents to be very supportive of the proposed approach and interesting trends related to age, education, and race were identified. Results from this survey will be used to guide future research and development of a proposed FHx social network application. PMID:26958272

  19. Characterization of haloacetaldehyde and trihalomethane formation potentials during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Guo, Xian-Fen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of great health concern. In this study, their formation and speciation during chlorination were investigated for raw and process waters collected at three O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced drinking water treatment plants. The results showed that all HA formation potentials (HAFPs) were highly enhanced whenever ozone was applied before or after conventional treatment. Sand filtration and BAC filtration could substantially reduce HAFPs. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were also measured to better understand the role of HAs in DBPs. Very different from HAFPs, THMFPs kept decreasing with the progress of treatment steps, which was mainly attributed to the different precursors for HAs and THMs. Brominated HAs were detected in bromide-containing waters. Chloral hydrate (CH) contributed from 25% to 48% to the total HAs formed in waters containing 100-150 μg L(-1) bromide, indicating the wide existence of other HAs after chlorination besides CH production. In addition, bromide incorporation factor (BIF) in HAs and THMs increased with the progress of treatment steps and the BIF values of THMs were generally higher than those of HAs. The BAC filtration following ozonation could significantly reduce HA precursors produced from ozonation but without complete removal. The brominated HAFPs in the outflow of BAC were still higher than their levels in the raw water. As a result, O3-BAC combined treatment was effective at controlling the total HAs, whereas it should be cautious for waters with high bromide levels.

  20. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  1. Hydroxylated polychlorobornanes--synthesis and characterization of new potential toxaphene metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Thomas; Vetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    For decades, toxaphene had been used as a major chloropesticide. Degradation of the multicomponent mixture in the environment was mainly reported to be due to anaerobic dechlorination and hydrodechlorination. Little was known about oxidative transformation processes and the potential hydroxylated metabolites were not available as standard compounds. For this reason we synthesized hydroxylated polychlorobornanes by the UV-induced photochlorination of 2-endo-bornyl acetate with sulfuryl chloride followed by hydrolysis of the acetate moiety. The released polychlorinated 2-endo-hydroxybornanes were slightly higher chlorinated the longer the reaction was maintained. After 8h, the main products were pentachlorinated hydroxybornanes followed by hexa- and heptachlorinated homologues. Traces of octachlorinated hydroxybornanes were also observed. The GC/ECNI-MS spectra of the products were characterized by the molecular ions and the [M-Cl]⁻ fragment ions. The molecular ions of the polychlorinated hydroxybornanes are isobaric with those of polychlorinated biphenyls. E.g. hexachlorohydroxybornanes (C₁₀H₁₂Cl₆O) and hexachlorobiphenyls (C₁₂H₄Cl₆) show the molecular ion at m/z 358. Based on fractionation experiments on silica with the synthesis products it might be possible that OH-CTTs if present in samples will elute into a more polar fraction usually discarded or not collected. Both problems might explain why these compounds have not been more frequently described in the scientific literature.

  2. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mäkitalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD. A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphide-bearing mine waste. GLD has relatively low hydraulic conductivity (10−8 to 10−9 m/s, a high water retention capacity (WRC and small particle size. Whilst the chemical and mineralogical composition varied between the different batches, these variations were not reflected in properties such as hydraulic conductivity and WRC. Due to relatively low trace element concentrations, leaching of contaminants from the GLD is not a concern for the environment. However, GLD is a sticky material, difficult to apply on mine waste deposits and the shear strength is insufficient for engineering applications. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties is necessary. In addition, GLD has a high buffering capacity indicating that it could act as an alkaline barrier. Once engineering technicalities have been overcome, the long-term effectiveness of GLD should be studied, especially the effect of aging and how the sealing layer would be engineered in respect to topography and climatic conditions.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in acidic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, A.; Boilard, S. [Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington St., Building D, Room D215, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3J 1Z1 (Canada); Walsh, M.E., E-mail: mwalsh2@dal.ca [Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington St., Building D, Room D215, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3J 1Z1 (Canada); Lake, C.B. [Department of Civil and Resource Engineering, Dalhousie University, 1360 Barrington St., Building D, Room D215, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3J 1Z1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the potential to be used as a replacement for lime in treating acidic wastewaters such as acid rock drainage (ARD). This paper outlines the results of an examination of the physical and chemical properties of CKD samples collected from six cement plants. The CKD samples were analyzed for major oxides using X-ray diffraction (XRD), available lime, specific surface area, particle size, and morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared with a commercial quicklime product. Conductivity, pH, and calcium concentrations of slaked CKD and quicklime solutions were used as indicators of reactivity of the CKD. Slaking of two of the CKD samples with the highest free lime contents (e.g., 34 and 37% free CaO) gave elevated pH values statistically comparable to those of the commercial quicklime sample that was characterized as having 87% available CaO. Acid neutralization trials indicate that even CKD samples with low free lime contents could be effective at neutralizing acidic wastewaters.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in acidic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, A; Boilard, S; Walsh, M E; Lake, C B

    2010-01-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained material produced during the manufacture of cement. Current reuse options are limited and the bulk of CKD not reused in the cement manufacturing process is sent to landfills or stored on-site. Due to the calcium oxide (CaO) content of CKD, it has the potential to be used as a replacement for lime in treating acidic wastewaters such as acid rock drainage (ARD). This paper outlines the results of an examination of the physical and chemical properties of CKD samples collected from six cement plants. The CKD samples were analyzed for major oxides using X-ray diffraction (XRD), available lime, specific surface area, particle size, and morphology using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared with a commercial quicklime product. Conductivity, pH, and calcium concentrations of slaked CKD and quicklime solutions were used as indicators of reactivity of the CKD. Slaking of two of the CKD samples with the highest free lime contents (e.g., 34 and 37% free CaO) gave elevated pH values statistically comparable to those of the commercial quicklime sample that was characterized as having 87% available CaO. Acid neutralization trials indicate that even CKD samples with low free lime contents could be effective at neutralizing acidic wastewaters.

  5. Copper complexes bearing 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives as potential antioxidant: Synthesis, characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J; Janaki, G Boomadevi

    2016-09-01

    Novel copper complexes of Schiff base ligands of 2-aminobenzothiazole derivatives were synthesized by the condensation of Knoevenagel condensate of acetoacetanilide (obtained from substituted benzaldehydes and acetoacetanilide) and 2-aminobenzothiazole. They were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and electrochemical studies. Based on the magnetic moment and electronic spectral data, square planar geometry has been suggested for all the complexes. Antibacterial and antifungal screening of the ligands and their complexes reveal that all the complexes show higher activities than the ligands. The binding behaviour of the complexes with calf thymus DNA has been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalation binding mode. Superoxide dismutase and antioxidant activities of the copper complexes have also been studied. The antioxidant activities of the complexes showed higher activities. Thermal denaturation studies suggested the nature binding affinity of copper complexes with CT-DNA. All complexes exhibit suitable Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox potential to act as antioxidant enzymes mimic. Further, the copper complexes also showed catalase activity. It is hope that copper complexes were capable of decrease ROS levels or reduce oxidative stress in Alzheimer's patients.

  6. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  7. Engineered biochar from biofuel residue: characterization and its silver removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong; Yang, Liuyan

    2015-05-20

    A novel approach was used to prepare engineered biochar from biofuel residue (stillage from bagasse ethanol production) through slow pyrolysis. The obtained biochar was characterized for its physicochemical properties as well as silver sorption ability. Sorption experimental data showed that engineered biochar quickly and efficiently removed silver ion (Ag(+)) from aqueous solutions with a Langmuir maximum capacity of 90.06 mg/g. The high sorption of Ag(+) onto the biochar was attributed to both reduction and surface adsorption mechanisms. The reduction of Ag(+) by the biochar was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the postsorption biochar, which clearly showed the presence of metallic silver nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon matrix. An antimicrobial ability test indicated that silver-laden biochar effectively inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, while the original biochar without silver nanoparticles promoted growth. Thus, biochar, prepared from biofuel residue materials, could be potentially applied not only to remove Ag(+) from aqueous solutions but also to produce a new value-added nanocomposite with antibacterial ability.

  8. Preparation and characterization of 2,3-dialdehyde bacterial cellulose for potential biodegradable tissue engineering scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian; Wan Yizao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Lianfeng [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry of CAS, Beijing 100080 (China); Liang Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Jiehua, E-mail: jiehuaw_tju@yahoo.com [School of Agriculture and Bioengineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is suitable for applications as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to its unique properties. However, BC is not enzymatically degradable in vivo and this has become an essential limiting factor in its potential applications. In this work, BC was modified by periodate oxidation to give rise to a biodegradable 2,3-dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DABC). After characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrated that the modified DABC nano-network was able to degrade into porous scaffold with micro-sized pores in water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the simulated body fluid (SBF). The degradation process began from the oxidized amorphous part of the network and concurrently hydroxyapatite formed on the scaffold surface during the process in SBF. Our data also demonstrated that the tensile mechanical properties of the DABC nano-network were suitable for its use in tissue engineering scaffolds.

  9. HEFEI BASIN IN EARLY CRETACEOUS -CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Wanxia; ZHAO Zongju; LI Xuetian; SHEN Jinlong; ZHOU Jingao

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses were made based on seismic prospecting data, electrical prospecting data and basin simulation data as well as regional geological data and thorough discussions were conducted about the complicated structures, features and evolution of Hefei Basin in Early Cretaceous in this study,and it was derived that that Hefei Basin was a composite basin formed during the transformation of the stress field from compressive toward tensile in Early Cretaceous. In other words, this basin was a foreland basin of gliding-thrust type, which is mainly controlled by the Dabie orogenic belt in the south side in the early to middle period of Early Cretaceous, while being a strike-slip basin of pull-apart type,which is mainly controlled by the activity of Tanlu fracture in the east side in the middle to late period of Early Cretaceous. Moreover, the potential Lower Cretaceous oil and gas system in the pull-apart basin and the vista for its prospecting were explored in this study. Tectonism of the Tanlu fracture was further discussed based on the results of characterization of the basin, and it was pointed out that this is beneficial and instructive to the oil and gas prospecting in Hefei Basin

  10. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health.

  11. Bioavailability and health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in Thriasio Plain, near Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Golia, Evangelia E; Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) are usually found in areas of intense industrial activity. Thriasio Plain is a plain near Athens, Greece, where most of the heavy industry of the country has been situated for decades, but it also is a residential and horticultural area. We aimed at measuring the levels of PTEs in soils and indigenous plant species and assessing the health risk associated with direct soil ingestion. Samples of soils at roadsides and growing plants were collected from 31 sites of that area. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were measured in both soils (as pseudo-total) and aerial plant tissues. We found that As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than maximum regulatory limits. Element concentrations in plants were rather lower than expected, probably because indigenous plants have developed excluder behaviour over time. Copper and Zn soil-to-plant coefficients were highest among the other elements; for Cu this was unexpected, and probably associated with recent Cu-releasing industrial activity. Risk assessment analysis indicated that As was the element contributing more than 50 % of the health risk related to direct soil ingestion, followed by Cr, Pb, and, surprisingly, Mn. We concluded that in a multi-element contamination situation, elevated risk of PTEs (such as As, Cr and Pb) may reduce the tolerance limits of exposure to less-toxic elements (here, Mn).

  12. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-05-25

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens' tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada's black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  13. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Vanesa C; Pietruska, Jodie R; Miselis, Nathan R; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2009-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers.

  14. Synergistic ecotoxicity of APEOs-PAHs in rivers and sediments: is there a potential health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Uri; Hushan, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence and persistence of anthropogenic pollutants in the environment showing estrogenic-endocrine modulating effects in aquatic organisms is a 'hot' issue of major health- and environment-related concern worldwide. The population growth and the increasing scarcity of water in many regions of the world have led to a comprehensive reuse of treated wastewater that, ultimately, may cause a long-term concentration buildup of many toxic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the closed cycle of water supply and wastewater treatment and reuse. The endocrinic/mutagenic potencies of the EDCs-branched chain alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their metabolites are well-documented. From approximately 5.5 x 108 m3/y of sewage produced in Israel, approximately 70% are reused, following a conventional, or advanced, activated sludge or sand aquifer treatment (SAT). A major related question is: Does this practice conform to sustainability? Our studies reveal that (a) the concentrations of APEOs and PAHs in Israel rivers and sediments do pose a potential health risk problem; and (b) the synergistic ecotoxicologic impact of environmentally relevant mixtures of these POPs, in WWTP effluents, constitutes an inconsistency, healthwise, with sustainability practice.

  15. Appraisal the Potential of Central Iran, in the Context of Health Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Rokni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to appraisal the prose and cone of Shiraz City in terms of its potential in the context of health tourism.Methods: The statistical sample included medical and health tourism sector in the city of Shiraz in the northwest of Fars Province, south of Iran. The efficient authorities on the topic were identified through the hospitals engaging in medical tourism. The research was based on theoretical sampling through which the experienced people of extensive knowledge on medical tourism were interviewed.Results: Active hospitals on attraction foreign patients averagely admit 15 and 50 foreign patients monthly and annually, respectively. Arab countries in the Persian Gulf were detected as the main marketing for Shiraz medical tourism. Oman encompassed the highest rate with 20% of admitted patients. Eye treatments with 30% and orthopedic with 6% were demonstrated as the highest and lowest rates in terms of foreign patients’ needs, respectively. Closeness of cultural and religious beliefs and familial relationships on one hand and trusting to Iranian physicians on the other hand were amongst the most reasons for selecting Iran as a destination for medical tourism by patients.Conclusion: Implementing 4 strategies on monitoring medical tourism would result into significant improvement of attracting more foreigner patients not only into Shiraz but all around Iran. These items have been discussed in the text.

  16. The 2011 proposal for Universal Health Insurance in Ireland: Potential implications for healthcare expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Sheelah; Wren, Maev-Ann

    2016-07-01

    The Irish healthcare system has long been criticised for a number of perceived weaknesses, including access to healthcare based on ability-to-pay rather than need. Consequently, in 2011, a newly elected government committed to the development of a universal, single-tier system based on need and financed through Universal Health Insurance (UHI). This article draws on the national and international evidence to identify the potential impact of the proposed model on healthcare expenditure in Ireland. Despite a pledge that health spending under UHI would be no greater than in the current predominantly tax-funded model, the available evidence is suggestive that the proposed model involving competing insurers would increase healthcare expenditure, in part due to an increase in administrative costs and profits. As a result the proposed model of UHI appears to be no longer on the political agenda. Although the Government has been criticised for abandoning its model of UHI, it has done so based on national and international evidence about the relatively high additional costs associated with this particular model.

  17. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: > Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. > Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. > Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  18. Conjugated Linoleic Acid: Potential Health Benefits as a Functional Food Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Young Jun; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention since the 1980s for its various biological activities. CLA consists mainly of two isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12, and the mixture of these two (CLA mix or 50:50) has been approved for food as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) in the United States since 2008. Along with its original discovery as an anticancer component, CLA has been shown to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, reduce body fat while improving lean body mass, and modulate immune and/or inflammatory responses. This review summarizes the clinical trials involving CLA since 2012; additional uses of CLA for age-associated health issues are discussed; and CLA's potential health concerns, including glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, hepatic steatosis, and milk-fat depression, are examined. With ongoing applications to food products, CLA consumption is expected to rise and close monitoring of not only its efficacy but also its known and unknown consequences are required to ensure proper applications of CLA.

  19. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  20. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  1. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2013-12-27

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  2. Potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaran, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    The main aim is to present the available updated knowledge regarding the potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise (LFN) from an open window in a moving car where the negative effects of LFN induced by heating components and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning are assessed. Furthermore, the assessment of noise in chosen enclosed spaces, such as rooms, offices, and classrooms, or other LFN sources and their effect on the human being were investigated. These types of noise are responsible for disturbance during relaxation, sleep, mental work, education, and concentration, which may reflect negatively on the comfort and health of the population and on the mental state of people such as scientific staff and students. The assessment points out the most exposed areas, and analyzes the conditions of standing wave generation in these rooms caused by outdoor and/or indoor sources. Measurements were made for three different enclosed spaces (office, flat, and passenger car) and sources (traffic specific noise at intersections, noise induced by pipe vibration, and aerodynamic noise) and their operating conditions. For the detection of LFN, the A-weighted sound pressure level and vibration were measured and a fast Fourier transform analysis was used. The LFN sources are specified and the direct effects on the human are reported. Finally, this paper suggests the possibilities for the assessment of LFN and some possible measures that can be taken to prevent or reduce them.

  3. Guns, schools, and mental illness: potential concerns for physicians and mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2013-11-01

    Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public.

  4. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman

  5. Focus on People: Rethinking the Power and Potential of Personal Health Records - Part 1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-23

    Dr. Patricia Brennan discusses how Project HealthDesign is working to enhance the utility and flexibility of personal health records as a critical tool to help people take action to improve their health and improve the health care of all Americans.  Created: 6/23/2008 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Healthcare Setting Goal Team.   Date Released: 7/29/2008.

  6. Focus on People: Rethinking the Power and Potential of Personal Health Records - Part 2

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-23

    Dr. Patricia Brennan discusses how Project HealthDesign is working to enhance the utility and flexibility of personal health records as a critical tool to help people take action to improve their health and improve the health care of all Americans.  Created: 6/23/2008 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Healthcare Setting Goal Team.   Date Released: 7/29/2008.

  7. Focus on People: Rethinking the Power and Potential of Personal Health Records - Q and A

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-06-23

    Dr. Patricia Brennan discusses how Project HealthDesign is working to enhance the utility and flexibility of personal health records as a critical tool to help people take action to improve their health and improve the health care of all Americans.  Created: 6/23/2008 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, Healthcare Setting Goal Team.   Date Released: 7/29/2008.

  8. Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YQ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yi-qing Zhao, Li-ping Wang, Chao Ma, Kun Zhao, Ying Liu, Nian-ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine.Methods: The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10% as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats.Results: The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 µg/mL to 35.64 µg/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed

  9. Isolation of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum from Siahmezgi cheese and its characterization as a potentially probiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjatolah Zamani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Probiotics are non- pathogen living microorganisms which express beneficial effects on host, when are administered in adequate amounts. Traditional dairy products are regarded as good sources of probiotics. Present study aims to isolate Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from Siahmezgi cheese, a traditional cheese produced in the north of Iran, and to evaluate their probiotic potential for the first time. Materials and methods: LAB was isolated by culturing cheese samples on MRS aga...

  10. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  11. Thermal stress characterization using the impedance-based structural health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Fateh, Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has attracted researchers' interests for the past two decades to reinforce the maintenance of the aging infrastructure systems all over the world. As one of the potential solutions, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method was introduced in the early 1990s and has a great number of potential applications in the SHM of civil, mechanical and aerospace industries. This paper studied the impedance-based technique with the presence of environmental/operational variability, especially the influences of temperature and uniaxial stress on the admittance signature-based features. A comprehensive analytical model is established and provides satisfactory agreements with the experimental results. The stress and temperature sensitivities of all the proposed features are quantified using the experimental measurements, with discussions on their advantages and disadvantages. The final results illustrate that the EMI method can potentially provide effective measure for thermal stress.

