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Sample records for characterize groundwater quality

  1. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  2. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for characterization of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Nador, Tipaza (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouderbala Abdelkader

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the characterization of the groundwater salinity on the Nador coastal aquifer (Algeria. The groundwater quality has undergone serious deterioration due to overexploitation. Groundwater samplings were carried out in high and low waters in 2013, in order to study the evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry from the recharge to the coastal area. Different kinds of statistical analysis were made in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer and to discriminate between different groups of groundwater. These statistical methods provide a better understanding of the aquifer hydrochemistry, and put in evidence a hydrochemical classification of wells, showing that the area with higher salinity is located close to the coast, in the first two kilometers, where the salinity gradually increases as one approaches the seaside and suggests the groundwater salinization by seawater intrusion.

  3. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for characterization of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Nador, Tipaza (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, Abdelkader; Remini, Boualem; Saaed Hamoudi, Abdelamir; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The study focuses on the characterization of the groundwater salinity on the Nador coastal aquifer (Algeria). The groundwater quality has undergone serious deterioration due to overexploitation. Groundwater samplings were carried out in high and low waters in 2013, in order to study the evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry from the recharge to the coastal area. Different kinds of statistical analysis were made in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer and to discriminate between different groups of groundwater. These statistical methods provide a better understanding of the aquifer hydrochemistry, and put in evidence a hydrochemical classification of wells, showing that the area with higher salinity is located close to the coast, in the first two kilometers, where the salinity gradually increases as one approaches the seaside and suggests the groundwater salinization by seawater intrusion.

  4. Hydrogeological characterization and assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of Najafgarh drain of NCT Delhi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shashank Shekhar; Aditya Sarkar

    2013-02-01

    Najafgarh drain is the biggest drain in Delhi and contributes about 60% of the total wastewater that gets discharged from Delhi into river Yamuna. The drain traverses a length of 51 km before joining river Yamuna, and is unlined for about 31 km along its initial stretch. In recent times, efforts have been made for limited withdrawal of groundwater from shallow aquifers in close vicinity of Najafgarh drain coupled with artificial recharge of groundwater. In this perspective, assessment of groundwater quality in shallow aquifers in vicinity of the Najafgarh drain of Delhi and hydrogeological characterization of adjacent areas were done. The groundwater quality was examined in perspective of Indian as well as World Health Organization’s drinking water standards. The spatial variation in groundwater quality was studied. The linkages between trace element occurrence and hydrochemical facies variation were also established. The shallow groundwater along Najafgarh drain is contaminated in stretches and the area is not suitable for large-scale groundwater development for drinking water purposes.

  5. Hydrochemical characterization and quality appraisal of groundwater from Pungar sub basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasamoorthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pungar sub basin is located in the central part of South India. The geology is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. Increased population and intensive agricultural activity make it imperative to assess the quality of the groundwater system to ensure long-term sustainability of the resources. A total of 87 groundwater samples were collected from bore wells for two different seasons, viz., Pre monsoon and Post monsoon and analyzed for major cations and anions. Semi-arid climate, high evaporation rate and nutrient enrichment are the key features for EC enrichment. HigherNO3- and Cl− were observed in groundwater samples. The sources of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are from silicate weathering process. The facies demarcation suggests base exchanged hardened water. Gibbs plot suggests chemical weathering of rock forming minerals along with evaporation. The plot of (Ca2+ + Mg2+ versus (SO42-+HCO3- suggests both ion exchange and reverse exchange processes. The plot of (Na++K+ versus TZ+ shows higher cations via silicate weathering, alkaline/saline soils and residence time. The disequilibrium index for carbonate minerals point out influence of evaporation and silicate minerals favor incongruent dissolution. Mineral stability diagrams signify groundwater equilibrium with Kaolinite, Muscovite and Chlorite minerals. Comparison of groundwater quality with drinking standards and irrigation suitability standards proves that majority of water samples are suitable for drinking purpose. In general, water chemistry is guided by complex weathering process, ion exchange and influence of agricultural and sewage impact.

  6. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  7. Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Jackson, Barry T.; Miller, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Arkansas is the fourth largest user of groundwater in the United States, where groundwater accounts for two-thirds of the total water use. Groundwater use in the State increased by 510 percent between 1965 and 2005 (Holland, 2007). The Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network is a Web map interface (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/wqx) that provides rapid access to the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) databases of ambient water information. The interface enables users to perform simple graphical analysis and download selected water-quality data.

  8. The Dammam aquifer in Bahrain - Hydrochemical characterization and alternatives for management of groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubari, Waleed K.

    Over-ion of the Dammam aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, by the agricultural and domestic sectors, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies. A hydrochemical study identified the locations of the sources of aquifer salinization and delineated their areas of influence. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. Four types of salinization of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. Four alternatives for the management of groundwater quality that are available to the water authorities in Bahrain are discussed and their priority areas are proposed, based on the type and extent of each salinization source, in addition to groundwater use in that area. The effectiveness of the proposed management options in controlling the degradation of water quality in the Dammam aquifer should be evaluated using simulation modeling. Résumé La surexploitation de l'aquifère de Damman, principal aquifère de Bahreïn, du fait des besoins agricoles et domestiques, a conduit à sa salinisation à partir d'eaux voisines saumâtres et salées. Une étude hydrochimique a identifié les origines de la salinisation de l'aquifère et a délimité leurs zones d'influence. Les recherches montrent que la qualité de l'eau souterraine est modifiée de façon significative pour les écoulements souterrains dirigés vers les secteurs sud et sud-est et provenant de la région nord-ouest de Bahreïn, là où l'aquifère est alimenté latéralement à partir de l'Arabie Saoudite

  9. Trends in groundwater quality in relation to groundwater age

    OpenAIRE

    de Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is a valuable natural resource and as such should be protected from chemical pollution. Because of the long travel times of pollutants through groundwater bodies, early detection of groundwater quality deterioration is necessary to efficiently protect groundwater bodies. The aim of this work was to develop and improve tools to detect trends in groundwater quality considering the reactive transport of pollutants from the ground surface to the monitoring screen. The study area of th...

  10. Groundwater quality appraisal and its hydrochemical characterization in Ghaziabad (a region of indo-gangetic plain), Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uday Veer; Abhishek, Amar; Singh, Kunwar P.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, Netra Pal

    2014-06-01

    India's growing population enhances great pressure on groundwater resources. The Ghaziabad region is located in the northern Indo-Gangetic alluvium plain of India. Increased population and industrial activities make it imperative to appraise the quality of groundwater system to ensure long-term sustainability of resources. A total number of 250 groundwater samples were collected in two different seasons, viz., pre-monsoon and post monsoon and analyzed for major physico-chemical parameters. Broad range and great standard deviation occurs for most parameters, indicating chemical composition of groundwater affected by process, including water-rock interaction and anthropogenic effect. Iron was found as predominant heavy metal in groundwater samples followed by copper and lead. An exceptional high concentration of Chromium was found in some locations. Industrial activities as chrome plating and wood preservative are the key source to metal pollution in Ghaziabad region. On the basis of classification the area water shows normal sulfate, chloride and bi-carbonate type, respectively. Base-exchange indices classified 76 % of the groundwater sources was the sodium-bicarbonate type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 80 % of groundwater sources belong to a shallow meteoric water percolation type. Chadha's diagram suggested that the hydro-chemical faces belong to the HCO3 - dominant Ca2+-Mg2+ type along with Cl--dominant Ca2+-Mg2+-type. There was no significant change in pollution parameters in the selected seasons. Comparison of groundwater quality with Indian standards proves that majority of water samples are suitable for irrigation purposes but not for drinking.

  11. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  12. Geohydrology, ground-water quality, and simulated ground-water flow, Geauga County, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data collected in 1978, 1980, 1985, and 1986 were used to assess spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, determine regional groundwater flow patterns, and predict regional changes in groundwater levels that might result from forecasted increases in groundwater development. Variations in groundwater quality and groundwater flow patterns in Geauga County were characterized on the basis of water quality samples and water level measurements from wells completed in the glacial deposits, Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group, Berea Sandstone, and two oil-producing and gas-producing horizons. No significant changes in major and minor ion concentration were detected in the groundwater from 1978-86, except at isolated locations where water from several wells had elevated concentrations of sodium, calcium, bromide, and (or) chloride due to contamination by road salts and (or) oilfield and gas-model was used to simulate groundwater level declines that would result from increased domestic pumpage in the surficial aquifers. The estimates of groundwater level declines are based on forecasted population increases of 12, 17, and 21% during the periods 1985-2000, and 1985-2005, respectively. The simulations indicate the only areas of notable groundwater level decline would be in Chester Township. A maximum of 8 ft of decline is estimated

  13. The use of environmental isotopic (C, Sr, S) and hydrochemical tracers to characterize anthropogenic effects on karst groundwater quality: A case study of the Shuicheng Basin, SW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Groundwater is mostly Ca-HCO3 type in the Shuicheng Basin, Southwest China. → Groundwater quality was seriously affected by anthropogenic activities. → Cl- and Na+ were derived mostly from domestic sewage containing table salt. → High NO3- concentrations could be a result of domestic sewage and nitrogen fertilizers. → SO42- ion was derived mostly from domestic wastewater, rainwater, and sulfide oxidation. - Abstract: Rapidly increasing populations, and associated intensification of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization, place increased demands on water resources and increased likelihood of pollution in many areas of the world. The Shuicheng Basin, southwestern China, is one such area and in order to understand water-rock interactions (carbonate dissolution) and anthropogenic impacts on groundwater quality in this karstic landform-dominated area, chemical as well as C, Sr and S isotopic compositions of groundwater (spring and well) and surface water (river) were measured during and following rainy seasons. The concentrations of various ions in groundwater were characterized by the dominant cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (HCO3-, SO42-), which account for more than 80% of the total ion concentration. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr, 0.70760-0.70918, mean 0.70831) and δ13CDIC (-14.2 per mille to -8.4 per mille, mean -10.7 per mille) indicate that the weathering dissolution of limestone controls Ca2+ and HCO3-. The decrease in δ13CDIC values with increasing concentrations of anthropogenic species (Cl-, NO3- and Na+) shows that the C isotopic composition of DIC can be a useful tracer of contaminants. Chemical compositions, hydrogeological conditions and δ34S analyses showed increasing SO42- concentration, resulting from domestic wastewater, fertilizer applications, atmospheric inputs through coal combustion, and oxidation of sulfide minerals, which typically are abundant in coal formations in the basin. Groundwater from

  14. A groundwater quality index map for Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Schulz, Oliver; Wanke, Heike; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater quality and contamination is a huge concern for the population of Namibia, especially for those living in remote areas. There, most farmers use their own wells to supply themselves and their animals with drinking water. In many cases, except for a few studies that were done in some areas, the only groundwater quality measurements that took place were taken at the time the well was drilled. These data were collected and are available through the national GROWAS-Database. Information on measurements determining the amount of contaminants such as fluoride, TDS, other major ions and nitrate for several thousand wells are provided there. The aim of this study was I) to check the database for its reliability by comparing it to results from different studies and statistical analysis, II) to analyze the database on groundwater quality using different methods (statistical-, pattern- and correlation analysis) and III) to embed our own field work that took place within a selected Namibian region into that analysis. In order to get a better understanding of the groundwater problems in different areas of Namibia, a groundwater quality index map based on GROWAS was created using GIS processing techniques. This map uses several indicators for groundwater quality in relation to selected guidelines and combines them into an index, thus enabling the assessment of groundwater quality with regard to more than one pollutant. The goal of the groundwater quality map is to help identify where the overall groundwater quality is problematic and to communicate these problems. Additionally, suggestions for an enhancement of the database and for new field surveys will be given. The field work was focusing on three farms within an area known for its problematic nitrate concentration in groundwater. There, 23 wells were probed. In order to identify the sources of the contamination, isotopic measurements were executed for three of these wells with high nitrate concentrations

  15. Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe3+, REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  17. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  18. Irrigation Water Quality Evaluation of Aldelam Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Alsheikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Good quality water helps to maintain agricultural productivity and sustain soil fertility. Agricultural activities in Saudi Arabia depend on surface water and groundwater as the main sources for irrigation. Groundwater is the main source used for irrigation purposes in this area. This study was done to evaluate the status of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigated agriculture. To achieve this objective, water samples from fourteen wells were collected from different areas of Aldelam in May and July of 2011. The water quality of these wells in the study area was estimated from different water quality parameters such as chloride, bicarbonate, sodium, calcium, total dissolved solids (TDS, EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, and percentage of sodium. The results showed that the overall concentration of all the ions was very high, but the sodium hazard in the well water was moderate. About 78 percent of the wells had suitable water quality for boron, and they had a concentration below the permissible limit for crop irrigation. TDS in the groundwater ranged between 1114.88 to 2897.71 ppm during the investigation period. High EC and low SAR in all the wells showed that the water from these wells could be used for irrigation purposes with special management.

  19. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Sunndalsøra groundwater works: Water quality assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Vestland, Mari

    2010-01-01

    factors controlling groundwater quality is of great importance in the context of exploiting and supplying groundwater of good quality for public use. Groundwater quality is conditioned by aspects of geological and hydrological character, as well as involving physical, chemical and biological processes. Groundwater quality also depends on factors controlled by well performances and characteristics, as well as the operational routines at the waterworks in question. This research combines discip...

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality by Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Kella, Sotiria; Lokkas, Filotheos; Dinouli, Dimitra; Papakonstantinou, Argiris; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Plageras, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric methods were used to analyze large data sets of groundwater quality from 18 wells supplying the central drinking water system of Larissa city (Greece) during the period 2001 to 2007 (8.064 observations) to determine temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality and to identify pollution sources. Cluster analysis grouped each year into three temporal periods (January-April (first), May-August (second) and September-December (third). Furthermore, spatial cluster analysis was conducted for each period and for all samples, and grouped the 28 monitoring Units HJI (HJI=represent the observations of the monitoring site H, the J-year and the period I) into three groups (A, B and C). Discriminant Analysis used only 16 from the 24 parameters to correctly assign 97.3% of the cases. In addition, Factor Analysis identified 7, 9 and 8 latent factors for groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:27329059

  2. Groundwater Dynamics and Quality Assessment in an Agricultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano L. Russo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The analysis of the relationships among the different hydrogeological Units and the assessment of groundwater quality are fundamental to adopt suitable territorial planning measures aimed to reduce the potential groundwater pollution especially in agricultural regions. In this study, the characteristics of groundwater dynamics and the assessment of its quality in the Cuneo Plain (NW Italy were examined. Approach: In order to define the geological setting an intense bibliographic analysis has been performed by the authors. This analysis was implemented by several correlated land controls and specific surveys that have permitted to analyze to certain reliability the Quaternary evolution of the entire plain sector and the current relationships among the different geological bodies that strongly affect the groundwater dynamics. Results: The Quaternary alluvial deposits overlap a Tertiary sedimentary succession through a series of erosional unconformity surfaces. These Quaternary deposits highlight a variable thickness ranging from 80-100 m in the foothills of the mountains up to a few meters in the more distal portion of the plain. In these deposits there are several unconfined aquifers which are not hydraulically interconnected due to the deep fluvial incisions that reach the underlying tertiary substrate. The Cuneo plain is intensively populated and lot of villages and farms characterize the landscape. In the overall area it is present an intensive agricultural and livestock activity predominantly represented by crops of wheat and corn and farms of cattle and pigs. All these activities represent point and diffuse groundwater pollution sources and require a considerable amount of groundwater which is withdrawn from the Quaternary aquifers by means of thousands of water wells. The groundwater quality is strongly influenced by the content of nitrates and manganese. The nitrates are linked to pollution due to agricultural activities

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Geographical Information System and Groundwater Quality Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid part of the world. Accordingly, the management of the water resources in the country is a priority. In this regard, determining the quality and pollution of surface water and groundwater is very important, especially in areas where groundwater resources are used for drinking. Groundwater quality index (GQI checks the components of the available water with various quality levels. To assess the quality of drinking groundwater of Yazd-Ardakan plain according to GQI in geographical information system (GIS environment, the electrical conductivity, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, pH, sodium adsorption ratio, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, water hardness, and all substances dissolved in the waters of 80 wells were determined. The samples were obtained from Yazd Regional Water Organization from 2005 to 2014. Using this data, the map components were plotted by Kriging geostatistical method. Then, the map of GQI was prepared after normalizing each map component, switching to a rating map, and extracting the weight of each component from the rating map. Based on the GQI index map, the index point which was 87 in 2005 has increased to 81 in 2014. These maps show a decline in groundwater quality from west to the east region. This decline in groundwater quality is due to the existence of Neogene Organizations in the east and geomorphologic unit of the bare epandage pediment in the west. The map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analysis showed that GQI index in Yazd-Ardakan plain is more sensitive to the components of electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, and total hardness (TH. Therefore, these components should be monitored more carefully and repeatedly.

  4. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot. The...

  5. Characterization of natural groundwater colloids at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of groundwater colloids (size range from 2 nm to 500 nm) in the Palmottu natural analogue (for radioactive waste disposal in Finland) area was continued by sampling another drill hole, 346, at three depths. Results evaluated so far indicate the presence of both organic and inorganic colloids. In terms of chemical composition and morphology, the inorganic colloids differ from those found in previous studies. According to SEM/EDS and STEM/EDS they mostly contain Ca and are spherical in shape. At this stage further characterization and evaluation of results is provisional and does not allow very accurate conclusions to be drawn

  6. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  7. Urbanization effect on groundwater quality (Paleohydrogeological study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Raghid; Merkel, Broder; Tichomirowa, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem growing in caves usually contain hydrological information. Carbonates precipitation growing in tunnels under cities contain information about anthropological influence on water system. Carbonate samples were taken from Roman tunnels in rural and urban area in Nablus district- Palestine. These laminated samples were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), 13C and 18O. For REE, five samples were examined, each lamination was extracted and diluted with 0.1 ml 65% HNO3 and measured using ICP-MS. Yet, limited number of lamination was used for isotope analysis using Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Total concentration of rare earth elements were calculated for each of the five samples. In all examined samples, the newer laminations show higher peaks than the older one of each sample. On the other hand, one sample (8 measurements) of 13C show values between -31.6° and -36°. These values mean that the carbonate is from organic origin. In an urban area, wastewater infiltration into groundwater system can be the source of organic matter. 18O measurements show continues enrichments within the growth of the carbonate. This increase of the 18O values reflects drier weather. Our results can be explained by the increase of water consumption in the household in the recent 100 years, rather than the increase of using detergents and cleaning products which have influenced groundwater quality as appeared in the carbonate samples. On the other hand, 18O results could be linked with the expansion of the building up area in the city and subsequently reduction of groundwater recharge

  8. Groundwater Dynamics and Quality Assessment in an Agricultural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano L. Russo; Adriano Fiorucci; Bartolomeo Vigna

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The analysis of the relationships among the different hydrogeological Units and the assessment of groundwater quality are fundamental to adopt suitable territorial planning measures aimed to reduce the potential groundwater pollution especially in agricultural regions. In this study, the characteristics of groundwater dynamics and the assessment of its quality in the Cuneo Plain (NW Italy) were examined. Approach: In order to define the geological setting an intense bibliog...

  9. Groundwater Quality Assessment Based on Improved Water Quality Index in Pengyang County, Ningxia, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the groundwater quality in Pengyang County based on an improved water quality index. An information entropy method was introduced to assign weight to each parameter. For calculating WQI and assess the groundwater quality, total 74 groundwater samples were collected and all these samples subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. Each of the groundwater samples was analyzed for 26 parameters and for computing WQI 14 parameters were chosen including c...

  10. Isotopic and hydrochemical study of the effect of tannery effluents on groundwater quality in Kasur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic and conventional techniques were employed to study groundwater recharge mechanism, and the effect of tannery effluents on the quality of groundwater in Kasur area. Water samples were collected from hand pumps, deep wells and pond water. The physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field and stable isotopes of H/sup 2/ and O/sup 18/ were analysed by using GD-150 gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Depleted isotopic contents of delta H/sup 2/ and delta O/sup 18/ characterize canal recharge, enriched isotopic values are associated with rain recharge and intermediate values show the mixing of water from different sources. The shallow groundwater has depleted isotopic values and is being recharged by the canal. However, isotopic signature of shallow groundwater in the surroundings of the pond has been modified by the seepage of the pond water. The deuterium excess values are low showing the effect of evaporated pond water and these values increase as the distance from the pond increases. Electrical conductivity values and chloride contents decrease along the depth. The deep groundwater that can be termed as the native groundwater is being recharged by rains at piedmont area/bedrock outcrops. Results indicate that the quality of shallow groundwater has been deteriorated in the vicinity of stagnant pond water but quality of deep groundwater is good. Chromium is absent in groundwater, its penetration is limited up to a maximum depth of 10 meters. (author)

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment in hard rock terrain of Rasipuram Taluk, Namakkal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is of most important to rural development in many countries of the world. Over exploitation of groundwater has become a major challenge not only to the present civilization and also for the future generations. The main focus of this study is to assess the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in vicinity of Rasipuram block in Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from 15 locations were collected from different wells during January 2015 and analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The usefulness of these parameters in predicting groundwater quality characteristics were discussed. The quality of groundwater in the study area is fresh to brackish water, moderately hard to very hard in nature. The piper plot shows that the most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of Na+ -Cland mixed Ca++ -Na+ -Cltype. Water quality index rating was carried out to quantify overall groundwater quality status of the area. The WQI for these samples ranges from 37.34 to 650. Hence majority of the water samples are poor to very poor in water quality. The area in general is characterized by hard water, hence is not suitable for drinking purpose. The samples plotted in the piper and USSL diagram were used to understand the chemical characteristic of groundwater for irrigation purposes. However, the values of SAR, Na% and RSC indicate that groundwater is suitable for irrigation purposes. Overall water quality of the study area was found satisfactory for drinking purpose except in few locations and suitable for irrigation purpose. Hence the local government needs to initiate remedial measures.

  12. Groundwater quality and hydrogeological characteristics of Malacca state in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi Sharif Moniruzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and aquifer productivity of Malacca catchment in Peninsular Malaysia are presented in this article. Pumping test data were collected from 210 shallow and 17 deep boreholes to get well inventory information. Data analysis confirmed that the aquifers consisting of schist, sand, limestone and volcanic rocks were the most productive aquifers for groundwater in Malacca state. GIS-based aquifer productivity map was generated based on bedrock and discharge capacity of the aquifers. Aquifer productivity map is classified into three classes, namely high, moderate and low based on discharge capacity. Groundwater potential of the study area is 35, 57 and 8% of low, moderate and high class respectively. Fifty two shallow and 14 deep aquifer groundwater samples were analyzed for water quality. In some cases, groundwater quality analysis indicated that the turbidity, total dissolved solids, iron, chloride and cadmium concentrations exceeded the limit of drinking water quality standards.

  13. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening

  14. ANN-Based Estimation of Groundwater Quality Using a Wireless Water Quality Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz Kılıçaslan; Gurkan Tuna; Gülsüm Gezer; Kayhan Gulez; Orhan Arkoc; Stelios M. Potirakis

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Considering its importance for humans, it must be periodically analyzed to ensure its quality. In this study, a wireless water quality network is deployed to collect water quality parameters periodically and an artificial neural network-based estimation method is proposed to estimate groundwater quality. Estimating groundwater quality enables the authorities to take immediate actions for ensuring water quality. Compared to traditional water quality analysis method...

  15. GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND CONTAMINATION INDEX MAPPING IN CHANGCHUN CITY, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng

    2004-01-01

    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  16. Empirical estimation of groundwater quality changes using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent groundwater availability studies estimate large-scale aquifer depletion rates and aquifer stress using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. To further evaluate available groundwater resources, assessing potability of groundwater is necessary. Statistical relationships are initially developed at individual well locations to discern our ability to predict groundwater geochemistry as a function of groundwater levels. Next, up-scaled multivariate relationships to estimate total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived subsurface storage anomalies, dominant land use, and other physical parameters are developed in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. A goodness of fit test was performed to evaluate model strength. Results demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability variations using remote sensing.

  17. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future. PMID:24221557

  18. Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as 'Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like' (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices) integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. - Highlights: → This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. → Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like approach is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. → None of the three TRIAD components could reliably predict the other one. - This study presents the first application of the TRIAD approach on groundwater system. None of the TRIAD components (chemistry, physico-chemistry and ecotoxicity) could reliably predict the other one.

  20. Monitoring of the effects of airborne pollutants on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne pollutant atmospheric pollution for groundwater are deposited across the entire contact surface between atmosphere and pedosphere. Water protection are as with regionally limited restrictions on use and prohibitions are completely ineffective. Subsurface groundwaters with thin, well permeable topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and acid neutralization endangered acutely concerning their quality. Essential quality changes are acidification as well as a harmful increase of aluminum and other metal concentrations and of many organic substances, partially in hygienically relevant concentrations. As reference values, the natural geogenic concentrations of groundwater must be used. A reduction of the emissions into the atmosphere is the only way of maintaining the groundwater as a reservoir for drinking water with natural high quality also on a long-term basis. (orig.)

  1. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New information is presented on impacts on groundwater by manure storage in deep ground pits. - Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and δ15N and δ18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal

  2. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  3. Geographical Information System Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Ashraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present paper tries to assess groundwater suitability for irrigation purpose in Damghan plain (5400 ha. Approach: Twenty four water samples were collected from the active wells. Parameters such as Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, were recorded in the field and major anions and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed in the laboratory. The data of water wells were imported into the GIS software and the different water quality maps were produced using point data. Then Suitability index of groundwater quality determined by overlaying of water quality maps. Results: Suitability index values revealed that the ground water in Amin Abad, Abdi, Abd Abad, Nasr Abad and parts of Shams Abad villages of study area had "Suitable" quality with the suitability index range between 75-100 and therefore can be used for irrigation usage. Suitability index of the groundwater in Hasnie, Gani Abad and parts of Shams Abad villages were "Moderate" quality with the range between 35-70 and Abas Abad, Abir Abad and Shaman villages had "unsuitable" quality and cannot be used for irrigation purposes. In respect of all evaluating criteria, villages of study areas that had "Suitable" and Moderate quality could safely be used for longterm irrigation purposes. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated high efficiency for GIS to analyze complex spatial data and groundwater quality suitability.

  4. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  5. Groundwater Site Characterization: A Systems Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater remedial actions are highly complex projects. During the past 10 years, many remedial actions have begun, but very few have been successfully completed. This paper describes the complexity of groundwater remediation and offers an alternative management approach involving systems movement successfully utilized at a site in the…

  6. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year

  7. Physicochemical and chemical quality of mailsi city groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality of groundwater samples in Mailsi city of district Vehari was assessed using physico-chemical and chemical parameters. Twenty seven (27) groundwater samples were collected for physico-chemical and major ion analysis. Absence of carbonate ions (CO/sub 3/-2) in all groundwater samples indicates presence of limestone dissolution giving rise to bicarbonate. Piper diagram reveals dominance with Ca-Mg-type of water in the studied area. pH of all samples were within WHO guidelines. The mean value of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) for Mailsi groundwater is 755.1 mg/L having a range of 272 to 1667mg/L. The TDS for majority of samples lies above the guideline values as defined by the WHO. Twenty two (22) percent samples exhibit high nitrate levels; consumption of water samples with high nitrate content may produce harmful effects in children. (author)

  8. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  9. Hydrogeochemistry and quality of surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of Lake Monoun, West Cameroon: approach from multivariate statistical analysis and stable isotopic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtchueng, Brice T; Fantong, Wilson Y; Wirmvem, Mengnjo J; Tiodjio, Rosine E; Takounjou, Alain F; Ndam Ngoupayou, Jules R; Kusakabe, Minoru; Zhang, Jing; Ohba, Takeshi; Tanyileke, Gregory; Hell, Joseph V; Ueda, Akira

    2016-09-01

    With the use of conventional hydrogeochemical techniques, multivariate statistical analysis, and stable isotope approaches, this paper investigates for the first time surface water and groundwater from the surrounding areas of Lake Monoun (LM), West Cameroon. The results reveal that waters are generally slightly acidic to neutral. The relative abundance of major dissolved species are Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+) > K(+) for cations and HCO3 (-) ≫ NO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) for anions. The main water type is Ca-Mg-HCO3. Observed salinity is related to water-rock interaction, ion exchange process, and anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and chloride have been identified as the most common pollutants. These pollutants are attributed to the chlorination of wells and leaching from pit latrines and refuse dumps. The stable isotopic compositions in the investigated water sources suggest evidence of evaporation before recharge. Four major groups of waters were identified by salinity and NO3 concentrations using the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Consistent with the isotopic results, group 1 represents fresh unpolluted water occurring near the recharge zone in the general flow regime; groups 2 and 3 are mixed water whose composition is controlled by both weathering of rock-forming minerals and anthropogenic activities; group 4 represents water under high vulnerability of anthropogenic pollution. Moreover, the isotopic results and the HCA showed that the CO2-rich bottom water of LM belongs to an isolated hydrological system within the Foumbot plain. Except for some springs, groundwater water in the area is inappropriate for drinking and domestic purposes but good to excellent for irrigation. PMID:27535404

  10. Isotopic characterization of groundwater-seawater interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of groundwater-seawater interactions (GSI) in coastal zones are important for better understanding of coastal processes, input of groundwater to the sea via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), saltwater intrusion in groundwater reservoirs and coastal land, contamination of groundwater and coastal seawater by land based sources, and generally for proper management of fresh water resources in the region. Investigations of GSI using stable isotopes (2H, 13C, 15N, 18O, 87/86Sr etc.) as well as radioactive isotopes (3H, 14C, Ra, radon etc.) have been recently carried out in several coastal regions. Stable and radioactive isotopes together with salinity and seepage measurements can thus provide a complex approach in GSI investigations, enabling separate estimation of fresh water as well as saline re-circulated groundwater fluxes to the sea. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for the Characterisation of SGD in Coastal Zones' coordinated jointly by the IAEA's Isotope Hydrology Section (Vienna) and Marine Environment Laboratory (Monaco), has recently been completed. The CRP was carried out in cooperation with UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), and with several laboratories in Brazil, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, Slovenia, Turkey and USA. The aim of the CRP was to develop new isotope techniques for studying SGD and GSI. In the framework of the CRP several expeditions were carried out to Sicily, south-eastern Brazil and Mauritius. We present here a complex approach in characterisation of GSI as obtained by different techniques based on stable and radioactive isotopes and non-radioactive tracers. (author)

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olumide Benedict Taiwo; Samuel Tolulope Obadofin; Joseph Owolabi Ajayi

    2015-01-01

    Twenty water samples were obtained in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria in order to determine the groundwater quality in the area. Thirteen samples were obtained from hand-dug wells, two samples were obtained from a spring while the remaining five samples were collected from boreholes. These samples were subjected to both physical and chemical analyses with a view to comparing the results obtained with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standard for quality drinking water. The results of ...

  12. Distribution of Redox-Sensitive Groundwater Quality Parameters Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rügge, Kirsten; Pedersen, Jørn K.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    The leachate plume stretching 300 m downgradient from the Grindsted Landfill (Denmark) has been characterized in terms of redox-sensitive groundwater quality parameters along two longitudinal transects (285 samples). Variations in the levels of methane, sulfide, iron(ll), manganese(ll), ammonium......, dinitrogen oxide, nitrite, nitrate, and oxygen in the groundwater samples indicate that methane production, sulfate reduction, iron reduction, manganese reduction, and nitrate reduction take place in the plume. Adjacent to the landfill, methanogenic and sulfatereducing zones were identified, while aerobic...... attenuation processes in the plume....

  13. Spatial and temporal small-scale variation in groundwater quality of a shallow sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    The groundwater quality of a shallow unconfined sandy aquifer has been characterized for pH, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in terms of vertical and horizontal variations (350 groundwater samples). The test area is located within a farmland lot. The...... geology of the area described on the basis of 31 sediment cores appears relatively homogeneous. Large vertical and horizontal variations were observed. The vertical variations are strongly affected by the deviating composition of the agricultural infiltration water. The horizontal variations show very...

  14. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  15. Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management. In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial optimisation (CO), and multiple objective programming for multipurpose management. Studies reported in the literature on the application of these methods are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Elaboration of groundwater quality maps using Kriging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different geostatistical approaches for the elaboration of groundwater quality maps are presented. Firstly, the main theoretical aspects concerning to the two estimation methods used, ordinary kriging and indicator kriging, are described. They share a common theoretical basis but focus their estimations in different terms. The former gives the most probable value of a groundwater quality parameter in the aquifer, e. g. nitrate contents, so that is applied to map it spatial distribution. Whereas the latter estimates is applied to estimate the spatial probability distribution function of surpassing a given threshold or alert value for the experimental parameter. A case study regarding the Vega of Granada aquifer is also presented. The comparative advantages offered by each of these methods are discussed, taking into account the random behaviour shown by the studied variable. It is concluded that maps created by both methods provide value information of great interest for decision-making with regards to water quality control. (Author) 10 refs

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  18. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... drainage ditch and a southerly leach to the secondary aquifer were taking place. To evaluate the proportion of leachate discharging to the drainage ditch, piezometers were installed in the shallow leachate-affected aquifer. On the basis of several soundings, the groundwater surface was mapped and the...

  19. ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN SUNAMGANJ OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Raihan, J. B. Alam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality in Sunamganj of Bangladesh was studied based on different indices for irrigation and drinking uses. Samples were investigated for sodium absorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, residual sodium carbonate, electrical conductance, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly's ratio, total hardness, permeability index, residual sodium bi-carbonate to investigate the ionic toxicity. From the analytical result, it was revealed that the values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that ground water of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there was neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, so that ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. Average Total Hardness of the samples in the study area was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. Average total hardness of the samples was in the range of between 215 mg/L at Tahirpur and 48250 mg/L at Bishamvarpur. At Bishamvarpur, the water was found very hard. It was shown based on GIS analysis that the groundwater quality in Zone-1 could be categorized of "excellent" class, supporting the high suitability for irrigation. In Zone-2 and Zone-3, the groundwater quality was categorized as "risky" and "poor" respectively. The study has also made clear that GIS-based methodology can be used effectively for ground water quality mapping even in small catchments.

  20. Characterizing the regional pattern and temporal change of groundwater levels by analyses of a well log data set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmuda PARVIN; Naoyuki TADAKUMA; Hisafumi ASAUE; Katsuaki KOIKE

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of the amount and quality of groundwater resources is an important issue around the world.Changes in groundwater levels need to be monitored in efforts to preserve groundwater.This study investigates suitable methods to characterize changes in the groundwater level and determine the factors involved.The area of Kumamoto,a city in central Kyushu,southwest Japan,was selected to demonstrate the usefulness of the methods because this area is one of the richest in Japan in terms of groundwater resources and takes all its water from groundwater.Data of the groundwater level recorded at 69 wells from 1979 to 2007 were used in geostatistical and correlogram analyses.First,strong correlation between the topography and groundwater level was identified.Incorporating this correlation into spatial modeling of the groundwater level,co-kriging was demonstrated to be more accurate than ordinary kriging.The co-kriging results clarified the hydraulic characteristics of the Kumamoto area; the patterns of shallow and deep groundwater levels were agreeable generally,and the general trends of their annual average levels were similar regardless of precipitation.Another important feature was that the correlograms for the precipitation amount and groundwater level had a constant shape and changed smoothly with a change in lag time regardless of the precipitation only in the area of Togawa lava.These characteristics are probably due to the connections between shallow and deep aquifers and the high permeability of Togawa lava.

  1. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated that...... the leaching from the landfill could be unevenly distributed. The main specific organic compounds observed in the leachate were aromatic hydrocarbons (mainly xylenes), phenols and the pesticide MCPP. Preliminary investigations of the leach from the landfill indicated, that both a northerly leach to a...

  2. Impact of a CO2 leakage on groundwater quality. Influence of regional flow using reactive transport models.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakymiw, Clement; DEVAU, Nicolas; Humez, Pauline; Barsotti, Vanessa; Lions, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage in deep and saline aquifers is one of the most hopeful technologies to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, CO2 leakages into shallow freshwater aquifers are a potential risk and potential impacts on groundwater have to be studied. A better understanding on how it could affect groundwater quality, aquifer minerals and trace elements is necessary to characterize a future storage site. Moreover, monitoring and remediation solutions have to be evaluated b...

  3. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Benmenni; K. Benrachedi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21...

  4. Impact of farm waste stores on groundwater quality. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Gooddy, D.C.; Hughes, A. G.; Armstrong, A. C.; Williams, A. T.; K. J. Griffiths; Nicholson, R. A.; Williams, J. W.; Jones, H.K.; Chilton, P J

    2000-01-01

    This report details the findings of a three year study into the impacts of farm waste stores on groundwater quality. This is a joint project between the British Geological Survey and ADAS and began in April 1997. Funding has been from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Environment, Fisheries and International Science Division, under contract number WA0517 as part of their ongoing research and development programme into farm wastes. Unlined earth-banked farm slurry...

  5. Characterization of shallow groundwater at TNX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located on 300 square miles along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, is owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The site''s mission is to support the national security through the production of nuclear weapons material. With the recent reduction of the nation''s nuclear stockpile and the stronger focus on the cleanup of sites where nuclear operations activities have left behind soil and groundwater contamination, identifying and remediating all inactive wastes has become a primary goal.The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the western portion of SRS (Figure 1). The area is a pilot-scale test facility for the Savannah River Technology Center. Pilot-scale testing and evaluation of chemical processes at TNX have included support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Separations Area, and fuel and target manufacturing areas. Wastewater generated during tests was discharged to unlined basins through a network of underground process sewers.A discussion of waste disposal activities for the TNX Area is included in this report to identify the major sources of contaminants that have impacted the groundwater

  6. Characterization of shallow groundwater at TNX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located on 300 square miles along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, is owned by the Department of Energy and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company. The site`s mission is to support the national security through the production of nuclear weapons material. With the recent reduction of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and the stronger focus on the cleanup of sites where nuclear operations activities have left behind soil and groundwater contamination, identifying and remediating all inactive wastes has become a primary goal.The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the western portion of SRS (Figure 1). The area is a pilot-scale test facility for the Savannah River Technology Center. Pilot-scale testing and evaluation of chemical processes at TNX have included support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), Separations Area, and fuel and target manufacturing areas. Wastewater generated during tests was discharged to unlined basins through a network of underground process sewers.A discussion of waste disposal activities for the TNX Area is included in this report to identify the major sources of contaminants that have impacted the groundwater.

  7. Groundwater monitoring and plume discharge zone characterization for the NRX radiostrontium plume at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfert, J.M.; Audet, M.; Killey, D., E-mail: olfertjm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Groundwater is the principal pathway for the migration of most radiological and non-radiological compounds from past and present operating areas at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The CRL Groundwater Monitoring Program (GWMP) was established to measure the groundwater quality around the perimeters of areas affected, or potentially affected, by groundwater plumes. One of these is the NRX Rod Bays plume, a legacy plume that originated from the fuel storage bays of the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor. This plume contains primarily {sup 90}Sr migrating along the groundwater flow system to the Ottawa River. A characterization study of the shoreline region was completed recently to map the plume discharge zone by collecting samples from mini-piezometers and groundwater seeps (springs) during a period of low river level. Analysis of discharging groundwaters determined that the {sup 90}Sr concentrations were very similar to those sampled from nearby (upgradient) GWMP monitoring wells. With this favorable correlation, the high density of seep and mini-piezometer sampling along the shoreline allowed refinements to be made in defining the northerly and southerly boundaries of the radiostrontium plume. The seep and mini-piezometer sampling also provided evidence that the monitoring wells sampled routinely within the CRL GWMP are positioned appropriately for providing representative sampling of the plume. Shoreline seep and mini-piezometer sampling can lead to refinements in the conceptual site model for plumes with limited effort and cost. The supplemental characterization work can also potentially identify other targets for routine groundwater monitoring. (author)

  8. Hydrogeochemical characterization of Bacolod City groundwater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is constantly being recycled and replenished by rainfall. However, because of the uneven distribution of rain and the heavy use of water in certain areas, some regions are experiencing undue water shortage. Changes in land use, population growth, and economic development in the Bacolod City region, can result in an increase in water demand and the generation of additional pollution sources. To delineate the ground water recharge area for Bacolod City and at the same time, assess the vulnerability of the aquifer to pollution, water samples were collected in an attempt to relate chemical variations in ground water to the underlying differences in geology, availability and mechanism of recharge, and to define the natural versus anthropogenic influences in the groundwater system. Measurements of field data such as pH, conductivity, temperature and alkalinity were made. Several geochemical processes are recognized in the chemistry of the Bacolod aquifer system. The most important processes are: water-bedrock interaction, dissolution of connate halites , and seawater intrusion. Simple mass balance modeling shows that the feasible source of active recharge aside from direct precipitation, is infiltration from the Loygoy river. Rivers and tributaries transport water originated as precipitation falling at higher elevations. The ground water in Bacolod City is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. Recharge becomes sodium dominated along its path, indicating a slow but active mechanism. The ground water near the coasts is brackish due to sea water infiltration. The possible presence of connate halites lying in the deep aquifers is also indicated. The information generated, when used in conjunction with isotopic techniques, will be important in the choice of sites for pumping stations and in the knowledge of the extent of potential pollution of ground water from streams/reservoirs. (author)

  9. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2014-09-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  10. Effects of geological structures on groundwater flow and quality in hardrock regions of northern Tirunelveli district, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; R Arumugam; D Gnanasundar; D S C Thambi; E Sampath Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Geological and structural influences on groundwater flow and quality were evaluated in the present study in the hardrock regions of Tirunelveli District, southern India. Groundwater is a major source of freshwater in this region to cater to the requirements of domestic and agricultural activity, as there are no surface water resources. Geologically, the area is characterized by charnockites and garnetiferous biotite gneiss. Groundwater in this region is found to occur in the weathered portion under unconfined condition and in fractured/fissured portions under unconfined to semi-confined condition. Existence of deep-seated fractures are minimal. Lineaments/dykes play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the region. Lineaments/dykes of the study area can be broadly divided into two types: north–south and west–east oriented structures. Analysis and field observations revealed that the north–south dykes act as a barrier of groundwater while the west–east oriented structures behave as a carrier of groundwater. Both quality and quantity of groundwater is different on the upstream and downstream sides of the dyke. Hence, it is conclusive that the west–east oriented dykes in this region are highly potential and act as a conduit for groundwater movement from recharge areas to the discharge area.

  11. Surface and groundwater quality assessment of Marikina river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study used the physico-chemical characteristics to determine the degree of pollution in different surface and groundwater sources in Marikina. The hydrogen ion concentration in all the stations for surface water was generally basic ranging from 7.24 to 7.44, while conductivity was observed to be highest in Royal Ville station that has a value of 253 μ/cm. Among the four stations in groundwater which obtained an acidic pH, Brgy. Singkamas deep-well has a neutral value. The conductivity was observed to be highest in Brgy. Conception which has a value of 1026 μ/cm. The major ions result showed that the three stations from Marikina River have conformed to the water quality criteria for fresh waters set by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, while results from different deep-well stations showed that among four stations, Brgy. Singkamas and Conception deep-well have exceeded the recommended value concentration for drinking water quality standards. The multi-element results were obtained from an Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Results showed that significant concentrations of metals like Al, Cd, Cr, Fe, and Pb in both surface and groundwater stations have exceeded the maximum concentrations set by both DENR and PNSDW. The significant differences in the concentrations of physico-chemical components facilitate detection of contamination from domestic and industrial wastes. (author)

  12. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  13. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  14. Decreasing groundwater quality at Cisadane riverbanks: groundwater-surface water approach

    CERN Document Server

    Irawan, Dasapta Erwin; Yeni, Defitri; Kuntoro, Arno Adi; Julian, Miga Magenika

    2016-01-01

    The decreasing of groundwater quality has been the major issue in Tangerang area. One of the key process is the interaction between groundwater and Cisadane river water, which flows over volcanic deposits of Bojongmanik Fm, Genteng Fm, Tuf Banten, and Alluvial Fan. The objective of this study is to unravel such interactions based on the potentiometric mapping in the riverbank. We had 60 stop sites along the riverbank for groundwater and river water level observations, and chemical measurements (TDS, EC, temp, and pH). Three river water gauge were also analyzed to see the fluctuations. We identified three types of hydrodynamic relationships with fairly low flow gradients: effluent flow at Segmen I (Kranggan - Batuceper) with 0.2-0.25 gradient, perched flow at Segmen II (Batuceper-Kalibaru) with gradient 0.2-0.25, and influent flow at Segmen III (Kalibaru-Tanjungburung) with gradient 0.15-0.20. Such low flow gradient is controlled by the moderate to low morphological slope in the area. The gaining and losing st...

  15. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  16. Methods of Statistical Control for Groundwater Quality Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Nevidimova, O.; Yankovich, K.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the results of conducted groundwater quality control. Controlled quality indicators included the following microelements - barium, manganese, iron, mercury, iodine, chromium, strontium, etc. Quality control charts - X-bar chart and R chart - were built. For the upper and the lower threshold limits, maximum permissible concentration of components in water and the lower limit of their biologically significant concentration, respectively, were selected. The charts analysis has shown that the levels of microelements content in water at the area of study are stable. Most elements in the underground water are contained in concentrations, significant for human organisms consuming the water. For example, such elements as Ba, Mn, Fe have concentrations that exceed maximum permissible levels for drinking water.

  17. Salinization process and coastal groundwater quality in Chaouia, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Saliha; Fadili, Ahmed; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi; Guessir, Hakima

    2016-03-01

    The coastal aquifer system of Chaouia is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco that is affected by salinization in the coastal fringe. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin of salinization by sampling and analyzing groundwater from 44 wells for major elements. This study was carried out in May 2011. The results indicate that, in the central and downstream parts, the dominant facies are Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-, while Ca2+ and HCO3- dominate in the upstream zones. Ion exchange processes, under seawater intrusion, control the concentration of ions such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. Moreover, groundwater is oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), and under-saturated with respect to evaporate minerals (gypsum, halite). The contribution of dissolved halite and gypsum in the groundwater mineralization is revealed by their positive correlation between (Na + Cl) and (Ca + SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the comparison of the hydrochemical results to drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization (2008) shows that more than a half of the water sampled is not suitable for drinking purposes, especially with respect to high levels of EC, TDS, Cl- and NO3-. In addition, high mineralization is found to be a consequence of seawater intrusion and anthropogenic activities.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period. PMID:26163496

  19. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  20. Status of groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel study unit, 2005--California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile San Fernando--San Gabriel (FG) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is in Los Angeles County and includes Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary basins situated within the Transverse Ranges of southern California. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA FG study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) throughout California. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2005 by the USGS from 35 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the FG study unit. The quality of groundwater in primary aquifers may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the FG study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.

  1. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  2. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jeihouni; Toomanian, A.; M. Shahabi; S. K. Alavipanah

    2014-01-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking pur...

  3. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for waste area grouping 7 and solid waste storage area 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the drilling and installation of the groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7 and at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 1, which is a part of WAG 1. Installation of GQM wells was required at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for regulatory compliance. Data obtained from these wells will be used to characterize and assess groundwater quality at the perimeter of each WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells in WAG 7 and SWSA 1 were drilled and developed during the period from June 1989 to March 1990

  4. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  5. Fast-track aquifer characterization and bioremediation of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short duration step-drawdown pumping test has been used to characterize a highly permeable aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons in support of an in situ, closed loop extraction and reinjection bioremediation system for groundwater. The short-term pumping test produces a manageable quantity of contaminated groundwater while yielding a range of values for transmissivity and specific yield parameters. This range of aquifer coefficients is used in an analytical model to estimate a range of groundwater extraction rates that provide a suitable radius of influence for the extraction and reinjection system. A multi-enzyme complex catalyzed bioremediation process has been used to aerobically degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. Enzymes, amino acids, and biosurfactants are supplied to the extracted groundwater to significantly speed up the degradation by naturally occurring bacteria. During the process, amino acids promote the rapid growth of the microbial population while enzymes and bacteria attach to hydrocarbons forming a transformation state complex that degrades to fatty acids, carbon dioxide, and water. This paper presents a case study of a fast-track bioremediation using pumping test data, analytical modeling, and an enzyme technology

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment in hard rock terrain of Rasipuram Taluk, Namakkal District

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ramesh,; P. Pavithra

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is of most important to rural development in many countries of the world. Over exploitation of groundwater has become a major challenge not only to the present civilization and also for the future generations. The main focus of this study is to assess the suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in vicinity of Rasipuram block in Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from 15 locations were collected from different wells during January 2015 and a...

  7. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  9. Analysis of Groundwater Quality of Aligarh City, (India: Using Water Quality Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja M. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for all living organisms for their existence and metabolic process. Unethical human intervention in natural system and over exploitation of groundwater resources induces degradation of its quality. In many instances groundwater is used directly for drinking as well as for other purposes, hence the evaluation of groundwater quality is extremely important. The present study is aimed to analyze the underground water quality at Aligarh. In this study 80 water samples were collected from 40 places and analyzed for 14 water quality parameters for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons (2012. The water quality index of these samples ranges from 18.92 to 74.67 pre-monsoon and 16.82 to 70.34 during post-monsoon. The study reveals that 50 % of the area under study falls in moderately polluted category. The ground water of Aligarh city needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from contamination.

  10. Regional monitoring of temporal changes in groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, Hans Peter; van der Grift, Bas

    2004-08-01

    Changes in agricultural practices are expected to affect groundwater quality by changing the loads of nutrients and salts in recharging groundwater, but regional monitoring networks installed to register the changes often fail to detect them and interpretation of trend analysis results is difficult. This study aims to improve the detection and understanding of groundwater quality changes with time, combining time series information, concentration-depth profiles, age dating and concentration-depth prognoses based on the historical inputs of solutes. For trend detection, a combination of trend analysis on time series at specific depths and time-averaged concentration-depth profiles was used. To reveal trends that have become obscured by chemical reactions, additional conditionally conservative indicators were introduced that are insensitive to those reactions under specific conditions. Detected trends were matched with prognoses of conservative and reactive transport to aid the understanding of trends. Data of the regional networks in 2 area-types with intensive livestock farming in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant were used to illustrate the approach. The downward movement of the agricultural pollution front was demonstrated for the 2 area-types. However, many targeted contaminants have become retarded or delayed and quality changes were hard to detect for many reactive solutes, including nitrate. Pollution fronts of these targeted chemical components are still limited to the first 15 m of the subsoil. At deeper level, about 20-25 m, the effects of agricultural pollution and acidification were indicated by chemical indicators that have not been considered by others: oxidation capacity, the sum of cations and chloride. Increasing trends of the conditionally conservative indicators 'oxidation capacity' and 'sum of cations' were found at a depth of 18-25 m below surface. Increasing trends for potassium were found at shallower depth (7-13 m), which is explained by

  11. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Benedict Taiwo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty water samples were obtained in Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria in order to determine the groundwater quality in the area. Thirteen samples were obtained from hand-dug wells, two samples were obtained from a spring while the remaining five samples were collected from boreholes. These samples were subjected to both physical and chemical analyses with a view to comparing the results obtained with the World Health Organization’s (WHO standard for quality drinking water. The results of the physical parameters measured shows that the colour ranges from 5°H to 50°H, turbidity ranges from 2NTU to 40NTU and the electrical conductivity ranges from 2.2×102 mho/cm to 1.4×103 mho/cm. Chemical analysis results on the other hand show that all the samples have pH within the weakly acidic range except for sample HDW 3 that falls within the weakly alkaline range. Furthermore, the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS range from 154 to 980 mg/L while the Total Hardness of the water samples range from 24 to 280 mg/L. Ionic studies show that the Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Mg2+ occur in order of decreasing abundance in the samples with the concentrations ranging from 10 to 160 mg/L, 20 to 90 mg/L, 10 to 90 mg/L and 14 to 150 mg/L, respectively. The anions present in the water samples in order of decreasing abundance are HCO3-, Cl-, SO2-4 and NO-3 with their concentrations ranging from 44 to 292 mg/L, 10 to 77 mg/L, 0.01 to 50 mg/L and 0.01 to 4.0 mg/L, respectively. It has been shown that anthropogenic inputs can continually ruin the suitability of the water for safe drinking purpose. Therefore, the ability to quickly control the anthropogenic inputs to the groundwater system in Akungba Akoko area will assist in keeping the quality of groundwater in Akungba Akoko to be maintained.

  12. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  13. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  14. Impact of point source pollution on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of point source pollution (municipal and industrial waste water) is an important item on Brown Agenda confronting urban planners and policy makers. The industrial concerns and households produce enormous amount of waste water, which has to be disposed of through the municipal sewage system. Generally, municipal wastewater management is done on non-scientific lines, resulting in considerable social and economic loss and gradual degradation of the natural resources. The present study highlights that how the poor management practices, lack of infrastructure, and poor disposal system-comprising of mostly open, un-walled or partially lined drains, affect the groundwater quality and render it unfit for human consumption. Satiana Road sludge carrier at Faisalabad city, receiving effluents of about 67 textile units, 4 oil mills, 2 ice factories, 3 laundris and domestic waste water of Peoples Colony No.1, Maqbool Road and Ghulam Rasool Nagar was selected to derive quantitative and qualitative estimates of TDS, Na, Cl and heavy metals namely Fe, Cu and Pb of the waste water and their leaching around the sludge carrier. The measurement of leaching of TDS, Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -1/ per 1000 m basis in lined section was 818, 550 and 228 tons, respectively. Where as in the unlined section, annual increase of TDS, Na/sup /+, and Cl/sup -/ was 2404,1615 and 669 tons per 1000 m respectively. In case of leaching of metals through the sludge carrier, Cu was at the top with 8.4 tons per annum per 1000 m followed by Fe and Pb with 6.66 and 1.2 tons per annum per 1000 m respectively. The concentration of all the salts/metals studied were higher in groundwater near the sludge carrier which decreased with increase in distance. The groundwater contamination in unlined portions is greater than lined portions, which might be due to higher seepage losses in unlined portions of the sludge carrier (4.9 % per 1000 m) as compared to relatively low seepage losses in lined portion of

  15. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  17. Protecting groundwater quality by managing local land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close relationship between land use and groundwater quality means that local government can play a significant role in protecting this resource. Higher levels of government are often unable to consider unique local characteristics in land use management because of their need to generalize across broad geographic areas. Local governments can attempt to fashion management decisions that reflect unique local characteristics. To be most effective, local protection programs generally should employ a mixture of regulatory and nonregulatory techniques. Nonregulatory approaches include public education and involvement, voluntary best management practices, land acquisition programs, facility siting procedures and capital facility and infrastructure planning, inspection and training programs, monitoring, emergency spill plans, community waste management and minimization programs and governmental coordination efforts

  18. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Rügge, Kirsten;

    1998-01-01

    The migration of leachate from an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) was investigated by intensive mapping of groundwater potentials and groundwater quality at the downstream borders of the landfill and beneath the landfill. A groundwater mound controlling the migration of the leachate i...

  19. Improvement of Groundwater Quality Using Constructed Wetland for Agricultural Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to evaluate the performance of Constructed Wetlands (CW for groundwater quality improvement. In the first phase of this study, performance of CW planted with cattails for Manganese (Mn and Iron (Fe reduction was evaluated at 12, 24 and 48 hours of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT. Average efficiencies of all tested CW systems were higher than 90 and 75% for Mn and Fe concentration reduction. Subsequently, the efficiency of CW operated at 12 hours of HRT was investigated at different plant harvest intervals. In the second phase of study, Mn and Fe removal efficiencies were 75-100 and 48-99%, respectively. Both Mn and Fe removal efficiencies for the CW system were not different between 4, 6 and 8 weeks of harvest intervals. However, the efficiency obviously increased after the first plant harvest. Average Mn and Fe removal rates of the CWs operated at the tested harvest intervals were 0.068 to 0.092 and 0.383 to 0.432 g/m2/d, respectively. Fe removal rate was not significantly different under the various test conditions. However the highest Mn removal rate was obtained in CWs operated with a harvest interval of 4 weeks. Mn accumulation rates in cattail shoots and roots were 0.04-8.25 and 0.83-23.14 mg/m2/d, respectively. Fe accumulation rates in those were 0.04-164.27 and 249.62-1,701.54 mg/m2/d, respectively. Obviously, cattail underground tissues accumulated both Mn and Fe at higher concentrations than those of the above ground tissue. These results show that CW can improve the quality of groundwater before agricultural irrigation.

  20. Impact of Earthquake Demolition Debris on the Quality of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Benmenni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Debris from construction or demolition/deconstruction processes have no significant impact on the environment as they are res-usable and inert. This has been also long admitted for solid waste generated by the demolition of damaged cities following violent earthquakes. Approach: This study is a contribution to the assessment of actual impact on the quality of groundwater of buried demolition debris from the city of Boumerdes, in the North of Algeria 5 years after the May 21st 2003 earthquake hit the region. The public discharge of Boumerdes city has been used as a temporary landfill. It is located about 5 km downtown of Boumerdes at the Tidjelabine site which is marly-calcareous formation. Leachate from the landfill was directly rejected in the receiving environment, where the soil is marly-calcareous type with cracks giving a variable permeability (10-2 m sec-1 to nearly 10-6 m sec-1 that facilitates infiltration of potential pollutants to the groundwater. The slope character (from 5-10% of the field contributes to pollutants movement and may accentuate water quality deterioration. Three domestic wells (designated S1, S2 and S3 were selected in the vicinity of the landfill and served as piezometers. Leachate samples were taken from the landfill and evaluated. Results: Leachate analysis indicated organic matter with relatively high COD (1136 mg L-1 O2 and BOD5 (200 mg L-1 O2; whereas the pH yielded 7.65 thus indicating fermentation phase of the landfill. Heavy metal contents were beyond national standard limits except for Pb with 0.51 mg L-1 which is slightly higher than limit value of 0.5 mg L-1. More than five years after the creation of this landfill and despite its predominant C&D nature, these results showed that it was following a typical urban wastes decomposition scheme. Same analysis carried on water samples drawn from the piezometers yielded following results: acidic pH (6.88, acceptable values of target heavy metals

  1. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers. PMID:26745299

  2. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  3. Effects of Oil Spillage on Groundwater Quality In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu A. N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of oil spillage on groundwater quality in the oil producing Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was carried out in Abacheke community in Egbema Local Government area, Imo state.Water Samples were collected forquality analysis in boreholes/wells at three locations A, B, C. Locations A and B are areas with history of spillage while C is a location downstream with no history of oil spillage. The following parameters were tested for; physical parameters (temperature and turbidity, inorganic constituents (Conductivity, PH, TDS, DO, BOD, Mg, and P and organic constituents (Total hydro-carbonThe results showed the some parameters exceeded the WHO permissible levels. Comparatively, Sample C had a lower value of hydrocarbon content (0.6 mg/l while Samples A and B values were 0.9mg/l and 1.1mg/l respectively.The Turbidityvalue for sample C was 5 NTU compared to values of 14 and 18 NTU from samples A and B respectively. Results of PH test also showed that samples A and B were more acidic (5.56 and 5.98 respectively than Sample C. The higher level of Turbidity and Total hydro-carbon for samples A and B isan indication of oil pollution which is attributable to incessant spillage. It is therefore necessary that appropriate treatment be carried out on the water samples to avoid adverse health effects.We also recommend that comprehensive groundwater monitoring should be carried out in the Niger Delta area and cleanup exercises carried outwhenever there is an oil spill to prevent infiltration of oil into the ground water.

  4. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Bafra Plain for Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cemek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, groundwater quality of irrigated part of the Bafra Plain Right Bank Area was investigated. Water samples were collected from ten wells used for irrigation in June, July, and analysed for August 2005, and EC, pH, Na, Ca, K, Mg, CO3, HCO3, Cl and SO4 contents. Based on the calculated Sodium Absorbtion Rate (SAR and Residual Sodium Carbonate Concentrations (RSC, one of the wells water quality was classified high in salinity and low in sodicity, one of them was very high in salinity and medium in sodicity, one of them was high in salinity and medium in sodicity, and five of them were very high in salinity and very high sodicity. Acidity (pH values of waters from the wells ranged between 6.6 and 7.9, and RSC of water samples collected from the wells 5 and 6 were greater than 2.5. Based on the results obtained from the study, water from these wells were not suitable for irrigation

  5. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  6. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  7. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  8. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  9. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  10. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Benes, V.; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J.

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneousl...

  11. A water agency faced with quantity-quality management of a groundwater resource

    OpenAIRE

    Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Tidball, Mabel; Zaccour, Georges

    2012-01-01

    We consider a problem of groundwater management in which a group of farmers over- exploits a groundwater stock and causes excessive pollution. A Water Agency wishes to regulate the farmer's activity, in order to reach a minimum quantity and quality level but it is subject to a budget constraint and cannot credibly commit to time-dependent optimal policies. We construct a Stackelberg game to determine a set of constant policies that brings the groundwater resource back to the desired state. We...

  12. Quality of bedrock groundwater in western Finland, with special reference to nitrogen compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Karro, E.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of bedrock aquifers utilized for water supply in the Vaasa region, western Finland, suggests slight changes in the chemical composition of groundwater resulting both from natural and anthropogenic factors. Applying the permissible limits for parameters in drinking water reveals that the groundwater quality is generally good. Groundwater occurring in fractures and fissures of the crystalline bedrock is protected from anthropogenic pollution by clay and till deposits with low permeab...

  13. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  14. Application of multi-isotope ratios to study the source and quality of urban groundwater in Metro Manila, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize water quality in terms of dissolved elements and to investigate both the origin of the water and the source and behavior of groundwater contaminants in Metro Manila, 33 water (groundwater and surface water) samples were analyzed for ion and element concentrations, H and O isotope ratios (δD-H2O and δ18O-H2O), SO42- isotope ratios (δ34S-SO42- and δ18O-SO42-), and Sr isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr). The chemical measurements showed that the primary important environmental concerns within Metro Manila are groundwater salinization for both shallow and deep aquifers, and As concentrations (up to 22.5 μg/L) in shallow groundwaters. Comparison of SO42- and Sr isotope values with possible source materials revealed that contamination by man-made materials such as fertilizers and detergents are present in some shallow groundwaters. Shallow groundwater having higher δD-H2O and δ18O-H2O values (av. -44 per mille ± 5.6 per mille and -6.8 per mille ± 0.6 per mille, respectively, n = 15) than deep groundwater (av. -48 per mille ± 4.4 per mille and -7.4 per mille ± 0.7 per mille, respectively, n = 7) suggests that the origins of H2O in both groundwaters are different from each other. Since the mixing of shallow and deep groundwater does not commonly occur under Metro Manila, the contaminants in the shallow aquifers are unlikely to be transported into the deep aquifers. Sulfate reduction by bacterial activity was observed for some groundwaters, resulting in a maximum elevation in δ34S-SO42- values of around 10 per mille. By using SO42- isotope ratios as an indicator of changes in redox conditions and Sr isotope ratio as a source indicator, it was shown that As was dissolved from unconsolidated sedimentary deposits of volcanic origin which enclose shallow unconfined aquifers, but was not the result of changes in redox conditions. The study demonstrated that multi-isotope ratios are useful for evaluating water quality problems in urban groundwaters.

  15. Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Krishna; Rammohan, V; Sahayam, J Dajkumar; Jeevanandam, M

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater quality assessment study was carried out around Manimuktha river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty six bore well samples were analyzed for geochemical variations and quality of groundwater. Four major hydrochemical facies (Ca-HCO(3), Na-Cl, Mixed CaNaHCO(3), and mixed CaMgCl) were identified using a Piper trilinear diagram. Comparison of geochemical results with World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and Indian Standard Institution drinking water standards shows that all groundwater samples except few are suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. The major groundwater pollutions are nitrate and phosphate ions due to sewage effluents and fertilizer applications. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influence such as agricultural, natural weathering process. PMID:19089596

  16. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  17. Hydrochemical Assessment of Surfacewater and Groundwater Quality at Bank Infiltration Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, M. K. N.; Suratman, S.; Ramli, M. F.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Sefie, A.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater and surface water quantity and quality are an important factor that contribute for drinking water demand and agriculture use. The water quality analysis was assessed using multivariate statistical analyses based on analytical quantitative data that include Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on 36 water quality parameters from the rivers, lakes, and groundwater sites at Jenderam Hilir, which were collected from 2013 to 2014 (56 observations). The DA identified six significant parameters (pH, NO2-, NO3-, F, Fe2+, and Mn2+) from 36 variables to distinguish between the river, lake, and groundwater groups (classification accuracy = 98%). The PCA had confirmed 10 possible causes of variation in the groundwater quality with an eigenvalue greater than 1, which explained 82.931% of the total variance in the water quality data set.

  18. Understanding Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Its Influence on California Coastal Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, A.; Paytan, Adina

    2009-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a mechanism for bringing nonpoint source pollution to the coast. This is particularly true in areas where urban or agricultural practices pollute groundwater. This project sought to understand some of the effects of SGD on coastal water quality at Stinson Beach in Marin County, a community in which residents’ wastewater is treated on-site via septic systems.

  19. Risk Communication of Groundwater Quality in Northern Malawi, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, R.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi lies in Africa's Great Rift Valley. Its western border is defined by Lake Malawi, the third largest lake in Africa. Over 80% of Malawians live in rural areas and 90% of the labor force is associated with agriculture. More than half of the population lives below the poverty line. Area characteristics indicate a high likelihood of nitrate and total coliform in community drinking water. Infants exposed to high nitrate are at risk of developing methemoglobinemia. In addition, diarrheal diseases from unsafe drinking water are one of the top causes of mortality in children under five. Without sufficient and sustainable supplies of clean water, these challenges will continue to threaten Malawi's ability to overcome the devastating impact of diarrheal diseases on its population. Therefore, Malawi remains highly dependent on outside assistance and influence to reduce or eliminate the threat posed by unsafe drinking water. This research presents a literature review of nitrate and total coliform groundwater quality and a proposed risk communication plan for drinking water in northern Malawi.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  1. Quality of bedrock groundwater in western Finland, with special reference to nitrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karro, E.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of bedrock aquifers utilized for water supply in the Vaasa region, western Finland, suggests slight changes in the chemical composition of groundwater resulting both from natural and anthropogenic factors. Applying the permissible limits for parameters in drinking water reveals that the groundwater quality is generally good. Groundwater occurring in fractures and fissures of the crystalline bedrock is protected from anthropogenic pollution by clay and till deposits with low permeability. Temporally, the contents of nitrogen compounds in groundwater exhibit a decreasing trend. Reducing conditions prevailing in bedrock aquifers are reflected in elevated ammonium, iron and manganese contents in water.

  2. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Tamma Rao; V V S Gurunadha Rao; K Ranganathan

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2+), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6+ and Fe2+, which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  5. A report on isotope hydrology of groundwater in Bangladesh: implications for characterization and mitigation of arsenic in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the source and dynamics of groundwater in Bangladesh has been conducted with environmental isotope tracers. The primary objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for developing mitigation strategies by characterizing the mechanism of arsenic mobilization in groundwater and the present and future status of arsenic contamination in deeper aquifers. About 55 shallow and deep groundwater samples ranging in depth from 10 to 335 m were collected and analyzed for their chemical and isotopic compositions. Distinct patterns of isotope compositions are found in shallow and deep groundwaters. Arsenic contamination is found to be present mostly in shallow groundwater to depths of less than 70 m. Groundwater samples from deep wells containing elevated arsenic concentrations are found to contain water mostly from shallow aquifers and do not indicate arsenic contamination of deeper aquifers. However, depth in itself is not a criterion that can be reliably or easily used to find arsenic-free, safe drinking water. Water with high arsenic concentrations sampled from 'deep' wells may not be representative of deep aquifers, and presently uncontaminated water from somewhat deeper wells (∼100 m) may not remain so over a long period of time. Increased exploitation of deep groundwater (∼300 m) such as in the Barisal area appears to be possible without fear of arsenic contamination from shallow aquifers. However, the potential for groundwater mining is clearly evident and the sustainability of this resource needs to be evaluated. The exponential increase in groundwater exploitation between 1979 and 1999 does not appear to have affected the overall hydrodynamics of shallow and deep aquifers and, by implication, the arsenic mobilization processes. Currently favored mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are found to be inconsistent with isotope data. The most likely process of arsenic mobilization may involve desorption from the sediments as a result of

  6. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain. PMID:27343131

  7. Spatial and temporal appraisal of groundwater depth and quality in LBDC command-issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's Irrigation system is more than a century old; the distribution system within any canal command is designed to distribute the canal water equitably ignoring rainfall patterns and underlying groundwater resources. Now, the groundwater contribution in meeting crop water requirement has even crossed the canal water supply in the existing scenario of increased cropping intensities. The underground reservoir that was recharged during first half of the second century by newly built irrigation system with low cropping intensities is now being overexploited due to increased cropping intensity. So, the current scenario has become now a major challenge in terms of its sustainability. In this context, groundwater elevation, depth and quality have been analyzed in space and time for Lower Bari Doab Canal (LBDC) command in Punjab, Pakistan. Tail end of the command is facing severe groundwater depletion rates, whereas, in certain parts, groundwater quality deterioration has also been detected and may pose a threat for sustainable irrigated agriculture. The paper describes the water quality and delineates the areas where saline water is present in the form of zones and depths. Also, possible rates and mechanisms of saline intrusion within the aquifer are described. Possible management alternatives for integration of canal and groundwater are discussed for providing relief to badly hit areas in terms of deeper depths and deteriorating groundwater quality. (author)

  8. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater quality (project summary report)

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, B L; Lawrence, A.R.; Stuart, M E

    1994-01-01

    Urban populations in developing counties are growing rapidly and are largely concentrated in the marginal-slum housing districts where access to sanitation and piped water supply is often limited.Many of these cities are dependent upon groundwater for a significant proportion of their water supply and even in areas where the piped water supply is largely derived from surface water , the use of groundwater can still be significant as piped coverage is often limited (

  9. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krishan; C.P. Kumar; Purandara, B. K.; Surjeet Singh; N.C. Ghosh; Suman Gurjar; A. G. Chachadi

    2016-01-01

    A water quality index (WQI) is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and m...

  10. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  12. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from 100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from 50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating. The presence of radiogenic helium-4 in several samples with measurable tritium provides evidence of mixing between pre-modern and younger groundwater. Groundwater age-depth relationships are complicated, consistent with transient flow patterns in shallow agricultural groundwaters affected by irrigation pumping and recharge. For the multi-level installations in the southern dairies, both depth profiles and re-sampling after significant changes in groundwater elevation emphasize the need to sample

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - } . The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  14. Isotopic and geochemical tools for characterizing surface water-groundwater relationships in la Bassée floodplain area (Seine River Basin, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Gourcy, Laurence; Brenot, Agnès; Petelet Giraud, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of good qualitative and quantitative status of groundwater (WFD requirement) needs a comprehensive estimation of the short and long term trends in order to establish adequate river basin management plans. In this context, the understanding of surface water/ groundwater interactions is required for water quantity and quality preservation. Hydrogeochemistry permits characterizing water and dissolved element origin and flow in both ground and surface water.

  15. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2Watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Bhushan R Lamsoge; Yashwant B Katpatal; Vijay P Nawale

    2014-10-01

    The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977–2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 S/cm per year. During 2007–2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

  16. Monitoring of landfill influences on groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Landfills of waste present serious threat to groundwater. To prevent groundwater pollution from landfill monitoring is performed. Rule of groundwater pollution monitoring from dangerous substances implements principles in Slovene legislation. In everyday practice certain questions arose since validity of the rule. These questions are about responsible parties in monitoring, groundwater distribution in space, target groundwater units, characterization level of the landfill and its surroundings, background values in groundwater, table of content of groundwater monitoring plan, quality of groundwater monitoring network, phases of monitoring, maintenance of monitoring network and activation of piezometers.

  17. Nitrate pollution in intensively farmed regions: What are the prospects for sustaining high-quality groundwater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Burt, Tim P.; Worrall, Fred; Mathias, Simon; Whelan, Mick J.

    2011-06-01

    Widespread pollution of groundwater by nutrients due to 20th century agricultural intensification has been of major concern in the developed world for several decades. This paper considers the River Thames catchment (UK), where water-quality monitoring at Hampton (just upstream of London) has produced continuous records for nitrate for the last 140 years, the longest continuous record of water chemistry anywhere in the world. For the same period, data are available to characterize changes in both land use and land management at an annual scale. A modeling approach is used that combines two elements: an estimate of nitrate available for leaching due to land use and land management; and, an algorithm to route this leachable nitrate through to surface or groundwaters. Prior to agricultural intensification at the start of World War II, annual average inputs were around 50 kg ha-1, and river concentrations were stable at 1 to 2 mg l-1, suggesting in-stream denitrification capable of removing 35 (±15) kt N yr-1. Postintensification data suggest an accumulation of 100 (±40) kt N yr-1 in the catchment, most of which is stored in the aquifer. This build up of reactive N species within the catchments means that restoration of surface nitrate concentrations typical of the preintensification period would require massive basin-wide changes in land use and management that would compromise food security and take decades to be effective. Policy solutions need to embrace long-term management strategies as an urgent priority.

  18. Contributing recharge areas, groundwater travel time, and groundwater water quality of the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the City of Independence, Missouri, well field, 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    recharge area (CRA) of the Independence well field. Statistical summaries and the spatial and temporal variability of water quality in the Missouri River alluvial aquifer near the Independence well field were characterized from analyses of 598 water samples. Water-quality constituent groups include dissolved oxygen and physical properties, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, wastewater indicator compounds, fuel compounds, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), alachlor, and atrazine. The Missouri Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) for iron was exceeded in almost all monitoring wells. The Missouri Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic was exceeded 32 times in samples from monitoring wells. The MCL for barium was exceeded five times in samples from one monitoring well. The SMCL for manganese was exceeded 160 times in samples from all monitoring wells and the combined well-field sample. The most frequently detected wastewater indicator compounds were N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), phenol, caffeine, and metolachlor. The most frequently detected fuel compounds were toluene and benzene. Alachlor was detected in 22 samples and atrazine was detected in 37 samples and the combined well-field sample. The MCL for atrazine was exceeded in one sample from one monitoring well. Samples from monitoring wells with median concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen larger than 1 milligram per liter (mg/L) are located near agricultural land and may indicate that agricultural land practices are the source of nitrogen to groundwater. Largest median values of specific conductance; total inorganic nitrogen; dissolved calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, arsenic, manganese, bicarbonate, and sulfate and detections of wastewater indicator compounds generally were in water samples from monitoring wells with CRAs that intersect the south bank of the Missouri River. Zones of higher specific conductance were located just upstream from the Independen

  19. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  20. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU

  1. Hydrochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Agriculture Soil of Khairpur Taluka, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajnees Pirzada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of Khairpur Taluka mostly consume groundwater for drinking and agriculture purposes. The present study was conducted to monitor the essential quality parameters of groundwater and soil. Both groundwater and soil samples of the area were classified as alkaline. All the major ions except Na and SO4 were found within the permissible limits, while the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Co, Pb, Ni and Mn in studied groundwater samples were found above the specified limit of WHO. However, soil samples were found rich in major and trace elements except Cd, which was low in comparison to world average of agriculture soil. Irrigation character of water samples on SAR vs. Na% plot display fair type with few exceptions. The piper diagram implied mixed water composition with Na-Ca-Mg and HCO3-SO4+Cl as dominate ions. Diverse shapes of Stiff polygons also support the mixed nature of groundwater in the study area.