  12. Characterizing the (Perceived) Newsworthiness of Health Science Articles: A Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin; Paul, Michael J; Elhadad, Noémie; Wallace, Byron C

    2016-01-01

    Background Health science findings are primarily disseminated through manuscript publications. Information subsidies are used to communicate newsworthy findings to journalists in an effort to earn mass media coverage and further disseminate health science research to mass audiences. Journal editors and news journalists then select which news stories receive coverage and thus public attention. Objective This study aims to identify attributes of published health science articles that correlate with (1) journal editor issuance of press releases and (2) mainstream media coverage. Methods We constructed four novel datasets to identify factors that correlate with press release issuance and media coverage. These corpora include thousands of published articles, subsets of which received press release or mainstream media coverage. We used statistical machine learning methods to identify correlations between words in the science abstracts and press release issuance and media coverage. Further, we used a topic modeling-based machine learning approach to uncover latent topics predictive of the perceived newsworthiness of science articles. Results Both press release issuance for, and media coverage of, health science articles are predictable from corresponding journal article content. For the former task, we achieved average areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.666 (SD 0.019) and 0.882 (SD 0.018) on two separate datasets, comprising 3024 and 10,760 articles, respectively. For the latter task, models realized mean AUCs of 0.591 (SD 0.044) and 0.783 (SD 0.022) on two datasets—in this case containing 422 and 28,910 pairs, respectively. We reported most-predictive words and topics for press release or news coverage. Conclusions We have presented a novel data-driven characterization of content that renders health science “newsworthy.” The analysis provides new insights into the news coverage selection process. For example, it appears epidemiological papers concerning common

  13. Methylated and thiolated arsenic species for environmental and health research - A review on synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, William R; Liu, Qingqing; Lu, Xiufen; McKnight-Whitford, Anthony; Peng, Hanyong; Popowich, Aleksandra; Yan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qi; Fricke, Michael; Sun, Hongsui; Le, X Chris

    2016-11-01

    Hundreds of millions of people around the world are exposed to elevated concentrations of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds, increasing the risk of a wide range of health effects. Studies of the environmental fate and human health effects of arsenic require authentic arsenic compounds. We summarize here the synthesis and characterization of more than a dozen methylated and thiolated arsenic compounds that are not commercially available. We discuss the methods of synthesis for the following 14 trivalent (III) and pentavalent (V) arsenic compounds: monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dicysteinylmethyldithioarsenite (MMA(III)(Cys)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylmonothioarsonic acid (MMMTA(V)) or monothio-MMA(V), monomethyldithioarsonic acid (MMDTA(V)) or dithio-MMA(V), monomethyltrithioarsonate (MMTTA(V)) or trithio-MMA(V), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMA(III)(SG)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) or monothio-DMA(V), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) or dithio-DMA(V), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB), and an arsenicin-A model compound. We have reviewed and compared the available methods, synthesized the arsenic compounds in our laboratories, and provided characterization information. On the basis of reaction yield, ease of synthesis and purification of product, safety considerations, and our experience, we recommend a method for the synthesis of each of these arsenic compounds.

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-08

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and cytocompatibility of potential cockle shell aragonite nanocrystals for osteoporosis therapy and hormonal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaji AZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alhaji Zubair Jaji,1,2 Md Zuki Bin Abu Bakar,1,3 Rozi Mahmud,4 Mohamad Yusof Loqman,5 Mohamad Noor Mohamad Hezmee,1 Tijani Isa,3 Fu Wenliang,3 Nahidah Ibrahim Hammadi1 1Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria; 3Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Calcium carbonate is a porous inorganic nanomaterial with huge potential in biomedical applications and controlled drug delivery. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties and in vitro efficacy and safety of cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (ANC as a potential therapeutic and hormonal delivery vehicle for osteoporosis management. Free and human recombinant parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH 1-34-loaded cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (PTH-ANC were synthesized and evaluated using standard procedures. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated highly homogenized spherical-shaped aragonite nanocrystals of 30±5 nm diameter. PTH-ANC had a zeta potential of −27.6 ± 8.9 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of the formulation was found to be directly proportional to the concentrations of the drug fed. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed strong crystallizations with no positional change of peaks before and after PTH-ANC synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated no detectable interactions between micron-sized aragonite and surfactant at molecular level. PTH-ANC formulation was stabilized

  16. The challenge of characterizing an inefficient antenna field for health protection purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2006-03-01

    Growing evidence that the electromagnetic field around electrical wires is harmful to human health prompted a 1990s National Academy of Sciences study of power-frequency (50-60 Hz) fields; results for power-frequency fields were negative but data suggested that fields from transients may be hazardous.^1 Transients represent high frequencies that can reach into the radiofrequency (RF) range. What instrument can be used to measure an RF field around electric wires carrying RF current? Such an RF field is that of an inefficient antenna, which lacks the pure far-field region characteristic of an efficient antenna field for which standard RF measuring instruments are calibrated, making it impossible to obtain a properly calibrated measurement with such instruments. The magnetic induction current dB/dt is explored as an alternative way to characterize the inefficient antenna RF field sheathing electric wires carrying RF due to poor power quality (e.g., switching transients) or to utility use of power line carrier^2 or of FCC-approved broadband on power lines. ^1National Research Council, Possible Health Effects of Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Fields, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. ^2M. Vignati & L. Giuliani, Environ. Health Perspect. 105(Suppl 6):1565-1568(1997).

  17. Development, Characterization and Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as a potential Anticancer Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meghavi

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) consist of spherical solid lipid particles in the nanometer size range, which are dispersed in water or in an aqueous surfactant solution. SLN technology represents a promising new approach to deliver hydrophilic as well as lipophilic drugs. The commercialization of SLN technology remains limited despite numerous efforts from researchers. The purpose of this research was to advance SLN preparation methodology by investigating the feasibility of preparing glyceryl monostearate (GMS) nanoparticles by using three preparation methods namely microemulsion technique, magnetic stirring technique and temperature modulated solidification technique of which the latter two were developed in our laboratory. An anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was incorporated in the SLNs prepared via the temperature modulated solidification process. Optimization of the magnetic stirring process was performed to evaluate how the physicochemical properties of the SLN was influenced by systematically varying process parameters including concentration of the lipid, concentration of the surfactant, type of surfactant, time of stirring and temperature of storage. The results demonstrated 1:2 GMS to tween 80 ratio, 150 ml dispersion medium and 45 min stirring at 4000 RPM speed provided an optimum formulation via the temperature modulated solidification process. SLN dispersions were lyophilized to stabilize the solid lipid nanoparticles and the lyophilizates exhibited good redispersibility. The SLNs were characterized by particle size analysis via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release studies. Particle size of SLN dispersion prepared via the three preparation techniques was approximately 66 nm and that of redispersed lyophilizates was below 500 nm. TEM images showed spherical to oval particles that were less dense in the core

  18. Titanium dioxide coated cementitious materials for air purifying purposes: Preparation, characterization and toluene removal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Anibal Maury; De Belie, Nele [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof [Research Group EnVOC, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653. B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Maentylae, Tapio; Levaenen, Erkki [Department of Materials Science, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, FIN-33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents promising results for air purification by heterogeneous photocatalysis on new titanium dioxide loaded cementitious materials. A set of eight concretes and plasters is enriched with TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by dip-coating and/or sol-gel methods. First, the macro-structural features of the cementitious materials have been studied in terms of porosity and roughness. The first parameter has been determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry or by vacuum saturation, and ranged between 9 and 75%, with the highest values obtained for autoclaved aerated white concrete. Surface roughness, determined by laser profilometry, has been characterized by the R{sub a} factor. This expresses the mean deviation of the profile from the centre line and ranged between 0.7 and 252 {mu}m, with the highest value obtained for conventional grey concrete finished with surface brush. Secondly, the weathering resistance of the TiO{sub 2} coatings has been determined by exposing them to different abrasive conditions and by performing SEM-Edax analyses to measure quantitatively the coating's titanium content. Hereby, it is shown that high porosity and roughness are favourable for TiO{sub 2} particles retention. Finally, the preliminary air purification potential of both dip-coated and sol-gel coated TiO{sub 2} enriched concrete samples has been investigated on lab-scale using toluene as a model pollutant. High removal efficiencies (up to 86%) were obtained with the dip-coated samples, indicating their attractive photocatalytic properties for future application as air purifying building materials. (author)

  19. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed.

  20. Diagnostic Potential of Multidetector Computed Tomography for Characterizing Small Renal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabetta Mancini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the potential of CT for characterizing small renal tumors. Methods. 76 patients with <4 cm renal tumors underwent CT examination. The following parameters were assessed: presence of calcifications, densitometry on unenhanced and enhanced scans, washout percentage, urinary tract infiltration, star-shaped scar, and paradoxical effect. Results. Calcifications were found in 7/56 (12.5% carcinomas. Clear cell carcinomas were as follows: mean density 183.5 HU (arterial phase, 136 HU (portal phase, and 94 HU (delayed phase, washout 34.3%; chromophobe carcinomas were as follows: mean density 135 HU (arterial phase, 161 HU (portal phase, and 148 HU (delayed phase, washout 28%; papillary carcinomas were as follows: mean density 50.3 HU (arterial phase, 60 HU (portal phase, and 58.1 HU (delayed phase, washout 2.7%. In 2/56 (3.6% cases urinary tract infiltration was found. Oncocytomas were as follows: mean density 126.5 HU (arterial phase, 147.5 HU (portal phase, and 115.5 HU (delayed phase, washout 28.6%. On unenhanced scans, angiomyolipomas were as follows: density values <30 HU in 12/12 (100% of cases and on enhanced scans: mean density 78 HU (arterial phase, 128 HU (portal phase, and 80 HU (delayed phase, washout 50%. Conclusions. Intralesional calcifications and urinary tract infiltration are suggestive for malignancy, with the evidence of adipose tissue for angiomyolipomas and a modest increase in density with a reduced washout for papillary carcinomas. The intralesional density on enhanced scans, peak enhancement, and washout do not seem significant for differentiating clear cell, chromophobe carcinomas, angiomyolipomas, and oncocytomas.

  1. Concussions and youth football: using a public health law framework to head off a potential public health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Shapiro, Zachary E

    2015-07-01

    Concussion from sport is increasingly recognized as a public health priority. In response, all states and the District of Columbia have enacted youth concussion legislation. This paper first examines key developments in concussion-related policy and legislation and then uses the findings from recent scientific studies to highlight the need to incorporate evolving scientific evidence into concussion legislation in order to better protect youth and adolescent athletes. Next, the paper discusses the framework of empirical health law research and why it should be applied in the case of concussion legislation. Finally, this paper argues that empirical health law research should be considered in any decision about whether legislation can help improve the health and safety of young players, a particularly vulnerable population whose unique needs have not yet been adequately addressed.

  2. Assessing the Potential Economic Value of Health Information Technology Interventions in a Community-Based Health Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Crosslin, David R.; Johnson, Frederick S.; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Health information professionals recognize the need to demonstrate that the benefits of health information technological (HIT) interventions outweigh their costs. However, such cost-benefit analyses are rarely conducted for HIT interventions, due in part to the lack of a standard methodology. In this study, we describe how the U.S. Public Health Service’s guidelines for health economic analyses can be used to evaluate HIT interventions. This framework is described in the context of an economic analysis we are conducting for three HIT interventions to be implemented in a community-based health network caring for Medicaid beneficiaries in Durham County, North Carolina. At present, the 17,779 patients in our study cost Medicaid more than $5 million per month. In sensitivity analyses, we demonstrate that if our information intervention redirects just 10% of low-severity emergency room encounters to outpatient encounters, it will result in $12,523 of monthly savings to the local health system. PMID:16779034

  3. Knowledge Networking for Family Planning: The Potential for Virtual Communities of Practice to Move Forward the Global Reproductive Health Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan O’Brien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights experience from five years of using virtual communication tools developed by the World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR and its partners in the Implementing Best Practices (IBP in Reproductive Health Initiative to help bridge the knowledge-to-practice gap among family planning and reproductive health professionals. It explores how communities of practice and virtual networks offer a unique low-cost way to convene public health practitioners around the world to share experiences. It offers examples of how communities of practice can contribute to the development and dissemination of evidence-based health information products, and explores the potential for online networking and collaboration to enhance and inform program design and management. The paper is intended to inform the reproductive health community, as well as others working in health and development, of the potential for using virtual communities of practice to work towards achieving common goals and provide some examples of their successful use.

  4. Immunomodulation by dietary long chain omega-3 fatty acids and the potential for adverse health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Jenifer I; Hord, Norman G; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Gurzell, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Recommendations to consume fish for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), along with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for long chain omega-3 fatty acids, may have had the unanticipated consequence of encouraging long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acid [(eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] supplementation and fortification practices. While there is evidence supporting a protective role for EPA/DHA supplementation in reducing sudden cardiac events, the safety and efficacy of supplementation with LCω-3PUFA in the context of other disease outcomes is unclear. Recent studies of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in animal models of infectious disease demonstrate that LCω-3PUFA intake dampens immunity and alters pathogen clearance and can result in reduced survival. The same physiological properties of EPA/DHA that are responsible for the amelioration of inflammation associated with chronic cardiovascular pathology or autoimmune states, may impair pathogen clearance during acute infections by decreasing host resistance or interfere with tumor surveillance resulting in adverse health outcomes. Recent observations that high serum LCω-3PUFA levels are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer and atrial fibrillation raise concern for adverse outcomes. Given the widespread use of supplements and fortification of common food items with LCω-3PUFA, this review focuses on the immunomodulatory effects of the dietary LCω-3PUFAs, EPA and DHA, the mechanistic basis for potential negative health outcomes, and calls for biomarker development and validation as rational first steps towards setting recommended dietary intake levels.

  5. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  6. Characterizing distribution, sources, and potential health risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Chen, Ling; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Duan, Yan-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bo; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Zhang, Wen

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the levels and spatial distribution of PBDEs in 9 typical offices in Shanghai, China through the sample analysis of air and settled dust (floor dust, desktop dust and dust in computer case). PBDEs in air ranged from 93 to 322 pg/m(3), while the PBDEs levels in dust varied from 247 to 3.3 × 10(4) ng/g. Spatial variability of PBDEs in office dust was evident and likely influenced by air exchange and the use of electronic devices. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the power usage rate and PBDE levels in both office air (R(2) = 0.81) and settled dust (R(2) = 0.94). The PBDEs exposure via inhalation and dust ingestion were both analyzed to estimate the life-time cancer risk, which is 1.34 × 10(-22) to 7.16 × 10(-22), significantly lower than the threshold level (10(-6)). Non-cancer risk indicated by the hazard index (<1) is also low in current exposure conditions.

  7. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  8. Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, Kristie L; Lewis, Nancy D; Corvalan, Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Small island states are likely the countries most vulnerable to climate variability and longterm climate change. Climate models suggest that small island states will experience warmer temperatures and changes in rainfall, soil moisture budgets, prevailing winds (speed and direction), and patterns of wave action. El Niño events likely will strengthen shortterm and interannual climate variations. In addition, global mean sea level is projected to increase by 0.09-0.88 m by 2100, with variable effects on regional and local sea level. To better understand the potential human health consequences of these projected changes, a series of workshops and a conference organized by the World Health Organization, in partnership with the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, addressed the following issues: the current distribution and burden of climate-sensitive diseases in small island states, the potential future health impacts of climate variability and change, the interventions currently used to reduce the burden of climate-sensitive diseases, additional interventions that are needed to adapt to current and future health impacts, and the health implications of climate variability and change in other sectors. Information on these issues is synthesized and key recommendations are identified for improving the capacity of the health sector to anticipate and prepare for climate variability and change in small island states.

  9. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data.

  10. Leather waste--potential threat to human health, and a new technology of its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomaznik, K; Adamek, M; Andel, I; Uhlirova, M

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of processing various types of waste generated by leather industry, with special emphasis to chrome-tanned waste. The agent that makes this waste potentially hazardous is hexavalent chromium. Its compounds can have negative effects on human health and some CrVI salts are considered carcinogens. The authors present the risks of spontaneous oxidization of CrIII to CrVI in the open-air dumps as well as the possible risks of wearing bad quality shoes, in which the chromium content is not controlled. There are several ways of handling primary leather waste, but no satisfactory technology has been developed for the secondary waste (manipulation waste, e.g. leather scraps and used leather products). In this contribution, a new three-step hybrid technology of processing manipulation waste is presented and tested under laboratory, pilot-scale and industrial conditions. The filtrate can be used as a good quality NPK fertilizer. The solid product, titanium-chromium sludge, can serve as an inorganic pigment in glass and ceramic industry. Further, the authors propose selective collection of used leather products (e.g. old shoes), the hydrolysable parts of which can be also processed by the new hybrid technology.

  11. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  12. Youth Sports Clubs' Potential as Health-Promoting Setting: Profiles, Motives and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganck, Jeroen; Scheerder, Jeroen; Thibaut, Erik; Seghers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Setting and Objective: For decades, the World Health Organisation has promoted settings-based health promotion, but its application to leisure settings is minimal. Focusing on organised sports as an important leisure activity, the present study had three goals: exploring the health promotion profile of youth sports clubs, identifying objective…

  13. Food animal transport: a potential source of community exposures to health hazards from industrial farming (CAFOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Evans, Sean L; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2008-01-01

    Use of antimicrobial feed additives in food animal production is associated with selection for drug resistance in bacterial pathogens, which can then be released into the environment through occupational exposures, high volume ventilation of animal houses, and land application of animal wastes. We tested the hypothesis that current methods of transporting food animals from farms to slaughterhouses may result in pathogen releases and potential exposures of persons in vehicles traveling on the same road. Air and surface samples were taken from cars driving behind poultry trucks for 17 miles. Air conditioners and fans were turned off and windows fully opened. Background and blank samples were used for quality control. Samples were analyzed for susceptible and drug-resistant strains. Results indicate an increase in the number of total aerobic bacteria including both susceptible and drug-resistant enterococci isolated from air and surface samples, and suggest that food animal transport in open crates introduces a novel route of exposure to harmful microorganisms and may disseminate these pathogens into the general environment. These findings support the need for further exposure characterization, and attention to improving methods of food animal transport, especially in highly trafficked regions of high density farming such as the Delmarva Peninsula.

  14. Characterization and Functionalization of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles for Use as Potential Agents for Cancer Thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Nora

    This thesis presents experimental studies of iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis, functionalization, and intracellular hyperthermal effects on murine macrophages as a model in vitro system. Colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are of particular interest in Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH). Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have garnered great interest as economical, biocompatible hyperthermia agents due to their superparamagnetic activity. Here we seek to optimize the synthetic reproducibility and in vitro utilization of IONPs for application in MFH. We compared aqueous synthetic protocols and various protective coating techniques using various analytical techniques and in vitro assays to assess the biocompatibility and feasibility of the various preparations of nanoparticles. Using a co-precipitation of iron salts methodology, iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) with an average diameter of 6-8nm were synthesized and stabilized with carboxylates. By performing calorimetry measurements in an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) with a frequency of 500 kHz and field strength of 0.008Tesla the superparamagnetic behavior of these particles was confirmed. To further investigate these IONPs in a biological application, citric acid-stabilized particles, in conjunction with heat generated by these IONPs when exposed to an OMF, were assessed to determine their effects on cell viability in a RAW 267.4 murine macrophage model system. Our results show that 91.5-97% of cells that have ingested IONPs die follow exposure to an OMF. Importantly, neither the IONPs (at applicable concentrations) nor the OMF show cytotoxic effects. These particular particles have promising preliminary results as hyperthermic agents in both the current literature and simple, proof-of-concept experiments in our laboratory setting. We present experimental results for the synthesis, characterization, and utilization of iron oxide nanoparticles in MFH. Our results show that while IONPs have

  15. Characterization of human pseudogene-derived non-coding RNAs for functional potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyi Guo

    Full Text Available Thousands of pseudogenes exist in the human genome and many are transcribed, but their functional potential remains elusive and understudied. To explore these issues systematically, we first developed a computational pipeline to identify transcribed pseudogenes from RNA-Seq data. Applying the pipeline to datasets from 16 distinct normal human tissues identified ∼ 3,000 pseudogenes that could produce non-coding RNAs in a manner of low abundance but high tissue specificity under normal physiological conditions. Cross-tissue comparison revealed that the transcriptional profiles of pseudogenes and their parent genes showed mostly positive correlations, suggesting that pseudogene transcription could have a positive effect on the expression of their parent genes, perhaps by functioning as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs, as previously suggested and demonstrated with the PTEN pseudogene, PTENP1. Our analysis of the ENCODE project data also found many transcriptionally active pseudogenes in the GM12878 and K562 cell lines; moreover, it showed that many human pseudogenes produced small RNAs (sRNAs and some pseudogene-derived sRNAs, especially those from antisense strands, exhibited evidence of interfering with gene expression. Further integrated analysis of transcriptomics and epigenomics data, however, demonstrated that trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3, a posttranslational modification typically associated with gene repression and heterochromatin, was enriched at many transcribed pseudogenes in a transcription-level dependent manner in the two cell lines. The H3K9me3 enrichment was more prominent in pseudogenes that produced sRNAs at pseudogene loci and their adjacent regions, an observation further supported by the co-enrichment of SETDB1 (a H3K9 methyltransferase, suggesting that pseudogene sRNAs may have a role in regional chromatin repression. Taken together, our comprehensive and systematic characterization of pseudogene

  16. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification.