  2. Hydrochemical characteristics and the effects of irrigation on groundwater quality in Harran Plain, GAP Project, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilnacar, M. Irfan; Gulluoglu, M. Said

    2008-03-01

    Improper design, faulty planning, mismanagement and incorrect operation of irrigation schemes are the principle reasons for the deterioration of groundwater quality in a large number of countries, in particular in semi-arid and arid regions. The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of groundwater quality after surface irrigation was begun in the semi-arid Harran Plain. Physical and chemical parameters of the groundwater including pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total phosphorus, total organic carbon and turbidity were determined monthly during the 2006 water year. The quality of the groundwater in the study area was assessed hydrochemically in order to determine its suitability for human consumption and agricultural purposes. In the general plain, the EC values measured were considerably above the guide level of 650 μS/cm, while nitrate in particular was found in almost all groundwater samples to be significantly above the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l for the quality of water intended for human consumption as per the international and national standards. Total hardness reveals that a majority of the groundwater samples fall in the very hard water category. Interpretation of analytical data shows that Ca HCO3 and Ca SO4 are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the study area.

  3. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  4. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region (India) Based on WQI

    OpenAIRE

    Rajankar, P. N.; Gulhane, S. R.; Tambekar, D. H.; Ramteke, D. S.; Wate, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality index (WQI) has been calculated for different groundwater sources i.e. dug wells, bore wells and tube wells at Khaperkheda region, Maharashtra (India). Twenty two different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) information system. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season which then changed to medium i...

  5. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  6. Quality of groundwater in the Agbabu oil sands area of the Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Owolabi

    1998-08-01

    The Agbabu area is currently the focus of geological investigations for oil sands by several multinational companies. Mining and associated activities will require substantial quantities of water, hence the aim of this study is to evaluate the groundwater quality in the area. Total dissolved solids in the range 1260-1460 mg I -1 exceed the upper limit of 1000 mg I -1 for fresh water, and indicate brackish, non-potable water. Using relevant indices, the groundwater is found to be not suitable for irrigated agriculture and most industrial uses without further treatment. On the basis of dominant cations and anions, the groundwater is classified as a sodium chloride (NaCl) type. Detailed and systematic hydrogeological study of the entire oil sands area is recommended to provide information on the nature, origin, occurrence and quality characteristics of the groundwater found in this area.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  8. Groundwater quality of Assini and Iria Valleys in Peloponnese Region, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Psychoyou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of groundwater quality is mainly related to the intensification of agriculture, the use of fertilizers and the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers which in coastal areas leads to sea water intrusion. An assessment of groundwater quality was conducted in Assini and Iria valleys. Groundwater samples was collected in the beginning (May and in the end (October of the irrigation season and subjected to chemical analyses for the main anions and cations. Groundwater was classified using the Piper diagram. Chloride and E.C. (electrical conductivity contour maps of the regions were obtained in order to evaluate the extent of sea water intrusion. The main cultivated crops in the regions are irrigated citrus and high amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are used. Nitrate concentration of groundwater was found often to exceed the value of 50 mg/l. A comparison was made with the situation that was prevailing in the region eight years ago. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated.

  9. Effect of punping on temporal changes in groundwater quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamra, S.K.; Khajanchi Lal,; Singh, O.P.; Boonstra, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pumping studies were conducted at five sites distributed over a 3000 ha area in the Gohana block in Haryana state of India. The project area is a part of the Indo-Gangetic plain and lies in a topographical depression susceptible to waterlogging, soil salinity and groundwater pollution from surroundi

  10. Characterization of Flow Paths, Residence Time and Media Chemistry in Complex Landscapes to Integrate Surface, Groundwater and Stream Processes and Inform Models of Hydrologic and Water Quality Response to Land Use Activities; Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitew, Menberu [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.; Jackson, Rhett [University of Georgia Research Foundation, Inc.

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this report is to document the methodology used to calculate the three hydro-geomorphic indices: C Index, Nhot spot, and Interflow Contributing Area (IFC Area). These indices were applied in the Upper Four Mile Creek Watershed in order to better understand the potential mechanisms controlling retention time, path lengths, and potential for nutrient and solute metabolism and exchange associated with the geomorphic configurations of the upland contributing areas, groundwater, the riparian zone, and stream channels.

  11. Assessment of Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI of Groundwater in North Goa, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krishan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A water quality index (WQI is a tool which numerically summarizes the information from multiple water quality parameters into a single value and this information can be used to assess spatial and temporal variations in overall water quality. However, these indices are time and region specific and may be influenced by local factors. In the present study, water quality index has been worked out to assess the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater quality status for future planning and management of North Goa. Data of 19 groundwater samples were collected in the year 2005 during January, March and April, are used for the analysis. The Water Quality Index has been computed using four parameters viz. pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness and Chloride. The WQI results show that the overall water quality class is ‘good’ and water is acceptable for domestic use.

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  13. Demonstrating trend reversal of groundwater quality in relation to time of recharge determined by 3H/3He

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Broers, H.P.; Grift, B. van der; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent EU legislation is directed to reverse the upward trends in the concentrations of agricultural pollutants in groundwater. However, uncertainty of the groundwater travel time towards the screens of the groundwater quality monitoring networks complicates the demonstration of trend reversal. We i

  14. Towards understanding how geographic, hydrologic, and chemical processes interact to produce trends in groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.; Hinkle, S. R.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lindsey, B.; Thiros, S.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods and guidelines to help understand how geographic (land use and resource development), hydrologic (directions and rates of groundwater flow), and chemical processes (reaction rates) interact to explain historical changes in the distribution of natural and anthropogenic constituents in and across major aquifer systems and how these factors might affect groundwater quality in the coming decades. This study will include contribute to the understanding of how geologic heterogeneity and data/model uncertainty affect the quality of predictions made using large-scale groundwater models. An ancillary purpose is to make recommendations for sampling USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program water-quality networks to enhance the detection and understanding of incipient groundwater quality trends. This study is in the early stages of development. Although the study encompasses work at multiple sites, this presentation will focus on an effort in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Groundwater quality is spatially variable in this basin-fill aquifer, primarily as a result of rock-water interaction and variations in recharge water quality. Recharge water quality is influenced by human activities (such as the use of de-icing chemicals) that tend to contribute water with relatively high dissolved solids and by natural processes (such as the infiltration of meteoric water from adjacent mountains) that tend to contribute water with relatively low dissolved solids. Human activities and natural processes are not stationary, and changes in water-quality distribution over time are expected; documented changes in groundwater quality include local increases in nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. These changes affect the public-water supply that is pumped from the deeper part of the basin-fill aquifer and should be considered in the future management of that supply. An existing groundwater flow model was recalibrated using more

  15. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped. PMID:27105417

  17. Estimation of impacts on groundwater quality in an urban area of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janža, Mitja; Prestor, Joerg; Pestotnik, Simona; Jamnik, Brigita

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water supply in many cities worldwide. It is relatively stable and better-protected water resource compared to surface water and will have a vital role in assuring water-supply security in the future. In urbanized catchments numerous human activities (e.g. settling, industry, traffic, agriculture) take place which pose a threat to groundwater quality. For sustainable management of urban groundwater resources an integrated and adaptive approach based on continuous monitoring supported by modeling is needed. The aim of presented study was to develop a model of environmental pressures and impacts on Ljubljansko polje aquifer which is the main source exploited for the public drinking water supply of the city of Ljubljana. It is based on estimation of contaminants emissions from different sources, coupled with numerical transport modelling which is used to assess the impact on groundwater quality. The model was built up on detailed analysis of nitrogen mass balance and validated with monitoring data - concentration measurements of relevant chemical parameters. Based on the model simulations impacts of different sources of pollution on groundwater quality was estimated and priority of measures for improvement of chemical status of groundwater was defined.

  18. Geochemical Characterization of Rock-Water Interaction in Groundwater at the KURT Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical composition of fracture filling minerals and groundwater was investigated to characterize geochemical characteristics of groundwater system at the KURT site. Minerals such as calcite, illite, laumontite, chlorite, epidote, montmorillonite, and kaolinite, as well as I/S mixed layer minerals were detected in the minerals extracted from the fracture surfaces of the core samples. The groundwater from the DB-1, YS-1 and YS-4 boreholes showed alkaline conditions with pH of higher than 8. The electrical conductivity (EC) values of the groundwater samples were around 200 μS/cm, except for the YS-1 borehole. Dissolved oxygen was almost zero in the DB-1 borehole indicating highly reduced conditions. The Cl- concentration was estimated around 5 mg/L and showed homogeneous distribution along depths at the KURT site. It might indicate the mixing between shallow groundwater and deep groundwater. The shallow groundwater from boreholes showed Ca-HCO3 type, whereas deep groundwater below 300 m from the surface indicated Na-HCO3 type. The isotopic values observed in the groundwater ranged from -10.4 to -8.2% for δ18O and from -71.3 to -55.0 % for δD. In addition, the isotope-depleted water contained higher fluoride concentration. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic values of deep groundwater were more depleted compared to the shallow groundwater. The results from age dating analysis using 14C indicated relatively younger (2000-6000yr old) groundwater compared to other european granitic groundwaters such as Stripa (Sweden).

  19. Influence of Groundwater Seepage on Water Quality and Ecological Health of the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Southern Portugal (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, A. Y.; Newton, A.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater seepage from coastal aquifers has recently been recognized as an overlooked major source of nutrients (N, P) and contaminants to the coastal environment (Biddanda et al., 2009; Fear, Paerl and Braddy, 2007; Kluge et al., 2007; Kroeger and Charette, 2008). Nutrient and contaminants concentrations in groundwater are often much higher than those in river water, compensating for the lower flux of groundwater relative to the lagoon surface water. The Ria Formosa is a coastal lagoon located in the south of Portugal (Algarve, Faro) and surrounded by an intensely farmed area. We hypothesize that water quality and ecological health of the Ria Formosa environments are influenced by past and on-going contamination of terrestrial groundwaters with nutrients from fertilizer, sewage and industry. According to Leote, Ibanhez and Rocha (2005) estimated submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the lagoon to be 3.6 m3 day-1 per linear meter of coastline with freshwater contributions (per volume) ranging from 10% to 50%. SGD as an important nutrient source to the Ria Formosa, estimating annual loads of 36.2 mol (0.507 kg) of Nitrogen, 1.1 mol (0.034 kg) of Phosphorus and 18.6 mol (0.522 kg) of Silicon per meter of coastline. Based on these results, it was suggested that SGD is a potential contributor to the observed nutrification status of the Ria Formosa lagoon. We are testing the following two hypotheses: (1) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of inorganic nutrients in groundwater will be characterized by higher density of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) distribution, and higher chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen demand, and sediment organic carbon than the pristine site; (2) Anthropogenically impacted sites of the Ria Formosa having higher concentration of contaminants in groundwater will be characterized by lower AIS dispersal and colonization, and lower chlorophyll and phycocyanin concentration, oxygen

  20. Impact of water diversion on the hydrogeochemical characterization of surface water and groundwater in the Yellow River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess the response of different ecosystems to the water diversion. • We characterized the interaction between surface water and groundwater. • We use the Piper and HFE-D to illustrate the salinization process. - Abstract: The Yellow River Delta is undergoing severe ecosystem degradation through salinization caused mainly by seawater intrusion. The Yellow River diversion project, in operation since 2008, aims to mitigate a projected ecosystem disaster. We conducted field investigations across three ecosystems (Farmland, Wetland and Coast) in the delta to assess the effectiveness of the annual water pulse and determine the relationships between surface water and groundwater. The chemical characteristics of the groundwater in Farmland exclude the possibility of seawater intrusion. The Wetland is vulnerable to pollution by groundwater discharge from Farmland and to secondary salinization caused by rising water tables. The salinity values of groundwater at Coast sites likely reflect the presence of seawater trapped in the clay sediments, a premise corroborated through measurements of groundwater levels, stable isotopes and major ion signatures. Our δD–δ18O two-dimensional graphic plot demonstrated that groundwaters of Farmland and Wetland changed toward more depleted isotopic compositions following water diversion, but this was not the case in the Coast sites, where the water table varied little year-round. A hydrochemical facies evolution diagram (HFE-D) demonstrated that freshening is taking place in the largest portions of the aquifers and that, without sustained water diversion recharge, these underground water bodies may switch from freshening to salinization on a seasonal time scale. Thus, the qualities of waters in coastal aquifers in the Yellow River Delta are substantially influenced by the process of ecological water diversion, and also by land use practices and by the lithological properties of the drainage landscape

  1. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  2. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Quality Policies (QPs) describe the Quality Management System of the Tank Waste Characterization Project (hereafter referred to as the Characterization Project), Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Quality Policies and quality requirements described herein are binding on all Characterization Project organizations. To achieve quality, the Characterization Project management team shall implement this Characterization Project Quality Management System

  3. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA): potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albite (NaAlSi8O8), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ2H and δ18O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  4. Water management of the uranium production facility in Brazil (Caetite, BA). Potential impacts over groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium unit of Caetite - in charge of all the 'yellow cake' produced in Brazil - is located in the semi-arid Northeast region at Bahia State. The geological uranium content of the ore is 3000 ppm, which is mainly associated with albites (NaAlSi8O8), and its extraction is achieved by means of a Heap-Leach process. This process has a low water demand, which is supplied by a network of wells, but can contribute to change the groundwater quality and in some cases the extinguishing of wells was observed. The managing of liquid mining wastes formed by drainage waters from mine pit and solid waste piles is not enough to avoid unwarranted releases in the environment, which turn necessary the waste treatment through passing them into the industrial plant in order to reduce radionuclide concentrations. The groundwater is Na-HCO3 type water and relative high concentration of Cl are observed in some groundwater. It seems that levels of uranium in groundwaters are mainly a consequence of the complexation of the metal by carbonates (or other anions) and not by any sort of the contamination of these waters by the drainage accumulated in the open pit. The speciation modelling allows identifying some areas where the replenishment of the aquifer is more active, but in general the recharge is a fast process run by direct infiltration. The stable isotope data (δ 2H and δ 18O) showed that evaporation plays a role during the infiltration, causing the groundwater salinization. These data discard the possibility that groundwater salinization was caused by discharge of deeper saline groundwater through faults associated to a regional groundwater flow system. The presence of an active shallow groundwater flow system offers better possibility for sustainable use of the groundwater resources in this semi-arid region of Brazil. (author)

  5. Practical simulation /optimization modeling for groundwater quality and quantity management

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, R. C.; Kalwij, Ineke M.; Wu, Shengjun

    2003-01-01

    Software for mathematically optimizing groundwater management has improved significantly in recent years. The SOMOS code can readily handle large complex plume and water management problems. Most recently, it developed a least-cost $40.82M 30-yr pumping strategy for the 6.58 mile long Blaine NAD plume. That strategy was 19 percent better than the strategy developed simultaneously by an experienced consultant using normal trial and error simulation procedures. The management problem involved 6...

  6. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  7. THE QUALITY OF THE SLUDGE PROCEEDED FROM GROUNDWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Lungu; Mihaela Aldea; Rodica Lazăr

    2010-01-01

    The Public Service Vrancea Water Supply Rural Systems ensures rural water supply from groundwater. It owns several stations out of which two were taken into account for this study: Vulturu and Cârligele. The possibility to dispose of the resulted sludge, either by depositing or using it in agriculture, was studied. The studied materials can be safely disposed of as their chemical characteristics don’t represent a threat to the environment. They can also be used in agriculture, observing the m...

  8. Geoinformatics Approach for Groundwater Prospects and Quality Studies - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rajvir Singh; Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Water is a prime requirement for all the living and non-living processes. On the earth, 71% is water but the availability of useable fresh water for drinking and other purposes is about 2.8%. Out of this 2.8 % fresh water, the share of groundwater is only 0.6% that makes it more pertinent to conservation, preservation, and management. The urbanization, industrialization, and intensive agricultural practices have put further pressure on the available fresh water. The modern techniq...

  9. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwarth, Steven A.; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Heron, Gorm; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...... cases have been reported. No standardised or generally accepted approach exists. Slow electrode kinetics and the common lack of internal equilibrium of redox processes in pollution plumes make, with a few exceptions, direct electrochemical measurement and rigorous interpretation of redox potentials...... dubious, if not erroneous. Several other approaches have been used in addressing redox conditions in pollution plumes: redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, hydrogen concentrations in groundwater, concentrations of volatile fatty acids in groundwater, sediment characteristics and microbial...

  10. Extraction of groundwater humic substances and characterization by synthetic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled in depth of about 50m for extraction of humic substances in the groundwater. The extraction and concentration of the humic substances were performed with synthetic adsorption resins. The extracted humic substances and reference humic substances were made a comparison in chemical property. Aquatic humic substances from Nordic Lake and non-aquatic Aldrich Co. humic acids were selected for the reference material. The unprocessed groundwater and the humic substances extracted from the groundwater were compared in UV-vis spectra, fluorescence spectra and the concentration ratio of humic acid and fulvic acid which were important in order to know characteristics of humic substances. Humic substances extracted from the groundwater were compared with Nordic humic substances in molecular weight distribution, IR spectra and NMR spectra from a viewpoint of complexation with radionuclides. This resulted that the extracted humic substances showed similar characteristics to humic substances in the groundwater, and that the extracted humic substances had similar characteristics to Nordic humic substances in containing acidic functional group which contributed to complexation and in americium complexation where americium complexed uniformly, independent of the molecular weight distribution as important characteristics for evaluation of effects on migration of radionuclides. These obtained results imply that employed method was applicable to extract dissolved humic substances from groundwater in a non-destructive manner and the dissolved humic substances occurring in groundwater in Japan are similar to aquatic Nordic humic substances, which are available to purchase at IHSS (International Humic Substances Society), in complexation behavior with some kind of metal ions. (author)

  11. Groundwater-quality and quality-control data for two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming, April and May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.; Mueller, David K.; Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming, to study groundwater quality. During April and May 2012, the U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, collected groundwater-quality data and quality-control data from monitoring well MW01 and, following well redevelopment, quality-control data for monitoring well MW02. Two groundwater-quality samples were collected from well MW01—one sample was collected after purging about 1.5 borehole volumes, and a second sample was collected after purging 3 borehole volumes. Both samples were collected and processed using methods designed to minimize atmospheric contamination or changes to water chemistry. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for field water-quality properties (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, oxidation potential); inorganic constituents including naturally occurring radioactive compounds (radon, radium-226 and radium-228); organic constituents; dissolved gasses; stable isotopes of methane, water, and dissolved inorganic carbon; and environmental tracers (carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4). Quality-control sample results associated with well MW01 were evaluated to determine the extent to which environmental sample analytical results were affected by bias and to evaluate the variability inherent to sample collection and laboratory analyses. Field documentation, environmental data, and quality-control data for activities that occurred at the two monitoring wells during April and May 2012 are presented.

  12. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program

  13. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in Groundwater Quality with Seasonal Fluctuation in Jharia Coal Mine Region, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Prakash Panigrahy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jharia coal mining areas is one of the most important coal mining areas in India. It is roughly elliptical or sickles – shaped, located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand. For the assessment of groundwater quality, Twenty Nine groundwater samples were collected from Jharia coalfield. The pH of the analysed water samples is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline in nature in both the season. The quality assessment of groundwater shows that in general, the water is suitable for domestic purposes with some exceptions. In majority of the samples, the analyzed parameters are well within the desirable limits and water is potable for drinking purposes. However, concentrations of EC, TDS, TH, SO42-, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+exceed the desirable limit at few sites. The water level fluctuation shows in the study area for year 2013 is 1.29 to 6.9 mbgl. West and some part of the northern area are facing extreme scarcity due to lower availability of groundwater resource. However, eastern region of the study area has sufficiently available of groundwater resources in the Jharia coalfield. This study is useful for utilization of groundwater resources in mining area and helps in future water resource planning for the area.

  15. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Quality Using Gis: A Case Study of Walayar Watershed, Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar Basin, Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balathandayutham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Good groundwater quality is essential for crop yield, soil productivity and environmental protection. Suitability of groundwater for irrigation purposes is determined by its geochemistry. Groundwater geochemistry explains links between chemical composition of groundwater and subsurface geological and non-geological pollutants. Subsurface rock formations control the composition of soil and hence that of water and vegetation. The ground water samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like Electrical Conductivity (EC, Hydrogen ion concentration (pH, Bicarbonate (HCO3-, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Sulphate (SO42-, Nitrate (NO3-, and Chloride (Cl-. Inverse distance weighted method of the Geographical Information Systems is used to prepare the distribution map of physio-chemical parameters of groundwater while overlay method is used to assess spatial, temporal changes and prepare groundwater quality zones of Walayar watershed in Parambikulam-Aliyar-Palar basin situated in Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu, India. The results of study show that the quality of groundwater varies both spatially and temporally in Walayar watershed. The groundwater samples in some of the wells showed deviation from water quality standards indicating groundwater contamination. Hence, proper care must be taken to avoid any contamination of groundwater and its quality be monitored periodically.

  17. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  18. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, HCO3^{ - } , Cl-, SO4^{2 - } , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > HCO3^{ - } > SO4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  19. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Ramesh,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras, which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major water types in this area. It is inferred that, total hardness falls in hard to very hard category. The water quality index rated as poor to very poor quality except few samples. The study reveals that the concentration of major ions and chromium are exceeding the permissible limit. Groundwater is unsuitable for human consumption as it contains higher concentration of major ions and chromium. Tannery uses a large number of chemicals during the process of discharging toxic wastes into open drains and municipality solid waste dumpsite to the nearby land is the major reasons deterioration of water quality in this area. Contamination of groundwater causes water scarcity for domestic purpose of this study is to highlight the impact of tannery effluent on groundwater

  20. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area. PMID:27359000

  1. The effect of remedial measures upon groundwater quality in connection with soil contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and the related costs - by example of the City of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of remedial actions on the groundwater quality was investigated in the aquifer of the City of Hannover. The improvement of groundwater quality was related to the costs for the remedial actions. The attention was focussed on groundwater pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as the most important contaminants of groundwater in urban areas. (orig.)

  2. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 15 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. WAG 4 is comprised of about 27 acres located in Melton Valley approximately 2700 ft southwest of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory main plant. It contains three inactive solid waste management units: (1) the abandoned intermediate level liquid waste transfer line located along the WAG's northwestern boundary, (2) the experimental pilot pit area, and (3) SWSA 4, the largest unit in the WAG. The wells at WAG 4 were drilled and developed between September 1987 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy (DOE), state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 4 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 4. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  3. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Upper Waste Areas Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of seven groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Upper Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2. Upper WAG 2 is composed of portions of White Oak Creek (WOC), Melton Branch, two of Melton Branch's tributaries, and the floodplains surrounding these water bodies. The WOC section of the subject site begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends 0.62 mile upstream to the 7,500 bridge. The Melton Branch portion of the site also begins at the confluence of WOC and Melton Branch and extends eastward 0.88 mile upstream. The wells at Upper WAG 2 were drilled and developed between December 1989 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at Upper WAG-2. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  4. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 18 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11. WAG 11 (White Wing Scrap Yard) is located on the west end of East Fork Ridge between White Wing Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The scrap yard is approximately 25 acres in size. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled and developed between January 1990 and October 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 11 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 11. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  5. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 22 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. WAG 5 is located south of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory main plant area in Melton Valley and includes 33 solid waste management units. The wells at WAG 5 were drilled and developed between July 1987 and March 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 5. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  6. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Waste Area Grouping 3 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 15 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 3. WAG 3 is located in Melton Valley, approximately 3,000 ft west of the west gate of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and consists of an estimated 22 acres. The subject site contains three solid waste management units: the Contractors' Landfill, the Closed Scrap Metal Area, and Solid Waste Storage Area 3. The wells at WAG 3 were drilled and developed between September 1987 and August 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at WAG 3 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending upon the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of four basic installation methods was utilized. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at WAG 3. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  7. Development of an operational index of water quality (PoS) as a versatile tool to assist groundwater resources management and strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziritis, Evangelos; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Arampatzis, George

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater quality assessment and evaluation is of paramount importance in strategic planning and management at river basin scale or even larger. Depending on the available infrastructure data upon which such assessments are carried out, significant variations in terms of measured parameters and time span covered occur frequently and pose objective difficulties to environmental assessments. Still, there is a need for evaluation across such basins at regional, national or even continental scales under a common reference base. Existing methods so far focus on the comparative evaluation of a single parameter or a common set of parameters that needs to be available throughout all examined basins. Moreover, existing approaches and practices are assessing groundwater in comparison to the quality standards set for a specific use despite the fact that often these resources are covering a multitude of functions. This paper presents an index that attempts to perform a comparative assessment of groundwater quality across basins controlled by the same or different factors, subject to the same or different pressures and characterized by different availability of water quality measurements spread over the same or different time periods. It serves as an easy to implement and unbiased approach to identify water quality controlling factors. The proposed method offers on the spot assessment of groundwater quality characteristics visualized in a way that is easily conceived and comprehended.

  8. Application of Set Pair Analysis Method Based on Entropy Weight in Groundwater Quality Assessment -A Case Study in Dongsheng City, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pei-Yue; Qian Hui; Wu Jian-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important roles in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. However, most traditional water quality comprehensive assessment methods which have complicated formulas are difficult to apply in water quality assessment. In this paper, a novel method for groundwater quality assessment called set pair analysis was introduced and entropy weight was assi...

  9. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  10. Geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality in lower Palar river basin, southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Senthilkumar; L Elango

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical study of groundwater was carried out in a part of the lower Palar river basin, southern India to determine the geochemical processes controlling the groundwater quality. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analysed for pH, Eh, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, CO3, Cl and SO4. The analysed parameters of the groundwater in the study area were found to be well within the safe range in general with respect to the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water except for few locations. The results of these analyses were used to identify the geochemical processes that are taking place in this region. Cation exchange and silicate weathering are the important processes controlling the major ion distribution of the study area. Mass balance reaction model NETPATH was used to assess the ion exchange processes. High concentration of Ca in groundwater of the study area is due to the release of Ca by aquifer material and adsorption of Na due to ion exchange processes. Groundwater of the study area is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes except for few locations.

  11. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in West Thrace Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özler, H. Murat; Aydın, Ali

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to do a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the West Thrace region. Forty samples of groundwater collected from Edirne (Site 1) to Gelibolu (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. As3- was non-detectable in all the groundwater and Zn2+, Pb2+, F-, Cu2+, NH{4/+}, Cn- PO{4/3-} and Cl- were all below their respective European Union drinking water directive (EU-DWD) and Turkish food codex-drinking water directive (TFC-DWD). Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC) Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ levels were detected in upper maximum acceptable concentrations 77.5, 42.5, 35.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 32.5% of the groundwater samples, respectively. However, in terms of Cr3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+, the differences between groundwaters of Sites 1 and 2 were significant ( p chemical analyzes in most samples. The pollution of groundwater come from a variety of sources, Meric and Ergene rivers, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organics wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons and ponds used storage.

  12. Processes affecting groundwater quality in arid zones: The case of the Bou-Areg coastal aquifer (North Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Investigation on the main sources of salinization in the Bou-Areg aquifer. • Salinity derives from dissolution, water–rock interaction and agricultural inputs. • Manure, septic effluents and fertilizers are the main causes of human pollution. • Discharge of polluted waters in the Lagoon of Nador is altering its quality. • Saline water intrusion from the lagoon in the aquifer can be considered negligible. - Abstract: The coastal aquifer of Bou-Areg (Morocco) has been studied to identify the main processes causing groundwater salinization, using a multi tracer (general chemistry and isotopes – δ2H, δ18O, δ13C, δ15NNO3, δ18ONO3) geochemical approach. Groundwater is characterized by the widespread occurrence of brackish waters (TDS < 500 mg L−1) with high cation contents, which are balanced by elevated dissolved NO3- (reaching a maximum of 208 mg L−1) and Cl−. Lagoon samples represent a mixture of fresh water and sea water, showing a Na/Cl ratio in agreement with that of sea water and an excess of Ca. The high Ca values represent the main peculiarity of the groundwater–lagoon water system. Two types of groundwater could be identified: (i) freshwater, separated from the whole system and located at the limit of the irrigated area, characterized by low TDS, depleted isotopic composition and relatively high quality; and (ii) water mainly recharged by mountain runoff, interacting with local recharge and acquiring salinity from different sources, thus creating a complex system of dilute waters. Hydrochemical results confirm that the high salinity of the aquifer is caused by the coexistence of dissolution of evaporate rocks and carbonates from Miocene strata, water–rock interaction, and human impacts due to agricultural return flows. The latter represents the main contribution to groundwater salinization, especially in the central part of the aquifer, as well as one of the main causes of the general increase in NO3- concentrations

  13. Characterization of groundwater in the Ejina Basin,northwest China:hydrochemical and environmental isotopes approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the groundwater in the Ejina Basin,surface and groundwater samples were collected in May and October of 2002.On-site analyses included temperature,electrical conductance(EC),total alkalinity(as HCO 3) by titration,and pH.Chemical analyses were undertaken at the Geochemistry Laboratory of the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Institute,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou,China.The pH of the groundwater ranged from 7.18 to 8.90 with an average value of 7.72,indicating an alkaline nature.The total dissolved solids(TDS) of the groundwater ranged from 567.5 to 5,954.4 mg/L with an average of 1,543.1 mg/L and a standard deviation of 1,471.8 mg/L.According to the groundwater salinity classification of Robinove et al.(1958),47.4 percent of the samples were brackish and the remainder were fresh water.The ion concentration of the groundwater along the riverbed and near the southern margin of the basin were lower than those farther away from the riverbed.The groundwater in the study area was of Na +-HCO 3 type near the bank of the Heihe River and in the southern margin of the basin,while Na +-SO 4 2-Cl type samples were observed in the terminal lake region.In the desert area the groundwater reached a TDS of 3,000-6,000 mg/L and was predominantly by a Na +-Cl chemistry.Br/Cl for the water of Ejina Basin indicates an evaporite origin for the groundwater with a strongly depleted Br/Cl ratio(average 0.000484).The surface water was slightly enriched in Br/Cl(average 0.000711) compared with groundwater.The calculated saturation index(SI) for calcite and dolomite of the groundwater samples range from 0.89 to 1.31 and 1.67 to 2.67 with averaged 0.24 and 0.61,respectively.About 97 percent of the groundwater samples were kinetically oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite,and all the samples were below the equilibrium state with gypsum.Using isotope and hydrochemical analyses,this study investigated the groundwater evolution and its residence

  14. Characterizing hydrology and the importance of ground-water discharge in natural and constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Although considered the most important component for the establishment and persistence of wetlands, hydrology has been hard to characterize and linkages between hydrology and other environmental conditions are often poorly understood. In this work, methods for characterizing a wetland’s hydrology from hydrographs were developed, and the importance of ground water to the physical and geochemical conditions in the root zone was investigated. Detailed sampling of nearly continuous hydrographs showed that sites with greater ground-water discharge had higher water tables and more stable hydrographs. Subsampling of the continuous hydrograph failed to characterize the sites correctly, even though the wetland complex is located in a strong regional ground-water-discharge area. By comparing soil-moisture-potential measurements to the water-table hydrograph at one site, we noted that the amount of root-zone saturation was not necessarily driven by the water-table hydrograph but can be a result of other soil parameters (i.e., soil texture and associated capillary fringe). Ground-water discharge was not a significant determinant of maximum or average temperatures in the root zone. High ground-water discharge was associated with earliest date of thaw and shortest period of time that the root zone was frozen, however. Finally, the direction and magnitude of shallow ground-water flow was found to affect the migration and importance of a geochemical species. Areas of higher ground-water discharge had less downward penetration of CO2 generated in the root zone. In contrast, biotically derived CO2 was able to penetrate the deeper ground-water system in areas of ground-water recharge. Although ground-water flows are difficult to characterize, understanding these components is critical to the success of wetland restoration and creation efforts.

  15. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarja Pitkänen; Tiina Juselius; Eija Isomäki; Miettinen, Ilkka T.; Matti Valve; Anna-Liisa Kivimäki; Kirsti Lahti; Marja-Liisa Hänninen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and ...

  16. Groundwater quality and soil salinization in a canal command area and management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to examine the groundwater quality and soil salinization in canal irrigated areas. Data were collected along six secondary canals (2 each at head, middle and tail end) of a main canal and nine tertiary canals (3 each at head, middle and tail) on each of the secondary canal. The farmers were also interviewed to investigate the impact of location along the irrigation channels on their crop yield and income. The results showed that groundwater quality has deteriorated from head to tail reaches of the irrigation channels i.e. the main canal, the secondary and the tertiary canals. Similarly, the soil salinization has increased with increase in distance from the head of the irrigation system along all the irrigation channels. Location of the water users along the canal irrigation system has significant impact on their crop yield as well as income and these parameters decrease with increase in distance from the head of the irrigation channels. The net income of the tail end farmers is only 43-59% of the head end farmers. The reduced canal water supply at lower reaches of the irrigation system forced the down reach water users to pump more groundwater of inferior quality resulting in many times increase in their irrigation cost. The deteriorating groundwater quality further added misery to the downstream farmers by degrading productivity of their lands due to increased soil salinity. (author)

  17. Characterization of redox conditions in groundwater contaminant plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwarth, Steven A.;

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behaviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...

  18. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater dynamics may play a significant role in landslides. A detailed model is developed of the groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays in the Trièves area in the French Alps. The varved clays consist of a sequence of alternating silt and clay layers, covered by a colluvium layer and cut through by fissures. The hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers is negligible compared to the silt layers. It is conceptualized that fissures form a hydraulic connection between the colluvium and the varved clays. Groundwater recharge flows through the colluvium into the fissures where water is exchanged horizontally between the fissure and the silt layers of the varved clays. Groundwater flow in the colluvium is simulated with the Boussinesq equation while flow in the silt layers of the varved clays is simulated with the Richards' equation. Longitudinal outflow from the fissure is simulated with a linear-reservoir model. Scattered data of relatively short monitoring periods is available for several landslides in the region. A good similarity between observed and simulated heads is obtained, especially when considering the lack of important physical parameters such as the fissure width and the distance between the monitoring point and the fissure. A simulation for the period 1959–2004 showed some correlation between peaks in the simulated heads and the recorded occurrence of landslides while the bottom of the varved clays remained saturated during the entire simulation period.

  19. Validation of Student Generated Data for Assessment of Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Peckenham, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    As part of a research project to evaluate the effects of sand and gravel mining on water quality, students were trained to analyze their own drinking water for simple quality indicators. Indicators analyzed were pH, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, chloride, and dissolved iron. Approximately 523 analyses were completed by students between 2006 and…

  20. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced. PMID:22935861

  1. Prospects and quality indices for groundwater development in Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibade, O.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geophysical and hydrogeochemical studies were conducted in part of Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria to investigate the groundwater potential and quality for sustainable development. Interpreted results of vertical electrical sounding data revealed three to four geo-electric layers; top soil (22.1-441.4 Ωm, lateritic horizon (402.1-712.2 Ωm, clayey/sandyclay layer (2.95-66.0 Ωm and weathered/fractured bedrock (66.3-1056.7 Ωm. Stacked overburden isopach and basement isoresitivity maps revealed few areas with thick overburden and fractured basement, hence of apparently high groundwater prospect. Hydrogeochemical study indicates that groundwater in the study area is generally fresh, soft- moderately hard, slightly acidic and dominated by Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and HCO3 ions. The dominant hydrochemical facies is Na-Cl type with minor mixed Ca-Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Many of the analyzed parameters fall within recommended limits and thus, most of the groundwater in the study area are chemically suitable for drinking. A few however, recorded TDS, pH, NO3, Al, Mg and Cl concentrations above permissible levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability. The groundwater quality for agricultural purposes was assessed using Sodium absorption ratio, permeability index and electrical conductivity values along with USSL and Wilcox diagrams, all indicating that most of the samples are excellent to good for irrigation.

  2. Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater quality assessment of Torbat-Zaveh plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, M J; Ebrahimi, P; Razmara, M; Ghasemi, A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater in Torbat-Zaveh plain have been carried out to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, 190 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and major ion concentrations. The abundance of major cations and anions was in the following order: Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+), and Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text]. As a result, alkaline element (Na(+)) exceeds alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and strong acids (Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]) dominate weak acids ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in majority of the groundwater samples. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]. The results display that rock-weathering interactions and ion-exchange processes play important role in controlling groundwater chemistry. Saturation index values also indicate that water chemistry is significantly affected by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite. US Salinity Laboratory(USSL) and Wilcox diagrams together with permeability index values reveal that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in some regions, the water samples do not indicate required irrigational quality. PMID:26627207

  3. Assessment of human activities impact on groundwater quality discharging into a reef lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez, L.; Paytan, A.; Merino-Ibarra, M.; Lecossec, A.; Soto, M.

    2010-03-01

    The Eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula has the fastest growth rate in Mexico and groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the region. The consequences of the lack of proper infrastructure to collect and treat wastewater and the impact of human activities on the quality of groundwater are addressed. The groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Quintana Roo (SE Mexico) discharges directly into the ocean (Submarine Groundwater Discharges). In addition, the coral reef of the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula is part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System, one of the largest in the world. The interaction of the reef-lagoon hydraulics with the coastal aquifer of Puerto Morelos (NE Yucatan Peninsula), and a major input of NH4, SO4, SiO2, as a consequence of the use of septic tanks and the lack of modern wastewater treatment plants are presented. A conceptual model of the coastal aquifer was developed, in order to explain how the human activities are impacting directly on the groundwater quality that, potentially, will have a direct impact on the coral reef. The protection and conservation of coral reefs must be directly related with a policy of sound management of coastal aquifers and wastewater treatment.

  4. Evaluating the human impact on groundwater quality discharging into a coastal reef lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez-Terrones, L.; Soto, M.; Lecossec, A.; Monroy-Rios, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula has the fastest growth rate in Mexico and groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the region. The consequences of the lack of proper infrastructure to collect and treat wastewater and the impact of human activities on the quality of groundwater are addressed. The groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Quintana Roo (SE Mexico) discharges directly into the ocean. In addition, the coral reef of the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula is part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System, one of the largest in the world. The interaction of the reef-lagoon hydraulics with the coastal aquifer of Puerto Morelos (NE Yucatan Peninsula), and a major input of NH4, SO4, SiO2, as a consequence of the use of septic tanks and the lack of modern wastewater treatment plants are presented. No seasonal parameters differences were observed, suggesting that groundwater composition reaching the reef lagoon is not changing seasonally. A conceptual model of the coastal aquifer was developed, in order to explain how the human activities are impacting directly on the groundwater quality that, potentially, will have a direct impact on the coral reef. The protection and conservation of coral reefs must be directly related with a policy of sound management of coastal aquifers and wastewater treatment.

  5. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  6. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer Alsalah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not

  7. The effects of land application of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality : West Coast 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land application of agricultural effluent is becoming a standard farming practice. The application of farm dairy effluent to land, as opposed to direct discharge to waterways, is the preferred method for disposal in New Zealand as regulatory authorities move to protect and enhance water quality and meet Maori spiritual and cultural values. Land application recognises the nutrient value of dairy effluent; however, it is not without risks. Careful management of land application of the effluent is required because of the potential nutrient and bacterial contamination of groundwater. In 2001, 19 groundwater bores were sampled on four occasions to assess the effects of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality. Elevated (> 1.6 g m-3 nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in 14 of these bores (43 of 74 samples). The available long-term data shows statistically significant increasing trends in nitrate-nitrogen and chloride over the period 1998 to 2007. The nitrate-nitrogen and chloride results suggest effluent is the source of the elevated nitrate-nitrogen; however, the nitrogen isotope analysis indicates that the source of the nitrate-nitrogen may be from fertiliser or soil organic matter (average δ15N value of 3.5 permille). Spatially isolated occurrences of bacterial contamination were also recorded: in 7 bores and 12% of all samples analysed. Groundwater dating, using chlorofluorocarbons, suggested that the groundwater in the region was young (8 to 12 years). Overall, the spatial and temporal data suggests human influences are affecting groundwater quality on the West Coast. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana, A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ewusi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality of the Obuasi municipality was assessed to understand the contamination processes due to the presence of various contaminant sources and complicated geochemical processes and the suitability of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purpose for a sustainable agriculture and basic human needs. Water samples were collected during the raining season when a rise in water table was expected and during the dry season. They were analyzed for major cations and anions. Parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, % sodium, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total dissolve solutes and stoechiometric relations were calculated on the basis of chemical data. A questionnaire was also used to investigate perception of consumers on taste and odour. Comparison of the concentration of the chemical constituents with World Health Organization (WHO drinking water standards of 2004 and various classifications show that present status of groundwater in Obuasi is good for drinking and irrigation purposes. Concentrations of major cations and anions in the groundwater systems vary spatially and temporally. Abundance of these anions is in the following order: Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+>K+ = HCO3->Cl-> SO24->H2SiO4Br->PO24->F-. In terms of rainy season impact, Obuasi groundwater shows dilution and flushing, however, samples show excessive leaching of different chemical components into the groundwater system leading to the enrichment of different anions and cations and this indicate pollution from extraneous sources. No clear correlation between the quality parameters and perceived quality in terms of satisfactory taste response were obtained at electrical conductivity values lower than the threshold minimum acceptable value.

  9. Interests of hydrogeological observatories for characterizing heterogeneous groundwater systems: the example of the Ploemeur hard-rock aquifer (French Brittany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Lavenant, N.; Boudin, F.; Leray, S.; De Dreuzy, J.; Longuevergne, L.; Hochreutener, R.; Davy, P.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneous aquifers are often poorly constrained by the available data. There is a strong need of characterizing at multiple space and time scales heterogeneous groundwater systems to improve model predictions. Here, we present results from the site of Ploemeur (French Brittany) that belongs to the network of hydrogeological sites H+, and where complementarity approaches have been developed for almost fifteen years. This outstandingly heterogeneous crystalline rock aquifer is used for water supply at a rate of about 10^6 m3 per year since 1991. The geology of the area is relatively complex and involves two main structures: a highly fractured contact zone between the Ploemeur's granite and the overlying micaschists, and a steeply dipping fault striking North 20°. The contact zone in itself consists of alternating deformed granitic sheets and enclaves of micaschists, pegmatite and aplite dykes, and locally mylonites and pegmatite-bearing breccias that are often associated with major borehole inflows. At the site scale - typically a square kilometer - and at relatively shallow depth (100 to 150 m), the connectivity of the main flow paths and the hydraulic properties are relatively well constrained and quantified thanks to cross-borehole flowmeter tests and traditional pumping tests. However, such data are relatively limited in explaining the functioning of this confined groundwater system at the regional scale. Groundwater chemistry and groundwater dating permit to go further to identify distinct reservoirs and in particular a relatively deep groundwater component whose age is older than 50 years. Groundwater temperature measurements demonstrate the role of the pumping that influences greatly the spatial distribution of groundwater temperature and quality. Moreover, it suggests that the main water supply comes from a depth of at least 300 meters. This implies relatively deep groundwater circulation that can be achieved only thanks to major permeable fault zone. At

  10. Estimation of the groundwater quality in the western part of Lipjan (Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatbardh Gashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the effect of anthropogenic activity on the water quality was carried out in the western part of Lipjan (Kosovo. The software “Statistica 6.0” was used for calculations of basic statistical parameters and anomalies (extremes and outliers. The levels of some physicochemical parameters of groundwater are compared with the World Health Organization standards for drinking water. Our results show significant pollution (high values of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and consumption of KMnO4 of groundwaters as a result of anthropogenic activity coming from settlements, pollution of small rivers (Vodavoda and Grika and wastewaters in the surrounding area.

  11. Wellbore-wall compression effects on monitored groundwater levels and qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, S; Sawamoto, M; Shiba, M; Iiyama, I; Hasegawa, S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wellbore-wall compression from rough excavation on monitored groundwater levels and qualities under natural hydraulic gradient conditions were investigated in a shallow clayey Andisol aquifer. Nine wellbores reaching the underlying aquitard at about 2.6-m depth were constructed by dynamic cone penetrometry to mimic rough wellbore construction. Five of these were constructed under wet aquifer soil conditions and the remaining four under dry conditions. A 15-month period monitoring showed that the groundwater levels in the wellbores constructed under wet conditions responded significantly in retard of, and in narrower ranges than, those constructed under dry conditions. The wellbore-wall hydraulic conductivities at the former wellbores were calculated to be more than one to two orders of magnitude lower than those at the latter ones. Furthermore, remarkable nitrate removal attributable to the occurrence of a heterotrophic denitrification was observed in one of the former wellbores. In contrast, the groundwater levels and qualities in the latter wellbores appeared to be generally similar to those monitored in the conventional soil coring and augering-derived wellbores. Our results suggest that the wellbore-wall compression induced by rough excavation under wet and soft aquifer soil conditions leads to a substantial decrease in the wellbore-wall hydraulic conductivity, which in turn can lead to unreliable groundwater levels and qualities. This problem can occur in clayey Andisols whenever the aquifer soil is wet; however, the problem can be largely avoided by constructing the wellbore under dry and hard aquifer soil conditions. PMID:22924593

  12. THE QUALITY OF THE SLUDGE PROCEEDED FROM GROUNDWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Public Service Vrancea Water Supply Rural Systems ensures rural water supply from groundwater. It owns several stations out of which two were taken into account for this study: Vulturu and Cârligele. The possibility to dispose of the resulted sludge, either by depositing or using it in agriculture, was studied. The studied materials can be safely disposed of as their chemical characteristics don’t represent a threat to the environment. They can also be used in agriculture, observing the maximum allowable limits of heavy metals contents in the soils on which sludge can be applied as stipulated by the Order No.49/2004. The use of these materials would even have an amendment effect on acid soils due to their slightly alkaline reaction. An important mineral elements contribution is also to be expected for plant nutrition. No issues regarding nitrates and ammonium contents are to be expected. The studied materials should be carefully applied, especially the Vulturu station one, because of its high zinc and cadmium contents, even if the latter doesn’t overrun the maximum allowable limit. The very low organic carbon content in the sludge resulted from the Vulturu station would bring about disequilibrium in soil if too much is used.

  13. Characterization of microbial communities in deep groundwater from granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbial characteristics of deep granitic nutrient-poor groundwater from two boreholes at the Underground Research Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited were studied. Scanning electron microscopy of the groundwater samples revealed significant numbers of bacteria of various sizes and shapes, including spherical, rod, and curved shaped. A few bacteria with appendages were also observed. Significant numbers of bacteria (∼l05/mL) were enumerated using acridine orange (AO) staining. An active microbial population was detected with three direct methods and it ranged from 1 to 83% of the AO count, depending on the method used. Culturable aerobic and anaerobic (including facultative) heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 0.06 to 10.2% and 0.008 to 7.35%, respectively, of the AO count. Denitrifying. N2- fixing, sulphate-reducing, and iron-precipitating bacteria were present, but no iron-oxidizing bacteria or methanogens could be detected. Tentative identification of 160 isolates using the Biolog system showed a predominance of three Pseudomonas species, P. fluorescens, P. marginalis, and P. corrugata. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis showed that the bacteria in the groundwater samples faced starvation stress. However, laboratory studies showed that these bacteria can efficiently uptake and mineralize organic substrates when supplied. (author)

  14. Study of variation in groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia using multivariate factor analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Charfi, Sihem

    2013-07-01

    This work focuses on the Grombalia aquifer which constitutes the main water resource in Northeast Tunisia, Cap Bon Peninsula. The recharge of this aquifer is ensured mainly by direct infiltration of rainwater through permeable layers. Under semi-arid climatic conditions and increasing water demand for irrigation, about 80% of the Grombalia aquifer system shows different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. The total dissolved solids values range from 0.75 to 5.6g/l.Isotopic characterization with stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) of Grombalia aquifer system identified geochemistry processes that control water chemistry. In addition, the multivariate statistical technique (Principal Component Analysis) was used to identify the origin, the recharge mode and geochemical processes controlling groundwater quality. The principal reactions responsible for the hydrochemical evolution in the Grombalia groundwater fall into three categories: (1) denitrification process; (2) dissolution of salts; and (3) irrigation return flow process. Tritium data in groundwater from the study area suggest the existence of pre1950 and post1960 recharge. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  15. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of groundwater of the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone formation (Western Central African Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebebe-Ndjiguim, Chantal; Foto, Eric; Backo, Salé; Zoudamba, Narcisse; Basse-Keke, Eric; Nguerekossi, Bruno; Alladin, Oscar; Huneau, Frederic; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Mabingui, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The hydrogeology of the Cretaceous sandstone formations of Carnot-Berbérati (covering an area of 46.000 km2) in the western part of the central African Republic is poorly known. In order to improve the access of local populations to a clean and safe drinking water resource, new investigations have been carried out in order to characterize groundwater in terms of quality, origin, residence time and sustainability. Two sampling campaigns were organized in August 2014 (rainy period) and April 2015 (dry period) on respectively 31 and 43 points including boreholes, wells and river waters. Conventional hydrogeochemical tools in conjunction with isotope hydrology tools were used to evaluate the water types and the anthropogenic fingerprint on groundwater, their recharge processes and the flow organization scheme. Investigations have shown the existence of interesting amounts of groundwater within what seems a single, well hydraulically connected unconfined aquifer of max. 400m thick. Groundwaters are characterized by two main water types: CaMg-HCO3 (for deep boreholes and river waters) and CaMg-ClNO3 (shallow wells). The latter clearly showing the very strong influence of anthropogenic activities (washing, dumps, latrines) in the near vicinity of wells and boreholes used for the drinking water supply. This is also highlighting the total lack of protection zone around the wells and boreholes. Stable isotopes of the water molecule (18O and 2H) are in agreement with a local recharge of groundwater and show a relatively homogeneous composition within the whole aquifer system. Tritium data indicate a modern recharge with a high renewability potential for shallow groundwater but very low tritium levels are observed in the deepest boreholes indicating the probable occurrence of complex flow conditions within the system in some sectors. From these results and because of its extension and storage potential, the Carnot-Berbérati sandstone aquifer appears as a groundwater resource

  16. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Laodong

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing fanning systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin (Delin and others, 1992). The primary objective of the northern cornbelt sand-plains MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of ground-water quality at the MSEA.

  17. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Lei

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing farming systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The primary objective of Minnesota MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of groundwater quality at the MSEA.

  18. CORRELATION STUDY AMONG WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Vashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from five talukas of Valsad district for one year (from August 2008 to July 2009 and were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics.  The present investigation is focused on  determination of parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu and Manganese (Mn.  Correlation coefficients were determined to identify the highly correlated parameters and interrelated water quality parameters. Correlation matrix of Valsad district suggests that EC of groundwater is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of seventeen water quality parameters studied.  It may be suggested that the quality of Valsad district can be checked very effectively by controlling EC of water.

  19. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  20. Assessing the Effect of a Dumpsite to Groundwater Quality in Payatas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn L.S. Su

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed and compared the groundwater quality of 14 selected wells continuously used in the with (Payatas and without dumpsite (Holy Spirit areas at the Payatas estate, Philippines. Water quality monitoring and analyses of the bio-physico-chemical variables (pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, total coliform, conductivity, salinity, nitrate-nitrogen, sulfate, color, total chromium, total lead and total cadmium were carried out for six consecutive months, from April to September 2003, covering both dry and wet seasons. Results showed most of the groundwater quality variables in both the with and without dumpsite areas of the Payatas estate were within the normal Philippine water quality standards except for the observed high levels of TDS, TSS and total coliform and low pH levels. No significant differences were observed for nitrate-nitrogen, total cadmium, total lead, total chromium and total coliform in both the with and without dumpsite areas. TDS, conductivity, salinity and sulfate concentrations in the with dumpsite groundwater sources were significantly different compared to those in the without dumpsite areas. Continuous water quality monitoring is encouraged to effectively analyze the impact of dumpsites on the environment and human health.

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Taylor, Josh T; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Henderson, Drew; Kadjo, Akinde F; Roelke, Corey E; Hudak, Paul F; Burton, Taylour; Rifai, Hanadi S; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    The exploration of unconventional shale energy reserves and the extensive use of hydraulic fracturing during well stimulation have raised concerns about the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG) on the environment. Most accounts of groundwater contamination have focused primarily on the compositional analysis of dissolved gases to address whether UOG activities have had deleterious effects on overlying aquifers. Here, we present an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas. We detected multiple volatile organic carbon compounds throughout the region, including various alcohols, the BTEX family of compounds, and several chlorinated compounds. These data do not necessarily identify UOG activities as the source of contamination; however, they do provide a strong impetus for further monitoring and analysis of groundwater quality in this region as many of the compounds we detected are known to be associated with UOG techniques. PMID:26079990

  2. A CORRELATION AND REGRESSION STUDY ON THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN ALIGARH CITY, UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummatul Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the vital source of sustenance and survival of every living organism. The present study aimed at a statistical regression analysis of Groundwater at 16 locations of Aligarh city, Uttar Pradesh. A correlation study has been carried out amongst all possible pairs of 15 physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total acidity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total solid, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid and chloride to assess groundwater quality. The correlation analysis provides an excellent tool for the prediction of parameter values within reasonable degree of accuracy. The existence of strong correlation between Total Hardness & Magnesium and Total Dissolved Solid & Total Solid are ascertained. The analysis reveals that the groundwater of the area needs some treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.

  3. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN

  4. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  6. Groundwater Quality in the Sahelian Region of Northern Ghana, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Cobbina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In many arid ecological zones of the world, the utilization of groundwater for various purposes is common due to the scarcity of surface water. In the sahelian regions of northern Ghana, groundwater serves as a major source of freshwater for domestic and agricultural purposes. This study investigated the quality of groundwater from 129 boreholes in the Sawla-Tuna-Kalba district in the Sahelian region of northern Ghana, to promote and enhance the proper utilization of the resource. Samples were collected and analyzed for various water quality parameters to evaluate its usefulness for domestic and agricultural use. Results indicates that groundwater in the study is generally fresh and hard. It was found that majority of samples belong to the Ca- Mg-HCO3 hydrochemical facies. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR for all groundwater samples in the district ranged from 0.18-3.61 (mean 1.00, implying that all the boreholes samples had excellent water that could be used for irrigation. This was confirmed by analytical data plot on the US salinity diagram which illustrates that majority of groundwater samples fall in the field of C2S1; indicating medium salinity and low sodium water. Though many of the analysed parameters fall within acceptable range and thus most of the boreholes had water which were chemically suitable for drinking, a few recorded total iron, manganese, lead, arsenic and fluoride concentrations above permissible WHO levels, suggesting some concern in terms of potability, especially since such water sources are extensively patronised by inhabitants for drinking and agricultural purposes.

  7. Impact of post-methanation distillery effluent irrigation on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Kaushik, R; Kumar, Sanjeev; Joshi, H C; Pathak, H

    2005-11-01

    Molasses-based distilleries generate large quantities of effluent, which is used for irrigation in many countries including India. The effluent is rich in organic and inorganic ions, which may leach down and pollute the groundwater. An on-farm experiment was conducted to assess the impact of long-term irrigation with post-methanation distillery effluent (PMDE) on nitrate, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium contents in the groundwater of two sites in northwest India. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and colour were also determined to assess the chemical load in the groundwater. Nitrate content in the groundwater samples ranged from 16.95 mg L(-1) in the unamended fields to 59.81 mg L(-1) in the PMDE-amended fields during the 2-year study (2001-2002). Concentrations of TDS in water samples from tubewell of the amended field was higher by 40.4% over the tubewell water of the unamended field. Colour of the water samples of the amended fields was also darker than that of the unamended fields. The study indicated that the organic and inorganic ions added through the effluent could pose a serious threat to the groundwater quality if applied without proper monitoring. PMID:16308790

  8. Groundwater quality for irrigation of deep aquifer in southwestern zone of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza A.T.M. Tanvir Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In coastal regions of Bangladesh, sources of irrigation are rain, surface and groundwater. Due to rainfall anomaly andsaline contamination, it is important to identify deep groundwater that is eligible for irrigation. The main goal of the study wasto identify deep groundwater which is suitable for irrigation. Satkhira Sadar Upazila, at the southwestern coastal zone ofBangladesh, was the study area, which was divided into North, Center and South zones. Twenty samples of groundwaterwere analyzed for salinity (0.65-4.79 ppt, sodium absorption ratio (1.14-11.62, soluble sodium percentage (32.95-82.21, electricalconductivity (614-2082.11 μS/cm, magnesium adsorption ratio (21.96-26.97, Kelly’s ratio (0.48-4.62, total hardness(150.76-313.33 mg/l, permeability index (68.02-94.16 and residual sodium bi-carbonate (79.68-230.72 mg/l. Chemical constituentsand values were compared with national and international standards. Northern deep groundwater has the highest salinityand chemical concentrations. Salinity and other chemical concentrations show a decreasing trend towards the south. Lowchemical concentrations in the southern region indicate the best quality groundwater for irrigation.

  9. Hydro chemical characteristic and Quality Assessment of Groundwater of Ranchi Township Area, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhunath Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detail investigation of groundwater for the suitability of drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in Ranchi township area. For this purpose, 27 groundwater samples from wells and tube wellswere collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS , major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ and major anions (HCO3- F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-. pH of the analyzed samples indicates slightly alkaline nature of the water samples. Total dissolved solids of 94% of analyzed groundwater samples were falling in the category of fresh water and 6% in the category of brackish water. HCO3- and Cl- are dominant anions and Ca2+and Na+ as the dominant cation in the water chemistry.In majority of the samples, the analyzed parameters are well within the desirable limits and water is potable for drinking purposes. However, concentrations of EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, and Mg2+exceed the desirable limit at few sites.Parameter like residual sodium carbonate (RSC, permeability index (PI, percent sodium (%Na, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR were calculated and plotted to understand the water quality and utilitarian aspect of groundwater for irrigation uses. The calculated parameters show that the majority of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation uses. However,high salinity values at few sites restrict the suitability of the water for irrigation uses.

  10. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  11. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  12. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard. PMID:27456143

  13. The influence of artificial recharge for controlling land subsidence on groundwater quality in Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai City is supplied mainly by river water, therefore, quality of tap water is not good enough. In this connection it has been decided to exploit high quality groundwater from deep confined aquifer. This drinking water will be supplied separately form the normal tap water. Groundwater in Quaternary aquifers in Shanghai area up to date was exploited mainly for industrial use. Since 1965, the artificial recharge of aquifers using tap water has been carried out in order to control land subsidence. The influence of artificial recharge on groundwater quality thus should be assessed if groundwater will be used as drinking water. For this purpose, isotope techniques, especially tritium measurement, were used in combination with ICP-MS trace element analyses, and GC/MSD analyses for natural organic tracers. 36 samples from production and injection wells, 2 tap water samples, 3 samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River were taken in 1998 and 1999. Results obtained show, that tritium content is sensitive to presence of artificially recharged water. Some major chemical constituents, such as sulphate and bicarbonate, some volatile organic compounds, such as chloroform, bromo-dichloro-methane and 1,2-dichloro-ethane, are also good for tracing recharge water. Some trace elements in water samples, such as Li, Cr, which may derived from the base rock, show relatively high content in deep groundwater. While some other trace elements, such as Pb, Mn and Ni, are obviously from the wastewater. They are characteristic for surface water. Based on results obtained for these available indicators, it was concluded, that a few production wells of the IV layer, which is the major layer for drinking water exploitation, are in the sphere of influence of injection wells. (author)

  14. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon's 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined

  15. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality - A case study of Kondapur mandal, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramamohan Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose with respect to BIS: 10500-1991standards is assessed through statistical analysis of the data and on the basis of seasonal variation in the quality of groundwater. The study was undertaken during 2010-2011. The samples are collected during post monsoon period from bore wells being monitored by the Andhra Pradesh Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department. The study area comprises of Kondapur Mandal, which is one of the 46 mandals of Medak District lying in the semi-arid Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. The Mandal has 23 Revenue villages with no towns accounting to a total population of about 45000 as per census 2001. As per water quality index (WQI values, the groundwater in the study area during post monsoon ranging from “Good” to “Unfit for drinking” and no where it was found “excellent.” The poor quality of water is due to higher concentrations of fluoride and increased total hardness values. It is found that about 84% of the samples analyzed are suitable for drinking. Correlation amongst all the parameters was found to be positive but weak. Only fluoride showed negative correlation with other parameters but it is very weak. This indicates that there is no regionally extensive factor governing the water quality and it is varying with local conditions only.

  17. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater of peninsular Indian region using multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacintha, T. German Amali; Rawat, Kishan Singh; Mishra, Anoop; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater quality of Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India) has been assessed during different seasons of year 2012. Three physical (pH, EC, and TDS) and four chemical parameters (Ca2+, Cl-, TH, Mg2+ and SO4 2-) from 18 bore wells were assessed. The results showed that pH of majority of groundwater samples indicates a slightly basic condition (7.99post-monsoon and 8.35pre-monsoon). TH was slightly hard [322.11 mg/lpre-monsoon, 299.37 mg/lpost-monsoon but lies under World Health Organization (WHO) upper limit]. EC, TDS, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations were under WHO permissible limit during post-monsoon (1503.42 μS/cm, 1009.37, 66.58 and 32.42 mg/l respectively) and pre-monsoon (1371.58 μS/cm, 946.84, 71.79 and 34.79 mg/l, respectively). EC shows a good correlation with SO4 2- (R 2 = 0.59pre-monsoon, 0.77post-monsoon) which indicates that SO4 2- plays a major role in EC of ground water of bore wells. SO4 2- has also showed positive correlations with TDS (R 2 = 0.84pre-monsoon, 0.95post-monsoon) and TH (R 2 = 0.70pre-monsoon, 0.75post-monsoon). The principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA) was carried out; Factor1 explains 59.154 and 69.278 % of the total variance during pre- and post-monsoon, respectively, with a strong positive loading on Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2-, TDS and a negative loading on pH. Factor2 accounts for 13.94 and 14.22 % of the total variance during pre- and post-monsoon, respectively, and was characterized by strong positive loading of only pH and poor/negative loading of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2-, TDS and TH during pre- and post-monsoon. We recommend routine monitoring and thorough treatment before consumption. Further, this study has demonstrated the effectiveness of PCA/FA to assess the hydrogeochemical processes governing the groundwater chemistry in the area.

  18. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  19. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  20. Impacts of Solid Waste Leachate on Groundwater and Surface Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the impacts of solid waste leachate on groundwater and surface water quality at unlined dumping site. Six leachate samples collected from different locations have average values of COD and BOD 2563 mg/L and 442 mg/L, respectively. Surface water samples were collected in two different seasons (rainy and non- rainy). Samples collected during non-rainy season were found to be more contaminated than rainy season. Soil samples collected from the depth of 1.5 m are contaminated with heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe and Zn) and E.coli. Presence of E.coli shows that leachate has deteriorated groundwater quality. (author)

  1. Study on the mechanisms making the deep groundwater quality. Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kin-ichi [CHISHITSU-KISO-KOGYO Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We compiled geological data and chemical data of deep groundwater in the Joban Coal Field, and examined the qualities and the changes of groundwater by geochemical analysis and numerical simulation. On the chemical analysis, we classified the chemical type of the water which gathered in the coal mine tunnels, and clarified their distributions. Moreover we analyzed isotopes in the water which picked up from wells under running. As a consequence of these analysis, the origin of the groundwater character in the Joban Coal Field is inferred to be mostly mixed water with present sea water and fresh water. We detected some groundwater were mixed with fresh water in some ten years, while we recognized that some groundwater which were mixed clearly with fossilized sea water also exist. Concerning the numerical simulation, we set up the 3 dimensional model in this field which roughly represents the geological structures and physical conditions, and collected the data to inspect the analytical results. We simulated hydraulic conditions of this model for 100 years including three phases; those are the model with no tunnels, the model at mining, and abandoned mine model with re-submergence. In consequence, volume of influx water to the tunnels and restoration of water level after re-submergence are nearly represented, and we recognized the availability of this large-scale analysis. Moreover, we tried to simulate the very large 2 dimensional water system including the boundary of fresh water and sea water, and analyzed very long time change of the deep groundwater which was caused by sea level change. (author). 63 refs.

  2. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Assessment Of Groundwater Quality Around Solid Waste Landfill Area - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    CHIDANAND PATIL, SHREEKANT NARAYANAKAR, ARJUN VIRUPAKSHI

    2013-01-01

    Physical, chemical and bacteriological analyses of water samples from seven bore wells located around landfill site at Turmuri, Belgaum was carried out to ascertain the magnitude of dumpsite pollution on groundwater quality. During the study period, 7 bore wells were selected around the landfill area at a distance of 500, 750 and 1000m. The parameters analyzed during the study period were pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), Total Hardness, Nitrate, Most Probable Number (MPN) and heavy metal suc...

  4. INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WATER QUALITY OF RIVERS AND GROUNDWATERS FROM BRĂILA COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    CIOBOTARU Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the effects produced by the anthropic (polution, irrigation and chemical processing) to water concentration from groundwater (concentration of nitrates, phosphates, dissolved oxygen). In Brăila county, the main sources of water pollution are the population which discharge untreated wastewater, a series of public and private companies but also pig complexes. The quality of the environment in Brăila county improved after were closed the enterprises and polluant sections and...

  5. Water Quality and Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Surface Water and Groundwaters in Aksu (Isparta Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Şener

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, geological, hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical characteristics of the Aksu (Isparta plain were investigated. In addition, determination of the water quality and availability in current status besides groundwater dynamics were aimed in the scope of work. The study area is located in the southwest Turkey, and lithological units belonging to Beydaglari autochthonous and Antalya nappes are observed. The most important surface water and groundwater reservoirs are Aksu river and alluvial-karst aquifers, respectively. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and quality of the water are important because water is used as drinking water and irrigation water in the plain. For this purpose, in situ measurements and chemical analyzes were carried out in the period of May-2013 on water resources. According to the obtained results, water resources is Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, and Mg-Ca-HCO3 facies. According to the Water Pollution Control Regulation, all surface and groundwaters are determined in 4th water quality class in terms of sulfur owing to water-rock interaction. The assessment of the usage properties of the waters indicate that water sources is suitable for drinking and irrigation water usage in generally.

  6. Impact of river bank filtration on alluvial groundwater quality: A case study of the Velika Morava River in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Branislav Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial aquifers are preferred sites for drinking water production. Riverbed sediments and saturated alluvial sediments have great potential for groundwater purification which is essential for preserving the stability of the groundwater quality. Conducted research in the area of groundwater source Brzan in central Serbia showed that intergranular aquifer has potential not only to purify polluted surface water but also to enrich water quality. Main aquifer recharge is infiltration of surface water from the Velika Morava River. The quality of surface water is very variable, especially for some components such as turbidity, conductivity, KMnO4 consumption, and iron, chloride and nitrates content. On the other hand, the quality of groundwater is characterised with minimal oscillation particularly regarding mentioned components. Based on numerous results on surface and groundwater quality we can conclude that water from the groundwater source Brzan is with good quality and can be used for drinking consumption with minimal treatment despite the fact that aquifer is in strong hydraulic connection with the Velika Morava River. Improvement of water quality is result manly of water filtration through river bad sediments and aquifer body. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176022 i br. 43004

  7. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Krieg, R.; Martienssen, M.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2009-10-01

    Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs) up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany). Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3- showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream-1 d-1, respectively, while Cl- (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream-1 d-1) and SO42- (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream-1 d-1) revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  8. Cumulative geological, regional and site-specific factors affecting groundwater quality in domestic wells in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater quality in domestic wells and the reasons for problems in this respect are described on the scale of an individual household well using an extensive database of 1421 wells. The water quality in these wells is compared with that reported in the late 1950’s in order to assess longterm changes, and a comparison is made between the dug wells (N = 1096) and the bedrock wells (N = 325). The possibility of seasonal changes is assessed by comparing analyses of water taken from the same ...

  9. IMPACT OF MINING WASTES ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE PROVINCE JERADA (EASTERN MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    BATTIOUI MOUNIA; BENZAZOUA MOSTAPHA; HAKKOU RACHID; BOUZAHZAH HASSAN; JILALI ABDELHAKIM; SBAA MOHAMED

    2013-01-01

    Jerada coal mine is located in north east of Morocco, and closed in late 2001.Today the quantity stored is about 15 to 20 million tonnes. These releases contain significant levels of accompanying elements or secondary minerals such as iron sulfides (pyrite) and their oxidation products.Monitor the groundwater quality was developed in the region in order to assess the quality of these waters and to estimate the risk of contamination. The study focused on 35 wells spread to cover almost all of ...

  10. Artificial senses for characterization of food quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-bo; LAN Yu-bin; R.E. Lacey

    2004-01-01

    Food quality is of primary concern in the food industry and to the consumer. Systems that mimic human senses have been developed and applied to the characterization of food quality. The five primary senses are: vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch.In the characterization of food quality, people assess the samples sensorially and differentiate "good" from "bad" on a continuum.However, the human sensory system is subjective, with mental and physical inconsistencies, and needs time to work. Artificial senses such as machine vision, the electronic ear, electronic nose, electronic tongue, artificial mouth and even artificial the head have been developed that mimic the human senses. These artificial senses are coordinated individually or collectively by a pattern recognition technique, typically artificial neural networks, which have been developed based on studies of the mechanism of the human brain. Such a structure has been used to formulate methods for rapid characterization of food quality. This research presents and discusses individual artificial sensing systems. With the concept of multi-sensor data fusion these sensor systems can work collectively in some way. Two such fused systems, artificial mouth and artificial head, are described and discussed. It indicates that each of the individual systems has their own artificially sensing ability to differentiate food samples. It further indicates that with a more complete mimic of human intelligence the fused systems are more powerful than the individual systems in differentiation of food samples.

  11. Recharge and discharge calculations to characterize the groundwater hydrologic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods are presented to quantify the ground water component of the hydrologic balance; including (1) hydrograph separation techniques, (2) water budget calculations, (3) spoil discharge techniques, and (4) underground mine inflow studies. Stream hydrograph analysis was used to calculate natural groundwater recharge and discharge rates. Yearly continuous discharge hydrographs were obtained for 16 watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau area of Tennessee. Baseflow was separated from storm runoff using computerized hydrograph analysis techniques developed by the USGS. The programs RECESS, RORA, and PART were used to develop master recession curves, calculate ground water recharge, and ground water discharge respectively. Station records ranged from 1 year of data to 60 years of data with areas of 0.67 to 402 square miles. Calculated recharge ranged from 7 to 28 inches of precipitation while ground water discharge ranged from 6 to 25 inches. Baseflow ranged from 36 to 69% of total flow. For sites with more than 4 years of data the median recharge was 20 inches/year and the 95% confidence interval for the median was 16.4 to 23.8 inches of recharge. Water budget calculations were also developed independently by a mining company in southern Tennessee. Results showed about 19 inches of recharge is available on a yearly basis. A third method used spoil water discharge measurements to calculate average recharge rate to the mine. Results showed 21.5 inches of recharge for this relatively flat area strip mine. In a further analysis it was shown that premining soil recharge rates of 19 inches consisted of about 17 inches of interflow and 2 inches of deep aquifer recharge while postmining recharge to the spoils had almost no interflow component. OSM also evaluated underground mine inflow data from northeast Tennessee and southeast Kentucky. This empirical data showed from 0.38 to 1.26 gallons per minute discharge per unit acreage of underground workings. This is the

  12. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  13. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Twelve bores were sunk adjacent to three stormwater infiltration basins in the Perth metropolitan area to examine the impact of runoff from a light industrial area, a medium-density residential area, and a major arterial road on groundwater quality, and to examine the hydrological response of the aquifer to runoff recharge. Automatic and manual water level monitoring between April and November 1990 indicated that groundwater levels responded within minutes to recharge from the infiltration basins. Peak water levels of up to 2.5 m above rest levels occurred 6 24 h after the commencement of ponding in the infiltration basins. There was a marked reduction in salinity and increase in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer downgradient of the infiltration basins. Concentrations of toxic metals, nutrients, pesticides, and phenolic compounds in groundwater near the infiltration basins were low and generally well within Australian drinking water guidelines. However, sediment in the base of an infiltration basin draining a major road contained in excess of 3500 ppm of lead. Phthalates, which are US EPA priority pollutants, were detected in all but one bore near the infiltration basins. Their detection may be a sampling artifact, but they may also be derived from the plastic litter that accumulates in the infiltration basins. The concentration of iron in groundwater near the infiltration basins appears to be controlled by dissolved oxygen concentrations, with high iron concentrations occurring where dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. Pumping bores located near infiltration basins may suffer from iron encrustation problems caused by the mixing of shallow, oxygenated groundwater with water containing higher concentrations of iron from deeper in the aquifer.

  14. Prediction of Groundwater Quality Changes in Response to CO2 Leakage from Deep Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Apps, J. A.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    If carbon dioxide stored in deep saline aquifers were to leak into overlying aquifer containing potable groundwater, the intruding CO2 would lower groundwater pH and could enhance the solubility of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. As an effort to evaluate risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO2, this work assesses these potential effects using reactive transport modeling. A systematic geochemical evaluation of more than 38,000 groundwater quality analyses from aquifers throughout the United States provided the prerequisites for reactive transport modeling. For example, galena (under reducing conditions) and cerussite (under oxidizing conditions) control aqueous Pb (lead) whereas arsenopyrite component in pyrite controls aqueous As (arsenic) generally under reducing conditions. Reactive transport simulations are performed which focus on the chemical evolution of Pb and As in the groundwater after the intrusion of CO2. The simulations use representative mineralogies for shallow potable aquifers in the USA and two measured mineralogies for deep confined aquifers. The resulting concentrations of Pb and As in the groundwater are then compared to the EPA specified health- based limits for drinking water. A significant increase of aqueous Pb and As occurs, although in most situations they remain below health-based limits. Sensitivity studies are also conducted for variation in hydrological, geochemical and mineralogical conditions and several critical parameters. The results indicate that aquifers containing more carbonate (through pH buffer) and clay minerals (by adsorption) are less vulnerable to CO2 intrusion. Adsorption/desorption from minerals surface significantly impact the mobilization of Pb and As. Adsorption dampens the effect of galena and arsenopyrite dissolution by removing Pb and As from aqueous phase under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing condition desorption is primarily responsible for increasing the

  15. Tank waste remediation system characterization project quality policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality plan describes the system used by Characterization Project management to achieve quality. This plan is comprised of eleven quality policies which, when taken together, form a management system deployed to achieve quality. This quality management system is based on the customer's quality requirements known as the 'RULE', 10 CFR 830.120, Quality Assurance

  16. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility

  17. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potential of Jawa Block Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Tiwari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals an assessment of groundwater quality and pollution potcntial of Jawa block, Rewa district, Madhya Pradesh India. Geologically, the area is occupied by shale and sandstone of Rewa Group, Vindhyan Supergroup. Interpretation of analytical data shows Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl facies. The chemical parameters- hardness, sulphate and total dissolved solid exceed the desirable limit in few locations which should be use for drinking after some chemical treatments. The higher concentration of nitrate may be due to excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. The fluoride is generally within permissible limit with few exceptions. The computed DRASTIC Index suggests intermediate to high pollution susceptibility. The interpretation on the basis of available data shown that the groundwater of the area was more or less fit for drinking.