  17. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

    1999-11-15

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as

  18. The characterization of biodiesel wash water and the potential for microbial remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Anton

    Biodiesel is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or other lipids that can be substituted for petroleum diesel in many internal combustion engines. Substitution of biodiesel for petroleum diesel has the potential to reduce green house gas emissions, decrease dependence on fossil fuels, add value to agriculture products and localize energy production. The production of biodiesel is a straight forward process and the scale of production varies from backyard brewers producing twenty litres at a time, to large industrial operations which produce thousands of litres. Biodiesel production in Ontario will see a great expansion in the next few years. Amendments to the Clean Air Act in 2006 incorporate a mandate that 2 % renewable content be blended into all diesel fuel by 2012. Since biodiesel is the primary fuel blended with petroleum diesel, the production of biodiesel in Canada will need to increase approximately five-fold from today's capacity. Raw biodiesel must be refined and one of the most common approaches is water washing, in which clean water is passed through the biodiesel. Water is an excellent medium for neutralizing residual catalyst, as well as removing residual methanol and glycerol. However, the resulting biodiesel wash water (BWW) is high in organics and cannot be disposed of in municipal waste streams. Biodiesel wash water from several laboratory and industrial biodiesel production facilities was characterized. The lab produced BWW chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were 150,000 +/- 20,000 mg/L and total solids content averaged 11,170 +/- 600 mg/L of which the majority was total dissolved solids. Soap content averaged 7,900 +/- 800 mg/L and a high pH near 10 was commonly seen. The industrial samples had higher levels of COD (754,200 +/- 162,600 mg/L) and solids (328,900 +/- 24,300 mg/L again mostly containing dissolved solids). Soap content was typically 778,100 +/- 306,500 mg/L, and pH ranged from very alkaline (10 +/- 0.4) to very acidic (1.1 +/- 0

  19. The potential role of health impact assessment in tackling the complexity of climate change adaptation for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen L; Proust, Katrina; Spickett, Jeffery; Capon, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Managing an issue of the magnitude, scope and complexity of climate change is a daunting prospect, yet one which nations around the world must face. Climate change is an issue without boundaries--impacts will cut across administrative and geographical borders and be felt by every sector of society. Responses to climate change will need to employ system approaches that take into account the relationships that cross organisational and sectoral boundaries. Solutions designed in isolation from these interdependencies will be unlikely to succeed, squandering opportunities for long-term effective adaptation. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a structural approach to identify, evaluate and manage health impacts of climate change that is inclusive of a wide range of stakeholders. Climate change will affect decision-making across every government level and sector and the health implications of these decisions can also be addressed with HIA. Given the nature of the issue, HIA of climate change will identify a large number of variables that influence the type and extent of health impacts and the management of these impacts. In order to implement the most effective adaptation measures, it is critica that an understanding of the interactions between these variables is developed. The outcome of HIA of climate change can therefore be strengthened by the introduction of system dynamics tools, such as causal loop diagrams, that are designed to examine interactions between variables and the resulting behaviour of complex systems.

  20. Enhancing the care navigation model: potential roles for health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Shapiro, Robert M; Burke, Heather J; Palmer, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the overlap between roles and activities that health care navigators perform and competencies identified by the Medical Library Association’s (MLA’s) educational policy statement.Roles and activities that health care navigators perform were gleaned from published literature. Once common roles and activities that health care navigators perform were identified, MLA competencies were mapped against those roles and activities to identify areas of overlap. The greatest extent of correspondence occurred in patient empowerment and support. Further research is warranted to determine the extent to which health sciences librarians might assume responsibility for roles and activities that health care navigators perform

  1. An in depth proteomic analysis based on ProteoMiner, affinity chromatography and nano-HPLC-MS/MS to explain the potential health benefits of bovine colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Alessandra; Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Parra, Ximena Maria Paredes; Ferrari, Marina; Cilurzo, Francesco; Rumio, Cristiano; Cannizzaro, Luca; Carini, Marina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Aldini, Giancarlo

    2016-03-20

    Bovine colostrum (BC), the initial milk secreted by the mammary gland immediately after parturition, is widely used for several health applications. We here propose an off-target method based on proteomic analysis to explain at molecular level the potential health benefits of BC. The method is based on the set-up of an exhaustive protein data bank of bovine colostrum, including the minor protein components, followed by a bioinformatic functional analysis. The proteomic approach based on ProteoMiner technology combined to a highly selective affinity chromatography approach for the immunoglobulins depletion, identified 1786 proteins (medium confidence; 634 when setting high confidence), which were then clustered on the basis of their biological function. Protein networks were then created on the basis of the biological functions or health claims as input. A set of 93 proteins involved in the wound healing process was identified. Such an approach also permits the exploration of novel biological functions of BC by searching in the database the presence of proteins characterized by innovative functions. In conclusion an advanced approach based on an in depth proteomic analysis is reported which permits an explanation of the wound healing effect of bovine colostrum at molecular level and allows the search of novel potential beneficial effects.

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus: technological potential for use in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Márcia Regina Pelisser; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Micrococcaceae strains are applied to fermented sausage as starter cultures, where several members of this family are naturally found. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus xylosus from artisanal sausages produced in South Region of Brazil. From 89 isolates presenting catalase positive and coagulase negative activities, 25 strains were selected for phenotypic characterization. Nine strains identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by API-STAPH were evaluated fo...

  3. A Site Characterization Protocol for Evaluating the Potential for Triggered or Induced Seismicity Resulting from Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Zoback, M. D.; Gupta, A.; Baker, J.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory and governmental agencies, individual companies and industry groups and others have recently proposed, or are developing, guidelines aimed at reducing the risk associated with earthquakes triggered by waste water injection or hydraulic fracturing. While there are a number of elements common to the guidelines proposed, not surprisingly, there are also some significant differences among them and, in a number of cases, important considerations that are not addressed. The goal of this work is to develop a comprehensive protocol for site characterization based on a rigorous scientific understanding of the responsible processes. Topics addressed will include the geologic setting (emphasizing faults that might be affected), historical seismicity, hydraulic characterization of injection and adjacent intervals, geomechanical characterization to identify potentially active faults, plans for seismic monitoring and reporting, plans for monitoring and reporting injection (pressure, volumes, and rates), other factors contributing to risk (potentially affected population centers, structures, and facilities), and implementing a modified Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The guidelines will be risk based and adaptable, rather than prescriptive, for a proposed activity and region of interest. They will be goal oriented and will rely, to the degree possible, on established best practice procedures, referring to existing procedures and recommendations. By developing a risk-based site characterization protocol, we hope to contribute to the development of rational and effective measures for reducing the risk posed by activities that potentially trigger earthquakes.

  4. Coverage, universal access and equity in health: a characterization of scientific production in nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Parra, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to characterize the scientific contribution nursing has made regarding coverage, universal access and equity in health, and to understand this production in terms of subjects and objects of study. Material and methods: this was cross-sectional, documentary research; the units of analysis were 97 journals and 410 documents, retrieved from the Web of Science in the category, "nursing". Descriptors associated to coverage, access and equity in health, and the Mesh thesaurus, were applied. We used bibliometric laws and indicators, and analyzed the most important articles according to amount of citations and collaboration. Results: the document retrieval allowed for 25 years of observation of production, an institutional and an international collaboration of 31% and 7%, respectively. The mean number of coauthors per article was 3.5, with a transience rate of 93%. The visibility index was 67.7%, and 24.6% of production was concentrated in four core journals. A review from the nursing category with 286 citations, and a Brazilian author who was the most productive, are issues worth highlighting. Conclusions: the nursing collective should strengthen future research on the subject, defining lines and sub-lines of research, increasing internationalization and building it with the joint participation of the academy and nursing community. PMID:26959329

  5. The potential of photoacoustic microscopy as a tool to characterize the in vivo degradation of surgical sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Juan; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Funk, Lutz; Jara, Francesc; Turon, Pau; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-08-01

    The ex vivo and in vivo imaging, and quantitative characterization of the degradation of surgical sutures (∼500 μm diameter) up to ∼1cm depth is demonstrated using a custom dark-field photo-acoustic microscope (PAM). A practical algorithm is developed to accurately measure the suture diameter during the degradation process. The results from tissue simulating phantoms and mice are compared to ex vivo measurements with an optical microscope demonstrating that PAM has a great deal of potential to characterize the degradation process of surgical sutures. The implications of this work for industrial applications are discussed.

  6. The potential of the Child Health Utility 9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D) is a relatively new generic child health-related quality of life measure (HRQoL)—designed to be completed by children—which enables the calculation of utility values. The aim is to investigate the use of the CHU9D Index as an outcome measure for child dental health in New Zealand. Method A survey was conducted of children aged between 6 and 9 years attending for routine dental examinations in community clinics in Dunedin (New Zealand) in 2012. The CHU9D, a HRQoL, was used, along with the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ), a validated oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measure. Socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, ethnicity and household deprivation) were recorded. Dental therapists undertook routine clinical examinations, with charting recorded for each child for decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth (dmft) at the d3 level. Results One hundred and forty 6-to-9-year-olds (50.7% female) took part in the study (93.3% participation rate). The mean d3mft was 2.4 (SD = 2.6; range 0 to 9). Both CHU9D and CPQ detected differences in the impact of dental caries, with scores in the expected direction: children who presented with caries had higher scores (indicating poorer OHRQoL) than those who were free of apparent caries. Children with no apparent caries had a higher mean CHU9D score than those with caries (indicating better HRQoL). The difference for the CPQ was statistically significant, but for CHU9D the difference was not significant. When the two indices were compared, there was a significant difference in mean CHU9D scores by the prevalence of CPQ and subscale impacts with children experiencing no impacts having mean CHU9D scores closer to 1.0 (representing perfect health). Conclusion The CHU9D may be useful in dental research. Further exploration in samples with different caries experience is required. The use of the CHU9D in child oral health studies will enable the calculation of

  7. Risk factors for not completing health interventions and the potential impact on health inequalities between educational groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kure-Biegel, Nanna; Schnohr, Christina Warrer; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individual-based interventions aim to improve patient self-management of chronic disease and to improve lifestyle among people at high risk, to reduce the prevalence of diseases contributing to health inequality. The present study investigates risk factors for uncompleted health...... among people with low education (OR 1.82, 95 % CI 0.66; 5.03). Qualitative elaboration of these findings points to low self-control in jobs and a higher degree of comorbidity and treatment of diseases among the lower educated as determinants for not completing, but not lower motivation or less positive...... attitude toward the intervention itself. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates a social difference in dropout, and if dropout is to be prevented, there is a need to acknowledge factors such as organization of the intervention, lack of job flexibility, and comorbidity. If these factors are not addressed, people...

  8. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  9. Linking Canadian population health data: maximizing the potential of cohort and administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Dany; Raina, Parminder; Fortier, Isabel

    2013-03-06

    Linkage of data collected by large Canadian cohort studies with provincially managed administrative health databases can offer very interesting avenues for multidisciplinary and cost-effective health research in Canada. Successfully co-analyzing cohort data and administrative health data (AHD) can lead to research results capable of improving the health and well-being of Canadians and enhancing the delivery of health care services. However, such an endeavour will require strong coordination and long-term commitment between all stakeholders involved. The challenges and opportunities of a pan-Canadian cohort-to-AHD data linkage program have been considered by cohort study investigators and data custodians from each Canadian province. Stakeholders acknowledge the important public health benefits of establishing such a program and have established an action plan to move forward.

  10. Environmental stress in the Gulf of Mexico and its potential impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, B; Turner, J; Walter, L; Lathan, N; Thorpe, D; Ogbevoen, P; Daye, J; Alcorn, D; Wilson, S; Semien, J; Richard, T; Johnson, T; McCabe, K; Estrada, J J; Galvez, F; Velasco, C; Reiss, K

    2016-04-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest maritime oil spill in history resulting in the accumulation of genotoxic substances in the air, soil, and water. This has potential far-reaching health impacts on cleanup field workers and on the populations living in the contaminated coastal areas. We have employed portable airborne particulate matter samplers (SKC Biosampler Impinger) and a genetically engineered bacterial reporter system (umu-ChromoTest from EBPI) to determine levels of genotoxicity of air samples collected from highly contaminated areas of coastal Louisiana including Grand Isle, Port Fourchon, and Elmer's Island in the spring, summer and fall of 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. Air samples collected from a non-contaminated area, Sea Rim State Park, Texas, served as a control for background airborne genotoxic particles. In comparison to controls, air samples from the contaminated areas demonstrated highly significant increases in genotoxicity with the highest values registered during the month of July in 2011, 2013, and 2014, in all three locations. This seasonal trend was disrupted in 2012, when the highest genotoxicity values were detected in October, which correlated with hurricane Isaac landfall in late August of 2012, about five weeks before a routine collection of fall air samples. Our data demonstrate: (i) high levels of air genotoxicity in the monitored areas over last four years post DWH oil spill; (ii) airborne particulate genotoxicity peaks in summers and correlates with high temperatures and high humidity; and (iii) this seasonal trend was disrupted by the hurricane Isaac landfall, which further supports the concept of a continuous negative impact of the oil spill in this region.

  11. Four health data networks illustrate the potential for a shared national multipurpose big-data network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Lesley H; Brown, Jeffrey; Platt, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Information in electronic health data that are drawn from large populations of patients is transforming health care, public health practice, and clinical research. This article describes our experience in developing data networks that repurpose electronic health records and administrative data. The four programs we feature are the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel program (which focuses on medical product safety), the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet, comparative effectiveness research), the National Institutes of Health's Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Distributed Research Network (biomedical research), and ESPnet (public health surveillance). Challenges to these uses of electronic health data include understanding the factors driving the collection, coding, and preservation of the data; the extensive customization of different systems that collect similar data; the fragmentation of the US health care delivery system and its records; and privacy and proprietary considerations. We view these four programs as examples of the first stage in the development of a shared national big-data resource that leverages the investments of many agencies and organizations for the benefit of multiple networks and users.

  12. Health-Related Factors Associated with Discrepancies between Children's Potential and Attained Secondary School Level : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examines children's health-related characteristics in relation to discrepancies between their educational potential assessed by a cognitive test in primary school at age 11 and their attained secondary school level at age 14. Methods Data were used from 1510 partic

  13. Confounding in observational studies based on large health care databases: problems and potential solutions - a primer for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Mette; Ehrenstein, Vera; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2017-01-01

    Population-based health care databases are a valuable tool for observational studies as they reflect daily medical practice for large and representative populations. A constant challenge in observational designs is, however, to rule out confounding, and the value of these databases for a given study question accordingly depends on completeness and validity of the information on confounding factors. In this article, we describe the types of potential confounding factors typically lacking in large health care databases and suggest strategies for confounding control when data on important confounders are unavailable. Using Danish health care databases as examples, we present the use of proxy measures for important confounders and the use of external adjustment. We also briefly discuss the potential value of active comparators, high-dimensional propensity scores, self-controlled designs, pseudorandomization, and the use of positive or negative controls.

  14. Confounding in observational studies based on large health care databases: problems and potential solutions – a primer for the clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Mette; Ehrenstein, Vera; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2017-01-01

    Population-based health care databases are a valuable tool for observational studies as they reflect daily medical practice for large and representative populations. A constant challenge in observational designs is, however, to rule out confounding, and the value of these databases for a given study question accordingly depends on completeness and validity of the information on confounding factors. In this article, we describe the types of potential confounding factors typically lacking in large health care databases and suggest strategies for confounding control when data on important confounders are unavailable. Using Danish health care databases as examples, we present the use of proxy measures for important confounders and the use of external adjustment. We also briefly discuss the potential value of active comparators, high-dimensional propensity scores, self-controlled designs, pseudorandomization, and the use of positive or negative controls.

  15. Characterization of the Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 Regarding its Lifetime Performance as a Potential Nuclear Waste Container Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; McCright, D

    2002-06-04

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) was proposed for the corrosion resistant outer barrier of a two-layer waste package container for nuclear waste at the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada (USA). A testing program is underway to characterize and quantify three main modes of corrosion that may occur at the site. Current results show that the containers would perform well under general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). For example, the general corrosion rate is expected to be below 100 nm/year and the container is predicted to be outside the range of potential for localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  16. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  17. Probiotics in the Space Food System: Delivery, Microgravity Effects, and the Potential Benefit to Crew Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    As mission distance and duration increase, the need grows for non-invasive disease prevention and immunomodulation, especially given the limited medical response capability expected for these missions and the immune dysregulation documented in crew. Additionally, changes in diet, lifestyle, antibiotic usage, and the environmental stresses during spaceflight may alter crewmembers' intestinal microbiome. The addition of probiotic bacteria to the space food system is expected to confer immunostimulatory benefits on crewmembers, with the potential to counteract the immune dysregulation that has been documented in spaceflight. Based on previous studies that demonstrated unique microbiological responses to the low shear environment of spaceflight, probiotic organisms hold the potential to induce enhanced beneficial responses through mechanisms, such as beneficial interactions with human immune cells and repression of colonization of pathogens on the mucosa. The work presented here will begin to address two research gaps related to providing probiotics in spaceflight: 1) delivery, and 2) the effect of the low shear microgravity environment on probiotic attributes. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus was selected for investigation due to its wide commercial use and documented benefits that include inhibition of virulence related gene expression in pathogens and mucosal stimulation of immune cells. The delivery system for probiotics has not been determined for spaceflight, where the food system is shelf stable and the lack of refrigeration prevents the use of traditional dairy delivery methods. In order to demonstrate the potential of the space food system to deliver viable probiotic bacteria to crewmembers, the probiotic L. acidophilus was packaged in high barrier flight packaging in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) or retained in commercial capsule form. Viable cells were enumerated over 8 months of storage at 22, 4, and -80ºC. The survival of L. acidophilus rehydrated in NFDM

  18. Characterization of anti-listeria bacteriocins isolated from shellfish: Potential antimicrobials to control non-fermented seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Melissa; Pinto, Cristina; Albano, Helena; Castilho, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paula; Gibbs, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    This work had as main objectives to characterize two bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from non-fermented seafood, in order to evaluate their potential as new food protective agents. The two bacteriocinogenic isolates were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using genusand species-specific primers, and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing, as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The antimicrobial spectrum of each strain incl...

  19. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  20. Effects of Fear Appeals on Communicating Potential Health Risks of Unregulated Dietary Supplements to College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sheffield, Donna; Almutairi, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fear appeals are commonly used in health communication to reduce risk. It is not clear, however, whether familiarity with a health topic can lessen the threat intended. The use of unregulated dietary supplements among young adults is one such area that needs study. Purpose: The study examined the effect of fear appeals on…

  1. Understanding the current status and exploring the potential for distance education in public health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavya; George, Sunil; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Continuing education of health care providers plays an important role in producing a health work force that is efficient and effective. In India public health education has primarily relied on conventional methods of training. However, such methods have limitations in equipping the health workforce of a vast and varied country like India. This paper analyzes the current status of distance education in public health and lists the various courses that are presently available in India through the distance education mode. Presently 25 institutions in India are offering 69 courses in various domains of public health through distance education. The providers of these programs comprised both government and private educational institutions. This paper also points out the role and importance of various stakeholders in the design and delivery of distance education programs in public health and raises key areas that need attention in the governance of such programs. It urges the use of digital technology in the delivery of distance education programs and points out how distance education that is designed and delivered using the latest technology could address the current gap in training human resources for health in India.