  19. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Domestic and Irrigation Purposes in Yola, Adamawa State Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong, Aliyu Haliru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation purposes in Yola Adamawa State during the peak of dry season, groundwater samples were collected for analysis from fifteen boreholes and five hands dug wells that cover twenty wards of the City. The area investigated falls within longitude 12o26' E and Latitude 9o16' N. The groundwater samples collected were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS, multi – analyte photometer and flame photometer while interpretation of the results was done by Comparison with the World Health Organization (WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ guidelines for portable water. The pH values ranged from acidic to slightly alkaline 5.5 – 7.4, turbidity recorded 0 – 40NTU with four samples above the limit of 5NTU.TDS and EC recorded values ranged between 17 – 1200mg/l, 129 - 1600µs/cm with two samples each above stipulated limit. The concentrations of the cat ions (Ca, Mg, Na, and K are all found below the guideline of WHO and NSDWQ. Sulphate and bicarbonate recorded value range of 2 – 94.1mg/l and 11 – 630mg/l, which are also below the value of 100mg/l and 1000mg/l set by NSDWQ and WHO standards; however the recorded value of nitrate exceeded the specified limit of 50mg/l in seven water samples. Five water samples are classified as hard water based on the limit of 150mg/l and 500mg/l total hardness classification by the limit under consideration. The concentrations of heavy metals cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, manganese and iron were all found to exceed the WHO and NSDWQ standards. Iron concentration exceeded 0.3mg/l in seventeen water sample, manganese concentration exceeded 0.2mg/l and 0.05mg/l in twelve water samples, lead exceeded the limit of 0.01mg/l in seven water samples, also, chromium and cadmium exceeded limits of 0.05mg/l and 0.003mg/l in four and six water samples, copper exceeded set limit in only one sample while Nickel concentration

  20. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  1. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Selected Inland Valley Agro-ecosystems for Irrigation in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji S Aboyeji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the quality of groundwater of 6 inland valley (IV agro-ecosystems with a view to establishing their characteristics for cropping in the derived savannah of southwest Nigeria. Water samples were collected in piezometers during the rainy and dry seasons and analysed for physicochemical and heavy metal properties. Major water quality indices and comparison with stipulated standards were used to determine the usability of the waters for irrigation. The study showed that the waters were generally neutral to slightly alkaline, with the dominance structure of the major cations and anions in the order of Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > CO3. The concentration of heavy metals was generally within the recommended limits for most crops grown in the study area. Major water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids, permeability index, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s ratio and residual sodium bicarbonate are generally within the levels acceptable for crop irrigation. Kruskal-Wallis H test (two-tailed showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the water quality parameters/indices between the inland valley sites, P = 0.935. The groundwater of inland valley agro-ecosystems of the study area is generally suitable for agricultural utilisation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.2.10802

  2. Spatial Analysis of Groundwater Quality in Karstic Aquifers under Urbanization Stress: A Methodological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Najm, Majdi; Momjian, Nanor; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Decision makers are increasingly relying on groundwater quality mapping using geospatial / statistical analysis tools coupled with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that transform monitoring data into more readable maps for informed decisions. These tools are dependent on various interpolation methods that are invariably applied without proper knowledge of underlying assumptions thus often generating non-validated or unreliable maps. This study examines the accuracy of commonly used interpolation schemes with cross-validation using field measurements collected during groundwater sampling campaigns in three coastal cities along the eastern Mediterranean. The performance and accuracy of interpolation methods was scrutinized with multiple cross-checking approaches including (1) the leave-one-out, (2) matching with water quality standardized categories, and (3) cross-checking with the physical vulnerability of tapped aquifers. A total of 380 interpolation scenarios were generated using several combinations of interpolation methods (Inverse Distance Weight (IDW), Kriging and Co-Kriging), semi-variogram models (Spherical and Exponential), data transformation, and several water quality parameters including single and multiple contaminant indicators, in three cities and for different seasons. The results showed that Kriging and Co-Kriging produced relatively better statistical indicators, whereas the IDW matched better the field measurements when a lumped approach of six water quality categories was adopted. While it can be argued that there is no one "best" interpolation method or a semi-variogram model that fits all data, it was evident that the GIS-based interpolation methods exhibited better matching at the three surveyed cities in comparison with groundwater vulnerability assessment models such as DRASTIC and EPIK.

  3. Relationship between the environmental and hydrogeological elements characterizing groundwater-dependent ecosystems in central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulec, Ewa; Zabłocki, Sebastian

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented for a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the relationship between hydrogeological and environmental elements characterizing the areas of groundwater-dependent ecosytems (GDEs) located in the Kampinos National Park in central Poland. Statistical analysis was used to assess the seasonal and long-term variability of groundwater conditions. A geographic information system (GIS)-based model enabled the visualization of the test results. Objectification of spatial relationships between hydrogeological and environmental elements was carried out using factor analysis. The statistical analysis of groundwater levels in the period 1999-2013 confirmed the sequence of wet and dry years. The calculation enabled the determination of the range of groundwater-level changes, but no specific trends were observed with respect to these changes. Moreover, the widespread belief that the lowering of the water table in presented GDEs is due to anthropogenic pressure and climate change was not confirmed. The factor analysis showed that GDE areas are characterized by a considerable homogeneity of abiotic elements and locally occurring heterogeneous regions, mainly related to anthropogenic pressure. Dependency between the type of plant community and depth to the water table in the typical GDEs was not defined by the delimiting factors.

  4. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in around Tirupati Area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, E.; Nagaraju, A.; Sreedhar, Y.; Thejaswi, A.; Sharifi, Zahed

    2016-08-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. The main aim of this study has been to assess the variability of groundwater parameters to develop water quality of Tirupati area and its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. Further, the samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulfates, hardness, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, percent sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI) have been calculated. Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater indicated that most of waters are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples are suitable for domestic and irrigation purpose.

  5. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  6. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  7. Groundwater Characterization of Cihaur Watershed Basin, Batujajar and Adjacent, West Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azy, Fikri Noor; Sapari Dwi Hadian, Mohamad; Ismawan

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted based on data from outcrop, well data, and springs with field orientation method assisted by the use of GPS and measurement tool physical and chemical properties of groundwater. Geological conditions investigated were geomorphology and stratigraphy, geomorphology unit study area consists of four units, namely geomorphology unit of strato volcano body, foot of strato volcano, intrusion units, and plains units and the river drainage patterns are parallel and subparallel. Stratigraphy in the study area are volcanic breccia (Qbv), Unit Andesite (Qa), Unit Tuff (Qtf) and Unit Clay Tuffan (Qlt). The characteristics of the groundwater of the study area are in form of the physico-chemical, major elements, and hydrolic parameter of the groundwater aquifers. From 27 locations, the water quality assesment by physico-chemical properties is classified as fresh water category and based on chemical major elements, has been classified 8 facies which are located in the study area. Then, there are two lithologies which act as aquifers ie, tuff and volcanic breccias. Conductivity values in the range of volcanic breccia aquifers respectively 0,128 m/day and 0,288 m/day, transmitivity (T) ranges respectively 1,9296 m2/day and 4,32 m2/day. The value of conductivity in tuff aquifer is 0,063 m/day, transmitivity (T) is 0,95 m2/day. While lithology Qlt (Clay tuffan) is lithology with very low productivity of groundwater or called groundwater rare area (akiclud) and the rock units Qa (Andesite) is a non-aquifer that is the absence of groundwater in these rock units (akifug).

  8. Combining natural background levels (NBLs) assessment with indicator kriging analysis to improve groundwater quality data interpretation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; de Melo, M Teresa Condesso; Preziosi, Elisabetta; Sellerino, Mariangela; Parrone, Daniele; Ribeiro, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The natural background level (NBL) concept is revisited and combined with indicator kriging method to analyze the spatial distribution of groundwater quality within a groundwater body (GWB). The aim is to provide a methodology to easily identify areas with the same probability of exceeding a given threshold (which may be a groundwater quality criteria, standards, or recommended limits for selected properties and constituents). Three case studies with different hydrogeological settings and located in two countries (Portugal and Italy) are used to derive NBL using the preselection method and validate the proposed methodology illustrating its main advantages over conventional statistical water quality analysis. Indicator kriging analysis was used to create probability maps of the three potential groundwater contaminants. The results clearly indicate the areas within a groundwater body that are potentially contaminated because the concentrations exceed the drinking water standards or even the local NBL, and cannot be justified by geogenic origin. The combined methodology developed facilitates the management of groundwater quality because it allows for the spatial interpretation of NBL values. PMID:27371772

  9. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  10. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION ON GROUNDWATER AND SOIL QUALITY IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fetouani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sustainable food security, Morocco gives priority to agricultural and rural development by promoting investment in agricultural sector and use of intensification factors to improve incomes in rural areas. The Triffa irrigated perimeter is one of the oldest and the most productive in the country thanks to the Mohammed the V dam activity and the beginning of agricultural development intensification. Although this intensification has a positive effect on agricultural yields, it has negative impacts on soil and generatesgroundwater quality degradation. Indeed, recent studies performed in this area by us and Bendra (Fetouani et al., 2008; Bendra et al, 2012 have mentioned the existence of salinity problems, nitric groundwater pollution and soils salinization. This degradation is caused essentially by intensive use of agrochemicals, including nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, and non-control of irrigation and cultivated plots drainage. However, a degradation of groundwater and soil quality is not without risk to Human health. Having a global vision about situation of groundwater and soil quality in the Triffa plain we have decided to deepen this theme to a local scale and to study in details the impact of intensive agriculture on groundwater and soil quality in a farm, located in the centre of the Triffa plain.To sum up the results of this study the state of soil quality in the farm is not alarming. However, the groundwater quality is mainly dramatic, because it is a receptacle of all the nutrients applied on the surface, especially nitrates.

  12. Groundwater quality analysis using multivariate statistical techniques (case study: Fars province, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshadi, Masoud; Ghafourian, Amir

    2016-07-01

    This research investigated the quality of groundwater of 298 wells during 10 years, in Fars province, southern Iran, to survey spatial variation of groundwater quality and also major sources of hydro-chemical components for drinking and agricultural uses. To classify the sampling stations in each year, hierarchical cluster analysis, using the Euclidean distances and "Ward" method, was used. According to the results of cluster analysis, there were three quality groups in groundwater of the research area: first group of 170 wells with type of Ca-HCO3, second group of 98 wells with type of Ca-HCO3, and third group of 30 wells with type of Na-Cl. Hydro-chemical parameters were increased from the first to the third group, and on the basis of Schoeller and USSL diagrams, the water of wells of the third group was considered unsuitable for irrigation and drinking. Principal component (PC) analysis and factor analysis reduced the complex and voluminous data matrix into three main components, accounting for more than 80 % of the total variance. The first PC contained TDS, EC, TH, Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), SO4 (2-), Ca(2+), and SAR parameters. Therefore, the first dominant factor was salinity. In PC2, HCO3 and pH were the dominant parameters, which may indicate weathering of silicate minerals. The PC3 contained high loadings for NO2 (2-) and NO3 (-). This factor indicates anthropogenic contaminants that may be caused by improper disposal of domestic wastes or the use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and leaching of them. PMID:27317054

  13. Hydrogeophysical characterization of shallow unconsolidated sediments for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jehyun; Hwang, Seho; Won, Byeongho; Kim, Yongcheol

    2013-04-01

    A water curtain cultivation system is usually used to offer a stable heat source using a geothermal heat of groundwater. However, it may cause groundwater drawdown by an excessive use of groundwater such as over-pumping. Therefore, as part of an effort to develop a sustainable water curtain system, artificial groundwater recharge is projected to minimize groundwater shortage problem and recover groundwater level. Geophysical approaches are systematically applied to characterize unconsolidated sediments and riverside porous aquifers for the artificial groundwater recharge in a water curtain cultivation area. Resistivity survey is applied to map the distribution of subsurface structure, especially unconsolidated sediments. A series of test holes are drilled, and water level, temperature, and groundwater electrical conductivity are monitored to characterize hydrogeological properties of the site. The natural gamma and induction profiles enable us to estimate stratigraphic cross section and interpret inter-borehole. Borehole compensated neutron porosity is derived for a small-diameter, dual-detector neutron logs. Consequently, geophysical methods could enhance knowledge of the physical properties of unconsolidated sediments, and they are expected to evaluate injection feasibility of artificial groundwater recharge systems to the sustainable water resource management.

  14. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems. PMID:26193833

  15. Design of monitor wells, hydrogeology, and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, Kingston, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Ten monitoring well were installed in May 1993 to collect data on the hydrogeology and ground-water quality beneath Country Pond, in Kingston, New Hampshire. Monitoring wells were installed 4 to 48 feet beneath the pond surface in stratified drift that was up to 40 feet thick. The stratified drift is overlain by up to 35 feet of fine-grained, predominantly organic, lake-bottom sediment. The potentiometric head in the aquifer was at or above the pond surface and up to 0.8 foot above the pond surface at one location. Water-quality analyses detected numerous volatile organic compounds including chloroethane, benzene, dichlorobenzenes, and 1,1-dichloroethane at maximum concentrations of 110, 43, 54, and 92 mg/L, respectively. The maximum concentration of total volatile organic compounds detected in ground water from a monitoring well was 550 mg/L in November 1993. Ground-water samples with high concentrations of volatile organic compounds also had elevated specific conductances indicating the presence of other non-organic contaminants. Water-quality analyses indicate that a plume of contaminated ground water extends at least 300 feet in a northeast direction beneath the pond.

  16. Assessing groundwater quality trends in pumping wells using spatially varying transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillieux, A.; Moeck, C.; Perrochet, P.; Hunkeler, D.

    2015-11-01

    When implementing remediation programs to mitigate diffuse-source contamination of aquifers, tools are required to anticipate if the measures are sufficient to meet groundwater quality objectives and, if so, in what time frame. Transfer function methods are an attractive approach, as they are easier to implement than numerical groundwater models. However, transfer function approaches as commonly applied in environmental tracer studies are limited to a homogenous input of solute across the catchment area and a unique transfer compartment. The objective of this study was to develop and test an original approach suitable for the transfer of spatially varying inputs across multiple compartments (e.g. unsaturated and saturated zone). The method makes use of a double convolution equation accounting for transfer across two compartments separately. The modified transfer function approach was applied to the Wohlenschwil aquifer (Switzerland), using a formulation of the exponential model of solute transfer for application to subareas of aquifer catchments. A minimum of information was required: (1) delimitation of the capture zone of the outlet of interest; (2) spatial distribution of historical and future pollution input within the capture zone; (3) contribution of each subarea of the recharge zone to the flow at the outlet; (4) transfer functions of the pollutant in the aquifer. A good fit to historical nitrate concentrations at the pumping well was obtained. This suggests that the modified transfer function approach is suitable to explore the effect of environmental projects on groundwater concentration trends, especially at an early screening stage.

  17. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  18. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda M; I Abu-Zuid, Gaber

    2015-07-01

    Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69) indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes. PMID:26199748

  19. INFLUENCE OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON WATER QUALITY OF RIVERS AND GROUNDWATERS FROM BRĂILA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOBOTARU Ana-Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects produced by the anthropic (polution, irrigation and chemical processing to water concentration from groundwater (concentration of nitrates, phosphates, dissolved oxygen. In Brăila county, the main sources of water pollution are the population which discharge untreated wastewater, a series of public and private companies but also pig complexes. The quality of the environment in Brăila county improved after were closed the enterprises and polluant sections and the pig complexes from Gropeni, Brăila, Tichileşti, Deduleşti and Cireşu.

  20. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  1. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year

  2. Characterization of humic substances from deep groundwaters in granitic bedrock in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic substances were isolated from deep groundwaters sampled at depths between 100 and 800 m at Finnsjoen, Fjaellveden, Forsmark, Gidea, Lansjaerv, Stripa and Aespoe. The humic fraction, which largely consisted of fulvic acid in all the samples, was characterized with respect to elemental composition, molecular weight, acid capacity (COOH and OH) as well as age (14C). The differences in composition and capacity between old (1270-9675 y) and fresh (reference fulvic acid from surface water, Bersbo) were minor. (orig.)

  3. Stable groundwater quality in deep aquifers of Southern Bangladesh: The case against sustainable abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In forty six wells > 150 m deep, from across the arsenic-polluted area of south-central Bangladesh, groundwater composition remained unchanged between 1998 and 2011. No evidence of deteriorating water quality was found in terms of arsenic, iron, manganese, boron, barium or salinity over this period of 13 years. These deep tubewells have achieved operating lives of more than 20 years with minimal institutional support. These findings confirm that tubewells tapping the deep aquifers in the Bengal Basin provide a safe, popular, and economic, means of arsenic mitigation and are likely to do so for decades to come. Nevertheless, concerns remain about the sustainability of a resource that could serve as a source of As-safe water to mitigate As-pollution in shallower aquifers in an area where tens of millions of people are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic in well water. The conjunction of the stable composition in deep groundwater and the severe adverse health effects of arsenic in shallow groundwater lead us to challenge the notion that strong sustainability principles should be applied to the management of deep aquifer abstraction in Bangladesh is, the notion that the deep groundwater resource should be preserved for future generations by protecting it from adverse impacts, probably of a minor nature, that could occur after a long time and might not happen at all. Instead, we advocate an ethical approach to development of the deep aquifer, based on adaptive abstraction management, which allows possibly unsustainable exploitation now in order to alleviate crippling disease and death from arsenic today while also benefiting future generations by improving the health, education and economy of living children. - Highlights: • Tens of millions of people in Bangladesh are affected by arsenic pollution of groundwater. • Deep wells in potentially non-renewable aquifers are the dominant form of mitigation. • Water quality in these aquifers has remained stable for 13

  4. Groundwater quality & sustainability in Ulaanbaatar, the fast growing Capital of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, N.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.

    2011-12-01

    About 40% (1.1 million out of 2.7 million total) of Mongolian population lives in the capital city, Ulaanbaatar. The city's drinking water totally depends on groundwater pumped from the alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River and some private wells for domestic usage. As a measure to evaluate groundwater conditions, a total 55 samples from groundwater and surface waters were collected in the public central well-field and its adjacent area from August 2010 to Feb. 2011, for characteristics of water chemistry and environmental isotopic signatures. The water types were classified with Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 in summer, but predominantly Ca-HCO3 in winter. Statistical analysis of water compositions shows two groups of water: group-A waters from the Public central supply well-field with Tuul river waters, and group-B from other area including Ger dwelling areas. In terms of water quality, nitrate concentrations exceeded the WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality (50 mg/l) in 55% (15 out of 27 samples) of the group-B; it implies that the potential sources of groundwater contamination be domestic waste-disposal practices and underdeveloped sewage systems. Environmental isotopes and water-level monitoring data indicated that shallow wells, showing the depth to water less than 3 m bgs, appear to be directly recharged from rainfalls and river water. In contrast, wells with the depth to water in between 5 and 7 m and located some distance from Tuul River take approximately 2 to 3 months to be recharged in rainy season. Since Ulaanbaatar has been growing fast as the Capital of Mongolia, various types of potential sources of groundwater contamination have also been located inside the city boundary including tanning industries, coal-based thermal power plants, gas stations, etc. Thus, for the sustainable development of the Capitol, it is warranted to develop better management measures with long-term and systematic monitoring to protect water-supply sources.

  5. Hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in eastern York County, Virginia. Water resources investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the hydrogeology and water quality of the shallow ground-water system in the eastern part of York County, Va. The report includes a discussion of (1) the aquifers and confining units, (2) the flow of ground water, and (3) the quality of ground water. The report is an evaluation of the shallow ground-water system and focuses on the first 200 ft of sediments below land surface. Historical water-level and water-quality data were not available for the study area; therefore, a network of observation wells was constructed for the study. Water levels were measured to provide an understanding of the flow of ground water through the multiaquifer system. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and metals. The report presents maps that show the regional distribution of chloride and iron concentrations. Summary statistics and graphical summaries of selected chemical constituents provide a general assessment of the ground-water quality

  6. Changes in quality of groundwater with seasonal fluctuations: an example from Ghor Sari area, southern Dead Sea coastal aquifers, Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The demand for water resources in the area south of the Dead Sea due to continued development, especially at the Arab Potash Company (APC) for production and domestic purposes necessitates that water quality in the area be monitored and evaluated based on the local geology and hydrogeology. The objective of this paper is to monitor seasonal fluctuations of groundwater and to determine how fluctuation in the water levels will affect the groundwater quality. Groundwater levels were found to be influenced by rainfall and pumping of water from the wells for domestic and industrial use. Twenty water samples were collected from different wells and analyzed for major chemical constituents both in pre- and post-seasons to determine the quality variation. Chemical constituents are significantly increased after post-season recharge. According to the overall assessment of the area, water quality was found to be useful for drinking, irrigation and industry.

  7. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leschik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSO's can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPT's up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPT's the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany. Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3 showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg m−1stream d−1, respectively, while Cl (16.8 to 47.3 g m−1stream d−1 and SO42− (20.3 to 32.2 g m−1stream d−1 revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  8. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Leschik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany. Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3 showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream−1 d−1, respectively, while Cl (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream−1 d−1 and SO42− (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream−1 d−1 revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  9. Geohydrology and ground-water quality beneath the 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water enters the 300 Area from the northwest, west, and southwest. However, throughout most of the 300 Area, the flow is to the east and southeast. Ground water flows to the northeast only in the southern portion of the 300 Area. Variations in level of the Columbia River affected the ground-water system by altering the level and shape of the 300 Area watertable. Large quantities of process waste water, when warmed during summer months by solar radiation or cooled during winter months by ambient air temperature, influenced the temperature of the ground water. Leaking pipes and the intentional discharge of waste water (or withdrawal of ground water) affected the ground-water system in the 300 Area. Water quality tests of Hanford ground water in and adjacent to the 300 Area showed that in the area of the Process Water Trenches and Sanitary Leaching Trenches, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions are more dilute, and nitrate and chloride ions are more concentrated than in surrounding areas. Fluoride, uranium, and beta emitters are more concentrated in ground water along the bank of the Columbia River in the central and southern portions of the 300 Area and near the 340 Building. Test wells and routine ground-water sampling are adequate to point out contamination. The variable Thickness Transient (VTT) Model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer underlying the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and verified. The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model of distribution of contaminants in the saturated regime under the 300 Area has been set up, calibrated, and tested

  10. Tile Drainage Management Influences on Surface-Water and Groundwater Quality following Liquid Manure Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Ed; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Zoski, Erin; Lapen, David R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential for controlled tile drainage (CD) to reduce bacteria and nutrient loading to surface water and groundwater from fall-season liquid manure application (LMA) on four macroporous clay loam plots, of which two had CD and two had free-draining (FD) tiles. Rhodamine WT (RWT) was mixed into the manure and monitored in the tile water and groundwater following LMA. Tile water and groundwater quality were influenced by drainage management. Following LMA on the FD plots, RWT, nutrients, and bacteria moved rapidly via tiles to surface water; at the CD plots, tiles did not flow until the first post-LMA rainfall, so the immediate risk of LMA-induced contamination of surface water was abated. During the 36-d monitoring period, flow-weighted average specific conductance, redox potential, and turbidity, as well as total Kjeldahl N (TKN), total P (TP), NH-N, reactive P, and RWT concentrations, were higher in the CD tile effluent; however, because of lower tile discharge from the CD plots, there was no significant ( ≤ 0.05) difference in surface water nutrient and RWT loading between the CD and FD plots when all tiles were flowing. The TKN, TP, and RWT concentrations in groundwater also tended to be higher at the CD plots. Bacteria behaved differently than nutrients and RWT, with no significant difference in total coliform, , fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus, and concentrations between the CD and FD tile effluent; however, for all but , hourly loading was higher from the FD plots. Results indicate that CD has potential for mitigating bacteria movement to surface water. PMID:23673956

  11. Evaluation of risks of groundwater quality alteration in Recife urban area (Pernambuco, Brazil) using a multi-isotopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Batista, Jonathan; Bertolo, Reginaldo; Santos, Jeane-Glaucia; Montenegro, Suzanna; Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Pauwels, Hélène; Picot, Géraldine; Braibant, Gilles; Chatton, Eliot; Aquilina, Luc; Labasque, Thierry; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Aurouet, Axel; Franzen, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR) is a heavily urbanized area located in a estuary zone and over a multi-layered sedimentary system on the Brazilian Atlantic coast. In a context of increasing land use pressures, involving aquifer overexploitation and surface water contamination, and repeated droughts, the identification of groundwater quality risks in RMR is a necessary management requirement. In this perspective, this work focused on the two shallow aquifer systems, named Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers, located at the interface between the city (the consumers) and the deeper semi-confined Cretaceous Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. The Holocenic Boa Viagem and Tertiary Barreiras formations conform unconfined sedimentary aquifers, with no more than 80 m of thickness. Cabo is the most important groundwater body for Recife private complementary water supply and it has experienced an intense exploitation in the last three decades. In contrast, Boa Viagem and Barreiras aquifers are more restrictively used, but it is important to understand their water quality degradation,because of hydraulic connections with deeper aquifers, mainly in the littoral part of Recife, where hydraulic potentiometric head of the Cabo aquifer is 60 m below sea water level in some places, with conditions for recharge from shallower aquifers. Through a multi-isotopic characterization (87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ18O-SO4, δ34S-SO4) of sampling of 19 wells and 3 surface waters, carried out during two field campaigns with additional geochemical parameters (major ions, noble and major gases, CFC' s and SF6), the spatio-temporal variability of groundwater quality was investigated. The detection of CFC' s, implying a modern recharge component, highlighted the vulnerability of Boa Viagem and Barreiras to surface contaminations. The increasing mineralization and decreasing 87Sr/86Sr from the inland sector wells to the wells located close to the coast or estuary, with higher well and population densities, were

  12. RCRA Groundwater Quality Assessment Report for Waste Management Area S-SX (November 1997 through April 2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Vernon G.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2001-02-23

    This report updates a continuing groundwater quality assessment for single-shell tank Waste Management Area S-SX at the Hanford Site. This report covers November 1997 through April 2000. Major new findings include the following: groundwater contamination continues to persist in both the northern half of the Waste Management Area as well as the southern half; evaluation of changes in water table elevations indicates a gradual shift in the direction of groundwater flow from the southeast to a more easterly direction; discrete depth sampling suggests mobile tank waste contaminants are at the very top of the aquifer in downgradient wells along the southeast side of the SX tank farm.

  13. Results of phase 1 groundwater quality assessment for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a Phase 1 (or first determination) groundwater quality assessment for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY has impacted groundwater quality. This report will document the evidence demonstrating that the WMA has impacted groundwater quality

  14. Interlaboratory study of sampling and characterization techniques for groundwater colloids: the Markham Clinton exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural colloids may be important in the transport of radionuclides in groundwater and could significantly affect any analysis of repository safety. This report presents the results of an intercomparison exercise on techniques for sampling and characterization of natural groundwater colloids. In this study a comparison was made of colloid population, composition and size distribution in colloid concentrate samples taken in the field from poorly mineralized groundwater abstracted from fractured Permo-Triassic sandstone in the East Midlands of England. A comparison was made of two methods: pulsed crossflow ultrafiltration and tangential flow ultrafiltration. The actinide isotopic activities associated with the colloids were also determined, using isotope dilution/alpha spectrometry, at Harwell. The results from this intercomparison exercise indicate that: no artefacts are produced by either colloid concentration method, although some aggregation of colloidal particles may occur on storage of aqueous colloid concentrates; good agreement on colloid populations and size distributions is obtained by different laboratories applying scanning electron microscopic analysis to crossflow ultrafilters; and no evidence was found of a significant change in colloid concentration or actinide loading after the groundwater had been stored in platinized aluminium barrels for less than six months

  15. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  16. An approach to quality classification of deep groundwaters in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality and representativeness of groundwaters sampled in the Swedish SKB and in the Finnish TVO nuclear waste disposal site investigations have been evaluated. By definition a high quality sample is considered to be the one which best reflects the undisturbed hydrological and geochemical in situ conditions for the sampled section. Manual (expert judgement), statistical multivariate, mixing models and quality scoring system have been used to classify the waters regarding representativity. The constructed scoring system is best suited for quality classification, although the expert judgement is always needed as a complement. The observations are scored on a continuous scale based on the response of selected quality indicating parameters. Less representative samples are not rejected but given a value indicating the confidence of the observation. Finnish data obtained 45% of the possible scores compared to 55% for the Swedish data. The quality is generally 10% higher in the Swedish samples compared to the Finnish samples. The difference in sampling procedure is the probable reason for this

  17. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the upper east Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN3 89 009 0001. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant

  18. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  19. IMPACT OF MINING WASTES ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE PROVINCE JERADA (EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATTIOUI MOUNIA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jerada coal mine is located in north east of Morocco, and closed in late 2001.Today the quantity stored is about 15 to 20 million tonnes. These releases contain significant levels of accompanying elements or secondary minerals such as iron sulfides (pyrite and their oxidation products.Monitor the groundwater quality was developed in the region in order to assess the quality of these waters and to estimate the risk of contamination. The study focused on 35 wells spread to cover almost all of the study area.Two main sampling campaigns were conducted, the first one in October 2010, the second in July 2011.The pH of the different measuring points is generally between 6 and alkaline tending 8 show groundwater level in the region.The results obtained by ion chromatography show an average sulphate concentration of about 700mg/l.These concentrations are much higher in the wet season than the dry season. The average nitrate levels are in the range of 300mg/l while those chlorides are of the order of 418 mg/l.The analysis by emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP showed mean concentrations of calcium in the range of 170mg/l,340mg/l for sodium and 309mg/l for magnesium while contents of Al, As, Cd remain negligible or even below the detection limit.The results of physico-chemical analysis of groundwater level in the province of Jerada show high pollution level in the region.

  20. Spatial variability of groundwater quality of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district (Bihar, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, D. K.; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Shit, Pravat Kumar; Kumar, S.; Mandal, Jajati; Padbhushan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the quality of groundwater of Sabour block, Bhagalpur district of Bihar state, which lies on the southern region of Indo-Gangetic plains in India. Fifty-nine samples from different sources of water in the block have been collected to determine its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes. From the samples electrical conductivity (EC), pH and concentrations of Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), carbonate ion (CO{3/2-}), Bicarbonate ion (HCO{3/-}), Chloride ion (Cl-), and Fluoride (F-) were determined. Surface maps of all the groundwater quality parameters have been prepared using radial basis function (RBF) method. RBF model was used to interpolate data points in a group of multi-dimensional space. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is employed to scrutinize the best fit of the model to compare the obtained value. The mean value of pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and F- are found to be 7.26, 0.69, 38.98, 34.20, 16.92, 1.19, 0.02, and 0.28, respectively. Distribution of calcium concentration is increasing to the eastern part and K+ concentrations raise to the downstream area in the southwestern part. Low pH concentrations (less than 6.71) occur in eastern part of the block. Spatial variations of hardness in Sabour block portraying maximum concentration in the western part and maximum SAR (more than 4.23) were recorded in the southern part. These results are not exceeding for drinking and irrigation uses recommended by World Health Organization. Therefore, the majority of groundwater samples are found to be safe for drinking and irrigation management practices.

  1. Hydro-chemical Survey and Quantifying Spatial Variations of Groundwater Quality in Dwarka, Sub-city of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kishan Singh; Tripathi, Vinod Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological and geological aspect of the region play vital role for water resources utilization and development. Protection and management of groundwater resources are possible with the study of spatio-temporal water quality parameters. The study was undertaken to assess the deterioration in groundwater quality, through systematic sampling during post monsoon seasons of the year 2008 by collecting water samples from thirty bore wells located in Dwarka, sub-city of Delhi, India. The average concentrations of groundwater quality parameters namely Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Nitrate (NO3 -), Chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 2-), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solids (TDS), and electrical conductivity were 300, 178, 26.5, 301, 103, 483, 1042 mg/l and 1909 μS/cm respectively. Estimated physico-chemical parameters revealed that 7 % of the groundwater samples shown nitrate concentrations higher than safe limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Groundwater quality the in study region was poor due to come out result that NO3 - concentration exceeding the threshold value of 50 mg/l, and main cause is disposal of sewage and animal wastes to Najafgarh drain. Dominant cations are Mg2+, Ca2+ and anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The abundance of the major ions in groundwater is in the order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3. TH have strong correlation with Ca2+ (r = 0.81), Mg2+ (r = 0.82), Cl- (r = 0.86) but poor correlation with TDS (r = 0.52). Knowledge of correlation values between water quality parameters is helpful to take decision of appropriate management strategy for controlling groundwater pollution.

  2. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  3. Groundwater quality surrounding Lake Texoma during short-term drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stressors such as nitrates and total salts in ground water could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought conditions. - Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three feet (0.9 m) lower compared with several months earlier under predrought climate conditions. Detection frequencies of nitrate (> 0.1 mg/l), orthophosphates (> 0.1 mg/l), chlorides (> MCL), and sulfates (> MCL) all increased during drought. Orthophosphate level was higher during drought. Largest increases in concentration were nitrate under both agriculture lands and in septic tank areas. An increase in ammonium-nitrogen was only detected in the septic tank area. The study showed that stressors such as nitrate and total salts could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought

  4. Surface and groundwater quality in the northeastern region of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, G.; Sainato, C.; Dapeña, C.; Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Gimeno, D.; Pomposiello, M. C.; Panarello, H. O.

    2007-04-01

    This work studies the water quality of the Pergamino-Arrecifes River zone in the Rolling Pampa, northeast Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Temperature, pH, specific conductivity, Na, K, Mg, Ca, SO42-, Cl -, HCO3-, NO3-, Si, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Tl, U, V, Zn, and the environmental stable δ18O and δ2H isotope ratios were determined in 18 sampling stations. Natural and anthropogenic features influence surface and groundwater quality. Point pollution sources (septic wells and other domestic and farming effluents) increase the nitrate concentration. The values of pH, NO3-, Al, As, B, Fe, and Mn exceed the respective Argentine reference thresholds in different sampling stations for human drinking water; B, Mo, U, and V for irrigation; and V and Zn for cattle consumption.

  5. A time-domain electromagnetic sounder for detection and characterization of groundwater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Berdanier, Barry; Warden, Robert; Harrer, James; Demara, Raymond; Pfeiffer, James; Blohm, Richard

    2009-09-01

    A prototype time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounder was developed to technical readiness level (TRL) 5 to detect and characterize deep groundwater on Mars. The TDEM method induces eddy currents in the subsurface by abrupt extinction of a steady current in a large, flat-lying loop antenna, and the subsurface response is measured using the same loop or a separate receiver. TDEM has been widely used in terrestrial groundwater exploration and is ideally suited to sense the high electrical conductivity associated with saline groundwater expected on Mars. The inductive regime of TDEM is distinct from ground-penetrating radar: the latter has higher resolution but smaller depth of investigation. Our Mars-prototype TDEM was tested in the laboratory and at a local field site before the principal test was performed on Maui, Hawaii. This location was chosen because of its analogy to Mars in electrical properties: dry, resistive basalt over saline pore water. Results compared favorably to soundings made with a commercial TDEM, clearly detecting the seawater interface at depths of 250 m. We subsequently developed a ballistic deployment system for the loop antenna suitable for robotic missions. Compressed gas launches two projectiles; each consists of two spools on a guide stick. Payout on one spool is back towards the launcher and on the other toward its twin on the other projectile. In this way a triangular loop antenna is formed. The full system was tested twice, successfully achieving a distance of ˜70 m in both. A system capable of deploying a 200 m loop antenna on Mars would have mass <6 kg (including 0.3 kg electronics) and within one sol could detect groundwater at depths up to 5 km. TDEM can probe to depths not possible for radar and answer the question: does groundwater - and a likely subsurface habitable zone - exist on Mars?

  6. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  7. Ground-water flow and water quality in the sand aquifer of Long Beach Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a study that was undertaken to improve the understanding of ground-water flow and water quality in the coastal sand aquifer of the Long Beach Peninsula of southwestern Washington. Data collected for the study include monthly water levels at 103 wells and 28 surface-water sites during 1992, and water-quality samples from about 40 wells and 13 surface-water sites in February and July 1992. Ground water generally flows at right angles to a ground-water divide along the spine of the low-lying peninsula. Historical water-level data indicate that there was no long-term decline in the water table from 1974 to 1992. The water quality of shallow ground water was generally good with a few local problems. Natural concentrations of dissolved iron were higher than 0.3 milligrams per liter in about one-third of the samples. The dissolved-solids concentrations were generally low, with a range of 56 to 218 milligrams per liter. No appreciable amount of seawater has intruded into the sand aquifer, chloride concentrations were low, with a maximum of 52 milligrams per liter. Agricultural activities do not appear to have significantly affected the quality of ground water. Concentrations of nutrients were low in the cranberry-growing areas, and selected pesticides were not found above the analytical detection limits. Septic systems probably caused an increase in the concentration of nitrate from medians of less than 0.05 milligrams per liter in areas of low population density to 0.74 milligrams per liter in areas of high density.

  8. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  9. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  10. Monitoring report of groundwater quality around the Yotsugi mill-tailings dam, Ningyo-toge, Okayama, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Akira; Sato, Kazuhiko; Tsurudome, Koji; Tokizawa, Takayuki [Environmental Research and Development Group, Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    Monitoring of groundwater quality from boreholes around the Yotsugi mill-tailings dam, in the Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, JNC, have been carried out to estimate extent and quality of contaminated water plume from the mill-tailings pile. In this report, data collected from 1979 to 1998 fiscal year were listed and their spatial and time variation of physicochemical parameters, uranium and radium were also summarized. Additionally, groundwater sampler has been improved and analytical method has been modified. Some results from groundwater quality were; 1. Uranium and radium concentrations were low, although unexpected change was appeared in some borehole. 2. Water table and temperature from boreholes on the left bank of the dam showed drastically change. 3. Electric conductivity and concentrations or various dissolved ions tend to high from the embankment upward, whereas they tend to low from the embankment downward. (author)

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors

  12. Characterization of the dissolved organic carbon in landfill leachate-polluted groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Grøn, Christian;

    1998-01-01

    Samples of dissolved organic carbon (DOG) were obtained from landfill leachate-polluted groundwater at Vejen Landfill, Denmark. The humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were isolated and purified. Based on DOC measurements, the fulvic acid fraction predominated, accounting...... molecular weight of about 2600 Da. The elemental compositions of the humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were in the ranges typical for humic substances from other origins. The O/C ratios for humic acids, fulvic acids and the hydrophilic fraction were similar in the leachate-polluted...... groups made up about 3 meg g-(-1) and the weakly acidic groups made up about 1.5 meg g(-1). The total acidity accounted for 29-32% of the O/C ratio. The characterization of DOC in leachate-polluted groundwater in terms of humic acids, fulvic acids and hydrophilic fraction showed that the hydrophilic...

  13. An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.

  14. Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Vasudevan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Bagyaraj, M.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3 - and SO4 2-. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca-Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.

  15. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anji Reddy; Padmaja Vuppala; S. S. Asadi

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused dat...

  16. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in the Çavuşçayı basin, Sungurlu-Çorum, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Turgut

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality and usage possibility of groundwater in the Çavuşçayı basin and suggest the best water structure for the groundwater use. Results from hydrochemical analyses reveal that groundwater is mostly affected by salty (Na+ Cl-) waters of the Incik Formation and brackish (Ca2+, Mg2+ SO{4/2-}) waters of the Bayındır Formation. The Alibaba saltpan discharged (2 l/s) from the Incik Formation is used for salt production. In the basin, salinity risk increases with depth and along the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, shallow water and trenches opened in the alluvium aquifer at the east of the basin were determined to yield suitable water with no Na+ and Cl- contamination. Following the heavy rainy period, waters of less salinity and conductivity are possibly used for agriculture.

  17. An Assesment of Groundwater Quality Index in Bommasandra Area,Bengaluru city,Karnataka State,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprasad H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a natural resource for drinking water .In addition to the population growth, urbanization and industrialization also extend the demand of water. Providing safe drinking water supply to the ever growing urban and sub-urban population is going to be a challenge to the civil authorities, city planners, policy makers and environmentalists. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water in both urban and rural areas of Bommasandra. Bommasandra city is rapidly raising population, changing lifestyle and intense competition among users- agriculture, industry and domestic sectors is driving the groundwater table lower. Besides, discharge of untreated wastewater through bores and leachate from unscientific disposal of solid wastes also contaminate groundwater, thereby reducing quality of fresh water resources.

  18. How important are biogeochemical hotspots at aquifer-river interfaces for surface water and groundwater quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Blume, T.; Weatherill, J.; Munz, M.; Tecklenburg, C.; Angermann, L.; Cassidy, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    The mixing of groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) can have substantial impact on the transformation of solutes transported between aquifer and river. The assessment of biogeochemical cycling at reactivity hotspots as the aquifer-river interface and its implications for GW and SW quality require detailed understanding of the complex patterns of GW-SW exchange fluxes and residence time distributions in particular under changing climatic and landuse conditions. This study presents combined experimental and model-based investigations of the physical drivers and chemical controls of nutrient transport and transformation at the aquifer-river interfaces of two upland and lowland UK rivers. It combines the application of in-stream geophysical exploration techniques, multi-level mini-piezometer networks, active and passive heat tracing methods (including fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing - FO-DTS) for identifying hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence time distributions with multi-scale approaches of hyporheic pore-water sampling and reactive tracers for analysing the patterns of streambed redox conditions and chemical transformation rates. The analysis of hyporheic pore water from nested multi-level mini piezometers and passive gel probe samplers revealed significant spatial variability in streambed redox conditions and concentration changes of nitrogen species, dissolved oxygen and bio-available organic carbon. Hot spots of increased nitrate attenuation were identified beneath semi-confining peat lenses in the streambed of the investigated lowland river. The intensity of concentration changes underneath the confining peat pockets correlated with the state of anoxia in the pore water as well as the supply of organic carbon and hyporheic residence times. In contrast, at locations where flow inhibiting peat layers were absent or disrupted - fast exchange between aquifer and river caused a break-through of nitrate without significant concentration changes along

  19. Designing groundwater visualization interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Médard De Chardon, Cyrille

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater systems are inherently complex owing to their three-dimensional nature. The impacts of land use activities on groundwater quality and quantity, groundwater pumping, and the interaction of groundwater with surface waters are fundamental hydrogeologic concepts that require effective communication strategies. Using interactive visual interfaces may improve upon current educational techniques and encourage increased public participation in groundwater protection, conservation, and man...

  20. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  1. Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in the Outaouais Region (Québec, Canada) - A regional scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcoudiol, N.; Molson, J. W.; Lemieux, J.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Québec regional groundwater characterization program (PACES), a detailed groundwater quality survey was undertaken in the Outaouais Region (Québec, Canada). During the summers of 2011 and 2012, 139 samples were taken from municipal and private wells which were analysed for major ions, nutrients, metals and sulphides. About 70% of the samples were obtained from bedrock wells, mainly in the Canadian Shield and the remainder from wells screened in Quaternary deposit aquifers. Hydrogeochemical facies were determined for 127 samples which had anion-cation charge balance errors within ×10 %. Ca-HCO3 is the dominant water type (65%) which was mainly found in unconfined aquifers, especially Quaternary deposits, and is typical of recently infiltrated rainwater. Other relevant water types are Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl (17 and 6% respectively), characteristic of confined aquifers. This classification by water type is supported by multivariate statistical analysis, namely Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). PCA allows the identification of three factors controlling groundwater chemistry: salinity, silicate dissolution and F-bearing mineral dissolution. HCA results show that the samples can be grouped into seven clusters. Clusters 1 to 4 are mostly Ca-HCO3 water type and are representative of the enrichment in major ions due to carbonate and silicate dissolution, cluster 1 being closer to rainwater and cluster 4 the most evolved. Cluster 5, made of one sample with a particular chemistry, is not yet fully understood. Samples from cluster 6 present various degrees of Na-Ca exchange, a consequence of remnant Champlain Sea water (some samples from cluster 7 in confined zones) being replaced by infiltrating recharge water. Samples from cluster 7 are evolved waters with high Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) concentrations: they are remnants of the Champlain Sea in confined aquifers (bromide detected) or diluted/mixed by infiltrating

  2. Effects of land-use type on urban groundwater quality, Seoul metropolitan city, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Yun, S.; Chae, G.; So, C.; Kweon, S.; Lee, P.

    2001-12-01

    The progressive degradation of urban groundwater becomes an important environmental problem encountered in South Korea. This study aims to examine the relationships between land-use type and groundwater quality in Seoul metropolitan city, based on the results of hydrogeochemical monitoring. For this purpose, land-use type was divided into five categories (green zone, housing, agricultural, traffic, and industrialized). The mean concentrations of TDS (total dissolved solids) effectively reflect the degree of anthropogenic contamination and increase in the following order: green zone (152.5 mg/l), then agricultural (380.7 mg/l) and housing (384.2 mg/l), then traffic (457.0 mg/l), and finally industrialized area (554.5 mg/l). Among major dissolved solutes, the concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, HCO3, and Cl increase with increasing TDS. In case of Na and Ca, de-icing salts and sewage are considered as major contamination sources. The corrosion of cements may also increase Ca. Nitrate concentration is characteristically very high in housing and agricultural areas, reflecting the severe contamination from domestic sewage and fertilizer. Sulfate and magnesium are enriched in industrialized area, possibly due to their derivation from industrial facilities. Chlorine ion is considered to be derived from de-chlorination of hydrocarbons as well as de-icing salts. Bicarbonate also increases with increasing TDS, for which cement dissolution and oxidation of organics are considered as source materials. However, enhanced water-rock(or construction materials) interaction also may increase the bicarbonate, because acidic wastewater in urban area is very corrosive. Trace metals and organic compounds generally does not show any distinct pattern of regional variation. However, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Zn, TCE, and PCE tend to increase locally in industrialized area, whereas high concentrations of Br, Ni, and Cu are found in traffic area. The groundwaters with very high concentrations of Fe, Zn, and

  3. Reactive Transport of Nitrate in Northern California Groundwater basins: An Integrated Characterization and Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Moran, J. E.; Hudson, G. B.; Carle, S. F.; McNab, W.; Tompson, A. F.; Moore, K.; Beller, H.; Kane, S.; Eaton, G.

    2003-12-01

    More than 1/3 of active public drinking water supply wells in California produce water with nitrate-N levels indicative of anthropogenic inputs (> 4 mg/L). Understanding how the distribution of nitrate in California groundwater basins will evolve is vital to water supply and infrastructure planning. To address this need, we are studying the basin-scale reactive transport of nitrate in the Livermore and Llagas basins of Northern California. Both basins have increasingly urban populations heavily reliant on groundwater. A distinct nitrate "plume" exists in the Livermore Basin (Alameda County) whereas pervasive nitrate contamination exists in shallow groundwaters of the Llagas Basin (Santa Clara County). The sources and timing of nitrate contamination in these basins are not definitively known; septic systems, irrigated agriculture and livestock operations exist or have existed in both areas. The role of denitrification in controlling nitrate distribution is also unknown; dissolved oxygen levels are sufficiently low in portions of each basin as to indicate the potential for denitrification. We have collected water from 60 wells, and are determining both groundwater age (by the 3H/3He method) and the extent of denitrification (by the excess N2 method). Excess nitrogen is being determined by both membrane-inlet and noble gas mass spectrometry, using Ar and Ne content to account for atmospheric N2. We are also analyzing for stable istotopes of nitrate and water, nitrate co-contaminants, and general water quality parameters. Preliminary analysis of archival water district data from both basins suggests positive correlations of nitrate with Ca+2, Mg+2 and bicarbonate and negative correlation with pH. In the Llagas Basin, a negative correlation also exists between nitrate and temperature. Flow path-oriented reactive transport modeling is being explored as a tool to aid in the identification of both the sources of nitrate and evidence for denitrification in both basins

  4. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for Lower Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the drilling and installation of 11 groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Lower Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2. Lower WAG 2 consists of White Oak Lake and the embayment below White Oak Dam above the Clinch River. The wells in Lower WAG 2 were drilled and developed between December 1989 and September 1990. These wells were installed to characterize and assess the WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells at Lower WAG 2 were drilled with auger or air rotary rigs. Depending on the hydrogeologic conditions present at each proposed well location, one of three basic installation methods was utilized. Detailed procedures for well construction were specified by the Engineering Division to ensure that the wells would provide water samples representative of the aquifer. To ensure conformance with the specifications, Energy Systems Construction Engineering and ERCE provided continuous oversight of field activities. The purpose of the well installation program was to install GQM wells for groundwater characterization at Lower WAG 2. Data packages produced during installation activities by the ERCE hydrogeologists are an important product of the program. These packages document the well drilling, installation, and development activities and provide valuable data for well sampling and WAG characterization. The forms contained in the packages include predrilling and postdrilling checklists, drilling and construction logs, development and hydraulic conductivity records, and quality control-related documents

  5. Field demonstration of CO2 leakage detection and potential impacts on groundwater quality at Brackenridge Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y.; Yang, C.; Guzman, N.; Delgado, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Horvoka, S.; Trevino, R.

    2015-12-01

    carbonates and some silicates and mobilization of heavy metals from the aquifer sediments to groundwater, however, such mobilization posed no risks on groundwater quality at this site. The pulse-like tests have demonstrated it is plausible to use chemical sensors for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater.

  6. Lognormal kriging for the assessment of reliability in groundwater quality control observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, L.; Olea, R.A.; Custodio, E.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality observation networks are examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, lognormal kriging provides estimates of the variable being sampled and a standard error of the estimate. The average and the maximum standard error within the network can be used to dynamically improve the network sampling efficiency or find a design able to assure a given reliability level. The approach does not require the formulation of any physical model for the aquifer or any actual sampling of hypothetical configurations. A case study is presented using the network monitoring salty water intrusion into the Llobregat delta confined aquifer, Barcelona, Spain. The variable chloride concentration used to trace the intrusion exhibits sudden changes within short distances which make the standard error fairly invariable to changes in sampling pattern and to substantial fluctuations in the number of wells. ?? 1988.

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, K; Kumar, R D Swasthik; Elangovan, R

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose at twenty seven locations in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District. The analytical result shows that Na and Cl are the dominant cation and anions respectively in the groundwater. The values of TDS and EC exceed the permissible limits at some locations due to increase in ionic concentrations. Based on SAR, RSC, US Salinity diagram and Wilcox diagram it is observed that the water ranges from excellent to good quality in most of the places and can be used for irrigation without any hazard. Gibbs variation diagram indicates that lithology is main controlling factor for water chemistry. However, the high SAR and RSC values at few locations restrict suitability for irrigation purpose. PMID:26563079

  8. Groundwater quality in wells in central rural Finland: a microbiological and radiochemical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological, physicochemical, and radiochemical water quality from samples of 150 rural wells in Finland was analyzed. Organic matter exceeded 12 mg KMnO4 L(-1) in 63% and nitrate 25 mg NO3 L(-1) in 29% of the wells. NO3--concentrations were higher in wells with cattle. Fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci were found in 10-40%. There was no direct positive correlation between heterotrophic and indicator bacteria. Salmonella or Campylobacter were not detected. Human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from two and Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O5 or O6 from four waters not containing fecal coliforms. Thus, the predictive value of fecal coliforms to indicate these pathogens is poor. Coliphages were found in seven wells. Mean concentrations of radon and long-lived alpha-active radionuclides were lower and those of beta-emitting radionuclides higher than the mean concentrations measured from groundwater in Finland. Radionuclides from the Chernobyl fallout were not detected

  9. 包头市地下水质量评价%Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Baotou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢高哲; 孙恺

    2015-01-01

    It is the scientific basis of Groundwater Quality Assessment for the protection and development of groundwater resources, prevent and control groundwater pollution, protect people's health. With related groundwater survey data and using a single index evaluation, Nemerow index and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, three methods for groundwater quality Baotou were evaluated. Through a comprehensive analysis of the evaluated results:fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results more in line with the general characteristics of the groundwater, Baotou diving classⅳ, Ⅴ category accounted for 36% of the total number of sampling points, the overall poor quality; artesian water Ⅰ -Ⅲ class throughout the Baotou region, the overall quality is good.%地下水质量评价为保护和开发地下水资源,防止和控制地下水污染,保障人民身体健康提供科学依据。结合相关地下水调查资料采用单指标评价、内梅罗指数和模糊综合评价三种方法,对包头市地下水水质分别进行评价,通过对评价结果综合分析认为:模糊综合评价结果更符合区域地下水总体特征,包头市潜水Ⅳ类、Ⅴ类占到取样点总数的36%,质量整体较差;承压水Ⅰ—Ⅲ类遍及包头市全区,质量整体较好。

  10. Chemical characterization of groundwater in the area occupied by the cemetery: use of fluorescence spectrometry X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the burial of human corpses can contribute to groundwater pollution by the contact of leachate generated from the decomposition of bodies in the unsaturated zone of the subsoil. This process has been investigated in this work that aimed to determine the overall quality of groundwater in the zone occupied by the cemetery. The fluorescence spectrometry X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDXRF technique was used for groundwater chemical characterization. Five monitoring wells were constructed according to Brazilian norms. The water level fluctuation, the potentiometric surface and the concentrations of the elements calcium, copper, iron, phosphorus and silicon were estimated. The water level appeared quite shallow, ranging between 0.48 to 0.95 m in the dry season. The concentrations range for calcium varied from 4.65 to 17.85 mg L-1, for copper 0.02 ± 0.29 mg L-1, iron 0.57 to 15.96 mg L-1, phosphorus 12.00 to 13.98 mg L-1, and silicon 35.55 to 79.12 mg L-1. It is concluded that the use of EDXRF techniques proved to be rapid and efficient for monitoring the constituents in the groundwater collected in wells under the influence of graveyard in silt-clay soil.

  11. Ground-water quality in selected areas serviced by septic tanks, Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A.; Mattraw, H.C.; Klein, Howard

    1975-01-01

    During 1971-74, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the chemical, physical, bacteriological, and virological characteristics of the ground water in five selected areas serviced by septic tanks in Dade County, Florida. Periodic water samples were collected from multiple-depth groups of monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 60 ft at each of the five areas. Analyses of ground water from base-line water-quality wells in inland areas remote from urban development indicated that the ground water is naturally high in organic nitrogen, ammonia, organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand. Some enrichment of ground water with sodium provided a possible key to differentiating septic-tank effluent from other urban ground-water contaminant sources. High ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and the repetitive detection of fecal coliform bacteria were characteristic of two 10-foot monitor wells that consistently indicated the presence of septic-tank effluent in ground water. Dispersion, dilution, and various chemical processes have presumably prevented accumulation of septic-tank effluent at depths greater than 20 ft, as indicated by the 65 types of water analyses used in the investigation. Fecal coliform bacteria were present on one or two occasions in many monitor wells but the highest concentration, 1,600 colonies/100 ml, was related to storm-water infiltration rather than septic-tank discharge. Areal variations in the composition and the hydraulic conductivity of the sand and limestone aquifer had the most noticeable influence on the overall ground-water quality. The ground water in the more permeable limestone in south Dade County near Homestead contained low concentrations of septic-tank related constituents, but higher concentrations of dissolved sulfate and nitrate. The ground water in north Dade County, where the aquifer is less permeable, contained the highest dissolved iron, manganese, COD, and organic carbon.

  12. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  13. Data on ground-water quality for the Reno 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater has been compiled for the Reno 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of western Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area is also presented in a table. (USGS)

  14. Data on ground-water quality for the southern Nevada part of the Kingman 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alan H.; Williams, Rhea P.

    1987-01-01

    Water quality data for groundwater were compiled for the Kingman 1 degree x 2 degree quadrangle which covers a portion of southern Nevada. Chemical characteristics of the water are shown on a map (at a scale of 1:250,000) and on trilinear diagrams for the major ions. The data for the area are also presented in a table. (USGS)

  15. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of lower part of the Ponnaiyar River Basin, Cuddalore district, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandam, M; Kannan, R; Srinivasalu, S; Rammohan, V

    2007-09-01

    The Lower Ponnaiyar River Basin forms an important groundwater province in South India constituted by Tertiary formations dominated by sandstones and overlain by alluvium. The region enjoyed artesian conditions 50 years back but at present frequent failure of monsoon and over exploitation is threatening the aquifer. Further, extensive agricultural and industrial activities and urbanization has resulted in the increase in demand and contamination of the aquifer. To identify the sources and quality of groundwater, water samples from 47 bore wells were collected in an area of 154 km2 and were analysed for major ions and trace metals. The results reveal that the groundwater in many places is contaminated by higher concentrations of NO3, Cl, PO4 and Fe. Four major hydrochemical facies Ca-Mg-Cl, Na-Cl, Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 were identified using Piper trilinear diagram. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and sodium percentage indicate that most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation as well as for domestic purposes and far from drinking water standards. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from nitrate ions, which are associated with sewage and fertilizers application. The present state of the quality of the lower part of Ponnaiyar River Basin is of great concern and the higher concentration of toxic metals (Fe and Ni) may entail various health hazards. PMID:17180415

  16. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell tank waste management Area U at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Area U (WMA U) includes the U Tank Farm, is currently regulated under RCRA interim-status regulations, and is scheduled for closure probably post-2030. Groundwater monitoring has been under an evaluation program that compared general contaminant indicator parameters from downgradient wells to background values established from upgradient wells. One of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in one downgradient well triggering a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The objective of the first phase of this assessment program is to determine whether the increased concentrations of nitrate and chromium in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Based on the results of the first determination, if WMA U is not the source of contamination, then the site will revert to detection monitoring. If WMA U is the source, then a second part of the groundwater quality assessment plan will be prepared to define the rate and extent of migration of contaminants in the groundwater and their concentrations

  17. Characterizing the Occurrence and Transport of Brackish Groundwater in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    worland, S.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is host to the largest and the most active delta system in the world. The morphology of the southern part of the country is characterized by low lying deltaic plains partitioned by the distributary networks of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems. Much of the tidal mangrove forest ecosystem of the lower delta has been converted into poldered islands that sustain shrimp farming and rice production. The polder inhabitants depend on shallow groundwater as a primary source for drinking water and sanitation. Understanding the origin and hydrologic controls on the distribution of the brackish water and freshwater on the polder is a necessary step to ensuring a sustainable and potable freshwater source for drinking and irrigation. Preliminary sampling from shallow tube wells on Polder 32 in southwest Bangladesh suggests sporadic lateral apportioning of fresh water in the primarily brackish aquifer. This research characterizes the occurrence, transport and fate of the brackish groundwater through a combination of 3H and 14C dating, geochemical signatures, subsurface mapping using inversions from electromagnetic induction, and a 1D finite difference model and a 2D finite element model. The geochemical analysis and radiometric dating suggest that the salt water originates from paleo-brackish estuarine water deposited ~5000 years ago along with the sediments that compose the shallow aquifer. Inversions of electromagnetic survey data show potential freshwater recharge areas where the clay cap pinches out. The finite difference model demonstrates that recharge from the distributary channels is unlikely due to the low transmissivity of the clay channel beds. The finite element model gives reasonable estimates of the flushing rates of the connate brackish water beneath the polder. Inversion of electromagnetic data from a two hundred meter transect taken on Polder 32 Head gradient and groundwater flow vectors for fixed head boundary conditions across Polder

  18. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Rozemeijer

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic algae blooms and loss of biodiversity in surface waters. Water quality managers are responsible for the detection of water quality problems and for taking appropriate measures. Therefore, a lot of the...

  19. Effect of point-of-use, activated carbon filters on the bacteriological quality of rural groundwater supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Synder, J W; Mains, C N; Anderson, R. E.; Bissonnette, G K

    1995-01-01

    The water quality of 24 rural, domestic groundwater supplies treated with point-of-use, powdered activated carbon (PAC) filters was monitored to determine how such treatment might impact the bacteriological quality of private, residential drinking water supplies. Heterotrophic-plate-count (HPC) and total coliform analyses were performed on raw, PAC-treated, and overnight or stagnant (first-draw) PAC-treated water samples. Densities of HPC bacteria were elevated by 0.86 and 0.20 orders of magn...

  20. Characterization of the Spatial and Temporal Variations of Submarine Groundwater Discharge Using Electrical Resistivity and Seepage Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Josephine Miryam Kalyanie

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) encompasses all fluids crossing the sediment/ocean interface, regardless of their origin, composition or driving forces. SGD provides a pathway for terrestrial contaminants that can significantly impact coastal ecosystems. Overexploitation of groundwater resources can decrease SGD which favors seawater intrusion at depth. Understanding SGD is therefore crucial for water quality and resource management. Quantifying SGD is challenging due to its diffuse and heterogeneous nature, in addition to significant spatio-temporal variations at multiple scales. In this thesis, an integrated approach combining electrical resistivity (ER) surveys, conductivity and temperature point measurements, seepage rates using manual and ultrasonic seepage meters, and pore fluid salinities was used to characterize SGD spatio-temporal variations and their implications for contaminant transport at several locations on Long Island, NY. The influence of surficial sediments on SGD distribution was investigated in Stony Brook Harbor. A low-permeability mud layer, actively depositing in the harbor, limits SGD at the shoreline, prevents mixing with seawater and channels a significant volume of freshwater offshore. SGD measured at locations without mud is high and indicates significant mixing between porewater and seawater. A 2D steady-state density-difference numerical model of the harbor was developed using SEAWAT and was validated by our field observations. Temporal variations of SGD due to semi-diurnal tidal forcing were studied in West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, using a 12-hr time-lapse ER survey together with continuous salinity and seepage measurements in the intertidal zone. The observed dynamic patterns of groundwater flux and salinity distribution disagree with published standard transient state numerical models, suggesting the need for developing more specific models of non-homogeneous anisotropic aquifers. SGD distribution and composition were

  1. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  2. Temperature change affected groundwater quality in a confined marine aquifer during long-term heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Ueki, Takashi; Ohkubo, Satoshi; Moldrup, Per; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Global warming and urbanization together with development of subsurface infrastructures (e.g. subways, shopping complexes, sewage systems, and Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems) will likely cause a rapid increase in the temperature of relatively shallow groundwater reservoirs (subsurface thermal pollution). However, potential effects of a subsurface temperature change on groundwater quality due to changed physical, chemical, and microbial processes have received little attention. We therefore investigated changes in 34 groundwater quality parameters during a 13-month enhanced-heating period, followed by 14 months of natural or enhanced cooling in a confined marine aquifer at around 17 m depth on the Saitama University campus, Japan. A full-scale GSHP test facility consisting of a 50 m deep U-tube for circulating the heat-carrying fluid and four monitoring wells at 1, 2, 5, and 10 m from the U-tube were installed, and groundwater quality was monitored every 1-2 weeks. Rapid changes in the groundwater level in the area, especially during the summer, prevented accurate analyses of temperature effects using a single-well time series. Instead, Dual-Well Analysis (DWA) was applied, comparing variations in subsurface temperature and groundwater chemical concentrations between the thermally-disturbed well and a non-affected reference well. Using the 1 m distant well (temperature increase up to 7 °C) and the 10 m distant well (non-temperature-affected), the DWA showed an approximately linear relationships for eight components (B, Si, Li, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Mg(2+), NH4(+), Na(+), and K(+)) during the combined 27 months of heating and cooling, suggesting changes in concentration between 4% and 31% for a temperature change of 7 °C. PMID:26938497

  3. Characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in parts of Akure, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O Nwankwoala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater samples were collected from different parts of Akure town and analysed for various physico-chemical parameters using conventional field and laboratory techniques. The essence of the study is to evaluate the characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in the area. The pH values falls between 7.1 to 7.7, indicating that the ground water is neutral. The range of conductivity for the area is between 116 to 1000µS/cm with an average of 365µS/cm which met the WHO (2006 standard of 1000µS/cm for drinking water. The low levels of turbidity ranging from 1 to 2 NTU were obtained. The TDS concentrations range between 81 to 700 mg/l. The total hardness of water sampled range from 20.2 to 345.6mg/l. Sulphate ion concentration is between 2.5 to 23.2mg/l. Phosphate values ranges from 0.05 to 0.07mg/l in all locations, and average value of 0.12mg/l which are within the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water. Nitrate levels ranged from 1.13 to 2.91mg/l. The values of bicarbonates range from 28 to 88mg/l with a mean value of 43.9mg/l, as all locations are far below the W.H.O (2006 limit of 600mg/l. The concentration of calcium ranged from 12.3 to 92.2mg/l while the concentrations of magnesium ion ranged from 0.9 to 32.6mg/l with an average of 7.3gm/l and this is below the WHO limit for drinking water (150mg/l. The concentration of sodium ion (Na+ ranged from 1.067 to 8.696mg/l. The concentration of potassium also ranged from 7.537 to 51.881mg/l with a mean value of 19.098mg/l. Although there is no reference to WHO standards for the parameter, the relatively low values of potassium suggest the suitability of the analysed groundwater samples for drinking. The common form of iron in groundwater is the soluble ferrous ion Fe2+. The concentration of iron in the water samples ranged from <0.001 to 0.001mg/l showing a very low value of iron in all boreholes. Generally, results compare favourably with the WHO (2006 standards for drinking water

  4. Investigation of discharge-area groundwaters for recharge source characterization on different scales: the case of Jinan in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiale; Jin, Menggui; Lu, Guoping; Zhang, Dele; Kang, Fengxin; Jia, Baojie

    2016-05-01

    Discharge-area groundwater in Jinan, a typical karst region in northern China, was investigated by studying both the hydrological and chemical processes evolving from the recharge in mountainous terrains to the karst-spring outflows in the metropolitan area. Large-scale exploitation of karst groundwater has led to a disturbing trend in the ever-decreasing spring outflow rates and groundwater level. There is insufficient information about the Jinan karst aquifers, which provide the main water sources to meet human demand and to sustain spring outflow. The coupling of hydrological and chemical processes quantifies the flow system through aqueous chemistry characterization of the water sources. This approach is used to study the groundwater flow discharges in different locations and geological settings. The potentiometric data indicated limited vertical connectivity between distinct hydrogeological units and alteration of the recharge regime by the faults and by artificial exploitation. Shallow groundwater primarily belongs to the local flow system, with high nitrate concentration and enriched stable isotopic contents. Thermal groundwater has high concentrations of chloride and total dissolved solids, derived from a regional flow system with the highest recharge altitudes and long residence time. Non-thermal karst water may be attributed to the intermediate flow system, with uniform HCO3-Ca(Mg) facies and low nitrate concentration. This work highlighted discharge as a fingerprint of groundwater flow conditions and provides a better insight into the hydrogeological system.

  5. Groundwater recharge and quality assessment in coastal aquifers of Tamil Nadu from Cuddalore to Nagapattinam - inferences from environmental isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground water samples collected along the coastal tract of Tamil Nadu from different depths were measured for physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity (EC) Temp, and pH) and environmental isotopes (18O and 3H) to evaluate their dynamics and quality. Results show groundwaters are fresh to saline and are modern. Variations in EC, δ18O and 3H indicate contribution of evaporated surface waters in the shallow zone and gradual decrease in 3H and EC and depletion in δ18O with the depth can be attributed to missing of relatively fresh, isotopically depleted and old groundwater from deeper sandstone formation. (author)

  6. Multivariate Statistical Analysis: a tool for groundwater quality assessment in the hidrogeologic region of the Ring of Cenotes, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, M.; Pacheco Castro, R. B.; Pacheco Avila, J.; Cabrera Sansores, A.

    2014-12-01

    The karstic aquifer of Yucatan is a vulnerable and complex system. The first fifteen meters of this aquifer have been polluted, due to this the protection of this resource is important because is the only source of potable water of the entire State. Through the assessment of groundwater quality we can gain some knowledge about the main processes governing water chemistry as well as spatial patterns which are important to establish protection zones. In this work multivariate statistical techniques are used to assess the groundwater quality of the supply wells (30 to 40 meters deep) in the hidrogeologic region of the Ring of Cenotes, located in Yucatan, Mexico. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis are applied in groundwater chemistry data of the study area. Results of principal component analysis show that the main sources of variation in the data are due sea water intrusion and the interaction of the water with the carbonate rocks of the system and some pollution processes. The cluster analysis shows that the data can be divided in four clusters. The spatial distribution of the clusters seems to be random, but is consistent with sea water intrusion and pollution with nitrates. The overall results show that multivariate statistical analysis can be successfully applied in the groundwater quality assessment of this karstic aquifer.

  7. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Parts of Y.S.R and Anantapur Districts, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sunitha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is used for domestic, industrial water supply and for irrigation all over the world. The groundwater quality is a function of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The safe potable water is enormously essential for living and groundwater is one of the sources for human consumption in both urban as well as rural areas. The area is located in the survey of India toposheet Number 57 J/3 lying between east 780 00’ 0 ’’ to 780 15’ 0 ” longitudes and 140 15’ 0 ’’ to 140 30’ 0 ’’ North latitudes covering an area of 720 sq. kms. Geologically, it is underlain mainly by Peninsular gneisses of Archean age followed by Gulcheru and Vemapalli formations comprising quartzites, conglomerates, dolomites and shales. Major geomorphic units are denudational hills, residual hills, pediments, pediplains, structural hills and valleys. The study area experiences a semiarid climate. Physicochemical parameters viz., pH, total hardness, calcium, chloride, total dissolved solids, fluoride were analyzed. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Further, a moderation in water quality was observed after the monsoon season, which can be attributed to a possible dilution due to groundwater recharge People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  9. In-situ characterization of wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources to shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeyohannes, A. O.; Kachanoski, R. G.; Dyck, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    A better understanding of multidimensional unsaturated and saturated flow and transport under boundary conditions typical of on-site wastewater disposal systems is required to assess the risk to groundwater contamination. The main objective of this research is to characterize in-situ wastewater flow and transport from at-grade line sources on a shallow groundwater conditions. The research site was conducted at Wetaskiwin Rest Stop, Alberta, Canada, where ultraviolet disinfected wastewater has been disposed off to the ground via pressurized at-grade line sources since 2007. The site was characterized for wastewater plume and temporal groundwater fluctuation by using Electromagnetic induction (EM31) and (EM38); and by grid of 74 water table wells, 14 piezometers and 11 transducers. Groundwater was analyzed for selected tracers (pH, EC and Cl) and some microbiology (e.g. E. coli). From the results wastewater plume was identified; and wastewater plume center of mass and average flow direction were estimated. Along the horizontal plume center of mass, 30 monitoring wells in 10 nests and 31 temperature sensors in 5 nests were installed to get vertical resolution of the wastewater plume and to track contaminant transport over time. Results, implications and plans for future investigations will be presented. The research output will benefit future research on contaminant fate and transport and groundwater risk assessment plans. Key words: On-site wastewater treatment/disposal system, Wastewater plume, Groundwater contamination.

  10. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  11. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  12. Enhancement of Saharan groundwater quality by reducing its fluoride concentration using different materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ramdani, Amina

    2014-04-15

    According to the environmental protection regulations, fluoride concentration is considered as a substance of priority for assessment of drinking water quality to determine their impacts on the environment and public health. Saharan groundwater (Algeria) contains an excess of fluoride ions. Regular consumption of this water by the population of the region may cause endemic fluorosis. To solve this problem, we propose to treat this water by adsorption on different materials, such as activated alumina (AA), sodium clay (SC), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in order to enhance its quality by reducing its fluoride concentration. The maximum adsorption is achieved with an adsorption capacity of the order of 0.9, 0.667, and 0.370 mg/g and with a percentage of 90, 83.4, and 73.95% for AA, HAP, and SC, respectively. Indeed, the acidity and alkalinity of the medium significantly affect the adsorption of fluoride ions. Results deduced from the curves of adsorption isotherms of fluoride ions showed that the retention is predictable from these isotherms in agreement with the Langmuir model. The low removal of fluoride ions was observed in presence of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) ions. Finally, AA material proved to be the best adsorbent for fluoride ions removal. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs

  14. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anji Reddy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  16. Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This quality assurance plan identifies the data necessary, and techniques designed to attain the required quality, to meet the specific data quality objectives associated with the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report specifies sampling, waste testing, and analytical methods for transuranic wastes

  17. Integrated assessment of the impact of climate and land use changes on groundwater quantity and quality in Mancha Oriental (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Peña-Haro, S.; Garcia-Prats, A.; Mocholi-Almudever, A. F.; Henriquez-Dole, L.; Macian-Sorribes, H.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.

    2014-09-01

    Climate and land use change (global change) impacts on groundwater systems cannot be studied in isolation, as various and complex interactions in the hydrological cycle take part. Land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes have a great impact on the water cycle and contaminant production and transport. Groundwater flow and storage are changing in response not only to climatic changes but also to human impacts on land uses and demands (global change). Changes in future climate and land uses will alter the hydrologic cycles and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water systems. Predicting the behavior of recharge and discharge conditions under future climatic and land use changes is essential for integrated water management and adaptation. In the Mancha Oriental system in Spain, in the last decades the transformation from dry to irrigated lands has led to a significant drop of the groundwater table in one of the largest groundwater bodies in Spain, with the consequent effect on stream-aquifer interaction in the connected Jucar River. Streamflow depletion is compromising the related ecosystems and the supply to the downstream demands, provoking a complex management issue. The intense use of fertilizer in agriculture is also leading to locally high groundwater nitrate concentrations. Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability and water quality is essential for a proper management of the system. In this paper we analyze the potential impact of climate and land use change in the system by using an integrated modelling framework consisting of the sequentially coupling of a watershed agriculturally-based hydrological model (SWAT) with the ground-water model MODFLOW and mass-transport model MT3D. SWAT model outputs (mainly groundwater recharge and pumping, considering new irrigation needs under changing ET and precipitation) are used as MODFLOW inputs to simulate changes in groundwater flow and storage and impacts on stream

  18. Hydrogen for representing groundwater quality and contamination; Hidrogramas para la representacion de la calidad t contaminacion de las aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queralt, R. [Dept. Medi Ambient, Generalitat de Catalunya (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    A new groundwater hydrogram called Roda is defined. It represents the quality and contamination of the water in the form of a wheel, or clock, in which the circumference is equivalent to the legal or defined concentration limit for each of the radii corresponding to the 12 parameters involved: chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates, nitrates, manganese, TOC, iron, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and conductivity. Its practical application to the groundwater in various Catalan aquifers is reported. This involved a trial with a graphic representation hydrogram that complements already existing indices such as the ISQA for physicochemical quality, the BMWPC for biological quality and the star system for inshore seawater. It is hoped to devise a simpler representation system than RODA in the form of an index or equivalent. (Author) 10 refs.