  2. Brain Potentials Highlight Stronger Implicit Food Memory for Taste than Health and Context Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Jolij, Jacob; Ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly consumption of healthy foods is advised to improve population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest that non-sensory features like health aspects are appreciated as of lower importance than taste. However, many food choices are made in the absence of the

  3. Obesity and outpatient rehabilitation using mobile technologies: the potential mHealth approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently an important public health problem of epidemic proportions (globesity. Inpatient rehabilitation interventions that aim at improving weight-loss, reducing obesity-related complications and changing dysfunctional behaviors, should ideally be carried out in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of psychologists, dieticians, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, nutritionists, physiotherapists, etc. Long-term outpatient multidisciplinary treatments are likely to constitute an essential aspect of rehabilitation. Internet-based technologies can improve long-term obesity rehabilitation within a collaborative approach by enhancing the steps specified by psychological and medical treatment protocols. These outcomes may be augmented further by the mHealth approach, through creating new treatment delivery methods to increase compliance and engagement. mHealth (m-health, mobile health can be defined as the practice of medicine and public health, supported by mobile communication devices for health services and information. mHealth applications which can be implemented in weight loss protocols and obesity rehabilitation are discussed, taking into account future research directions in this promising area.

  4. Peak oil and health in low- and middle-income countries: impacts and potential responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter; Stepnitz, Rebecca

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil refers to the predicted peak and subsequent decline in global production of petroleum products over the coming decades. We describe how peak oil will affect health, nutrition, and health systems in low- and middle-income countries along 5 pathways. The negative effects of peak oil on health and nutrition will be felt most acutely in the 58 low-income countries experiencing minimal or negative economic growth because of their patterns of sociopolitical, geographic, and economic vulnerability. The global health community needs to take additional steps to build resilience among the residents of low- and middle-income countries and maintain access to maternal and other health services in the face of predicted changes in availability and price of fossil fuels.

  5. Exposure Potential and Health Impacts of Indium and Gallium, Metals Critical to Emerging Electronics and Energy Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O; Shine, James P

    2016-12-01

    The rapid growth of new electronics and energy technologies requires the use of rare elements of the periodic table. For many of these elements, little is known about their environmental behavior or human health impacts. This is true for indium and gallium, two technology critical elements. Increased environmental concentrations of both indium and gallium create the potential for increased environmental exposure, though little is known about the extent of this exposure. Evidence is mounting that indium and gallium can have substantial toxicity, including in occupational settings where indium lung disease has been recognized as a potentially fatal disease caused by the inhalation of indium particles. This paper aims to review the basic chemistry, changing environmental concentrations, potential for human exposure, and known health effects of indium and gallium.

  6. RF Surface Impedance Characterization of Potential New Materials for SRF-based Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Binping [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States) and College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Eremeev, Grigory V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Reece, Charles E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Phillips, H. Lawrence [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Kelley, Michael J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    In the development of new superconducting materials for possible use in SRF-based accelerators, it is useful to work with small candidate samples rather than complete resonant cavities. The recently commissioned Jefferson Lab RF Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system can presently characterize the central region of 50 mm diameter disk samples of various materials from 2 to 40 K exposed to RF magnetic fields up to 14 mT at 7.4 GHz. We report the recent measurement results of bulk Nb, thin film Nb on Cu and sapphire substrates, Nb{sub 3}Sn sample, and thin film MgB{sub 2} on sapphire substrate provided by colleagues at JLab and Temple University.

  7. Nanometer-Scale Pores: Potential Applications for Analyte Detection and DNA Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Kasianowicz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several classes of transmembrane protein ion channels function in vivo as sensitive and selective detection elements for analytes. Recent studies on single channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes suggest that nanometer-scale pores can be used to detect, quantitate and characterize a wide range of analytes that includes small ions and single stranded DNA. We briefly review here these studies and identify leaps in technology that, if realized, might lead to innovations for the early detection of cancer.

  8. Definitions and potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet: views from experts around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichopoulou, Antonia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Tong, Tammy Yn; Forouhi, Nita G; Khandelwal, Shweta; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mozaffarian, Dariush; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2014-07-24

    The Mediterranean diet has been linked to a number of health benefits, including reduced mortality risk and lower incidence of cardiovascular disease. Definitions of the Mediterranean diet vary across some settings, and scores are increasingly being employed to define Mediterranean diet adherence in epidemiological studies. Some components of the Mediterranean diet overlap with other healthy dietary patterns, whereas other aspects are unique to the Mediterranean diet. In this forum article, we asked clinicians and researchers with an interest in the effect of diet on health to describe what constitutes a Mediterranean diet in different geographical settings, and how we can study the health benefits of this dietary pattern.

  9. Energy Drinks: An Assessment of the Potential Health Risks in the Canadian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Rotstein, Joel; Barber, Jennifer; Strowbridge, Carl; Hayward, Stephen; Huang, Rong; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop a health risk assessment on energy drinks, based on health hazard and exposure assessments when consumed as a food in Canada. In this document, a typical energy drink is exemplified by the product known as Red Bull, where a single can serving of 250 ml contains 80 mg of caffeine, 1000 mg of taurine, 600 mg of glucuronolactone and several B vitamins. Health hazard data on energy drinks were found to be limited and therefore the hazard assessment w...

  10. The potential of ion beams for characterization of metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A.; Pullen, S.; Ott, S.; Primetzhofer, D.

    2016-03-01

    Ion scattering has been employed for depth-profiling of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to characterize the degree of post-synthetic uptake of [FeFe](mcbdt)(CO)6 (mcbdt = 2,3-dithiolato-benzoic acid). The system investigated consisted of UiO-66 (UiO = University of Oslo) MOF thin films grown on p-type Si wavers in which a molecular proton reduction catalyst [FeFe](mcbdt)(CO)6 was introduced by postsynthetic exchange (PSE). We have characterized samples by Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and by Time-of-Flight Medium Energy Ion Scattering (TOF-MEIS). The beam induced sample modification during the analysis has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). No detectable sample modification was found for RBS and TOF-MEIS whereas TOF-ERDA had a clear impact in the present experiment. Composition profiles could be obtained and indicated enrichment of catalyst and/or catalyst residual near to and at the sample surface.

  11. The potential of ion beams for characterization of metal–organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A.; Pullen, S.; Ott, S. [Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 523, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Primetzhofer, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Ion scattering has been employed for depth-profiling of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) to characterize the degree of post-synthetic uptake of [FeFe](mcbdt)(CO){sub 6} (mcbdt = 2,3-dithiolato-benzoic acid). The system investigated consisted of UiO-66 (UiO = University of Oslo) MOF thin films grown on p-type Si wavers in which a molecular proton reduction catalyst [FeFe](mcbdt)(CO){sub 6} was introduced by postsynthetic exchange (PSE). We have characterized samples by Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) and by Time-of-Flight Medium Energy Ion Scattering (TOF-MEIS). The beam induced sample modification during the analysis has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). No detectable sample modification was found for RBS and TOF-MEIS whereas TOF-ERDA had a clear impact in the present experiment. Composition profiles could be obtained and indicated enrichment of catalyst and/or catalyst residual near to and at the sample surface.

  12. Potential of hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the analytical characterization of protein biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periat, Aurélie; Fekete, Szabolcs; Cusumano, Alessandra; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Beck, Alain; Lauber, Matthew; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-05-27

    A new stationary phase based on wide-pore hybrid silica bonded with amide ligand has been used to explore the utility of HILIC for the analytical characterization of protein biopharmaceuticals. Various, highly-relevant samples were tested, including different insulins, interferon α-2b and trastuzumab. This work shows that HILIC can be successfully employed for the analysis of therapeutic proteins and mAbs, using mobile phase compositions comprised of between 65 and 80% ACN and 0.1% TFA. In terms of elution order and selectivity, these HILIC separations have proven to be highly orthogonal to RPLC, while the kinetic performance remains comparable. In the case of characterizing trastuzumab, HILIC was uniquely able to resolve several important glycoforms at the middle-up level of analysis (fragments of 25-100kDa). Such a separation of glycoforms has been elusive by other separation mechanisms, such as RPLC and IEX. Besides showing orthogonality to RPLC and improved separations of glycoforms, HILIC offers several additional benefits for biopharmaceutical characterization: i) an inherent compatibility with MS, ii) a reduced requirement for very high mobile phase temperatures that are otherwise needed in RPLC to limit undesirably strong adsorption to the surface of the stationary phase, and iii) the possibility to couple several columns in series to improve resolving power, thanks to comparatively low mobile phase viscosity.

  13. Heavy metal content and potential health risk of geophagic white clay from the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Asantewah Nkansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophagia is the craving for non-food substances and commonly practiced among pregnant women and children. Consumption of geophagic clay samples can have serious implications on the health of the consumers as a result of the presence of toxic metals such as Pb, As, Hg and Cd. This study sought to determine the levels of heavy metals in the studied geophagic clay samples and to determine the potential risks of heavy metals as cumulative carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to the health of the consumers via oral (ingestion and dermal exposure routes. A total of thirty (30 white clay samples were analysed using Niton Thermo scientific XRF Analyser (Mobile Test S, NDTr-XL3t-86956, com 24. The clay samples were found to contain essential elements such as Ca, Fe, K and Zn as well as toxic metals such as As and Pb. There were isolated cases of the presence of Hg and all samples had Cd levels below detection. Health risk indices such as hazard quotient and cancer risk were calculated and the results indicated that consumers are likely to suffer from cancer through ingestion of geophagic clay. Bioaccessibility studies were done on zinc and it did not indicate any potential toxicity due to zincs essential nature. The levels of heavy metals in some of the geophagic clay consumed by some residents in the Kumasi were high compared to the Permitted Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI by (WHO/FAO and may pose potential health threat over time.

  14. The potential of social enterprise to enhance health and well-being: a model and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kerr, Susan

    2014-12-01

    In recent years civil society organisations, associations, institutions and groups have become increasingly involved at various levels in the governance of healthcare systems around the world. In the UK, particularly in the context of recent reform of the National Health Service in England, social enterprise - that part of the third sector engaged in trading - has come to the fore as a potential model of state-sponsored healthcare delivery. However, to date, there has been no review of evidence on the outcomes of social enterprise involvement in healthcare, nor in the ability of social enterprise to address health inequalities more widely through action on the social determinants of health. Following the development of an initial conceptual model, this systematic review identifies and synthesises evidence from published empirical research on the impact of social enterprise activity on health outcomes and their social determinants. Ten health and social science databases were searched with no date delimiters set. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied prior to data extraction and quality appraisal. Heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed precluded meta-analysis/meta-synthesis and so the results are therefore presented in narrative form. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The included studies provide limited evidence that social enterprise activity can impact positively on mental health, self-reliance/esteem and health behaviours, reduce stigmatization and build social capital, all of which can contribute to overall health and well-being. No empirical research was identified that examined social enterprise as an alternative mode of healthcare delivery. Due to the limited evidence available, we discuss the relationship between the evidence found and other literature not included in the review. There is a clear need for research to better understand and evidence causal mechanisms and to explore the impact of social enterprise activity, and wider civil

  15. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Jones, Daniel K.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration of these environmental health stressors in coastal regions can result from sea level rise and storm-derived disturbances. The combination of existing environmental health stressors and those mobilized by natural or anthropogenic disasters could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems. This dataset displays the exposure potential to environmental health stressors in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Exposure potential is calculated with the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) ranking system (Reilly and others, 2015) designed to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health stressors. Facilities obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Facility Registry Service (FRS) databases were ranked based on their potential contaminant hazard. Ranks were based in part on previous work by Olsen and others (2013), literature reviews, and an expert review panel. A 2000 meter search radius was used to identify nearby ranked facility locations. As part of the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started a Wetland Synthesis Project to expand National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study area.

  16. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

  17. The oral microbiome in health and disease and the potential impact on personalized dental medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco, M F; Vess, T J; Ginsburg, G S

    2012-03-01

    Every human body contains a personalized microbiome that is essential to maintaining health but capable of eliciting disease. The oral microbiome is particularly imperative to health because it can cause both oral and systemic disease. The oral microbiome rests within biofilms throughout the oral cavity, forming an ecosystem that maintains health when in equilibrium. However, certain ecological shifts in the microbiome allow pathogens to manifest and cause disease. Severe forms of oral disease may result in systemic disease at different body sites. Microbiomics and metagenomics are two fields of research that have emerged to identify the presence of specific microbes in the body and understand the nature of the microbiome activity during both health and disease. The analysis of the microbiome and its genomes will pave the way for more effective therapeutic and diagnostic techniques and, ultimately, contribute to the development of personalized medicine and personalized dental medicine.

  18. Attitude similarity and familiarity and their links to mental health: An examination of potential interpersonal mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon M; Uchino, Bert N; Baucom, Brian R W; Behrends, Arwen A; Sanbonmatsu, David

    2017-01-01

    Similarity and familiarity with partner's attitudes are linked to positive relationship outcomes, while interpersonal variables have been linked to mental health. Using multilevel models (MLMs), we modeled the associations between these attitudinal variables and mental health outcomes in 74 married couples. We found that higher levels of attitude similarity in couples were linked to lower depression, while higher levels of attitude familiarity in couples were associated with greater satisfaction with life. Mediational analyses indicated marital satisfaction and interpersonal stress mediated the link between attitude similarity and depression. Marital satisfaction also mediated the link between familiarity and satisfaction with life. This study is the first linking attitude familiarity to mental health and provides evidence that familiarity and similarity have mental health effects partly due to their interpersonal consequences.

  19. Community Health Workers-Promotores de Salud in Mexico: History and Potential for Building Effective Community Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, Hector; Perez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Izeta, Ericka Escalante; Villanueva, Maria Angeles

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a historical perspective combining 3 illustrative examples of the origins of the community health worker (CHW) model in Mexico, as a community-based participatory strategy. Three examples were identified from the sparse literature about CHWs in Mexico emphasizing their key roles and functions in various community settings. The CHW models illustrate what is known of training-development and planning, implementation, and evaluation of the CHWs model in different settings addressing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. The potential exists for integrating CHW projects to expand the health promotion model with new emphasis on municipality and regional participation.

  20. Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKellar Landis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'global public good' (GPG concept has gained increasing attention, in health as well as development circles. However, it has suffered in finding currency as a general tool for global resource mobilisation, and is at risk of being attached to almost anything promoting development. This overstretches and devalues the validity and usefulness of the concept. This paper first defines GPGs and describes the policy challenge that they pose. Second, it identifies two key areas, health R&D and communicable disease control, in which the GPG concept is clearly relevant and considers the extent to which it has been applied. We point out that that, while there have been many new initiatives, it is not clear that additional resources from non-traditional sources have been forthcoming. Yet achieving this is, in effect, the entire purpose of applying the GPG concept in global health. Moreover, the proliferation of disease-specific programs associated with GPG reasoning has tended to promote vertical interventions at the expense of more general health sector strengthening. Third, we examine two major global health policy initiatives, the Global Fund against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM and the bundling of long-standing international health goals in the form of Millennium Development Goals (MDG, asking how the GPG perspective has contributed to defining objectives and strategies. We conclude that both initiatives are best interpreted in the context of traditional development assistance and, one-world rhetoric aside, have little to do with the challenge posed by GPGs for health. The paper concludes by considering how the GPG concept can be more effectively used to promote global health.

  1. Potential ecological and human health risks of heavy metals in surface soils associated with iron ore mining in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diami, Siti Merryan; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Madzin, Zafira

    2016-10-01

    The composition of heavy metals (and metalloid) in surface soils of iron ore mine-impacted areas has been evaluated of their potential ecological and human health risks. The mining areas included seven selected locations in the vicinity of active and abandoned iron ore-mining sites in Pahang, Malaysia. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd and metalloid As were present in the mining soils of the studied area, while Cu was found exceeding the soil guideline value at all sampling locations. However, the assessment of the potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated low ecological risk (RI between 44 and 128) with respect to Cd, Pb, Cu, As, Zn, Co, and Ni in the surface soils. Contributions of potential ecological risk [Formula: see text]by metal elements to the total potential ecological RI were evident for Cd, As, Pb, and Cu. Contribution of Cu appears to be consistently greater in the abandoned mining area compared to active iron ore-mining site. For non-carcinogenic risk, no significant potential health risk was found to both children and adults as the hazard indices (HIs) were all below than 1. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) indicated that As has greater potential carcinogenic risk compared to other metals that may induce carcinogenic effects such as Pb, Cr, and Cd, while the LCR of As for children fell within tolerable range for regulatory purposes. Irrespective of carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, greater potential health risk was found among children (by an order of magnitude higher for most metals) compared to adults. The hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk indicated that the pathways for the risk to occur were found to be in the order of ingestion > dermal > inhalation. Overall, findings showed that some metals and metalloid were still present at comparable concentrations even long after cessation of the iron ore-mining activities.

  2. Experimental characterization of periodic frequency-steerable arrays for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Matteo; Xu, Buli; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    Beam steering through phased arrays is a well-established technique, used extensively in ultrasonic imaging for medical, NDE and SHM applications. Phased arrays typically need individual control of their elements, which involves hardware and software complexity. This paper presents the characterization of a novel frequency-steerable array for structural health monitoring. In the considered configuration, beam steering is achieved by exploiting interference phenomena generated by the spatial lay-out of the array elements, and their simultaneous activation at specific frequencies. Such frequencies correspond to wavenumbers which are associated with radiation in determined spatial directions. In essence, the array acts as a spatial filter, which preferentially radiates at wavenumbers defined by the spatial arrangement of the elements. As such, the array is also effective at tuning its radiation to specific wave modes. In this paper, a simple quadrilateral periodic topology illustrates the directional properties of the array and shows its tuning capabilities. The investigations are supported by a preliminary numerical analysis, which is used to design an experimental prototype. Tests successfully validate the numerical predictions and demonstrate the directional and tuning capabilities of the proposed array design.

  3. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y.Q.; Burke, A. M.; Morris, M. A.; HANRAHAN, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as a potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands for wastewater treatment. Results indicate the specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m2 g-1 to 41.4 m2 g-1 and this increased with increasing particle size. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform in...

  4. The Potential Impact on Farmer Health of Enhanced Export Horticultural Trade between the U.K. and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cross

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured with the internationally recognised SF-36 questionnaire and compared to an international population norm. The age-corrected health status of U.K. farm workers was significantly lower than the population norm, whereas Ugandans scored significantly higher (indicating good health for physical health and lower for mental health. If Ugandan produce enters U.K. markets, then consumers may wish to consider both the potential benefits that enhanced trade could offer Ugandan farmers compared with its impacts on U.K. workers.

  5. Potential for tissue characterization of plaque and arterial wall using intravascular ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Krishnakutty; Fitzgerald, Peter J.; Yock, Paul G.

    1993-09-01

    Current intravascular ultrasound imaging technology is able to determine the extent and distribution of pathologic processes within the vessel wall, but is not highly sensitive in discriminating between different types of pathologic tissue. `Tissue characterization' refers to a set of computer-based techniques that utilize features of the ultrasound signal beyond basic amplitude to help define the structure of the tissue of interest. Although preliminary results with this approach are encouraging, additional work is needed to define its clinical application in vascular disease.

  6. Characterization of the surface of protein-adsorbed dental materials by wetting and streaming potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumura, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Okumura, N.; Kambara, M.; Norde, W.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have elucidated the water-wettability and the electrokinetic surface potential of protein-covered dental materials. The proteins used here as typical proteins were human serum albumin and lysozyme from hen*s egg. The wettability (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) and the surface potent

  7. Characterization of the surface of protein-adsorbed dental materials by wetting and streaming potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsumura, H; Kawasaki, K; Okumura, N; Kambara, M; Norde, W

    2003-01-01

    In this study we have elucidated the water-wettability and the electrokinetic surface potential of protein-covered dental materials. The proteins used here as typical proteins were human serum albumin and lysozyme from hen's egg. The wettability (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) and the surface potent

  8. Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Francisco D; Santamaria, Andrea J; Bodoukhin, Nikita; Guada, Luis G; Solano, Juan P; Guest, James D

    2016-11-28

    Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

  9. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  10. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  11. Characterization of prerusted steels in some Ibero-American atmospheres by electrochemical potential noise measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E. [INETI/IMP Lab. de Tintas e Revestimentos, Lisboa (Portugal); Mariaca, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Chavarin, J.U.; Veloz, M.A. [IIE Dept. de Fisicoquimica Aplicada, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the MICAT project (Ibero-American Map of Atmospheric Corrosiveness) was to foster collaborative ventures between groups conducting research on atmospheric corrosion. Overall, 14 Ibero-American countries, including Spain and Portugal, are involved with a network of 71 test stations distributed throughout the region and on 4 continents. These test stations represent a broad spectrum of climatological and atmospheric pollution conditions. The objective of the MICAT electrochemical studies was to characterize the protective properties of the corrosion products formed during atmospheric exposure at the different test sites. Prerusted carbon steel specimens at different locations were immersed in a sodium sulfate solution. Some specimens were rust pretreated in phosphoric acid solution with additions of aluminum hydroxide (rust converters) electrochemically evaluated. Electrochemical noise measurements (ENM) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed for different times of immersion. Corrosion rates were related to the presence of the oxides that were initially formed. For specimens rusted in marine atmospheres, the presence of chlorides in the corrosion products promotes localized attack. As to the different rust-converted specimens, ENM revealed the pretreatment evolution and corrosion performance over time. ENM was able to characterize and evaluate the protective properties of oxides and pretreatments according to the nature and environmental conditions to which specimens were exposed.

  12. Characterization of novel Acidobacteria exopolysaccharides with potential industrial and ecological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Castellane, Tereza C L; Campanharo, Joao C; Colnago, Luiz A; Costa, Ohana Y A; Corradi da Silva, Maria L; van Veen, Johannes A; Lemos, Eliana G M; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2017-01-24

    Acidobacteria have been described as one of the most abundant and ubiquitous bacterial phyla in soil. However, factors contributing to this ecological success are not well elucidated mainly due to difficulties in bacterial isolation. Acidobacteria may be able to survive for long periods in soil due to protection provided by secreted extracellular polymeric substances that include exopolysaccharides (EPSs). Here we present the first study to characterize EPSs derived from two strains of Acidobacteria from subdivision 1 belonging to Granulicella sp. EPS are unique heteropolysaccharides containing mannose, glucose, galactose and xylose as major components, and are modified with carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups that we characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both EPS compounds we identified can efficiently emulsify various oils (sunflower seed, diesel, and liquid paraffin) and hydrocarbons (toluene and hexane). Moreover, the emulsions are more thermostable over time than those of commercialized xanthan. Acidobacterial EPS can now be explored as a source of biopolymers that may be attractive and valuable for industrial applications due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability and low toxicity.

  13. In vivo evaluation of the mutagenic potential and phytochemical characterization of oleoresin from Copaifera duckei Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis Maistro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the chemical constituents of Copaifera duckei oleoresin and used dermal application to Wistar rats to evaluated its possible mutagenic and cytotoxic activities on peripheral blood reticulocytes and bone marrow cells. Chemical characterization of the oleoresin revealed the presence of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, an unidentified neutral diterpene and diterpene acids. To evaluate mutagenicity evaluation the rats were treated with 10, 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin for three consecutive days and peripheral blood collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h for micronucleus analysis. The rats were humanly sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment and chromosome preparations made using standard techniques. At the three concentrations and the three time intervals tested we found that there were no statistically significant differences in either the mean number of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs or the number of chromosomal aberrations as to the negative control. However, at 25 and 50% of the LD50 dose of the oleoresin there was a significant decrease in the mitotic index (MI as compared to the negative control. Under our experimental conditions, C. duckei V11 oleoresin produced no mutagenic effects on bone marrow cells or in peripheral reticulocytes as assessed by chromosome aberrations and the micronucleus test respectively, but showed cytotoxic activity at high doses.

  14. Characterization of novel Acidobacteria exopolysaccharides with potential industrial and ecological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M.; Castellane, Tereza C. L.; Campanharo, Joao C.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Costa, Ohana Y. A.; Corradi da Silva, Maria L.; van Veen, Johannes A.; Lemos, Eliana G. M.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Acidobacteria have been described as one of the most abundant and ubiquitous bacterial phyla in soil. However, factors contributing to this ecological success are not well elucidated mainly due to difficulties in bacterial isolation. Acidobacteria may be able to survive for long periods in soil due to protection provided by secreted extracellular polymeric substances that include exopolysaccharides (EPSs). Here we present the first study to characterize EPSs derived from two strains of Acidobacteria from subdivision 1 belonging to Granulicella sp. EPS are unique heteropolysaccharides containing mannose, glucose, galactose and xylose as major components, and are modified with carboxyl and methoxyl functional groups that we characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both EPS compounds we identified can efficiently emulsify various oils (sunflower seed, diesel, and liquid paraffin) and hydrocarbons (toluene and hexane). Moreover, the emulsions are more thermostable over time than those of commercialized xanthan. Acidobacterial EPS can now be explored as a source of biopolymers that may be attractive and valuable for industrial applications due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability and low toxicity. PMID:28117455

  15. Synthesis, characterization and anticorrosion potentials of chitosan-g-PEG assembled on silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Hassan H H; Azzam, Eid M; Badr, Emad A; Hussein, M; Tawfik, Salah M

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan (Ch) grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (Ch-g-mPEG) were synthesized using mPEG with molecular weights 2000 g/mol. The synthesized Ch-g-mPEG was characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Ch-g-mPEG silver nanoparticles has been synthesized and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). The synthesized Ch-g-mPEG and its nanostructure were examined as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1M HCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The results revealed that the inhibition efficiency obtained by Ch-g-mPEG self-assembled on silver nanoparticles is greater than that obtained by Ch-g-mPEG only. Potentiodynamic polarization results reveal that the synthesized compound could be classified as mixed-type corrosion inhibitors with predominant control of the cathodic reaction. The results of EIS indicate that the both charge transfer resistance and inhibition efficiency tend to increase by increasing the inhibitor concentration.

  16. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-11-30

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops.

  17. Characterization and evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth T. Degenhardt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Amaranthaceae, was obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger apparatus and characterization was performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic assays (GC-FID, GC/MS, 1H NMR. Two major compounds were identified: p-cymene (42.32% and ascaridole (49.77%. The ethanolic extract and hydrolate were fractionated by liquid–liquid partitioning and the compounds were characterized by GC/MS. The essential oil, ethanol extract and fractions by partitioning with dicloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol were tested in tumor cell lines (K562, NALM6, B15, and RAJI. Significant cytotoxic activity was found for essential oil (IC50 = 1.0 µg/ml for RAJI cells and fraction dicloromethane (IC50 = 34.0 µg/ml and ethanol extract (IC50 = 47.0 µg/ml for K562 cells. The activity of the essential oil of C. ambrosioides is probably related to the large amount of ascaridol, since the other major compound, p-cymene, is recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory and has low cytotoxic activity.

  18. Is the gap between micro- and macroeconomic assessments in health care well understood? The case of vaccination and potential remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is an established intervention that reduces the burden and prevents the spread of infectious diseases. Investing in vaccination is known to offer a wide range of economic and intangible benefits that can potentiate gains for the individual and for society. The discipline of economics provides us with microeconomic and macroeconomic methods for evaluating the economic gains attributed to health status changes. However, the observed gap between micro and macro estimates attributed to health presents challenges to our understanding of health-related productivity changes and, consequently, economic benefits. The gap suggests that the manner in which health-related productive output is quantified in microeconomic models might not adequately reflect the broader economic benefit. We propose that there is a transitional domain that links the micro- and macroeconomic improvement attributed to health status changes. Currently available economic evaluation methods typically omit these consequences, however; they may be adjusted to integrate these transitional consequences. In practical terms, this may give rise to multipliers to apply toward indirect costs to account for the broader macroeconomic benefits linked to changes in health status. In addition, it is possible to consider that different medical conditions and health care interventions may pose different multiplying effects, suggesting that the manner in which resources are allocated within health services gives rise to variation in the amount of the micro-macro gap. An interesting way to move forward in integrating the micro- and macro-level assessment might be by integrating computable general equilibrium (CGE) models as part of the evaluation framework, as was recently performed for pandemic flu and malaria vaccination.

  19. Growth of health maintenance organisations in Nigeria and the potential for a role in promoting universal coverage efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoka, Chima A; Hanson, Kara; Mills, Anne

    2016-08-01

    There has been growing interest in the potential for private health insurance (PHI) and private organisations to contribute to universal health coverage (UHC). Yet evidence from low and middle income countries remains very thin. This paper examines the evolution of health maintenance organisations (HMOs) in Nigeria, the nature of the PHI plans and social health insurance (SHI) programmes and their performance, and the implications of their business practices for providing PHI and UHC-related SHI programmes. An embedded case study design was used with multiple subunits of analysis (individual HMOs and the HMO industry) and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, and the study was guided by the structure-conduct-performance paradigm that has its roots in the neo-classical theory of the firm. Quantitative data collection and 35 in-depth interviews were carried out between October 2012 to July 2013. Although HMOs first emerged in Nigeria to supply PHI, their expansion was driven by their role as purchasers in the government's national health insurance scheme that finances SHI programmes, and facilitated by a weak accreditation system. HMOs' characteristics distinguish the market they operate in as monopolistically competitive, and HMOs as multiproduct firms operating multiple risk pools through parallel administrative systems. The considerable product differentiation and consequent risk selection by private insurers promote inefficiencies. Where HMOs and similar private organisations play roles in health financing systems, effective regulatory institutions and mandates must be established to guide their behaviours towards attainment of public health goals and to identify and control undesirable business practices. Lessons are drawn for policy makers and programme implementers especially in those low and middle-income countries considering the use of private organisations in their health financing systems.

  20. Health Risk Assessment for Uranium in Groundwater - An Integrated Case Study Based on Hydrogeological Characterization and Dose Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Veiga, L. H.; Py, D. A., Jr.; Fernandes, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium mining and milling facilities of Caetité (URA) is the only active uranium production center in Brazil. Operations take place at a very sensitive semi-arid region in the country where water resources are very scarce. Therefore, any contamination of the existing water bodies may trigger critical consequences to local communities because their sustainability is closely related to the availability of the groundwater resources. Due to the existence of several uranium anomalies in the region, groundwater can present radionuclide concentrations above the world average. The radiological risk associated to the ingestion of these waters have been questioned by members of the local communities, NGO’s and even regulatory bodies that suspected that the observed levels of radionuclide concentrations (specially Unat) could be related to the uranium mining and milling operations. Regardless the origin of these concentrations the fear that undesired health effects were taking place (e.g. increase in cancer incidence) remain despite the fact that no evidence - based on epidemiological studies - is available. This paper intends to present the connections between the local hydrogeology and the radiological characterization of groundwater in the neighboring areas of the uranium production center to understand the implications to the human health risk due to the ingestion of groundwater. The risk assessment was performed, taking into account the radiological and the toxicological risks. Samples from 12 wells have been collected and determinations of Unat, Thnat, 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were performed. The radiation-related risks were estimated for adults and children by the calculation of the annual effective doses. The potential non-carcinogenic effects due to the ingestion of uranium were evaluated by the estimation of the hazard index (HI). Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the uncertainty associated with these estimates, i.e. the 95% confidence interval

  1. Risky business: Lived experience mental health practice, nurses as potential allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2016-09-21

    Mental health policy includes a clear expectation that consumers will participate in all aspects of the design and delivery of mental health services. This edict has led to employment roles for people with lived experience of significant mental health challenges and service use. Despite the proliferation of these roles, research into factors impacting their success or otherwise is limited. This paper presents findings from a grounded theory study investigating the experiences of Lived Experience Practitioners in the context of their employment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Lived Experience Practitioners. Risk was identified as a core category, and included sub-categories: vulnerability, 'out and proud', fear to disclose, and self-care. Essentially participants described the unique vulnerabilities of their mental health challenges being known, and while there were many positives about disclosing there was also apprehension about personal information being so publically known. Self-care techniques were important mediators against these identified risks. The success of lived experience roles requires support and nurses can play an important role, given the size of the nursing workforce in mental health, the close relationships nurses enjoy with consumers and the contribution they have made to the development of lived experience roles within academia.

  2. How to Characterize a Potential Site for CO2 Storage with Sparse Data Coverage – a Danish Onshore Site Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Carsten Møller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth.

  3. Potential for Incorporation of Genetic Polymorphism Data in Human Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This overview summarizes several EPA assessment publications evaluating the potential impact of genetic polymorphisms in ten metabolizing enzymes on the variability in enzyme function across ethnically diverse populations.

  4. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics.

  5. Community-Based Management of Diabetes in Nepal: Exploring the Potential Role of Female Community Health Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    and treat type 2 diabetes. We suggest that involving Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) of Nepal offering culturally appropriate health promotion may be the blue print for community-based management programmes tackling type 2 diabetes. We aim to explore the potential role of FCHVs of Nepal...... for diabetes management at community level. It is anticipated that the study can give valuable information regarding effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of an innovative way to improve diabetes management in low resource settings......., and this is particularly apparent in the South Asian countries, including Nepal. Despite the growing burden and chronic nature of type 2 diabetes, prevention and control of this disease is far from adequate in these settings. One possibility could be through the involvement of community health workers to prevent, diagnose...

  6. Aloe vera : Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad H Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities.

  7. Potential effects on human health of an ammonia rich atmospheric environment in an archaeologically important cave in southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, F B

    2003-12-01

    This important cave is described together with an analysis of the potential health effects for humans inhabiting an ecosystem, albeit on a temporary basis, possessing an ammonia rich atmospheric environment. The work emphasises potential environmental hazards together with an evaluation of the range of clinical effects. The environmental pollution in this cave is generally unlikely to have marked adverse effects on temporary visitors who lack pre-existing respiratory impairments. It is suggested that ancient humans would, to avoid an unpleasant polluted environment, have confined most of their activities to the outer regions of the cave. Comparisons are made with other ammonia contaminated environments.

  8. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  9. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential for University Technology PETRONAS Academic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In many countries such as Malaysia, it is increasingly more difficult to find suitable locations for landfills, which are accepted by the population. These circumstances are to be found all over the world and make new strategies for waste management necessary. Approach: Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. But for any ISWM system to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. Therefore, the study was conducted to characterize the quality and quantity of generated solid waste at University Technology PETRONAS (UTP academic buildings to suggest a recycling system with emphasis on recycling container size and arrangement. Results: Initially, a survey was conducted to highlight the existing situation of recycling activities and recycle bins condition in the campus. Then, six different sampling points were selected at campus academic complex and solid waste from those points was characterized for both term-time and semester break periods. Procedure of sampling involved unloading and analyzing a quantity of produced daily waste at each building in a controlled area. The integrity of all received waste was maintained regardless of the odor or physical decay. While survey outcomes shows that 80% of students and staff were interested to take part in recycling activities only 53% of them have practiced in it and the main reasons were that 75 and 83% of them could not find suitable and enough number of recycle bin, respectively. In another development it was obtained that up to 80% of produced materials at academic building are recyclable while paper percentage is predominant with 40% and 33% during term-time and semester break, respectively. Food waste was detected in all samples which could lead cross contamination, value drop and development of odor and flies. The solid waste generation was varied between 8

  10. Health technology assessment in India: the potential for improved healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjai; Ebrahim, Shah; Taylor, Fiona C; Chokshi, Maulik; Gabbay, John

    2014-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary approach that uses clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, policy and ethical perspectives to provide evidence upon which rational decisions on the use of health technologies can be made. It can be used for a single stand-alone technology (e.g. a drug, a device), complex interventions (e.g. a rehabilitation service) and can also be applied to individual patient care and to public health. It is a tool for enabling the assessment and comparison of health technologies using the same metric of cost-effectiveness. This process benefits the patient, the health service, the healthcare payer and the technology producer as only technologies that are considered cost-effective are promoted for widespread use. This leads to greater use of effective technologies and greater health gain. The decision-making process in healthcare in India is complex owing to multiplicity of organizations with overlapping mandates. Often the decision-making is not evidence-based and there is no mechanism of bridging the gap between evidence and policy. Elsewhere, HTA is a frequently used tool in informing policy decisions in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Despite national organizations producing large volumes of research and clinical guidelines, India has not yet introduced a formal HTA programme. The incremental growth in healthcare products, services, innovation in affordable medical devices and a move towards universal healthcare, needs to be underpinned with an evidencebase which focuses on effectiveness, safety, affordability and acceptability to maximize the benefits that can be gained with a limited healthcare budget. Establishing HTA as a formal process in India, independent of healthcare providers, funders and technology producers, together with a framework for linking HTA to policy-making, would help ensure that the population gets better access to appropriate healthcare in the future.

  11. Tapping into the Power of Twitter: A Look at Its Potential in Canadian Health Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Waddell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In health libraries, it is becoming increasingly important to recognize and understand user interactions and expectations. Research suggests that more and more patients will begin to rely on online resources to receive health information. In response, many health organizations have turned to social media and micro-blogging services to try and meet those needs. The ease of posting and sharing information on Twiter makes it an essential tool for health libraries use to reach their users. However, libraries that lack systematic metrics for measuring success can find themselves pouring precious resources into social media upkeep without knowing if they are promoting their strategic vision. This paper first uses a literature review to summarize the best practices among Twitter researchers. The authors then measure the success of these practices among several health libraries using simple metrics for evaluation. By advocating accountable Twitter use, the authors hope to promote a goal-oriented social media strategy that ensures health libraries are maximizing their efficiency. Administrators and libraries can engage communities through active Twitter use by going well beyond just promoting their services. Through better Twitter use, libraries can show users that they listen to other organizations in the community, hear and respond to the questions and concerns of individual users, and send people links to information that go beyond the reach of their own website. Administrators can subsequently report accurate metrics to demonstrate what is working well and which strategies have not been successful. It is then possible to make immediate changes to maximize the impact that social media can have on that organization’s strategic goals. The objective of this paper is to provide every reader with the ability to head into a meeting about social media and confidently develop a strategy that will plan for success, with the metrics to prove it.

  12. Potential human health benefits of antibiotics used in food animals: a case study of virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2005-05-01

    Risk management of food-animal antibiotics has reached a crucial juncture for public health officials worldwide. While withdrawals of animal antibiotics previously used to control animal bacterial illnesses are being encouraged in many countries, the human health impacts of such withdrawals are only starting to be understood. Increases in animal and human bacterial illness rates and antibiotic resistance levels in humans in Europe despite bans on animal antibiotics there have raised questions about how animal antibiotic use affects human health. This paper presents a quantitative human health risk and benefits assessment for virginiamycin (VM), a streptogramin antibiotic recommended for withdrawal from use in food animals in several countries. It applies a new quantitative Rapid Risk Rating Technique (RRRT) that estimates and multiplies data-driven exposure, dose-response, and consequence factors, as suggested by WHO (2003) to estimate human health impacts from withdrawing virginiamycin. Increased human health risks from more pathogens reaching consumers if VM use is terminated (6660 estimated excess campylobacteriosis cases per year in the base case) are predicted to far outweigh benefits from reduced streptogramin-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) infections in human patients (0.27 estimated excess cases per year in the base case). While lack of information about impacts of VM withdrawal on average human illnesses-per-serving of food animal meat precludes a deterministic conclusion, it appears very probable that such a withdrawal would cause many times more human illnesses than it would prevent. This qualitative conclusion appears to be robust to several scientific and modeling uncertainties.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of the atmospheres of potentially habitable planets: GL 581 d as a model case study

    CERN Document Server

    von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Grenfell, J Lee; Hedelt, Pascal; Rauer, Heike; Schreier, Franz; Stracke, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) The Super-Earth candidate GL 581 d is the first potentially habitable extrasolar planet. Therefore, GL 581 d is used to illustrate a hypothetical detailed spectroscopic characterization of such planets. Atmospheric profiles from 1D radiative-convective model scenarios of GL 581 d were used to calculate high-resolution synthetic spectra. From the spectra, signal-to-noise ratios were calculated for a telescope such as the planned James Webb Space Telescope. The presence of the model atmospheres could be clearly inferred from the calculated synthetic spectra due to strong water and carbon dioxide absorption bands. Surface temperatures could be inferred for model scenarios with optically thin spectral windows. Dense, CO2-rich scenarios did not allow for the characterization of surface temperatures and to assess habitability. Degeneracies between CO2 concentration and surface pressure further complicated the interpretation of the calculated spectra, hence the determination of atmospheric conditions. Sti...