  19. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  20. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  1. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: a fast-urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana Raju, Nandimandalam; Shukla, U K; Ram, Prahlad

    2011-02-01

    The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in the urban Varanasi area and analyzed for various chemical parameters. Geologically, the study area comprises Quaternary alluvium made up of an alternating succession of clay, silty clay, and sand deposits. The Total dissolved solids classification reveals that except two locations, the groundwater samples are desirable for drinking, and all are useful for irrigation purposes. The cationic and anionic concentrations indicated that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4 types, respectively. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on the Chadha rectangular diagram shows that the majority (81%) of groundwater samples belong to the calcium-bicarbonate type. The HCO3/(HCO3+SO4) ratio (0.87) indicates mostly carbonic acid weathering process due to presence of kankar carbonate mixed with clay/fine sand. The high nitrate concentration (>45 mg/l) of about 18% of the groundwater samples may be due to the local domestic sewage, leakage of septic tanks, and improper management of sanitary landfills. In general, the calculated values of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields. PMID:20221794

  3. Hydraulic characterization of a small groundwater flow system in fractured monzonitic gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydraulic characteristics of a small groundwater flow system active in a 200-m by 150-m by 50-m deep block of fractured monzonitic gneiss located at Chalk River, Ontario have been determined from surface and bore-hole investigations. Surface investigations including air photo lineament analysis, ground and airborne geophysics and fracture mapping were used to define the local and regional fracture system, locate the study site and direct the exploratory drilling program. Subsurface investigations were completed in 17 boreholes and included fracture logging, systematic straddle-packer injection testing, hydraulic interference testing and long-term hydraulic head monitoring. The interference tests and monitoring were conducted in 90 packer-isolated test intervals created by installation of multiple-packer casings in each borehole. Hydraulic interference tests provided detailed information on the equivalent single-fracture aperture and storativity of four major (≥ 50-m extent) fracture zones and the vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the rock mass of the study site. Fracture logs and injection test data were combined to generate a tensoral representation of hydraulic conductivity for each test interval. The results of the detailed investigations are presented and interpreted to provide a complete three-dimensional description of the groundwater flow system. A gravity-controlled flow system occurs at the Chalk River study site. Groundwater flow in the rock is primarily vertical to a low-hydraulic head, fracture zone at 33 to 50 m depth with a horizontal component of flow determined by surface topography. An impermeable diabase dyke and three additional high-permeability fracture zones are important hydrogeologic features influencing flow at the study site. The results of the investigations also show that characterization of the geometric and hydraulic properties of large structural discontinuities is essential in understanding the flow of fluids in fractured rocks

  4. Assessment of the impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in rural areas: A case study from Marondera district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwairo, Bloodless; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Love, David; Guzha, Edward

    In resource-poor and low-population-density areas, on-site sanitation is preferred to off-site sanitation and groundwater is the main source of water for domestic uses. Groundwater pollution potential from on-site sanitation in such areas conflicts with Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles that advocate for sustainable use of water resources. Given the widespread use of groundwater for domestic purposes in rural areas, maintaining groundwater quality is a critical livelihood intervention. This study assessed impacts of pit latrines on groundwater quality in Kamangira village, Marondera district, Zimbabwe. Groundwater samples from 14 monitoring boreholes and 3 shallow wells were analysed during 6 sampling campaigns, from February 2005 to May 2005. Parameters analysed were total and faecal coliforms, NH4+-N, NO3--N, conductivity, turbidity and pH, both for boreholes and shallow wells. Total and faecal coliforms both ranged 0-TNTC (too-numerous-to-count), 78% of results meeting the 0 CFU/100 ml WHO guidelines value. NH4+-N range was 0-2.0 mg/l, with 99% of results falling below the 1.5 mg/l WHO recommended value. NO3--N range was 0.0-6.7 mg/l, within 10 mg/l WHO guidelines value. The range for conductivity values was 46-370 μS/cm while the pH range was 6.8-7.9. There are no WHO guideline values for these two parameters. Turbidity ranged from 1 NTU to 45 NTU, 59% of results meeting the 5 NTU WHO guidelines limit. Depth from the ground surface to the water table for the period February 2005 to May 2005 was determined for all sampling points using a tape measure. The drop in water table averaged from 1.1 m to 1.9 m and these values were obtained by subtracting water table elevations from absolute ground surface elevation. Soil from the monitoring boreholes was classified as sandy. The soil infiltration layer was taken as the layer between the pit latrine bottom and the water table. It averaged from 1.3 m to 1.7 m above the water table for two latrines

  5. Characterizing a fractured aquifer in Mexico using geological attributes related to open-pit groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Garfias, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    A multivariable analysis of the Rock Quality Designation ( RQD) and its relation with the hydraulic conductivity of 17 dewatering wells in an open-pit mine (central Mexico) is presented as a tool for groundwater exploration in fractured aquifers. A solid model was constructed with the RQD data using three sizes for each grid cell and four interpolation methods. The inverse-distance method with a small grid gives the best results. The resulting RQD solid model was used to locate 22 pilot holes, on which an air-lift test was performed as a qualitative assessment of their usefulness. The results showed a lower water production (1.8 l/s) in shale that has low alteration, whereas in highly altered shale, breccias, and intrusive rock, the flow rate was 3.9 l/s. This implies an important relationship between the pilot-hole performance, the lithology, and the rock alteration, but it was also found that some fractures or faults, which cannot be detected clearly by the RQD, play an important role in the hydrodynamics of the aquifer. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider all available factors that can help to identify the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer because using only RQD data can lead to errors in prospecting for groundwater.

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2015-06-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  7. Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data around municipal landfill and paper factory and their potential influence on population’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Čačić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess the level of 15 groundwater quality parameters in groundwater samples collected around municipal landfill and paper factory in order to evaluate usefulness of the groundwater and its possible implication on the human health. Methods Obtained data have been analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA technique, in order to differentiate the groundwater samples on the basis of their compositional differences and origin. Results Wastes and effluents from municipal landfill did not contribute significantly to the pollution of the aquatic medium. Groundwater degradation caused by high contents of nitrate, mineral oils, organic and inorganic matters was particularly expressed in the narrow area of the city centre, near the paper factory and most likely it has occurred over a long period of time. The results have shown that the concentrations of the most measured parameters(NO3-N, NH4-N, oils, organic matter, Fe, Pb, Ni and Cr were above llowed limits for drinking and domestic purposes. onclusion This study has provided important information on cological status of the groundwater systems and for identification f groundwater quality parameters with concentrations above llowable limits for human consumption. The results generally evealed that groundwater assessed in this study mainly does not atisfy safe limits for drinking water and domestic use. As a consequence, ontaminated groundwater becomes a large hygienic nd toxicological problem, since it considerably impedes groundwater tilization. Even though, all of these contaminants havenot yet reached toxic levels, they still represent long term risk for ealth of the population.

  8. Finding an optimal strategy for measuring the quality of groundwater as a source for drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; Saracevic, Ernis; Scheibz, Jürgen; Zessner, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina; Farnleitner, Andreas; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2015-04-01

    A good chemical and microbiological water quality is of great importance in riverbank filtration systems that are used as public water supplies. Water quality is ideally monitored frequently at the drinking water well using a steady pumping rate. Monitoring source water (like groundwater) however, can be more challenging. First of all, piezometers should be drilled in the correct layer of the aquifer. Secondly, the sampling design should include all preferred parameters (microbiological and chemical parameters) and should also take the hydrological conditions into account. In this study, we made use of different geophysical techniques (ERT and FDEM) to select the optimal placement of the piezometers. We also designed a sampling strategy which can be used to sample fecal indicators, biostability parameters, standard chemical parameters and a wide range of micropollutants. Several time series experiments were carried out in the study site Porous GroundWater Aquifer (PGWA) - an urban floodplain extending on the left bank of the river Danube downstream of the City of Vienna, Austria. The upper layer of the PGWA consist of silt and has a thickness from 1 to 6 meter. The underlying confined aquifer consists of sand and gravel and has a thickness of in between 3 and 15 meter. Hydraulic conductivities range from 5 x 10-2 m/s up to 5 x 10-5 m/s. Underneath the aquifer are alternating sand and clay/silt layers. As fecal markers Escherichia coli, enterococci and aerobic spores were measured. Biostability was measured using leucine incorporation. Additionally, several micropollutants and standard chemical parameters were measured. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters stayed stable in all monitoring wells during extended purging. A similar trend could be observed for E coli and enterococci. In the wells close to the river, aerobic spores and leucine incorporation decreased after 30 min. of pumping, whereas the well close to the backwater showed a different

  9. Groundwater flow characterization in a fractured bedrock aquifer using active DTS tests in sealed boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Thomas I.; Parker, Beth L.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Mondanos, Michael J.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, wireline temperature profiling methods have evolved to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Important advances in wireline temperature logging in boreholes make use of active line source heating alone and then in combination with temporary borehole sealing with flexible impervious fabric liners to eliminate the effects of borehole cross-connection and recreate natural flow conditions. Here, a characterization technique was developed based on combining fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with active heating within boreholes sealed with flexible borehole liners. DTS systems provide a temperature profiling method that offers significantly enhanced temporal resolution when compared with conventional wireline trolling-based techniques that obtain a temperature-depth profile every few hours. The ability to rapidly and continuously collect temperature profiles can better our understanding of transient processes, allowing for improved identification of hydraulically active fractures and determination of relative rates of groundwater flow. The advantage of a sealed borehole environment for DTS-based investigations is demonstrated through a comparison of DTS data from open and lined conditions for the same borehole. Evidence for many depth-discrete active groundwater flow features under natural gradient conditions using active DTS heat pulse testing is presented along with high resolution geologic and geophysical logging and hydraulic datasets. Implications for field implementation are discussed.

  10. Characterization of submarine groundwater discharge long the southeastern coast of Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In research and management of groundwaters, an important role is played by coastal aquifers. Pollution due to salinization and human activities poses serious concerns to the economy of the related territories. Under the project, established through collaboration between the Italian Universities of Palermo, Bari, Venice and the IAEA and the UNESCO, study of coastal aquifers from Syracuse to Donnalucata on the southeastern coast of Sicily was carried out. The study area, known as Hyblean Plateau, is characterized by carbonate and vulcanite outcrops, connected to the tectonic activity during the Cretaceous and the Pliocene period. The aquifers are subjected to overexploitation due to the high water demand for intensive agricultural practices. Thus, the equilibrium between fresh groundwaters and seawater is getting disturbed with consequent salinization. The research project involved the geochemical and isotopic study of well waters, springs and submarine discharges in order to understand the relationships existing among these waters, to identify the best tracers of the natural and human-related phenomena occurring in the area as well as to estimate the presence of possible environmental effects of them on the coastal ecosystem. Hydrogeochemical surveys were carried out, every three months, from 2002 to 2004 on a net of wells, sub-aerial and submarine springs. The present report synthesizes the main results of the research. (author)

  11. Phase 2 groundwater quality assessment for the Weldon Spring site chemical plant/raffinate pits and surrounding vicinity properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report brings together the most current information on groundwater contamination in the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits (WSCP/WSRP) area and vicinity properties (WSVP) of the Weldon Spring Site (WSS). In 1988 the monitoring well network was extended by the addition of 33 new wells installed at two depths so they could be used for vertical and lateral characterization. The analytical categories for the study were inorganic anions, nitroaromatic compounds, radiochemical parameters, metals, and total organic carbon. Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a result of leaking raffinate pits. The apparent sources of sulfate contamination are associated with the manufacturing of TNT and DNT. Nitroaromatic compounds are present in the groundwater at the WSS as a result of operations at the WSOW during World War II. Historically, only two monitoring wells indicate uranium levels greater than 40 pCi/L which at this time seems to be the most likely drinking water standard the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will establish. Some metals concentrations in groundwater appear to be connected to the raffinate pits as a point source. Other metals are present in the groundwater, not point sources have been identified for them. The contract required detection limits (CRDLs) for some metals higher than regulatory drinking water standards. 19 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs

  12. The impact of river restoration on the water quality of the surface water and groundwater in an Alpine catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor Viswanathan, V.; Schirmer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The importance of river restoration projects can only be realized upon evaluating their success or failure in a region mainly with regards to water quality, ecological adaptations and flood mitigation. The Thur catchment in North eastern Switzerland is chosen as the study area. The water quality along the entire river reach (with the corresponding groundwater monitoring wells) will be analyzed with regard to the existing land use and a comparison shall be made with the water quality in the restored river sections of the river. A restored river section at Niederneunforn has been heavily monitored as part of the RECORD project and this data shall be vital for the present work. The water quality changes are to be observed by relating to some of the basic parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) , the concentration of ions like chloride, nitrate, nitrite, ortho-phosphate, ammonium and calcium. These are to be measured in both the surface and the groundwater upstream and downstream of the restored section in the study river. Both long-term monitoring as well as localized water sampling campaigns are planned as part of the study. Use of the stable isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen is to be done to trace the possible sources of contamination in the river reach. This study shall aim to answer the following questions: 1. What are the diurnal and seasonal water quality changes in the Thur river; upstream and downstream of the restored section? 2. Are there any links between the different water quality parameters and how does the restored section influence these links? 3. How does the water quality change from the river to the groundwater (due to the recharge) between the restored and the unrestored river sections? 4. How does the land use in the catchment affect / alter the water quality in the river? -Is there high pollutant load from a particular waste water treatment or more agricultural runoff

  13. Resolving superimposed ground-water contaminant plumes characterized by chromium, nitrate, uranium, and technetium--99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leakage from a liquid waste storage and solar evaporation basin at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has resulted in a ground-water contaminant plume characterized by nitrate, hexavalent chromium, uranium, and technetium-99. The plume is superimposed on a larger, pre-existing plume extending from upgradient sites and having the same suite of contaminants. However, the relative abundance of contaminant species is quite different for each plume source. Thus, characteristic concentration ratios, rather than concentrations of individual species, are used as geochemical tracers, with emphasis on graphical analysis. Accordingly, it has been possible to resolve the boundaries of the smaller plume and to estimate the contribution of each plume to the observed contamination downgradient from the storage basin. 11 refs., 7 figs

  14. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment program at the 216-U-12 crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 216-U-12 crib has been in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) interim-status groundwater quality assessment program since the first quarter of 1993. Specific conductance measured in downgradient wells 299-W22-41 and 299-W22-42 exceeds its critical mean. This report presents the results and findings of Phases I and II of the assessment monitoring program, as required by 40 CFR 265.93. The elevated levels of specific conductance in the downgradient open-quotes triggeringclose quotes wells are attributed to nitrate, the mobile anion released when nitric acid is diluted in water, and calcium which is released from the sediments as acid is neutralized. Technetium-99 levels have been elevated in these same downgradient wells since 1991. The source of these constituents is the 216-U-12 crib. Downward migration of nitrate and technetium-99 from the vadose zone (and continued elevated specific conductance in the two downgradient wells) is still occurring because the driving force is still present

  15. Factors affecting groundwater quality at the rehabilitated Mary Kathleen Tailings Dam, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mary Kathleen uranium mine and treatment plant ceased operation in late 1982 and a plan for the closure and rehabilitation of the area was developed by Mary Kathleen Uranium Ltd in association with consultants. This paper describes some of the groundwater quality studies undertaken in support of the rehabilitation program including sampling within the tailings dam to determine the profile of radionuclides, accelerated leaching tests on tailings to estimate long-term release rates of radium, monitoring of piezometers to determine the rate of movement of contaminants, and disposal of acidic effluent by neutralization and ion exchange through infiltration trenches. From accelerated leaching tests, it is estimated that a maximum of 0.13% of 226Ra will be leached from the tailings in the first 1,000 years. There is no evidence that uranium or any of its daughters is moving away from the waste disposal area. The movement of heavy metals, radionuclides and acidity is strongly retarded by the alkaline soils

  16. Nonradiological groundwater quality at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NRC is investigating appropriate regulatory options for disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing nonradiological hazardous constituents, as defined by EPA regulations. Standard EPA/RCRA procedures to determine hazardous organics, metals, indicator parameters, and general water quality are applied to samples from groundwater monitoring wells at two commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. At the Sheffield, IL site (nonoperating), several typical organic solvents are identified in elevated concentrations in onsite wells and in an offsite area exhibiting elevated tritium concentrations. At the Barnwell, SC site (operating), only very low concentrations of three organics are found in wells adjacent to disposal units. Hydrocarbons associated with petroleum products are detected at both sites. Hazardous constituents associated with previosuly identified major LLW mixed waste streams, toluene, xylene, chromium, and lead, are at or below detection limits or at background levels in all samples. Review of previously collected data also supports the conclusion that organic solvents are the primary nonradiological contaminants associated with LLW disposal

  17. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and potential for water-supply contamination near the Shelby County landfill in Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, W.S.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted from 1989 to 1991 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data specific to the Shelby County landfill in east Memphis, Tennessee. Eighteen wells were installed in the alluvial and Memphis aquifers at the landfill. Hydrogeologic data collected showed that the confining unit separating the alluvial aquifer from the Memphis aquifer was thin or absent just north of the landfill and elsewhere consists predominantly of fine sand and silt with lenses of clay. A water-table map of the landfill vicinity confirms the existence of a depression in the water table north and northeast of the landfill and indicates that ground water flows northeast from the Wolf River passing beneath the landfill toward the depression in the water table. A map of the potentiometric surface of the Memphis aquifer shows that water levels were anomalously high just north of the landfill, indicating downward leakage of water from the alluvial aquifer to the Memphis aquifer. An analysis of water-quality data for major and trace inorganic constituents and nutrients confirms that leachate from the landfill has migrated northeastward in the alluvial aquifer toward the depression in the water table and that contaminants in the alluvial aquifer have migrated downward into the Memphis aquifer. The leachate plume can be characterized by concentrations of certain major and trace inorganic constituents that are 2 to 20 times higher than samples from upgradient and background alluvial aquifer wells. The major and trace constituents that best characterize the leachate plume are total organic carbon, chloride, dissolved solids, iron, ammonia nitrogen, calcium, sodium, iodide, barium, strontium, boron, and cadmium. Several of these constituents (specifically dissolved solids, calcium, sodium, and possibly ammonia nitrogen, chloride, barium, and strontium) were detected in elevated concentrations in samples from certain Memphis aquifer wells. Elevated

  18. Characterizing interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Jialu River basin using major ion chemistry and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huaihe River, has been severely contaminated from major contaminant sources, such as a number of untreated or lightly treated sewage waste in some cities. Groundwater along the river is not an isolated component of the hydrologic system, but is instead connected with the surface water. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial variations in water chemistry affected by humans and to characterize the relationships between surface water (e.g. reservoirs, lakes and rivers and groundwater near the river in the shallow Quaternary aquifer. Concentration of Cl in north Zhengzhou City increased prominently due to the discharge of a large amount of domestic water. Nitrate and potassium show maximum concentrations in groundwater in Fugou County. These high levels can be attributed to the use of a large quantity of fertilizer over this region. Most surface water appeared to be continuously recharged from the surrounding groundwater (regional wells based on comparison surface water with groundwater levels, stable-isotopes and major ion signatures. However, the groundwater of a transitional well (location SY3 seemed to be recharged by river water via bank infiltration in September 2010. Fractional contributions of river water to the groundwater were calculated based on isotopic and chemical data using a mass-balance approach. Results show that the groundwater was approximately composed of 60–70% river water. These findings should be useful for a better understanding of hydrogeological processes at the river-aquifer interface and ultimately benefit water management in the future.

  19. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  20. Groundwater flux characterization using distributed temperature sensing: Separating advection from thermal conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Direct measurement of groundwater flux is difficult to obtain in the field so hydrogeologists often use easily-detectable environmental tracers, such as heat or chemicals, as an indirect way to characterize flux. Previously, we developed a groundwater flux characterization (GFC) probe by using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) to monitor the temperature responses to active heating in a well. The temperature responses were consistent with the hydraulic conductivity profiles determined at the same location, and provided high-resolution information (approx. 1.5 cm) about vertical variations in horizontal flux through the screen. One of the key assumptions in the previous GFC approach was that the vertical variations in the thermal conductivity of the aquifer materials near the well are negligible, so that the temperature differences with depth are primarily a result of groundwater flux instead of thermal conduction. Although this assumption is likely valid for wells constructed with an artificial filter pack, it might become questionable for wells with natural filter packs (such as the wells constructed by direct push where the sediments are allowed to directly collapse onto the well screen). In this work, we develop a new procedure for separating advection from thermal conduction during GFC measurement. In addition to the normal open-screen GFC profiling, an impermeable sleeve was used so that heating tests could be performed without advective flow entering the well. The heating tests under sleeved conditions were primarily controlled by the thermal conduction around the well, and therefore could be used to remove the impact of thermal conduction from the normal GFC results obtained under open-screen conditions. This new procedure was tested in a laboratory sandbox, where a series of open-screen and sleeved GFC tests were performed under different flow rates. Results indicated that for the tested range of rates (Darcy velocity 0 - 0.78 m/d), the relation between

  1. Assessment of the Impact of the Landfill on Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of the Mediouna Site, Casablanca, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Driss Smahi; Ouafa El Hammoumi; Ahmed Fekri

    2013-01-01

    A local case study for the environmental impact of landfill leachate on groundwater quality along and across the Mediouna landfill is presented, based on physicochemical and statistical approaches. The landfill has been operational since 1986 and it receives municipal solid wastes produced by the city of Casablanca, whose the daily waste output exceeds 4000 t. This waste is stockpiled in old sandstone quarries; the site has never been sealed before its opening. The aim of this study is to up...

  2. Factors affecting groundwater quality in the Valley and Ridge aquifers, eastern United States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Gross, Eliza L.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and microbiological analyses of water from 230 wells and 35 springs in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province, sampled between 1993 and 2002, indicated that bedrock type (carbonate or siliciclastic rock) and land use were dominant factors influencing groundwater quality across a region extending from northwestern Georgia to New Jersey. The analyses included naturally occurring compounds (major mineral ions and radon) and anthropogenic contaminants [pesticides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)], and contaminants, such as nitrate and bacteria, which commonly increase as a result of human activities. Natural factors, such as topographic position and the mineral composition of underlying geology, act to produce basic physical and geochemical conditions in groundwater that are reflected in physical properties, such as pH, temperature, specific conductance, and alkalinity, and in chemical concentrations of dissolved oxygen, radon, and major mineral ions. Anthropogenic contaminants were most commonly found in water from wells and springs in carbonate-rock aquifers. Nitrate concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels in 12 percent of samples, most of which were from carbonate-rock aquifers. Escherichia coli (E. coli), pesticide, and VOC detection frequencies were significantly higher in samples from sites in carbonate-rock aquifers. Naturally occurring elements, such as radon, iron, and manganese, were found in higher concentrations in siliciclastic-rock aquifers. Radon levels exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter in 74 percent of the samples, which were evenly distributed between carbonate- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers. The land use in areas surrounding wells and springs was another significant explanatory variable for the occurrence of anthropogenic compounds. Nitrate and pesticide concentrations were highest in samples collected from sites in agricultural areas and

  3. Radiochemical characterization of groundwater in Kazakhstan uranium province, prediction of influence of uranium ISL well fields on groundwater and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu-Sarysu and Sredne-Syrdar'ya depressions are very large uranium provinces. Cretaceous and Paleogene permeable sediments of these provinces host uranium deposits in an important aquifer. Therefore an important task is an assessment of natural radioactivity levels in groundwater and the radioactivity and chemical influences of in situ leaching on these aquifers. Such an assessment will indicate whether some measures should be taken to purify contaminated water and prevent further contamination. This report makes an assessment of the radioactivity levels in groundwater in the Suzak region (a part of Shu-Sarysu uranium province). Investigations have shown that there is some potential for restoration due to natural processes. Shu-Sarysu and Sredne-Syrdar'ya depressions are known to contain the bulk of uranium reserves of Kazakhstan. Important features of these uranium provinces are their aquifers of fresh to somewhat brackish water. These reserves are a significant source of water supply for the regions contiguous to the Karatau mountain range. Ecological investigations in this area are concerned with study of the interaction between radioactive ore-bodies and the natural increased radioactive plumes in groundwater, and the influence of uranium production on the environment. This paper presents results of geological and ecological investigations initiated by the Chief Geologist of Geological Group No. 5 of JSC 'Volkovgeologia', C.B. Aubakirov, several years ago and continued by Ecological Group No. 39 of JSC 'Volkovgeologia'. Special investigations have been performed by specialists of the Central Scientific Research Laboratory of JSC 'Volkovgeologia' under the framework of IAEA Contract No. 9116 with the International Atomic Energy Agency (Technical Officer J.-P. Nicolet). (author)

  4. Technical approach to groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Approach to Groundwater Restoration (TAGR) provides general technical guidance to implement the groundwater restoration phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The TAGR includes a brief overview of the surface remediation and groundwater restoration phases of the UMTRA Project and describes the regulatory requirements, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, and regulatory compliance. A section on program strategy discusses program optimization, the role of risk assessment, the observational approach, strategies for meeting groundwater cleanup standards, and remedial action decision-making. A section on data requirements for groundwater restoration evaluates the data quality objectives (DQO) and minimum data required to implement the options and comply with the standards. A section on sits implementation explores the development of a conceptual site model, approaches to site characterization, development of remedial action alternatives, selection of the groundwater restoration method, and remedial design and implementation in the context of site-specific documentation in the site observational work plan (SOWP) and the remedial action plan (RAP). Finally, the TAGR elaborates on groundwater monitoring necessary to evaluate compliance with the groundwater cleanup standards and protection of human health and the environment, and outlines licensing procedures

  5. Effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer was monitored during 1991-95 at the Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota. The objectives of the study were to:

  6. Use of environmental isotopes to characterize the groundwaters from tertiary aquifers of Kuttanad, Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuttanad area commonly known as the 'rice bowl' of Kerala is of importance as it contributes to the majority of rice production of the state. Even though more than 75% of the area is covered by surface waters and wetlands, groundwater is the only source of potable water supply to the nearby Alleppey town and the rural areas of Kuttanad because of contamination and inherent water quality problems in surface waters. Due to large-scale exploitation of groundwater resources for almost five decades, it is important to understand the sustainability of aquifers in this area in view of the increasing demand for domestic and irrigation requirements. Since the hydraulic gradient is mild and owing to the lowering of piezometric heads over the years, seawater ingression and deterioration of water quality in some parts of this coastal aquifer is apprehended. More over, the impact of agricultural pollution by the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides need to be dealt with for the protection and mitigation of pollution in aquifers. As a pre-requisite to address the above problems, a systematic environmental isotope (oxygen 18, tritium, carbon 13 and carbon 14)) study is carried out to understand the flow pattern, source and process of replenishment and possible hydraulic interconnection between aquifers and surface waters of this region. From the hydrogeological settings, it is seen that Kuttanad is a multiaquifer system of formations of Eocene to Recent age. Quarternary Alluvium and Laterite form the top phreatic aquifer and is underlain by Tertiary sediments that are under confined condition. Archaean crystalline rock forms the basement and is exposed at the eastern periphery of the area. There are four distinct groups of formations in Tertiary sediments namely, Warkali bed, Quilon bed, Vaikom bed and Alleppey bed of which Vaikom and Warkali are potential aquifers. Pre-monsoon (May, 2000) and post-monsoon (November 2000) samples were collected from tube wells tapping

  7. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region. PMID:23636597

  8. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater on the aspect of metals in an old town, Foshan, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guanxing Huang; Zongyu Chen; Jichao Sun

    2014-02-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the water quality and discussing the hydrochemical characteristics and seasonal variation of shallow groundwater on the aspect of metals in the eastern Chancheng district of Foshan city, south China. Multivariate analytical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used in this study. The results show that 45% of groundwater in the east-central of study area is not suitable for drinking purpose due to high concentrations of Fe, Pb and Mn. The mean concentrations of Fe, Hg, Cu, Pb, and Mn in dry season are higher than that in wet season. On the contrary, the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Zn, Ba, Cr, Mo, Ni and Al in wet season are higher than that in dry season. PCA results show that four PCs are responsible for the 78.6% of the total hydrochemical variables in groundwater. Three groups were generated from HCA method. Group 1 reflects the characteristic of wet season and the low ion exchange capacity; group 2 is mainly influenced by the dry season. Reducing environment and high ion exchange capacity are responsible for group 3. The results are useful in addressing future measures in groundwater resource management for local government.

  9. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  10. The use of Kriging Techniques with in GIS Environment to Investigate Groundwater Quality in the Amman-Zarqa Basin/Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Atef Al-Mashagbah; Rida Al-Adamat; Elias Salameh

    2012-01-01

    The Kriging techniques are called the best linear unbiased estimator since it tries to have a mean residual error equal to zero. It aims to minimizing the variance of the errors and hence is a strong advantage over other estimation methods like inverse distance weighting or moving average. In this study, the ordinary kriging techniques were used to estimate groundwater quality parameters (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3-). It was found that the spatial interpolation of groundwater quality of...

  11. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, V., E-mail: re@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro, 40123 Venice (Italy); National Engineering School of Sfax (ENIS) - Laboratory of Radio-Analysis and Environment (LRAE) Sfax (Tunisia); Sacchi, E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mas-Pla, J. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona (Spain); Menció, A. [Grup de Geologia Aplicada i Ambiental (GAIA), Centre de Geologia i Cartografia Ambientals (GEOCAMB), Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, 17071 Girona (Spain); El Amrani, N. [Faculty of Sciences and techniques, University Hassan 1er, Settat (Morocco)

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  12. Identifying the effects of human pressure on groundwater quality to support water management strategies in coastal regions: A multi-tracer and statistical approach (Bou-Areg region, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater pollution from anthropogenic sources is a serious concern affecting several coastal aquifers worldwide. Increasing groundwater exploitation, coupled with point and non-point pollution sources, are the main anthropogenic impacts on coastal environments and are responsible for severe health and food security issues. Adequate management strategies to protect groundwater from contamination and overexploitation are of paramount importance, especially in arid prone regions, where coastal aquifers often represent the main freshwater resource to sustain human needs. The Bou-Areg Aquifer (Morocco) is a perfect example of a coastal aquifer constantly exposed to all the negative externalities associated with groundwater use for agricultural purposes, which lead to a general increase in aquifer salinization. In this study data on 61 water samples, collected in June and November 2010, were used to: (i) track groundwater composition changes related to the use of irrigation water from different sources, (ii) highlight seasonal variations to assess aquifer vulnerability, and (iii) present a reproducible example of multi-tracer approach for groundwater management in rural coastal areas. Hydrogeochemical results show that Bou-Areg groundwater is characterized by – high salinity, associated with a remarkable increase in bicarbonate content in the crop growing season, due to more intense biological activity in irrigated soils. The coupled multi-tracer and statistical analysis confirms the strong dependency on irrigation activities as well as a clear identification of the processes governing the aquifer’s hydrochemistry in the different seasons. Water Rock Interaction (WRI) dominates the composition of most of groundwater samples in the Low Irrigation season (L-IR) and Agricultural Return Flow (ARF) mainly affects groundwater salinization in the High Irrigation season (H-IR) in the same areas naturally affected by WRI. In the central part of the plain River Recharge (RR

  13. An integrative approach to characterize hydrological processes and water quality in a semi-arid watershed in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M. R.; Fernandes, N.; Veiga, L. H. S.; Melo, L. R.; Santos, A. C. S.; Araujo, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions face serious challenges in the management of scarce water resources. This situation tends to become worse with the increasing population growth rates and consequently increasing water demand. Groundwater is the most important water resource in these areas and, therefore, the sustainability of its use depends on the effectiveness in which it is managed, both in terms of quantity and quality. The Caetité Experimental Basin (CEB), located in a semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, faces not only the challenges associated with water scarcity, but also changes in landscape and potential contamination processes due to mining activity. The only active uranium production center in Brazil (URA) is located in this watershed and the sustainability of mining and milling operations as well as the survival of the local community are highly dependent on the availability of groundwater resources. Hydrogeological studies in this area are scarce, and the potential contamination and overexploitation of groundwater can not be ruled out. Therefore, a national project was launched in order to improve the understanding and quantification of the interaction between the hydrogeological system and human health. The methodological approach involved hydrological and geochemical monitoring and characterization of the CEB, use of isotopic techniques, groundwater modeling, water quality diagnosis and human health risk assessment due to water ingestion. The results suggested that the groundwater in the CEB are not totally connected, with evidence of a mixture of recent and old waters. The Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl is the dominant water type (50%) followed by Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl water type (17%). The relevant non-radioactive contaminants are Mn, F, NO3 and Ba, mostly from natural origin, with the exception of NO3 that could be associated with the livestock activities. The estimated effective doses due to groundwater ingestion containing radionuclides are below the recommended

  14. GROUNDWATER AND SURFACE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT NEAR THE CLOSED MUNICIPAL LANDFILL

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela A. Talalaj

    2013-01-01

    During the current research the level of groundwater (piezometers P2,P3,P4) and surface water (reservoir B) contamination during landfill operation and after its closure were examined. 113 samples of groundwater and surface water were collected from spring 2005 until spring 2012, i.e. three years after the landfill closure. The samples were analyzed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC and six heavy metals: Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu. The heavy metal concentration in groundwater and surface water both during lan...

  15. Characterization of arsenic resistant bacteria from arsenic rich groundwater of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Angana; Kazy, Sufia K; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-03-01

    Sixty-four arsenic (As) resistant bacteria isolated from an arsenic rich groundwater sample of West Bengal were characterized to investigate their potential role in subsurface arsenic mobilization. Among the isolated strains predominance of genera Agrobacterium/Rhizobium, Ochrobactrum and Achromobacter which could grow chemolitrophically and utilize arsenic as electron donor were detected. Higher tolerance to As(3+) [maximum tolerable concentration (MTC): ≥10 mM], As(5+) (MTC: ≥100 mM) and other heavy metals like Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+) etc. (MTC: ≥10 mM), presence of arsenate reductase and siderophore was frequently observed among the isolates. Ability to produce arsenite oxidase and phosphatase enzyme was detected in 50 and 34 % of the isolates, respectively. Although no direct correlation among taxonomic identity of bacterial strains and their metabolic abilities as mentioned above was apparent, several isolates affiliated to genera Ochrobactrum, Achromobacter and unclassified Rhizobiaceae members were found to be highly resistant to As(3+) and As(5+) and positive for all the test properties. Arsenate reductase activity was found to be conferred by arsC gene, which in many strains was coupled with arsenite efflux gene arsB as well. Phylogenetic incongruence between the 16S rRNA and ars genes lineages indicated possible incidence of horizontal gene transfer for ars genes. Based on the results we propose that under the prevailing low nutrient condition inhabitant bacteria capable of using inorganic electron donors play a synergistic role wherein siderophores and phosphatase activities facilitate the release of sediment bound As(5+), which is subsequently reduced by arsenate reductase resulting into the mobilization of As(3+) in groundwater. PMID:23238642

  16. Characterization of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from arsenic-contaminated groundwater of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Poddar, Soumya; Sar, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    Nine arsenic (As)-resistant bacterial strains isolated from As-rich groundwater samples of West Bengal were characterized to elucidate their potential in geomicrobial transformation and bioremediation aspects. The 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strains were affiliated with genera Actinobacteria, Microbacterium, Pseudomonas and Rhizobium. The strains exhibited high resistance to As [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 10 mM As(3+) and MIC ≥ 450 mM As(5+)] and other heavy metals, e.g., Cu(2+), Cr(2+), Ni(2+), etc. (MIC ≥ 2 mM) as well as As transformation (As(3+) oxidation and As(5+) reduction) capabilities. Their ability to utilize diverse carbon source(s) including hydrocarbons and different alternative electron acceptor(s) (As(5+), SO4(2-), S2O3(2-), etc.) during anaerobic growth was noted. Growth at wide range of pH, temperature and salinity, production of siderophore and biofilm were observed. Together with these, growth pattern and transformation kinetics indicated a high As(3+) oxidation activity of the isolates Rhizobium sp. CAS934i, Microbacterium sp. CAS905i and Pseudomonas sp. CAS912i. A positive relation between high As(3+) resistance and As(3+) oxidation and the supportive role of As(3+) in bacterial growth was noted. The results highlighted As(3+) oxidation process and metabolic repertory of strains indigenous to contaminated groundwater and indicates their potential in As(3+) detoxification. Thus, such metabolically well equipped bacterial strains with highest As(3+) oxidation activities may be used for bioremediation of As contaminated water and effluents in the near future. PMID:25137536

  17. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO42- and Cl- were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided

  18. Role of fracture zones in controlling hydraulic head and groundwater flow - experience from Site Characterization Program in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary site investigations for the final disposal of HLW produced by TVO have been carried out during 1987-1992 in five areas. All the areas consist of Precambrian crystallite bedrock. The aim of these studies has been to identify and characterize geological structures, especially fractures and fracture zones with high hydraulic conductivity in order to study groundwater flow phenomena. Measured values of hydraulic head in packed-off sections of the boreholes have produced valuable information about the existence of hydraulically conductive fracture zones and their effects on spatial changes in hydraulic head and groundwater flow. The aim of this paper is to present qualitatively, without numerical simulations, how some main fracture zones control hydraulic head and groundwater flow in Romuvaara investigation area in Kuhmo, Finland

  19. Deterioration of groundwater quality in the vicinity of an active open-tipping site in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Bahaa-Eldin E. A.; Yusoff, I.; Samsudin, A. R.; Yaacob, W. Z. W.; Rafek, A. G. M.

    2010-06-01

    There is an urgent need for characterization of leachate arising from waste disposal to ensure a corresponding effective leachate management policy. Field and laboratory studies have been carried out to investigate the impact of municipal landfill leachate on the underlying groundwater at a site in West Malaysia. The solid waste was disposed of directly onto an unprotected natural soil formation. This situation was made worse by the shallow water table. The hydrochemical composition of groundwater in the vicinity of the site (background) is a dilute mixed cation, bicarbonate water. The high ionic balance error of ~13.5% reveals that the groundwater body underneath the site was a highly contaminated leachate rather than contaminated groundwater. Elevated concentration of chloride (355.48 mg/L), nitrate (10.40 mg/L as NO3), nitrite (14.59 mg/L), ammoniacal-N (11.61 mg/L), sodium (227.56 mg/L), iron (0.97 mg/L), and lead (0.32 mg/L) measured downgradient indicate that the contamination plume has migrated further away from the site. In most cases, the concentration of these contamination indicators, together with the ranges of sodium percentage (66.3-89.9%) and sodium adsorption ratio (10.1-19.7%), were found to be considerably higher than the limit values of safe water for both domestic and irrigation purposes, respectively.