  14. Telecommuting and health care: a potential for cost reductions and productivity gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S M; Pelfrey, S; Van Sell, M

    1995-12-01

    Health care administrators are striving to maintain positive operating margins while remaining responsive to community needs. As they look for ways to reduce costs and improve productivity, they may consider the benefits associated with telecommuting. Telecommuting refers to the work performed by organizational employees who use computers and telecommunication equipment to work at home or at remote sites one or more days a week. Benefits to the health care industry include release of valuable hospital space, reduced employee turnover, and increased productivity. The time away from the institution may provide administrators with valuable planning time, free from interruptions.

  15. Footwear choices made by young women and their potential impact on foot health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Grogan, Sarah; Jones, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Modern footwear has been associated with the development of foot pain and pathology in the ageing adult. Yet this foot health issue does not seem to alter the footwear purchases made by younger women. In total, 162 teenage girls were questioned regarding shoes purchased over a 6-month period. The results indicated that footwear choices are activity specific and participants chose the style and design of shoes related to the image they wanted to portray. Association of footwear choice to foot function and health was not found to influence choice of footwear.

  16. The use of ingredients of potential public health concern. Compliance with the HACCP system regulations and request for comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-08

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is publishing this document to inform establishments that prepare meat and poultry products of the need to ensure that they maintain proper control over the use of ingredients, especially those that present a potential public health concern, and over the ingredient labeling of their products. Establishments should ensure that their systems provide such control as part of their next reassessment of their HACCP systems. FSIS invites comments on the matters presented in this document.

  17. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti (L.) Mosquitoes in Mumbai International Seaport (India) to Monitor Potential Global Health Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal Kumar; Abhay Kumar Sharma; Manas Sarkar; Arun Chauhan; Rajeev Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are highly invasive and can survive almost any climatic conditions. They transmit a number of major world's deadly diseases. Therefore, a study was undertaken during December 2010 to evaluate the entomo-epidemiological risk of Aedes mosquito borne diseases (VBD) in Mumbai international seaport areas to minimize potential global health risks and prevent introduction of new VBD in India. Surveys were undertaken in operational and residential areas of Mumbai Port Trust (MPT). Al...

  18. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane: a potential prebiotic species in Titan's atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica " Giacomo Ciamician," Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Ali, Ashraf [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm{sup –1} for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.

  19. Synthesis and photophysical characterization of conjugated molecules for potential solar cell uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudomel, John Matthew

    Three new strategies were successfully pursued for the synthesis of defined length oligomers of p-phenylene-vinylene. These strategies are interchangeable and allow the fast and efficient synthesis of a wide variety of oligomers with a number of different substituents. An assortment of new molecules and oligomers were synthesized and characterized during this study to prove the effectiveness of each strategy. The new strategies were compared to previous methodology for making similar oligomers. A large, nonplanar, conjugated chromophore 9BrH was synthesized based on an adaptation of previous work. 9BrH and its synthetic precursor, pre9BrH, were characterized using X-Ray crystallography. The experimentally determined conformation and bond lengths of 9BrH were compared to previous theoretical studies and confirmed much of what was predicted. The 9BrH chromophore was stockpiled for use in additional studies. Three highly twisted triarylamines were synthesized and investigated for internal charge transfer behavior. Using a large chromophore as one aryl group forced the triarylamines into twisted, propeller-like conformations. The chromophore anthracene was utilized to induce the twist in the triarylamines 9DAAA and 910BAA. The previously synthesized 9BrH was utilized to induce a twisted conformation for the triarylamine 9DAAH. Theoretical predictions indicated that electron density should be delocalized in the ground state and localized on the large chromophore in the excited state, behavior consistent with molecular internal charge transfer. 9DAAA and 910BAA were characterized by X-Ray crystallography which confirmed the desired twisted conformation of the triarylamines in the solid state. UV-Vis absorption spectra for all three triarylamines had long wavelength, broad absorption peaks characteristic of internal charge transfer. Solution fluorescence of each triarylamine demonstrated a large dependence on the surrounding environment; when solvent polarity was

  20. Rapid Characterization of S. mansoni Expression Library Clones of Potential Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A S. mansoni adult worm cDNA expression library was screened with sera from baboons in a early phase after infection. The clones that were positive with the early infection sera were examined for reactivity with pre-infection sera and heterologous infection sera. In order to discriminate a positive antibody reaction from the reactivity due to residual anti-E. coli antibodies, an unrelated cDNA clone was plated with the positive clone. The unrelated clone provided the negative background and the contrast necessary to discern a positive antibody reaction. In this way, we were able to eliminate selected clones that were positive with the pre-infection sera or heterologous infection sera. This characterization of the expression library clones enabled us to quickly target only clones with the desired pattern of antibody reactivity for sequencing, subcloning, and expressing

  1. Green synthesis, characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles and their potential application for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sujata; Mukherjee, Sudip; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Ganguly, Anirban; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    In the present article, we demonstrate the delivery of anti-cancer drug to the cancer cells using biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles (b-AuNP & b-AgNP). The nanoparticles synthesized by using Butea monosperma (BM) leaf extract are thoroughly characterized by various analytical techniques. Both b-AuNP and b-AgNP are stable in biological buffers and biocompatible towards normal endothelial cells (HUVEC, ECV-304) as well as cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF-7, HNGC2 & A549). Administration of nanoparticle based drug delivery systems (DDSs) using doxorubicin (DOX) [b-Au-500-DOX and b-Ag-750-DOX] shows significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation (B16F10, MCF-7) compared to pristine drug. Therefore, we strongly believe that biosynthesized nanoparticles will be useful for the development of cancer therapy using nanomedicine approach in near future.

  2. Characterization and resource recovery potential of precipitates associated with abandoned coal mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kairies, C.L.; Watzlaf, G.R.; Hedin, R.S.; Capo, R.C. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science

    2001-07-01

    Sludge samples from untreated and passively treated coal mine drainage discharges were characterized using NAA, ICP-AES, XRD and SEM. Iron content ranges from 25 to 68 dry wt%, and goethite is the dominant mineral (40-90 dry wt%). The majority of particles have a spiky spherical morphology (0.5-2.0 {mu}m diameter). Within several passive treatment systems, iron content remains relatively constant, and concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni and Zn increase, while As concentration decrease. Initial findings indicate that some sludges are suitable for industrial and manufacturing uses although high concentrations of trace elements such as As may prevent use in cosmetics or foods. These associations could be related to the depositional environment of the coal seam from which the discharge originates. Subsurface cation exchange and sorption processes can influence the trace elements that accumulate in the sludge. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest.

  4. Potential health hazards of the water resources development: a health survey in the Phitsanulok Irrigation Project, Nan River Basin, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnag, T; Sornmani, S; Impand, P; Harinasuta, C

    1980-12-01

    A health survey was carried out among residents of 33 villages under the Phitsanulok Irrigation Project Area, Nan River Basin, Northern Thailand, whereby general health conditions were examined including intradermal tests for schistosomiasis japonica, stools for intestinal parasites and sera tested by circumoval precipitin test for antibodies to S. japonicum and by agglutination test for leptospiral infection. Health investigations revealed that 913 (60.9%) of 1,499 people examined had experienced gastro-intestinal disorders, 254 (17%) had poor oral hygiene and a few had mild anemia. 799 (62%) of 1,298 examined had intestinal parasites. Hookworm (45%) was most common, followed by Opisthorchis viverrini (20%), Entamoeba coli (10%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6%), intestinal flukes (2%), Enterobius vermicularis (1%) and Giardia lamblia (1%). 149 (10%) of 1,422 people gave positive skin reaction to crude S. japonicum antigen. Circumoval precipitin test was strongly positive in 7 (1.6%) persons out of 449 tested for schistosome infection and 6 (4.0%) out of 1,358 people were positive for leptospiral infection. The significant endemic diseases as potential health problems in this water resources development are discussed.

  5. Does Health Information in Mass Media Help or Hurt Patients? Investigation of Potential Negative Influence of Mass Media Health Information on Patients' Beliefs and Medication Regimen Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Heewon; Huh, Jisu

    2017-03-01

    As an important public health issue, patient medication non-adherence has drawn much attention, but research on the impact of mass media as an information source on patient medication adherence has been scant. Given that mass media often provide confusing and contradicting information regarding health/medical issues, this study examined the potential negative influence of exposure to health information in mass media on patients' beliefs about their illnesses and medications, and medication adherence, in comparison with the effects of exposure to another primary medication information source, physicians. Survey data obtained from patients on blood thinner regimens revealed that the frequency of exposure to health information in mass media was negatively related to accuracy of patients' beliefs about their medication benefits and patient medication adherence. On the other hand, frequency of visits with physicians was positively associated with patients' beliefs about their medication benefits but had no significant relation to medication regimen adherence. The implications of the study findings are discussed, and methodological limitations and suggestion for future research are presented.

  6. Health Impacts Estimation of Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Suspended Atmospheric Particles over the East Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Rahoma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The small size fraction of aerosols, measured as PM10 and PM2.5, rather than the larger particles, is considered to be responsible for most of the health effects. Such particles have a relatively long residence time in the atmosphere and can therefore travel over long distances. Hence, a large portion of ambient concentrations of PM10 and in particular of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5, can be attributed to long range trans boundary air pollution or to other remote sources. The estimates of exposure and of health effects are based on a number of uncertain assumptions and data sets, as described in previous article. Approach: In industrialized Middle East countries, the daily deposition of PM10 particles in the lungs is roughly 250 µg day-1, which represents a small dose in terms of traditional toxicology studies. Studies of PM10 have considered this total material but have not asked how much its chemical or physical characteristics contribute to its total toxicity. Results: This article focuses on the description of the present knowledge on PM10 concentration fields and predominant sources contributing to PM10 from long range transport of pollution. PM10 is a complex mixture of many known and unknown components; therefore, a short introduction on the composition of PM10 is given. The studies denote to the African dust from mean PM10 levels background levels are still 5-10 mg m3 higher in the Eastern Basin (EMB when compared with those in the Western (WMB, mainly due to the higher anthropogenic and sea spray loads. Conclusion: As regards for the seasonal trends, these are largely driven by the occurrence of African dust events, resulting in a spring-early summer maximum over the EMB and a clear summer maximum in the WMB, although in this later region the recirculation of aged air masses play an important role. Furthermore, a marked seasonal trend is still evident when subtracting the African

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zi-Guo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in adult C. sinensis residing chronically in the biliary tract, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing and bioinformatic predictions with stem-loop real-time PCR analysis. Results Here we report the use of this approach to identify and clone 6 new and 62,512 conserved C. sinensis miRNAs which belonged to 284 families. There was strong bias on families, family members and sequence nucleotides in C. sinensis. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 14 and 22, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle and end of conserved miRNAs. There was no significant "seed region" at the first and ninth positions which were commonly found in human, animals and plants. Categorization of conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs of C. sinensis were still innovated and concentrated along three branches of the phylogenetic tree leading to bilaterians, insects and coelomates. There were two miRNA strategies in C. sinensis for its parasitic life: keeping a large category of miRNA families of different animals and keeping stringent conserved seed regions with high active innovation in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end, which were perfect for the parasite to perform its complex life style and for host changes. Conclusions The present study represented the first large scale characterization of C. sinensis miRNAs, which have implications for understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as miRNA studies of other

  8. Health effects of climate change and health co-benefits resulting from potential Kyoto-driven policies : a Canadian perspective : Final draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carty, P.; Crabbe, P.; Craig, L.; Krewski, D. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada)

    2002-11-06

    This technical report evaluates health and social impacts of climate change in Canada. It also examines the role of co-benefits in the development of Canadian policy on climate change within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. Some of the anticipated effects include increased heat stroke and a greater incidence of vector borne diseases resulting from the migration of new insect species in a warmer Canadian climate. An increase in extreme weather events can be expected with the changing climate. Greater levels of indoor air pollution can be expected from the use of alternative fuels. The co-benefits resulting from the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should result in reductions in criteria pollutants, responsible in part for cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The report contains background information on factors affecting climate change, along with inventories of the health and social impacts of climate change mitigation measures and social and health impact models. The authors also explored alternatives to the models. Additional research and modeling efforts are still required to obtain a better characterization of the likely impact of GHG emissions on global change. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. The potential of Internet of m-health Things "m-IoT" for non-invasive glucose level sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istepanian, R S H; Hu, S; Philip, N Y; Sungoor, A

    2011-01-01

    An amalgamated concept of Internet of m-health Things (m-IoT) has been introduced recently and defined as a new concept that matches the functionalities of m-health and IoT for a new and innovative future (4G health) applications. It is well know that diabetes is a major chronic disease problem worldwide with major economic and social impact. To-date there have not been any studies that address the potential of m-IoT for non-invasive glucose level sensing with advanced opto-physiological assessment technique and diabetes management. In this paper we address the potential benefits of using m-IoT in non-invasive glucose level sensing and the potential m-IoT based architecture for diabetes management. We expect to achieve intelligent identification and management in a heterogeneous connectivity environment from the mobile healthcare perspective. Furthermore this technology will enable new communication connectivity routes between mobile patients and care services through innovative IP based networking architectures.

  10. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  11. Healthier land, healthier farmers: considering the potential of natural resource management as a place-focused farmer health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Jacki; Berry, Helen L; O'Brien, Léan V

    2013-11-01

    Farmers have particular wellbeing-related vulnerabilities that conventional health interventions struggle to address. We consider the potential of natural resource management (NRM) programs, which reach large numbers of farmers, as non-conventional place-focused wellbeing interventions. Although designed to address environmental degradation, NRM can influence the wellbeing of farmers. We used qualitative meta-synthesis to reanalyse studies examining social dimensions of NRM in Australia and generate a theoretical framework identifying potential pathways between NRM and wellbeing, intended to inform subsequent empirical work. Our results suggest NRM programs influence several important determinants of farmer wellbeing, in particular social capital, self-efficacy, social identity, material wellbeing, and health itself. The pathways by which NRM influences these determinants are mediated by distal factors such as changes in land conditions, farmer skills and knowledge and resources accessible to farmers. These, in turn, are moderated by the design and delivery of NRM programs, suggesting potential to enhance the health benefits of NRM through specific attention to program design.

  12. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  13. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  14. Levels and potential health risk of heavy metals in marketed vegetables in Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Jiang, Xian-Gen

    2016-02-01

    The present study analyzed 5785 vegetables for concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg, and estimated the health risk to local consumers by deterministic (point estimates) approaches. Levels of elements varied in different vegetables. Average levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg and Pb were 0.013, 0.017, 0.057, 0.002, 0.094 and 0.034 mg/kg (fresh weight), respectively. The samples with 0.25% for Cd and 1.56% for Pb were exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) set by the Chinese Health Ministry. No obvious regular geographical distribution for these metals in vegetables was found in areas of Zhejiang, China. The mean and 97.5 percentile levels of heavy metal and metalloid were used to present the mean and high exposure assessment. The health indices (HIs) were less than the threshold of 1 both in mean and high exposure assessment. It indicates that for the general people there is very low health risk to As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Hg by vegetable intake.

  15. Chemical composition and potential health risks of raw Arabian incense (Bakhour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehya Elsayed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour is a common indoor practice in the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf region. However, the chemical composition of this substance has never been studied. Three different Bakhour brands were selected for this study. A complete chemical profile for the raw samples was determined using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques. A wide range of elements and compounds were identified, many of which are hazardous to health. Nitrogen was found in all samples which should raise concerns due to the known health implications of amines, nitrogen oxides and nitrites. In addition toxic metals such as cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc were also determined in all samples. The amounts of these metals are equivalent to those in raw tobacco, where they are known to pose health risks. Three types of solvents (acetone, dichloromethane and toluene were used for the extraction of organic compounds. Carcinogens, toxins and irritants were found along others of different health implications. Isolation of these compounds provides preliminary evidence on the harmful consequences of being exposed to Bakhour.

  16. Potentially Deceptive Health Nutrition-Related Advertising Claims: The Role of Inoculation in Conferring Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Alicia M.; Miller, Claude H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to examine the efficacy of inoculation message treatments to facilitate resistance to health nutrition-related (HNR) commercial food advertising claims. Design: Data were collected across three phases extending across a 5-week period conducted over two semesters at a Midwest US university. A 2 × 3 between-subjects…

  17. [The concept of social marketing--potential and limitations for health promotion and prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Lang, K; Ultsch, S; Eichhorn, C; Nagel, E

    2006-07-01

    "Social marketing" is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programmes to promote socially beneficial behaviour changes. In the field of health promotion and prevention, the systematic planning process of social marketing can offer new ideas and perspectives to the traditions of social science. Major characteristics of social marketing encompass continuous market research focussing on attitudes, motives and behavioural patterns of the target group, an integrated mix of strategic key elements, and the perpetual evaluation of all procedures. So far, however, it is unclear in how far social marketing is actually more effective than other concepts of programme planning. Furthermore, it has to be discussed whether the underlying philosophy of social marketing and its implicit understanding of relationships to the public are reconcilable with health promotion principles. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the social marketing concept has achieved widespread application and is subject to controversial scientific discussions, whereas this approach is hardly considered in German health promotion research and practice. Given the increasing call for quality management and evaluation of health promotion interventions, the social marketing concept may contribute useful insights at an operational level and thus add to a discussion on effective approaches for programme planning.

  18. Pride and confidence at work: potential predictors of occupational health in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson Inga-Lill

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study focuses on determinants of a healthy work environment in two departments in a Swedish university hospital. The study is based on previously conducted longitudinal studies at the hospital (1994–2001, concerning working conditions and health outcomes among health care personnel in conjunction with downsizing processes. Overall, there was a general negative trend in relation to mental health, as well as long-term sick leave during the study period. The two departments chosen for the current study differed from the general hospital trend in that they showed stable health development. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse experiential determinants of healthy working conditions. Methods Thematic open-ended interviews were carried out with seventeen managers and key informants, representing different groups of co-workers in the two departments. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and an inductive content analysis was made. Results In the two studied departments the respondents perceived that it was advantageous to belong to a small department, and to work in cooperation-oriented care. The management approaches described by both managers and co-workers could be interpreted as transformational, due to a strain of visionary, delegating, motivating, confirmative, supportive attitudes and a strongly expressed solution-oriented attitude. The daily work included integrated learning activities. The existing organisational conditions, approaches and attitudes promoted tendencies towards a work climate characterised by trust, team spirit and professionalism. In the description of the themes organisational conditions, approaches and climate, two core determinants, work-pride and confidence, for healthy working conditions were interpreted. Our core determinants augment the well-established concepts: manageability, comprehensiveness and meaningfulness. These favourable conditions seem to function as a buffer against

  19. Isolation and characterization of Rhodococcus sp. Y22 and its potential application to tobacco processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Duan, Yan-Qin; Dong, Jin-Yan; Zhe, Wei; Wang, Le; Li, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2009-04-01

    A novel nicotine-degrading bacterium, strain Y22, was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. Y22 based on its 16S rDNA sequence and morphological and biochemical features. The isolate could utilize nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Nicotine (1.0g/L) was degraded by Rhodococcus sp. Y22 within 52h at 28 degrees C and pH 7.0. Preparation of resting cells from nicotine-induced cultures was found to rapidly and efficiently degrade nicotine from solutions as well as from tobacco leaves. Therefore, Rhodococcus sp. Y22 has the potential to degrade nicotine during tobacco leave processing.

  20. Establishment and characterization of cell sublines with high and low metastatic potential derived from human osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xiao-bing; CHEN An-ming; CAI Xian-hua; GUO Fen-jing; LIAO Guo-ning; MA Ding

    2005-01-01

    @@ The most frequent cause of death of patients with osteosarcoma is the metastasis of tumour cells. In spite of successful control of the primary tumour, the mortality of the patients due to metastatic spread is more than 30% within 5 years.1 Recent studies about osteosarcoma metastatic mechanism are based on osteosarcoma matrilineal cell lines.2 For further studies of metastatic mechanism of osteosarcoma the establishment of a better metastatic experimental model of osteosarcoma is needed. We isolated and established two cell sublines, with high and low metastatic potentials, respectively, derived from human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line by cloning in vitro and transplantation in vivo, then analysed and identified their biological characteristics.

  1. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T JN Okonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water successively. The acetone extract was fractionated serially into chloroform, ethylacetate and acetone to obtain the respective solvent fractions. LOSSP/CF-1 was obtained by re-crystallization of the chloroform fraction. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions was performed using standard methods. The chemical structure of LOSSP/CF-1 was elucidated by ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. While the flavonoid concentrate (FC and LOSSP/CF-1 tested positive to 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical and KMnO4 assays, indicating strong antioxidant properties. In addition, LOSSP/CF-1 expressed a 50% radical inhibition concentration (IC50 of 238.24 ± 3.12 µg/ml against gallic acid (37.63 ± 0.47 µg/ml. Ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of LOSSP/CF-1 indicated it to be ascorbic acid. This is novel for the herb, and the first ever compound isolated and characterized from L. owariensis. Flavonoids and LOSSP/CF-1 (ascorbic acid are potent bioactive principles of L. owariensis, acting via antioxidant mechanism. Thus the herb is recommended for use as an adjuvant in the management of diseases involving pro-oxidative state.   Industrial relevance. Pro-oxidative state-induced disorders like hepatitis, cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, cancer, et c., have been identified as major course of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in

  3. microRNAs of parasitic helminths - Identification, characterization and potential as drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Collette; Winter, Alan D; Gillan, Victoria; Devaney, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. They were first identified in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where the miRNAs lin-4 and let-7 were shown to be essential for regulating correct developmental progression. The sequence of let-7 was subsequently found to be conserved in higher organisms and changes in expression of let-7, as well as other miRNAs, are associated with certain cancers, indicating important regulatory roles. Some miRNAs have been shown to have essential functions, but the roles of many are currently unknown. With the increasing availability of genome sequence data, miRNAs have now been identified from a number of parasitic helminths, by deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and bioinformatic approaches. While some miRNAs are widely conserved in a range of organisms, others are helminth-specific and many are novel to each species. Here we review the potential roles of miRNAs in regulating helminth development, in interacting with the host environment and in development of drug resistance. Use of fluorescently-labeled small RNAs demonstrates uptake by parasites, at least in vitro. Therefore delivery of miRNA inhibitors or mimics has potential to alter miRNA activity, providing a useful tool for probing the roles of miRNAs and suggesting novel routes to therapeutics for parasite control.

  4. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  5. Antagonistic Potential of Lactobacillus Spp against Enteropathogenic Bacteria; Purification and Characterization of their Bacteriocins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Lactobacillus (160 isolates were isolated from curd sample. The isolates were aimed to analyze the antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae sub sp., ogawa, V. cholerae sub sp., inaba, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp. and Shigella dysenteriae. All the isolates were inhibiting the tested Enteropathogenic bacteria except S. dysenteriae. Lactobacillus isolates produced highest inhibition zone (30 to 37 mm against V. cholerae sub sp., inaba and Klebsiella sp., of the 160 isolates only ten Lactobacillus isolates (L1- L10 were used for the production of bacteriocins, purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange (DEAE cellulose chromatography. Maximum bacteriocin activity has been observed with Lf3 against V. cholerae ssp Inaba at 30°C, pH 6.0, 1.5 to 2.0% Na Cl/18 h in addition to L8, L9 and L10 (MW 100 to 106 KDa and Lf3 was found to be the most prominent potential isolate.

  6. Characterization of hydroxyl radical modified GAD65: a potential autoantigen in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Wajid A; Sherwani, Subuhi; Khan, Wahid A; Ali, Rashid

    2009-02-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD(65)) is an immunological marker of type 1 autoimmune diabetes. High titre of autoantibodies against GAD(65) (GAD(65)Abs) have also been detected in some other autoimmune diseases. In search of a potential immunological marker of type 1 diabetes, in vitro GAD(65) was modified by hydroxyl radical followed by the study of structural and conformational perturbed protein by different spectroscopic techniques (UV, fluorescence and CD) and thermal denaturation profile. Binding studies of circulating autoantibodies from diabetic groups (type 1 and type 2) with native and reactive oxygen species (ROS) modified GAD(65), exhibited high recognition of type 1 diabetic serum autoantibodies with modified antigen (p group and control group (n = 10) was checked by inhibition enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative precipitin titration assay. Relative affinity of ROS-GAD(65)Abs for modified and native GAD(65) was in the order of 1.56 x 10(- 6) and 2.72 x 10(- 7) M, as calculated by Langmuir plot. In coherence, ROS oxidation of GAD(65) causes conformational perturbation, generating highly immunogenic unique neoepitopes that may be one of the factors in antigen-driven induction of type 1 diabetes autoantibodies that can serve as a potential marker in early diagnosis/prognosis of the disease.

  7. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys, cystine (CySS, glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG. Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS is associated with aging and disease risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related changes in plasma redox metabolites and corresponding redox potentials (Eh to further validate the marmoset as a nonhuman primate model of aging. We measured plasma thiol redox states in marmosets and used existing human data with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS to model the relationships between age and redox metabolites. A classification accuracy of 70.2% and an AUC of 0.703 were achieved using the MARS model built from the marmoset redox data to classify the human samples as young or old. These results show that common marmosets provide a useful model for thiol redox biology of aging.

  8. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chunyang [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Law, Sheran H.W. [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Jensen, Karl; Cowden, John [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hinton, David [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Padilla, Stephanie [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram, E-mail: Ram.Ramabhadran@gmail.com [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  9. Statistical characterization of trapped bubbles in subarctic lake ice: Potential implications for methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Danielsson; Norbäck, E.

    2010-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from northern lakes to the atmosphere are highly uncertain but estimated to increase due to arctic climate change and subsequent permafrost thaw and sediment warming. A large amount of CH4, if not the most, is thought to be released through ebullition (bubbling), a pathway with extreme spatial patchiness that challenges the accuracy of measurements and budget extrapolations. The spatial variability of ebullition can be assessed on northern lakes because bubbles are trapped in the ice during winter. This study statistically characterized trapped bubbles over various depths across two ice covered subarctic lakes in a changing discontinuous permafrost landscape in northern Sweden. Observations were made through a 0.64 m2 quadrat that was placed every third meter along a large number of randomly distributed transects. This stratified random sampling design combined with a digital image processing technique determined that bubble patterns on average covered up to 7.7% of the lake area and were dominated by ebullition from frequently occurring but highly spatially dispersed point sources with variabilities of up to 1056%. Bubble frequency differed significantly between early and late season lake ice, between the two lakes and among different zones within each lake (ptransects to examine the patchiness of bubbles with high precision. Thus, the number and variability of bubbles observed along a small number of transects will most likely be unsuitable variables in large scale estimates and extrapolations aiming to reduce uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric CH4.

  10. Characterization and energy potential of food waste from catering service in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fa-Qian; Sun, Ying-Jun; Lu, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Safe disposal of food waste is becoming an impending issue in China with the rapid increase of its production and the promotion of environmental awareness. Food waste from catering services in Hangzhou, China, was surveyed and characterized in this study. A questionnaire survey involving 632 units across the urban districts showed that 83.5% of the food waste was not properly treated. Daily food waste production from catering units was estimated to be 1184.5 tonnes. The ratio of volatile solid to total solid, easily biodegradable matter (including crude fat, crude protein and total starch) content in total solid and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen varied in ranges of 90.1%-93.9%, 60.9%-72.1%, and 11.9-19.9, respectively. Based on the methane yield of 350 mL g VS(-1) in anaerobic batch tests, annual biogas energy of 1.0 × 10(9) MJ was estimated to be recovered from the food waste. Food waste from catering services was suggested to be an attractive clean energy source by anaerobic digestion.

  11. Photoscopic characterization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Trichosanthes tricuspidata and its antibacterial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvarajan, Ragunathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2015-08-01

    The present study focused on the finding of reducing agents for the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the plant, Trichosanthes tricuspidata. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The UV-Visible spectrum resulted a sharp peak (at 430nm) represents the strong plasmon resonance of silver. The average size distributions of AgNPs were found to be 78.49nm, through (PSA), and the silver ion with its crystalline nature was confirmed using intensity (2θ) peak value of 38.22°, 44.66°, 64.61°, and 77.49°. The SEM micrograph revealed that the synthesized AgNPs have a spherical morphology with the size ranges from 20 to 28nm. AFM showed the presence of polydispersed AgNPs with its size (20 to 60nm in height). The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) study analyzed the responsible compounds present in the methanolic extracts for the bio-reduction of AgNPs and their antibacterial effect was studied. AgNPs exhibited preponderant activity than the methanolic extracts on clinical pathogens. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs might act as an effective antibacterial agent. Further studies are required to isolate the specific compound responsible for the reduction capability and its their inhibitory mechanisms for target bacterial strains.

  12. Expression and characterization of purinergic receptors in rat middle meningeal artery-potential role in migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Agmund Haanes

    Full Text Available The dura mater and its vasculature have for decades been central in the hypothesis of migraine and headache pathophysiology. Although recent studies have questioned the role of the vasculature as the primary cause, dural vessel physiology is still relevant in understanding the complex pathophysiology of migraine. The aim of the present study was to isolate the middle meningeal artery (MMA from rodents and characterize their purinergic receptors using a sensitive wire myograph method and RT-PCR. The data presented herein suggest that blood flow through the MMA is, at least in part, regulated by purinergic receptors. P2X1 and P2Y6 receptors are the strongest contractile receptors and, surprisingly, ADPβS caused contraction most likely via P2Y1 or P2Y13 receptors, which is not observed in other arteries. Adenosine addition, however, caused relaxation of the MMA. The adenosine relaxation could be inhibited by SCH58261 (A2A receptor antagonist and caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist. This gives one putative molecular mechanism for the effect of caffeine, often used as an adjuvant remedy of cranial pain. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR expression data for the receptors correlate well with the functional findings. Together these observations could be used as targets for future understanding of the in vivo role of purinergic receptors in the MMA.

  13. Green synthesis, characterization of gold and silver nanoparticles and their potential application for cancer therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Sujata; Mukherjee, Sudip; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Ganguly, Anirban [Biomaterials Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana State (India); Sreedhar, Bojja [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana State (India); Patra, Chitta Ranjan, E-mail: crpatra@iict.res.in [Biomaterials Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana State (India)

    2015-08-01

    In the present article, we demonstrate the delivery of anti-cancer drug to the cancer cells using biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles (b-AuNP & b-AgNP). The nanoparticles synthesized by using Butea monosperma (BM) leaf extract are thoroughly characterized by various analytical techniques. Both b-AuNP and b-AgNP are stable in biological buffers and biocompatible towards normal endothelial cells (HUVEC, ECV-304) as well as cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF-7, HNGC2 & A549). Administration of nanoparticle based drug delivery systems (DDSs) using doxorubicin (DOX) [b-Au-500-DOX and b-Ag-750-DOX] shows significant inhibition of cancer cell proliferation (B16F10, MCF-7) compared to pristine drug. Therefore, we strongly believe that biosynthesized nanoparticles will be useful for the development of cancer therapy using nanomedicine approach in near future. - Highlights: • Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract • The approach is clean, efficient, eco-friendly & economically safe. • Biosynthesized nanoparticles are biocompatible towards normal and cancer cells. • Design and development of biosynthesized nanoparticle based drug delivery systems • Biosynthesized nanoparticles could be useful for cancer and other diseases.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) brushes for potential antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstedt, Madeleine; Cheng, Nan; Azzaroni, Omar; Mossialos, Dimitris; Mathieu, Hans Jörg; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2007-03-13

    This article describes the aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization synthesis of poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) brushes onto gold and Si/SiO2 surfaces in a controlled manner. The effect of Cu(I)/Cu(II) ratio was examined, and a quartz crystal microbalance was used to study the kinetics of the brush synthesis. The synthesized brushes displayed a thickness from a few nanometers to several hundred nanometers and were characterized using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-synthesized sulfonate brushes had very good ion-exchange properties for the ions tested in this study, i.e., Na+, K+, Cu2+, and Ag+. FTIR and XPS show that the metal ions are coordinating to sulfonate moieties inside the brushes. The brushes were easily loaded with silver ions, and the effect of silver ion concentration on silver loading of the brush was examined. The silver-loaded brushes were shown to be antibacterial toward both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. The silver leaching was studied through leaching experiments into water, NaNO3, and NaCl (physiological medium). The results from these leaching experiments are compared and discussed in the article.

  15. Development and characterization of multilayer films of polyaniline, titanium dioxide and CTAB for potential antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Emanuel Airton O.; Dionisio, Natália A.; Quelemes, Patrick V. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Leal, Sergio Henrique [CCNH, UFABC, Santo André, SP 09210-170 (Brazil); Matos, José Milton E.; Filho, Edson C. Silva [Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAv, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil); Bechtold, Ivan H. [Departamento de Física — UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Leite, José Roberto S.A. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eiras, Carla, E-mail: carla.eiras.ufpi@gmail.com [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAv, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    Composites prepared from polyaniline (PANI) and the ceramic technology of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) have been proposed, however, the interaction of these materials with greater control of molecular arrangement becomes attractive in order to achieve properties not previously described or yet the optimization of those already reported. Therefore, in this study, thin hybrid films made of polyaniline (PANI), a conductive polymer, and the technological ceramic, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV–VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aiming to improve the dispersion of the ceramic in the polymer matrix, the commercial surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used in the formation of the films. The best condition of deposition was found showing synergic interactions between the conjugated materials. The antibacterial activity of the PANI(TiO{sub 2})/CTAB films was studied and the obtained results suggest their use as antimicrobial coatings. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite films of PANI and TiO2 prepared by the LbL technique • Ceramic dispersion in PANI improved with CTAB for antimicrobial applications. • Optimized film deposition for synergic interactions of the conjugated materials • Antibacterial activity of the films suggests their use as antimicrobial coatings.

  16. Development and characterization of multilayer films of polyaniline, titanium dioxide and CTAB for potential antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Emanuel Airton O; Dionisio, Natália A; Quelemes, Patrick V; Leal, Sergio Henrique; Matos, José Milton E; Silva Filho, Edson C; Bechtold, Ivan H; Leite, José Roberto S A; Eiras, Carla

    2014-02-01

    Composites prepared from polyaniline (PANI) and the ceramic technology of titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been proposed, however, the interaction of these materials with greater control of molecular arrangement becomes attractive in order to achieve properties not previously described or yet the optimization of those already reported. Therefore, in this study, thin hybrid films made of polyaniline (PANI), a conductive polymer, and the technological ceramic, titanium dioxide (TiO2), were prepared by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique. The films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aiming to improve the dispersion of the ceramic in the polymer matrix, the commercial surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used in the formation of the films. The best condition of deposition was found showing synergic interactions between the conjugated materials. The antibacterial activity of the PANI(TiO2)/CTAB films was studied and the obtained results suggest their use as antimicrobial coatings.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of TiO2/CdS Layers as Potential Photoelectrocatalytic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofil-Danut Silipas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The TiO2/CdS semiconductor composites were prepared on
    indium tin oxide (ITO substrates in di®erent mass proportions via wet-chemical techniques using bi-distilled water, acetyl-acetone, poly-propylene-glycol and Triton X-100 as additives. The composite layers were annealed in normal conditions at the temperature of 450±C, 120 min. with a rate of temperature increasing of 5±C/min. The structural and optical properties of all the TiO2/CdS ayers were characterized by X-ray di®raction, UV-VIS spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry and FT/IR microscopy. The microstructural properties of the deposited TiO2/CdS layers can be modi¯ed by varying the mass proportions of TiO2:CdS. The good crystallinity level and the high optical adsorption of
    the TiO2/CdS layers make them attractive for photoelectrochemical cell applications.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Potentially Antimicrobial Polymer Films Containing Starch Nano- and Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Pavelas DANILOVAS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forming conditions of biodegradable polymer films containing iodine-modified starch particles as well as the properties of the obtained films were investigated. Cationic cross-linked starch microparticles and cationic starch nanoparticles were dispersed in cellulose acetate and hydroxyethyl cellulose solution, respectively, and composite films were spin-casted. The obtained films were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed. The cellulose acetate solution has been found to be an appropriate matrix for the dispersion of dry modified starch microparticles, but not in the case of nanoparticles. Starch nanoparticles were obtained in an aqueous medium, and the mechanical properties of the formed cellulose acetate films are significantly reduced by water present in the casting solution. It has been estimated that a fairly high amount of nanoparticles (18 wt% can be immobilized into films of water-soluble hydroxyethyl cellulose without markedly affecting the mechanical properties of the films. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.5426

  19. Synthesis and characterization of lepidocrocite and its potential applications in the adsorption of pollutant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Gustavo [Universidad San Sebastian, Ernesto Pinto Lagarrigue 47, Santiago (Chile); Acevedo, Roberto; Soto, Andres; Herane, Mario [Universidad Mayor, Manuel Montt 367, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gustavnavarro@gmail.com

    2008-11-01

    In this work, we report some results with reference to the synthesis and structural characterization (DRX) of the lepidocrocita ({gamma}-FeOOH). The synthesis of this solid is reviewed very carefully since it is known that the reaction mechanism is by no means unique. This work is intended to put forward an updated study of this type of surface in connection with the adsorption of some inorganic pollutants which are most likely to be present in a variety of industrial procedures such as the area of the metallurgic and also in pigment additives and in the wood manufactures. We have focused this particular study to those species derived from chromium (VI), which is known to be toxic in character. Some previous studies performed by other authors suggest that some oxyhydroxides of iron such as the {alpha} - FeOOH solid may gives rise to interactions with this pollutant. Also, its action upon the chromium (VI) species has not yet been reported. In this current experimental study, we report the synthesis and an updated DRX-powder pattern for this solid.

  20. Adhesion Potential of Intestinal Microbes Predicted by Physico-Chemical Characterization Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas de Wouters

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to epithelial surfaces affects retention time in the human gastro-intestinal tract and therefore significantly contributes to interactions between bacteria and their hosts. Bacterial adhesion among other factors is strongly influenced by physico-chemical factors. The accurate quantification of these physico-chemical factors in adhesion is however limited by the available measuring techniques. We evaluated surface charge, interfacial rheology and tensiometry (interfacial tension as novel approaches to quantify these interactions and evaluated their biological significance via an adhesion assay using intestinal epithelial surface molecules (IESM for a set of model organisms present in the human gastrointestinal tract. Strain pairs of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 with its sortase knockout mutant Lb. plantarum NZ7114 and Lb. rhamnosus GG with Lb. rhamnosus DSM 20021T were used with Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 as control organism. Intra-species comparison revealed significantly higher abilities for Lb. plantarum WCSF1 and Lb. rhamnosus GG vs. Lb. plantarum NZ7114 and Lb. rhamnosus DSM 20021T to dynamically increase interfacial elasticity (10-2 vs. 10-3 Pa*m and reduce interfacial tension (32 vs. 38 mN/m. This further correlated for Lb. plantarum WCSF1 and Lb. rhamnosus GG vs. Lb. plantarum NZ7114 and Lb. rhamnosus DSM 20021T with the decrease of relative hydrophobicity (80-85% vs. 57-63%, Zeta potential (-2.9 to -4.5 mV vs. -8.0 to -13.8 mV and higher relative adhesion capacity to IESM (3.0-5.0 vs 1.5-2.2. Highest adhesion to the IESM collagen I and fibronectin was found for Lb. plantarum WCFS1 (5.0 and E. faecalis JH2-2 (4.2 whereas Lb. rhamnosus GG showed highest adhesion to type II mucus (3.8. Significantly reduced adhesion (2 fold to the tested IESM was observed for Lb. plantarum NZ7114 and Lb. rhamnosus DSM 20021T corresponding with lower relative hydrophobicity, Zeta potential and abilities to modify interfacial elasticity

  1. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  2. Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina M; Ammar, Nagwa M; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; El-anssary, Amira A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to formulate Glycyrrhiza glabra root and rhizome aqueous ethanolic extract in microemulsion carrier systems intended for transdermal delivery of incorporated antioxidant actives, flavonoids and polyphenols. The results obtained reveal that the microemulsion system ME3 possesses optimum properties regarding drug content (flavonoids and polyphenols), viscosity, pH, particle size and polydispersity index, zeta potential, stability, permeation of actives and hence possesses high in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant efficacy. These results indicate also that this microemulsion shows approximately 13-fold higher ex vivo antioxidant capacity compared with the liquorice extract solution. In addition, the proposed microemulsion is simple to dispense, cost effective and provides high patient compliance and convenience because of simple topical application and avoidance of non-comfortable oral or parenteral administration.

  3. Computationally Efficient Characterization of Potential Energy Surfaces Based on Fingerprint Distances

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the network defined by the potential energy minima of multi-atomic systems and their connectivity via reaction pathways that go through transition states allows to understand important characteristics like thermodynamic, dynamic and structural properties. Unfortunately computing the transition states and reaction pathways in addition to the significant energetically low-lying local minima is a computationally demanding task. We here introduce a computationally efficient method that is based on a combination of the minima hopping global optimization method and the insight that uphill barriers tend to increase with increasing structural distances of the educt and product states. This method allows to replace the exact connectivity information and transition state energies with alternative and approximate concepts. Without adding any significant additional cost to the minima hopping global optimization approach, this method allows to generate an approximate network of the minima, their connectivit...

  4. Extraction, characterization of components, and potential thermoplastic applications of camelina meal grafted with vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jin, Enqi; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Yiqi

    2012-05-16

    Camelina meal contains oil, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used to develop value-added bioproducts. In addition to containing valuable polymers, coproducts generated during the production of biofuels are inexpensive and renewable. Camelina is a preferred oilseed crop for biodiesel production because camelina is easier to grow and provides better yields. In this research, the components in camelina meal were extracted and studied for their composition, structure, and properties. The potential of using the camelina meal to develop thermoplastics was also studied by grafting various vinyl monomers. Oil (19%) extracted from camelina meal could be useful for food and fuel applications, and proteins and cellulose in camelina meal could be useful in the development of films, fibers, and thermoplastics. Thermoplastic films developed from grafted camelina meal had excellent wet tensile properties, unlike thermoplastics developed from other biopolymers. Camelina meal grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA) had high dry and wet tensile strengths of 53.7 and 17.3 MPa, respectively.

  5. Characterization and angiogenic potential of human neonatal and infant thymus mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G; Si, Ming-Sing

    2015-04-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro.

  6. Isolation and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria from pustulose ark (Anadara tuberculosa suitable for shrimp farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, probiotics have been tested for enhancing the immune system and promoting growth and survival rate of many marine species like shrimp and mollusks. In order to isolate bacteria with a high probiotic potential for marine shellfish aquaculture, homogenates of the gastrointestinal tract from adult mangrove cockle, Anadara tuberculosa, were obtained to perform in vitro and in vivo assays. Isolates were tested in vitro for hemolytic activity, hydrophobicity, tolerance to ammonia nitrogen, salinity and pH as well as for growth kinetics, extracellular enzymatic activity, autoaggregation, coaggregation and molecular identification. Three bacteria with high degree of hydrophobicity (>60% adherence to p-xylene and four bacteria with medium hydrophobicity, which showed different patterns of attachment to monopolar solvents (chloroform and ethyl acetate and a high tolerance to ammonia nitrogen (200 mg L-1, were selected. Six different treatments: T1 (without addition of cultured bacteria; T2 (MAt29, Enterococcus casseliflavus; T3 (MAt35, Citrobacter koseri; T4 (GAtBl, Bacillus subtilis subtilis; T5 (GAt7, Staphylococcus sp.; and T6 (1:1:1:1 mix of strains T2, T3, T4 and T5, were used to evaluate the specific growth rate, and cellular immune response of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The best specific growth rate was observed for T6 and T4 treatments related to Bacillus subtilis subtilis. A significant difference in total hemocytes count (P < 0.05 was found for T4 treatment with respect to control group. Strains isolated from A. tuberculosa had a beneficial effect on the growth and immune response of L. vannamei, so they have potential use as probiotics in aquaculture of marine shellfish.

  7. A systematic review of probiotics as a potential intervention to restore gut health in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L; Moneyham, Linda D; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics have beneficial effects on the gut in numerous conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the current literature on probiotics used in chronic illnesses exhibiting similar pathology seen in HIV gut dysfunction, in order to make recommendations for their use to promote and restore healing of the gut with subsequent reduction of ongoing inflammation caused by microbial translocation. A review of the literature was performed, focusing on probiotics as an intervention to improve gut health. Key words were searched in PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The literature reviewed was limited to clinical trials, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines. The review provided evidence that probiotics were supportive in modulating aspects of gut physiology, barrier integrity, and immune function. Probiotic use is a supportive adjunct therapy, worthy of consideration and further research in persons infected with HIV.

  8. Personality dimensions and measures potentially relevant to health: A focus on hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Reise, S P

    1995-09-01

    Although it is clear that chronic, negative socioemotional patterns are associated with poor health and premature death, various overlapping concepts and measures are currently used, making research planning difficult and limiting attempts at theoretical development. This article reviews current issues and reports a study of 36 theoretically interesting and commonly-used personality scales that were administered to 454 undergraduates. The scales included the Cook-Medley scale, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, the Spielberger scales, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, hardiness/alienation scales, NEO Personality Inventory, locus of control, Life Orientation Test, Jenkins Activity Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory. While research and theory refine the best concepts and measures, studies predicting health from chronic negative patterns may want to include at least four measures: (a) aggressive overt hostility, (b) alienated bitterness, (c) introversion, and(d) anxiety/depression. A measure of conscientiousness is also useful.

  9. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  10. Potential molecular tools for assessing the public health risk associated with waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J

    2012-08-01

    The use of multiple barrier stages at water and wastewater treatment facilities allows for the effective removal of the vast majority of coliforms and other enteric and non-enteric microbes. Subsequent disinfection steps (chlorine, ozone and UV irradiation) are utilized to inactivate microbes that escape the preceding treatment stages. Most viruses, bacteria and protozoa, such as Giardia, are effectively inactivated by chlorination; however, Cryptosporidium is relatively more resistant to environmental conditions and to chlorination. Therefore, UV disinfection has been introduced at many water and wastewater treatment plants to increase log inactivation. Any accidental treatment failure may pose a significant risk to public health. Waterborne transmission of coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia continues to be a major public health concern. No effective therapies currently exist to treat cryptosporidiosis and the global increase in immunocompromised populations has emphasized the need for water utilities and public health laboratories to have immediate and reliable access to highly sensitive test methods that can determine the host specificity, viability and infectivity of protozoa in the water supply. The most common method used for monitoring Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at intermediate treatment stages and in finished drinking water is the US EPA Method 1623. Although Cryptosporidium species are morphologically indistinguishable, they differ greatly in their host specificity and infectivity. Method 1623 provides quantitative information about Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination but cannot distinguish between species for intervention purposes in outbreak situations, nor is this method reliable for determining whether the oocyst on the slide is infective for humans. Molecular methods have proven valuable in diagnosing infectious diseases, especially those for which the causative agent is difficult to grow in culture, and

  11. Characterization and stability studies of bioactive compounds and food matrices as evidence in support of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, Carolina; Sáiz-Abajo, María-José

    2015-07-01

    The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life.

  12. Characterization of a surface glycoprotein from Echinococcus multilocularis and its mucosal vaccine potential in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kouguchi

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis is a refractory disease caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. The life cycle of this parasite is maintained primarily between foxes and many species of rodents; thus, dogs are thought to be a minor definitive host except in some endemic areas. However, dogs are highly susceptible to E. multilocularis infection. Because of the close contact between dogs and humans, infection of dogs with this parasite can be an important risk to human health. Therefore, new measures and tools to control and prevent parasite transmission required. Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis followed by western blot (2D-WB analysis, a large glycoprotein component of protoscoleces was identified based on reactivity to intestinal IgA in dogs experimentally infected with E. multilocularis. This component, designated SRf1, was purified by gel filtration using a Superose 6 column. Glycosylation analysis and immunostaining revealed that SRf1 could be distinguished from Em2, a major mucin-type antigen of E. multilocularis. Dogs (n=6 were immunized intranasally with 500 µg of SRf1 with cholera toxin subunit B by using a spray syringe, and a booster was given orally using an enteric capsule containing 15 mg of the same antigen. As a result, dogs immunized with this antigen showed an 87.6% reduction in worm numbers compared to control dogs (n=5 who received only PBS administration. A weak serum antibody response was observed in SRf1-immunized dogs, but there was no correlation between antibody response and worm number. We demonstrated for the first time that mucosal immunization using SRf1, a glycoprotein component newly isolated from E. multilocularis protoscoleces, induced a protection response to E. multilocularis infection in dogs. Thus, our data indicated that mucosal immunization using surface antigens will be an important tool to facilitate the development of practical vaccines for definitive hosts.

  13. Antibiotic Residues in Edible Poultry Tissues and Products in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are used by the veterinarians and poultry industry to enhance growth rates, health of the birds, feed efficiency, egg production and for therapeutic reasons to reduce the incidence of poultry diseases. Antibiotics had been used in poultry production for both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Most poultry farmers in Nigeria have employed the use of various antibiotics with or without the guidance of veterinarians. Although antibiotics benefit most of its uses, the illegal use of these drugs has led to the accumulation of toxic antibiotic residues in edible poultry products destined for human consumption. And this poses a major threat and hazard to the public that could be toxicological, microbiological or immunological. Several analytical techniques are available to screen edible poultry products with levels of toxic antibiotic residues. Drug withdrawal period and maximum residue level of antibiotics should be strictly observed in treated birds before any poultry product (meat or eggs is passed “wholesome” for human consumption. There are still few researches addressing this major public health problem coupled with lack of awareness in Nigeria. Therefore, there is need for public enlightenment campaign on the dangers of antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues and products to the teeming populace and restriction and regulation of indiscriminate use of antibiotics in poultry production and industry to curb the incidence of this public health hazard in Nigeria.

  14. Potential human health risks associated with historic ore processing at Berg Aukas, Grootfontein area, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Ellmies, Rainer; Kamona, Frederick; Kříbek, Bohdan; Majer, Vladimír; Knésl, Ilja; Pašava, Jan; Mufenda, Maria; Mbingeneeko, Filadelphia

    2010-11-01

    Health risks to people living at Berg Aukas have been identified through a geochemical study of mine dumps and soils at Berg Aukas. Berg Aukas once served as a mining town, where ores of Pb, V, and Zn were mined and roasted on site until 1979. Roasting of ores produced an unintended hazardous risk in the surrounding area. For this study, soil, crops, and water from the Berg Aukas area were analysed for various pollutants. The main pollutants are metals like Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Hg and Mo. They are bound to layered silicates, to easily soluble sulphide minerals, or occur in native form. The analytical results show severe heavy metal contamination of the surface soils south and east of Berg Aukas. Crops grown at the National Youth Service, like sweet potatoes, cabbage, and Irish potatoes, accumulate heavy elements that are deleterious to health. Prolonged exposure to As and heavy metals in concentrations as found in the soils and some crops in Berg Aukas can cause severe health problems like diabetes, skin lesions, bladder problems, neurological effects, as well as skin, kidney or lung cancer. Pb affects mental development of children and Pbs to brain retardation. The study aims to help the local community to delineate no-go areas for agricultural use and to either diversify the crops grown on contaminated soils or to grow crops that are less vulnerable to high heavy metal contents in soils or transfer the crops grown on contaminated soils to areas that are not contaminated.

  15. Assessing the potential to combine attitude tracking and health campaign evaluation surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Lauren P; Pettigrew, Simone; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Strickland, Mark

    2016-04-06

    Issue addressed: Online surveys are becoming increasingly popular in health research because of the low cost and fast completion time. A large proportion of online survey costs are allocated to setup and administration expenses, which suggests that conducting fewer, longer surveys would be a cost-effective approach. The current study assessed whether the incorporation of a health campaign evaluation survey within a longitudinal attitudes and behaviours tracking survey produced different outcomes compared with the separate administration of the evaluation survey.Methods: Data were collected via an online panel, with 688 respondents completing the combined survey and 657 respondents completing the evaluation-only survey. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether survey type was related to the campaign evaluation results.Results: Those who completed the combined survey perceived the campaign advertisement to be more personally relevant than those completing the evaluation-only survey. There were no differences in results relating to campaign awareness and reported behavioural change as a result of campaign exposure.Conclusions: There were minimal differences between results obtained from combining an attitude/behaviour tracking survey with a campaign evaluation survey. Any priming or order effects were limited to respondents' cognitive responses to the advertisement.So what?: The results suggest that health practitioners with limited resources available for tracking and evaluation research may be able to maximise outcomes by administering fewer, longer surveys.

  16. Potential Health Implications of the Consumption of Thermally-Oxidized Cooking Oils – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falade Ayodeji Osmund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oils are an integral part of a human diet as they are used in almost all types of culinary practices. They serve as sources of lipids with a significant nutritive value and health benefits which can be attributed to their fatty acid compositions and biological antioxidants. However, cooking oils are usually subjected to thermal oxidation which occurs when fresh cooking oil is heated at high temperatures during various food preparations. Repeated use of cooking oils in the commercial food industry is also common to maximize profit. Thermal oxidation of edible oils had since attracted great attention of nutritionist and researchers given the deteriorative effect such as generation of very cytotoxic compounds, loss of carotenoid, phenolics and vitamins thus reducing the overall antioxidant properties of the oils. Furthermore, several in vivo studies had suggested that consumption of thermally-oxidized cooking oils might not be healthy as it might negatively influence the lipid profile (increased low density lipoprotein (LDL, decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL and elevated cholesterol level, haematological system (alteration in concentration of heamoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, kidney function, and induce lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress which have been associated with the pathogenesis of various degenerative diseases. Therefore, thermal oxidation seems not to provide any health benefit, as it deteriorates cooking oils and the consumption of the oils may predispose consumers to various disease conditions that may ensue from free radical generation, thereby having deleterious effect on human health.

  17. Genetically Engineered Corn Rootworm Resistance: Potential for Reduction of Human Health Effects From Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective and Methods Insecticide use, grower preferences regarding genetically engineered (GE) corn resistant to corn rootworm (CRW), and the health effects of using various CRW insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil and carbamates) are reviewed for current and future farm practices. Results Pest damage to corn has been reduced only one-third by insecticide applications. Health costs from insecticide use appear significant, but costs attributable to CRW control are not quantifiable from available data. Methods reducing health-related costs of insecticide-based CRW control should be evaluated. As a first step, organophosphate insecticide use has been reduced as they have high acute toxicity and risk of long-term neurological consequences. A second step is to use agents which more specifically target the CRW. Conclusion Whereas current insecticides may be poisonous to many species of insects, birds, mammals and humans, a protein derived from Bacillus thurigiensis and produced in plants via genetic modification can target the specific insect of CRW (Coleoptra), sparing other insect and non-insect species from injury.

  18. Research potential of food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Aragão Lira Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the profile of research groups and publications with food and nutrition-related actions promoted by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil since 1994. METHODS: Two procedures were used: structured review and research group search. The former searched the databases Web of Science, Medline, Lilacs, SciELO and Embase, and followed the principles that guide systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration. The references of the selected articles were also consulted. The research groups were searched in the Research Group Directory of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development. RESULTS: A total of 54 articles published between 2002 and 2012 in 20 different journals were identified. Ten of these were retrieved from the references section of other articles. Focusing mostly on children from the Southeast region, these studies were coordinated by dieticians, nurses, and physicians. Diabetes Mellitus, high blood pressure, and breastfeeding were the most common topics (n=23. The quantitative methodology was employed by 42 articles, most about diagnoses. Only five research groups studied the Family Health Strategy, despite the growing number of studies in the area over the years. CONCLUSION: Despite the growing scientific production, the findings of this structured review indicate that few studies focused on food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy, probably because of the existence of few research groups in the country. More comprehensive and consistent studies on the topic are needed.

  19. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF: Preclinical characterization of a potential radionuclide targeting agent against glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Gedda, Lars; Orlova, Anna; Bruskin, Alexander; Blomquist, Erik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2004-04-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme have a poor prognosis due to recurrences originating from spread cells. The use of radionuclide targeting might increase the chance of inactivating single tumor cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. As a target, overexpressed epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) may be used. A natural ligand to EGFR, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an attractive targeting agent due to its low molecular weight (6 kDa) and high affinity for EGFR. 177Lu (T(1/2) = 6.7 days) is a radionuclide well suited for treatment of small tumor cell clusters, since it emits relatively low-energy beta particles. The goal of this study was to prepare and preclinically evaluate both in vitro and in vivo the [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF conjugate. The conjugate was characterized in vitro for its cell-binding properties, and in vivo for its pharmacokinetics and ability to target EGFR. [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF bound to cultured U343 glioblastoma cells with an affinity of 1.9 nM. Interaction with EGFR led to rapid internalization, and more than 70% of the cell-associated radioactivity was internalized after 30 minutes of incubation. The retention of radioactivity was good, with more than 65% of the 177Lu still cell-associated after 2 days. Biodistribution studies of i.v. injected [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF in NMRI mice demonstrated a rapid blood clearance. Most of the radioactivity was found in the liver and kidneys. The liver uptake was receptor-mediated, since it could be significantly reduced by preinjection of unlabeled EGF. In conclusion, [177Lu]Bz-DTPA-EGF seems to be a promising candidate for locoregional treatment of glioblastoma due to its high binding affinity, low molecular weight, and ability to target EGFR in vivo.

  20. Characterizing Properties of Biochar Produced from Simulated Human Feces and Its Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, Ajaykannan; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of biochar obtained from simulated human feces (SHF) with a view to improve human waste sanitization and stabilization before usage as a resource. The possible applications of SHF are as a fuel, as a soil amendment, or for emerging applications (e.g., activated carbon precursor and odor control), depending on the charring conditions. Simulated human feces were charred under different conditions of peak temperature (200-800°C), heating rate (2-50°C min), and holding time (0.5-6.0 h); these parameters have been shown to have the largest influence on the thermal and physicochemical characteristics of the final product. The peak temperature was shown to have a higher impact than the heating rate or the holding time. At 200°C, the very mild structural changes of the product were characteristic of dry torrefaction, a process useful to remove moisture and sterilize the product. At 400°C the carbon content (76.2 ± 0.4) and the calorific heat value (30.6 ± 0.4 MJ kg) of the product increased by 60%. From 600°C onward, the improved degree of aromatization verified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (alkene [C=C] stretching around 1680-1450 cm) and C nuclear magnetic resonance (C=C stretching at 140-110 ppm) made the biochar increasingly suitable for carbon sequestration or commercial fabrication of briquettes of charcoal. In conclusion, SHF proved to be a suitable feedstock to produce a biochar whose characteristics depended mostly on the peak charring temperature. Ultimately, the selection of a suitable application may depend on local and sociological considerations.

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of cement kiln dust for potential reuse in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, W M; Sayed, W F; Halawy, S A; Elamary, R B

    2015-09-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a byproduct of cement manufacturing process, was collected from Misr Cement Co. at Qena, Egypt. CKD was characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. This byproduct was investigated for its physical-chemical characters, antibacterial activities on sewage water and the presence of nematode, parasites and algae in the treated water. The efficiency of CKD-treated water was also examined on Hibiscus sabdarriffa seed germination. Total bacteria, total and fecal coliform, as well as fecal streptococci were completely inhibited by CKD. Interestingly, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel and lead were completely absent from sewage water as these metals precipitated after treatment with 10gl(-1) CKD. On the other hand, among all the tested plant criteria, only root length was significantly reduced by 55% and 15% after zero and 3 days of CKD addition respectively compared to control. Furthermore, plant lipid peroxidation showed no significant differences between treated sewage water and control after zero and 3 days time addition of CKD. Catalase enzyme activity showed significant decrease by 56% and 64%, while peroxidase activity significantly increased up to 49% and 63% compared to untreated sewage after zero and 3 days of treatment, respectively. The absorption of lead, iron and copper by treated and untreated plants showed no significant differences. Chromium ions were highly absorbed (0.075mgl(-1)) by plants irrigated only with treated sewage water at zero time, and decreased gradually to 0.018mgl(-1) after 3 days of CKD addition. This study highlighted the efficiency of cement kiln dust as an antibacterial agent and its ability of scavenging heavy metals leading to the use of treated sewage water in activities such as crop irrigation.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h. and Trichoderma viride (T.v. were isolated from fores