  20. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  1. Intensive groundwater exploitation in the Punjab : an evaluation of resource and quality trends

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, D. J.; Gopal, K.; Rao, M. S.; Macdonald, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises initial findings from a case study investigating the response of groundwater resources in Punjab State, India, to irrigated agriculture. Punjab was central to India’s green revolution, and with fertile soils, abundant surface water and groundwater resources, Indian’s farmers soon transformed the State to be the “bread basket” of India. Currently approximately 20% and 11% respectively of India’s wheat and rice production, 10% of cotton production comes from Punjab. Th...

  2. Impacts of Tanneries on Quality of Groundwater in Pallavaram, Chennai Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    K.Ramesh,; V.Thirumangai

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of determining the extent of groundwater pollution caused by tanning industries and solid waster dumpsite in Pallavaram area located south of Chennai (Madras), which is a town of number of small and large scale leather industries. About 22 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the concentration of physio-chemical parameters and trace ions during September 2011 and January 2012. Ca-Mg-Cl and Na-Cl are the major ...

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  4. An economic optimal-control evaluation of achieving/maintaining ground-water quality contaminated from nonpoint agricultural sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study developed a methodology that may be used to dynamically examine the producer/consumer conflict related to nonpoint agricultural chemical contamination of a regional ground-water resource. Available means of obtaining acceptable ground-water quality included pollution-prevention techniques (restricting agricultural-chemical inputs or changing crop-production practices) and end-of-pipe abatement methods. Objectives were to select an agricultural chemical contaminant, estimate the regional agricultural costs associated with restricting the use of the selected chemical, estimate the economic costs associated with point-of-use ground-water contaminant removal and determine the least-cost method for obtaining water quality. The nitrate chemical derived from nitrogen fertilizer was selected as the contaminate. A three-county study area was identified in the Northwest part of Tennessee. Results indicated that agriculture was financially responsible for obtaining clean point-of-use water only when the cost of filtering increased substantially or the population in the region was much larger than currently existed

  5. Effect of land-applied biosolids on surface-water nutrient yields and groundwater quality in Orange County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Harden, Stephen L.; Gurley, Laura N.; Rogers, Shane W.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater biosolids is the most common method of biosolids management used in North Carolina and the United States. Biosolids have characteristics that may be beneficial to soil and plants. Land application can take advantage of these beneficial qualities, whereas disposal in landfills or incineration poses no beneficial use of the waste. Some independent studies and laboratory analysis, however, have shown that land-applied biosolids can pose a threat to human health and surface-water and groundwater quality. The effect of municipal biosolids applied to agriculture fields is largely unknown in relation to the delivery of nutrients, bacteria, metals, and contaminants of emerging concern to surface-water and groundwater resources. Therefore, the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) collaborated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) through the 319 Nonpoint Source Program to better understand the transport of nutrients and bacteria from biosolids application fields to groundwater and surface water and to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the current regulations.

  6. Mixing quality characterization in separations process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study has been performed on distribution of a dilute immiscible organic liquid dispersed in an aqueous phase contained baffled, paddle-agitated vessel, fitted with cooling coils. Acceptable total liquid levels in the vessel and minimum impeller speed were established for plant scale operation. Axial and radial distributions of the dispersed organic phase as functions of total liquid height, impeller speed, and the number of impellers were examined and some recurring trends were identified. Four stages of dispersion of organic phase in predominantly aqueous phase were identified with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s). The stages were: (1) non-dispersion stage in which the organic layer was undisturbed, (2) the organic layer was decreasing with impeller speed until complete but nonuniform dispersion was attained, (3) the non-uniformity of the completely dispersed mixture decreased with increasing rotational speed of impeller(s), and (4) a grossly uniform dispersion in which the local volume fraction of dispersed phase (organic) in mixture was the same throughout the vessel. Scale-up relations were developed for reproducing a defined mixing quality on two geometrically similar scales of operation, for the attainable condition of complete but non-uniform dispersion. The mixing quality was observed to decrease with increasing liquid depth over acceptable range, but variations in the overall concentration of organic liquid appeared to have only slight effect on the mixing quality

  7. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khader

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012. The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current

  8. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  9. Effects of lowering nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in agriculture on the quality of groundwater and surface water in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenema, Oene; van Liere, Lowie; Schoumans, Oscar

    2005-03-01

    The ecological status of many surface waters in the Netherlands (NL) is poor, due to relatively high discharges of N and P from agriculture, industry and wastewater treatment plants. Agriculture is suggested to be a major source, as discharges from industry and wastewater treatment plants have sharply decreased from the 1980s onwards. Agricultural land covers more than 60% of the total surface area in NL, and most of this land is managed intensively and is intersected by a dense network of ditches (total length ˜300,000 km), streams and lakes. On average, groundwater levels are shallow to very shallow. It has been suggested that nutrient balances of agricultural land are easy to measure proxies for nutrient discharges from agricultural land, though the relationships between nutrient balances and nutrient discharges into groundwater and surface water are not well-established. Thus, we explored the effects of lowering N and P surpluses in NL agriculture on the quality of groundwater and surface waters. Effects of N surpluses in the range of 40-300 kg ha -1 yr -1, and of P surpluses in the range of 0.4-17.5 kg of P per ha per year were examined using an integrated set of mathematical models and databases. Results indicate that nitrate leaching to groundwater and N and P discharges to surface waters are related to both N and P surpluses, hydrological condition, land use and soil type. On a national scale, decreasing N surplus by 1 kg ha -1, decreased nitrate leaching to groundwater on average by 0.08 kg ha -1 and N leaching to surface waters on average by 0.12 kg ha -1. Decreases of N and P concentrations in surface waters upon lowering surpluses were smaller than the calculated discharges. Decreases in N and P concentrations were much smaller in the coastal zone and Lake IJsselmeer, than in regional waters (ditches and small streams). The small improvement in the quality of surface waters upon lowering surpluses in agriculture is related to the relative importance of

  10. Characterization techniques for high quality ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid the effects of fluid instabilities, stringent requirements must be imposed on the surface quality and wall thickness uniformity of fuel pellets used in Inertial Confinement Fusion compression experiments. A systematic method was developed for specifying the type of defects which must be avoided and for evaluating measurement techniques for their suitability for detecting these defects. A review is given of the techniques currently available and those under development to show the relationship between these capabilities and the current and future requirements for pellet uniformity. The speed of these techniques and the implications for automated production of fuel pellets for a reactor are discussed

  11. Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Olivier; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Pédrot, Mathieu; Labasque, Thierry; Lavenant, Nicolas; Petton, Christophe; Dufresne, Alexis; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Chatton, Eliot; De la Bernardie, Jérôme; Aquilina, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm development in a hotspot of mixing between shallow and deep groundwater in a fractured aquifer: field evidence from joint flow, chemical and microbiological characterization Olivier Bochet1, Tanguy Le Borgne1, Mathieu Pédrot1, Thierry Labasque1, Nicolas Lavenant1, Christophe Petton1, Alexis Dufresne2,Sarah Ben Maamar1-2, Eliot Chatton1, Jérôme de la Bernardie1, Luc Aquilina1 1: Géosciences Rennes, CNRS UMR 6118, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu bât 14B, Rennes, France 2: Ecobio, CNRS UMR 6553, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, bât 14, Rennes, France Biofilms play a major role in controlling the fluxes and reactivity of chemical species transported in hydrological systems. Their development can have either positive impacts on groundwater quality (e.g. attenuation of contaminants under natural or stimulated conditions), or possible negative effects on subsurface operations (e.g. bio-clogging of geothermal dipoles or artificial recharge systems). Micro-organisms require both electron donors and electron acceptors for cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance of their metabolic functions. The mechanisms controlling these reactions derive from the interactions occurring at the micro-scale that depend on mineral compositions, the biota of subsurface environment, but also fluid mixing, which determines the local concentrations of nutriments, electron donors and electron acceptors. Hence, mixing zones between oxygen and nutriment rich shallow groundwater and mineralized deep groundwater are often considered as potential hotspots of microbial activity, although relatively few field data document flow distributions, transport properties, chemical gradients and micro-organisms distributions across these mixing interfaces. Here we investigate the origin of a localized biofilm development observed in the fractured granite aquifer at the Ploemeur observatory (H+ network hplus.ore.fr).This biofilm composed of ferro-oxidizing bacteria is

  12. Effects of irrigated agroecosystems: 2. Quality of soil water and groundwater in the southern High Plains, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Bordovsky, J. P.

    2010-09-01

    Trade-offs between water-resource depletion and salinization need to be understood when promoting water-conservative irrigation practices. This companion paper assesses impacts of groundwater-fed irrigation on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the southern High Plains (SHP). Unsaturated zone soil samples from 13 boreholes beneath irrigated agroecosystems were analyzed for water-extractable anions. Salt accumulation in soils varies with irrigation water quality, which ranges from low salinity in the north (median Cl: 21 mg/L) to higher salinity in the south (median Cl: 180 mg/L). Large Cl bulges under irrigated agroecosystems in the south are similar to those under natural ecosystems, but they accumulated over decades rather than millennia typical of natural ecosystems. Profile peak Cl concentrations (1200-6400 mg/L) correspond to irrigation efficiencies of 92-98% with respect to drainage and are attributed to deficit irrigation with minimal flushing. Perchlorate (ClO4) also accumulates under irrigated agroecosystems, primarily from irrigation water, and behaves similarly to Cl. Most NO3-N accumulation is below the root zone. Groundwater total dissolved solids (TDS) have increased by ≤960 mg/L and NO3-N by ≤9.4 mg/L since the early 1960s. Mobilization of salts that have accumulated under irrigated agroecosystems is projected to degrade groundwater much more in the future because of the essentially closed-basin status of the aquifer, with discharge occurring primarily through irrigation pumpage. TDS are projected to increase by an additional 2200 mg/L (median), ClO4 by 21 μg/L, and NO3-N by 52 mg/L. Water and salt balances should be considered in irrigation management in order to minimize salinization issues.

  13. Comparative analysis of the effect of closed and operational land-fills on groundwater quality in Solous, Lagos Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolayan O.S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is discarded materials of no further use to the owners and the pattern of its generation is a function of the level of urbanization, industrialization and economic status of society. The most convenient strategy of solid waste disposal is land-fill which is usually sited in abandoned excavated site. The quality of the groundwater which is the major source of potable water are affected by the waste disposal site. The objective of this work is to examine the impact of solid waste disposal site on the ground water quality of the residential areas boundary the site. For empirical and experimental examination of the concentration of contaminant in the groundwater of the studied area, fifteen (15 wells were sampled and three (3 leachates for laboratory analysis. The results were analyzed with standard statistical package and compared with WHO, 2004 and NSDWQ, 2007 standards. The statistic correlation analysis indicated that pH of the water has close relationship with many heavy metals and physicochemical parameters. In other to verify the actual concentration of the examined variable, correlated parameters in heavy metals were subjected to regression model. Spatial variation between closed and operational land-fills were compared. Therefore, concentration of some parameters like heavy metals diminished with time as a result of the analysis of the sampled around closed land-fill and many parameters reduced with distance while other increased. Closed land-fill has the capability of generating certain pollutants than existing land-fill; conversely some pollutants can also be highly generated in operational land-fill than the former. In conclusion, groundwater contamination is the function of time, types of waste, topography, soil, underlying geology, surface water ingression and direction of groundwater flow. The research recommends appropriate materials to cap the closed site and treatment after disposal.

  14. Temporal variation in groundwater quality in the Permian Basin of Texas, a region of increasing unconventional oil and gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Kadjo, Akinde F; Clark, Adelaide; Usenko, Sascha; Hamilton, Jason S; Mach, Phillip M; Verbeck, Guido F; Hudak, Paul; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-08-15

    The recent expansion of natural gas and oil extraction using unconventional oil and gas development (UD) practices such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has raised questions about the potential for environmental impacts. Prior research has focused on evaluations of air and water quality in particular regions without explicitly considering temporal variation; thus, little is known about the potential effects of UD activity on the environment over longer periods of time. Here, we present an assessment of private well water quality in an area of increasing UD activity over a period of 13months. We analyzed samples from 42 private water wells located in three contiguous counties on the Eastern Shelf of the Permian Basin in Texas. This area has experienced a rise in UD activity in the last few years, and we analyzed samples in four separate time points to assess variation in groundwater quality over time as UD activities increased. We monitored general water quality parameters as well as several compounds used in UD activities. We found that some constituents remained stable over time, but others experienced significant variation over the period of study. Notable findings include significant changes in total organic carbon and pH along with ephemeral detections of ethanol, bromide, and dichloromethane after the initial sampling phase. These data provide insight into the potentially transient nature of compounds associated with groundwater contamination in areas experiencing UD activity. PMID:27125684

  15. Integration of social perceptions, behaviors, and economic valuations of groundwater quality as an ecosystem service following exurban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Larson, D. M.; Ohr, C. A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Lybecker, D.; Hale, R. L.; Stoutenborough, J.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people rely on groundwater as a key, provisioning ecosystem service (ES). Our previous data suggested that drinking water nitrate concentrations and exurban development have significantly increased in the last three decades in Pocatello, Idaho, USA. Increased nitrate can lead to changes in ES and human values (such as water quality, people's knowledge, and housing values). We predicted people who tested their water quality would be aware of nitrate contamination and its potential to affect their housing prices, and they would choose to invest in home drinking water treatment systems. To test these hypotheses, we measured nitrate concentrations in hundreds of drinking water wells in years 1985, 1994, 2004, and 2015. We conducted a randomized public survey to determine the degrees to which: (1) people tested their private well water for nitrate and (2) were concerned about health issues related to contamination; (3) how important water quality is for determining local property values; and (4) if people treat their drinking water. We then developed a biophysical model to understand how exurban growth, local geology, and time influenced groundwater nitrate. Finally, we applied an economic, hedonic model to determine if groundwater nitrate concentrations negatively correlated to property values. Aquifer boundaries, slope, rock and soil type were significant predictors of nitrate (ordinary least squares, α <0.05). The hedonic model suggested that although nitrate and local housing values were spatially heterogeneous and increasing through time, exurban growth and nitrate alone were not strong predictors of water quality or property values. We also present an integrated biophysical, economic, and social model to better understand people's perceptions and behaviors of local nitrate pollution. Interdisciplinary ES and valuation may require multiple data types and integrated models to understand how ES and human values are influenced by exurban growth.

  16. Chemistry and quality of groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. Subba; Vidyasagar, G.; Surya Rao, P.; Bhanumurthy, P.

    2014-11-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India shows pollution to varying extent. The relative contribution of ions in six zones divided based on TDS indicates unsuitability of groundwater here for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. The water is brackish except in first zone and further alkaline. TDS is less than 1,000 mg/L in first zone, while it is more in other zones. This classification of groundwater into zones is also investigated by hydrogeochemical facies, genetic classification, mechanisms of groundwater chemistry and geochemical signatures. Hydrogeochemical facies of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+: {{HCO}}3^{ - } > Cl- > SO 4^{2 - } is observed from zone I, while that of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+:Cl- > HCO 3^{ - } > SO 4^{2 - } from second to sixth zones. The genetic classification of groundwater in first and second zones is HCO 3^{ - } type and supported by good drainage conditions, while zones III to VI belong to Cl- category evident from poor drainage scenario. The location of six zones on mechanisms of groundwater chemistry supports sluggish drainage conditions of second to six zones, while predominate rock-water interaction in first zone. The geochemical signatures (HCO 3^{ - } :Cl- > 1 and Na+:Cl- pollution. The quantities of chemical species (Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl ^{ - } , SO 4^{2 - } , NO 3^{ - } and F ^{ - } ) and TDS in all zones are far greater than the stipulated limits for drinking. The United States Salinity Laboratory plots discriminated the suitability of groundwater in second to sixth zones for irrigation after only special soil treatment. Higher concentrations of TDS, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl- and SO 4^{2 - } in all zones render it unsuitable for industry too. This information is crucial for public and civic authorities for taking up strategic management plan for preventing further deterioration of hydrogeochemical environmental conditions of this part of the coastal region.

  17. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  18. Impact of mining residues on surface and groundwater quality. Case of the mining sector of Azzaba in the North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouli, Zouina; Kherici, Nacer; Derdous, Oussama; Sassane, Amina; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Azzaba region contains a mining sector that was created in 1971 and operated until 2006, during this period huge quantities of mining residues were released in nature without any environmental rehabilitation plan which certainly deteriorated surface and groundwater quality by trace metals menacing the people's health as well as the aquatic ecosystems in this zone. The purpose of this study is to illustrate and to assess the surface and groundwater pollution toward heavy metals at the vicinity of the abandoned mining site. The primary analysis aimed to evaluate the pollution due to mercury in the region after many years of the closure of the mining industry to compare it with evaluations made during its operational period. In addition, further analyses of water pollution toward heavy metals usually used in the mercury industry (iron, zinc and copper) and probably released in the Fendek Wadi were conducted. These analyses allowed characterizing the ecological state of the studied environment by highlighting the concentrations of trace elements (mercury, iron, zinc, copper). According to the analyses, most of these concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standards; in fact only iron concentration exceeds them at the stations P7 and P8. Finally, the study results were compared by those obtained by previous studies; it was found that the mercury concentration has decreased with time which means that the contamination danger is disappearing.

  19. Spatio-temporal variability of shallow groundwater quality in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Excessive agriculture-sourced N leaching into shallow groundwater has deteriorated the domestic water quality in rural China. To effectively prevent the above environmental contamination issue, it is an essential prerequisite of exploring the spatio-temporal variability (stV) of the groundwater quality. In this study, a large observation program was deployed to observe ammonium-N (NH4N), nitrate-N (NO3N) and total N (TN) concentrations in 194 groundwater observation wells (1.5 m deep from soil surface) from April 2010 to November 2012 in the Jinjing river catchment in Hunan Province of China. A logit function was applied to transform NH4N, NO3N and TN data for normality; the resultant variables were thus named as NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt, respectively. A spatio-temporal semivariogram model in a sum-metric form was used to quantify the stV of NH4Nt, NO3Nt and TNt. The results indicated that the 33-month means ± standard deviations of the NH4N, NO3N and TN concentrations were 0.75±0.10, 1.60±0.19 and 2.99±0.29 mg N L-1, respectively. NH4Nt and NO3Nt exhibited a strong spatio-temporal dependence, while TNt only presented a strong temporal structure. Spatio-temporal ordinary kriging (stOK) was applied to predict the spatio-temporal distributions of NH4N, NO3N and TN over the catchment. The cross-validation results indicated that the stOK predictions for NH4N (r=0.48, RMSE=1.11 mg N L-1), NO3N (r=0.46, RMSE=1.21 mg N L-1) outperformed that for TN (r=0.29, RMSE=2.11 mg N L-1). Referenced to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93), the proportions of areas contaminated by NH4N, NO3N and TN in the catchment over a 33-month period were 20.5%, 1.46%, and 5.07%, respectively. Our findings suggested that the Jinjing groundwater was mainly polluted by NH4N, which is probably attributed to the intensive rice agriculture featured with high urea fertilizer applications in the catchment.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater quality in rural-areas of northern Malawi: Case of Zombwe Extension Planning Area in Mzimba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Matamula, Swithern; Nakoma, Oliver; Chawinga, Charles B. J.

    2016-06-01

    Many people in in the Sub-Saharan region rely on groundwater for drinking and other household uses. Despite this significance, information on the chemical composition of the water in the boreholes and emperical data on groundwater quality is limited in some rural areas of Malawi. This study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of water from boreholes (n = 20) in Zombwe Extension Planning Area (EPA), Mzimba in Northern Malawi to ascertain their safety. Desktop studies and participatory approaches were employed to assess the socio-economic activities and water supply regime in the study areas. The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity (EC), turbidity, water temperature, nitrate (NO3-), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), fluoride (F-), and sulphate (SO42-). In-situ and laboratory analyses were carried out using portable meters and standard procedures. The results were compared with national (Malawi Bureau of Standards - MBS) and international standards (World Health Organization - WHO) for drinking water. The following ranges were obtained: pH (6.00-7.80), EC (437-3128 μS/cm), turbidity (0.10-5.80 NTU), water temperature (27.0-30.60 °C), NO3- (0.30-30.00 mg/L), F- (0.10-8.10 mg/L), Mg (31.00-91.00 mg/L), Ca (20.00-197.10 mg/L), SO42- (10.20-190 mg/L), Fe (0.10-3.60 mg/L) and Zn (0.00-5.10 mg/L). Generally, some parameters tested at several sites (>80%, n = 20) complied with both MBS and WHO limits. No significant differences (p > 0.05) was observed for most parameters (>65%, n = 11). Groundwater contamination was not significant in the area despite some parameters like F-, Ca and SO42- showing higher levels at other sites. Some sites registered very hard water (244.60-757.80 mg/L CaCO3) probably due to mineralization influenced by underground rock material. Further studies are needed to ascertain the groundwater quality of other parameters (like F-, and SO42-) which registered higher levels at some sites. Routine monitoring of the

  1. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rahul; Sohoni, Milind

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement groundwater policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000 + observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  2. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Gokhale; Milind Sohoni

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement ground-water policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000+ observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  3. Characterization and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in groundwater from three Italian tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Carmela [National Institute of Safety and Health, DIPIA, Via Fontana Candida, 1, 00040 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: carmela.riccardi@ispesl.it; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Pomata, Donatella; Incoronato, Federica; Di Basilio, Marco [National Institute of Safety and Health, DIPIA, Via Fontana Candida, 1, 00040 Rome (Italy); Papini, Marco Petrangeli [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 000185 Rome (Italy); Spicaglia, Sergio [National Institute of Safety and Health, DIPIA, Via Fontana Candida, 1, 00040 Rome (Italy)

    2008-04-01

    The present paper highlights the utility of petroleum chemical fingerprinting in investigating known or suspected tank farm releases. A detailed characterization of groundwater was carried out in three tank farms located in north, central and south Italy. Eighteen parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene through coronene), n-alkanes (n-C{sub 10} through n-C{sub 36}), isoprenoids pristane and phytane, vanadium, nickel and lead were determined. Distribution profiles and diagnostic ratios of specific fuel constituents were studied in order to identify contamination sources. Data analysis shows that in the study sites multiple pollutant sources affecting the tank farms and the surrounding industrial areas are present. Both high concentrations of contaminants coming from fuel releases and noticeable concentrations of biogenic compounds were found. A detailed data analysis suggests the origin and the level of pollution of the three sites. The results demonstrate that threshold concentration approach is not always sufficient and it is necessary to carry out studies of contaminant distribution and their diagnostic ratios in order to perform a successful forensic investigation.

  4. Characterization and distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in groundwater from three Italian tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper highlights the utility of petroleum chemical fingerprinting in investigating known or suspected tank farm releases. A detailed characterization of groundwater was carried out in three tank farms located in north, central and south Italy. Eighteen parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene through coronene), n-alkanes (n-C10 through n-C36), isoprenoids pristane and phytane, vanadium, nickel and lead were determined. Distribution profiles and diagnostic ratios of specific fuel constituents were studied in order to identify contamination sources. Data analysis shows that in the study sites multiple pollutant sources affecting the tank farms and the surrounding industrial areas are present. Both high concentrations of contaminants coming from fuel releases and noticeable concentrations of biogenic compounds were found. A detailed data analysis suggests the origin and the level of pollution of the three sites. The results demonstrate that threshold concentration approach is not always sufficient and it is necessary to carry out studies of contaminant distribution and their diagnostic ratios in order to perform a successful forensic investigation

  5. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia;

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... variations in leachate composition are very important for locating the main source of the groundwater pollution and for selection of cost-effective remedial action activities.......Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... were evaluated. A pronounced variability in leachate composition was observed in the 31 leachate wells installed through the waste. The spatial variability was analysed by statistical methods, and a semivariogram model was able to describe the variability both on small and large scale. The spatial...

  6. EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE ON GROUND-WATER QUALITY, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian J.; Ku, Henry F.H.; Oaksford, Edward T.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial-recharge experiments were conducted at East Meadow in central Nassau County, Long Island, N. Y. , from October 1982 through January 1984, to evaluate the degree of ground-water mounding and chemical effects of artificially replenishing the ground-water system with tertiary-treated wastewater. Reclaimed water was provided by the Cedar Creek wastewater-treatment plant in Wantagh. Recharge with reclaimed water increased the concentration of sodium and chloride in ground water but lowered the concentrations of total nitrogen (nitrate plus nitrite) and some low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. Reclaimed water was well within the New York State effluent standards for ground-water recharge. Specific-conductance measurements and Stiff diagrams of chemical analyses were used to help define the extent and shape of the plume formed by reclaimed water.

  7. Downstream changes of water quality in a lowland river due to groundwater inflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieba, Damian; Bar-Michalczyk, Dominika; Kania, Jarosław; Malina, Grzegorz; Michalczyk, Tomasz; Rozanski, Kazimierz; Witczak, Stanislaw; Wachniew, Przemyslaw; Zurek, Anna J.

    2016-04-01

    The Kocinka catchment (ca. 250 km2) in southern Poland receives substantial inflows of groundwater from a major fissured-carbonate aquifer polluted with nitrates originating from agriculture and domestic sewage. The 40 km long Kocinka river reveals large spatial variations in physical and chemical water properties with large downstream changes of nitrate concentrations. Detailed longitudinal surveys of such water characteristics as nitrate concentration, water temperature, pH, electric conductivity, stable isotopic composition, tritium concentration were performed in order to identify and quantify groundwater inflows. The river gains groundwater down to the 25 km from the source and a looses water further downstream. The subsequent increase and decrease of nitrate concentration in the upper and middle reaches of the river are caused by inflows of the, respectively, polluted and non-polluted groundwaters. The range of such changes can be even five-fold while the drop of nitrate concentration along the semi natural, 18 km long, lower reach where the river is well connected to its riparian and hyporheic zones nitrate loss is of the order of 10%. More significant nitrate losses were observed in the dammed reaches and in a small reservoir in the upper part of the river. Results of the study have implications for identification of measures that can be undertaken to reduce nitrate export from the catchment. Because of the role of groundwater in river runoff reduction of nitrate loads to the aquifer should be primary objective. Acknowledgements. The work was carried out as part of the BONUS Soils2Sea project on groundwater system (http:/www.soils2sea.eu) financed by the European Commission 7 FP contract 226536 and the statutory funds of the AGH University of Science and Technology (project No.11.11.140.026 and 11.11.220.01).

  8. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation: the case study of Teiman-Oyarifa Community, Ga East Municipality, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ackah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural purposes was assessed in a predominantly farming and sprawling settlement in the Ga East Municipality (Ghana. Various water quality parameters were determined to assess groundwater quality of 16 wells in Teiman-Oyarifa community. Standard methods for physicochemical determinations were employed. Hand-dug wells, boreholes and pipe borne water samples were collected within the locality and analysed. Results showed the temperature range of 19.5 oC-26.7 oC, pH range of 4-7.4, conductivity range of 214-2830 uS/cm, total dissolved solids, 110-1384 mg/L, bicarbonate, 8.53-287.7mg/L, chloride, 28.41-813.8 mg/L, Flouride, below detection limit -0.4667mg/L, Nitrate 1.9-4625 mg/L, sulphate, 16.35-149.88mg/L. Results of analysis carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry showed metal concentrations of Fe ranging from 0.212-3.396 mg/L, Mn 0.01-0.1 mg/L, Ca 0.39-9.97 mg/L. The ionic dominance for the major cations and the anions respectively were in these order; Na+ >K+ >Mg+ >Ca+ and Cl- >HCO3- >SO4- >NO3 -. Most of the samples analyzed were within the Guidelines set by both national and international bodies for drinking water. Most of the groundwater samples fell in the US Salinity Laboratory Classification of C2-S1(medium salinity-low SAR.

  10. The impact of groundwater quality on the removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) using advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawabini, B; Fayad, N; Morsy, M

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from contaminated groundwater using advanced oxidation technology was investigated. The UV/H(2)O(2) treatment process was applied to remove MTBE from two Saudi groundwater sources that have different quality characteristics with regard to their contents of inorganic species such as chloride, bromide, sulfates and alkalinity. MTBE was spiked into water samples collected from the two sources to a concentration level of about 250 microg/L. A 500 mL bench-scale forced-liquid circulation photoreactor was used to conduct the experiments. Two different UV lamps were utilized: 15 Watt low pressure (LP) and 150 Watt medium pressure (MP). Results of the study showed that the UV/H(2)O(2) process removed more than 90% of MTBE in 20 minutes when the MP lamp was used at an MTBE/H(2)O(2) molar ratio of 1:200. The results also showed that groundwater sources with higher levels of radical scavengers such as alkalinity, bromide, nitrate and sulfate showed lower rate of MTBE removal. PMID:19844063

  11. Does Disposing of Construction and Demolition Debris in Unlined Landfills Impact Groundwater Quality? Evidence from 91 Landfill Sites in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jon T; Jain, Pradeep; Smith, Justin; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2015-08-01

    More than 1,500 construction and demolition debris (CDD) landfills operate in the United States (U.S.), and U.S. federal regulations do not require containment features such as low-permeability liners and leachate collection systems for these facilities. Here we evaluate groundwater quality from samples collected in groundwater monitoring networks at 91 unlined, permitted CDD landfills in Florida, U.S. A total of 460,504 groundwater sample results were analyzed, with a median of 10 years of quarterly or semiannual monitoring data per site including more than 400 different chemical constituents. Downgradient concentrations of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, iron, ammonia-nitrogen, and aluminum were greater than upgradient concentrations (p leachate from the landfill), iron and arsenic were detected in 91% and 43% of samples, with median concentrations of 1,900 μg/L and 11 μg/L, respectively. These results show that although health-based standards can be exceeded at unlined CDD landfills, the magnitude of detected chemical concentrations is generally small and reflective of leached minerals from components (wood, concrete, and gypsum drywall) that comprise the bulk of discarded CDD by mass. PMID:26130423

  12. Preliminary development of a GIS-tool to assess threats to shallow groundwater quality from soil pollutants in Glasgow, UK (GRASP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Fordyce, F. M.; Ander, E. L.; Bonsor, H. C.

    2009-04-01

    The protection of groundwater and related surface water quality is a key aspect of the European Union Water Framework Directive and environmental legislation in many countries worldwide. Globally, the protection of urban groundwater resources and related ecosystem services is of growing concern as urbanisation increases. Although urban areas are often where groundwater resources are most in need of protection, there is frequently a lack of information about threats to groundwater quality. Most studies of soil and groundwater contamination, although detailed, are site-specific, and city-wide overviews are generally lacking. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is currently undertaking the Clyde Urban Super-Project (CUSP), delivering multi-disciplinary geoscience products for the Glasgow conurbation. Under this project, a GIS-based prioritisation tool known as GRASP (GRoundwater And Soil Pollutants) has been trialled to aid urban planning and sustainable development by providing a broad-scale assessment of threats to groundwater quality across the conurbation. GRASP identifies areas where shallow groundwater quality is at greatest threat from the leaching and downward movement of potentially harmful metals in the soil. Metal contamination is a known problem in many urban centres including Glasgow, which has a long industrial heritage and associated contamination legacy, notably with respect to Cr. GRASP is based primarily upon an existing British Standard - International Standards Organisation methodology to determine the leaching potential of metals from soils, which has been validated for 11 metals: Al, Fe, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn (BS-ISO 15175:2004). However, the GRASP tool is innovative as it combines assessments of soil leaching potential with soil metal content data to highlight threats to shallow groundwater quality. The input parameters required for GRASP (soil pH, clay, organic matter, sesquioxide and metal content) are based upon a systematic

  13. Weekly variations of discharge and groundwater quality caused by intermittent water supply in an urbanized karst catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmeisen, Felix; Zemann, Moritz; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Leaky sewerage and water distribution networks are an enormous problem throughout the world, specifically in developing countries and regions with water scarcity. Especially in many arid and semi-arid regions, intermittent water supply (IWS) is common practice to cope with water shortage. This study investigates the combined influence of urban activities, IWS and water losses on groundwater quality and discusses the implications for water management. In the city of As-Salt (Jordan), local water supply is mostly based on groundwater from the karst aquifer that underlies the city. Water is delivered to different supply zones for 24, 48 or 60 h each week with drinking water losses of around 50-60%. Fecal contamination in groundwater, mostly originating from the likewise leaky sewer system is a severe challenge for the local water supplier. In order to improve understanding of the local water cycle and contamination dynamics in the aquifer beneath the city, a down gradient spring and an observation well were chosen to identify contaminant occurrence and loads. Nitrate, Escherichia coli, spring discharge and the well water level were monitored for 2 years. Autocorrelation analyses of time series recorded during the dry season revealed weekly periodicity of spring discharge (45 ± 3.9 L s-1) and NO3-N concentrations (11.4 ± 0.8 mg L-1) along with weekly varying E. coli levels partly exceeding 2.420 MPN 100 mL-1. Cross-correlation analyses demonstrate a significant and inverse correlation of nitrate and discharge variations which points to a periodic dilution of contaminated groundwater by freshwater from the leaking IWS being the principal cause of the observed fluctuations. Contaminant inputs from leaking sewers appear to be rather constant. The results reveal the distinct impact of leaking clean IWS on the local groundwater and subsequently on the local water supply and therefore demonstrate the need for action regarding the mitigation of groundwater contamination and

  14. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton,Minnesota, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Nelson, K.J.; Regan, C.P.; Lamb, J.A.; Larson, S.J.; Capel, P.D.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area was located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consisted of 73 observation wells and 25 multiport wells. The primary objectives of the ground-water monitoring program at the Minnesota MSEA were to: (1) determine the effects of three farming systems on ground-water quality, and (2) understand the processes and factors affecting the loading, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals in ground water at the site. This report presents well construction, geologic, water-level, chemical application, water-quality, and quality-assurance data used to evaluate the effects of farming systems on ground-water quality during 1991-95.

  15. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data used to characterize the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Anderson, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Minnesota Management Systems Evaluation Area project is part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The research area is located in the Anoka Sand Plain about 5 kilometers southwest of Princeton, Minnesota. The ground-water-quality monitoring network within and immediately surrounding the research area consists of 29 observation wells and 22 multiport wells. Thirteen observation wells are also located outside the research area. The primary objectives of research by the U.S. Geological Survey at the Princeton Management Systems Evaluation Area are to: (1) determine the relation of the spatial and temporal distribution of agricultural chemicals in ground water to recharge, topography, and subsurface heterogeneities; and (2) determine the effects of the modified and prevailing farming systems on ground-water quality. This report presents geologic logs and water-quality data used to characterize the Princeton Management Systems Evaluation Area.

  16. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2

  17. Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzourra, Hazar; Bouhlila, Rachida; Elango, L; Slama, Fairouz; Ouslati, Naceur

    2015-02-01

    Coastal aquifers are at threat of salinization in most parts of the world. This study was carried out in coastal shallow aquifers of Aousja-Ghar El Melh and Kalâat el Andalous, northeastern of Tunisia with an objective to identify sources and processes of groundwater salinization. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 shallow dug wells during July and September 2007. Chemical parameters such as Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Cl(-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), NO3 (-), Br(-), and F(-) were analyzed. The combination of hydrogeochemical, statistical, and GIS approaches was used to understand and to identify the main sources of salinization and contamination of these shallow coastal aquifers as follows: (i) water-rock interaction, (ii) evapotranspiration, (iii) saltwater is started to intrude before 1972 and it is still intruding continuously, (iv) irrigation return flow, (v) sea aerosol spray, and finally, (vi) agricultural fertilizers. During 2005/2006, the overexploitation of the renewable water resources of aquifers caused saline water intrusion. In 2007, the freshening of a brackish-saline groundwater occurred under natural recharge conditions by Ca-HCO3 meteoric freshwater. The cationic exchange processes are occurred at fresh-saline interfaces of mixtures along the hydraulic gradient. The sulfate reduction process and the neo-formation of clays minerals characterize the hypersaline coastal Sebkha environments. Evaporation tends to increase the concentrations of solutes in groundwater from the recharge areas to the discharge areas and leads to precipitate carbonate and sulfate minerals. PMID:25196959

  18. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of the quality of groundwater sampling: Experience derived from radioactive waste disposal programmes in Sweden and Finland during 1980-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J.A.T. [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Laaksoharju, M. [Intera, Solletuna (Sweden); Snellman, M.V. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Ruotsalainen, P.H. [Fintact Oy, (Finland)

    1999-09-01

    Existing Finnish and Swedish hydrogeochemical field data from the 1980s and the early 1990s have been closely examined in the light of other influencing activities, such as geology and hydrology, which form an integral part of site-specific investigations. The report has considered data relating to the monitoring of groundwater chemical trends and groundwater sampling and analysis. These data have been used to simulate the effects of important parameters on groundwater quality and representativeness, to generate recommendations to improve the standard of hydrogeochemical sampling and analyses, and to discuss these results in the broader context of future site-specific investigations. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of impact on the groundwater quality due to urbanization by hydrogeochemical facies analysis in SE part of Pune city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater from the south-eastern part of Pune city has been assessed for the seasonal variation in their quality parameters. Using Piper diagram the hydrogeochemical facies were identified and the groundwaters were classified with regards to the changes in their major chemical compositions. Based on the hydrogeochemical facies it has been found that the groundwater regime is severly deteriorated by the anthropogernic activities. Although the area of Manjari, Hadapsar and uruli Devachi show high influx of pollutants in rainy season the Mantarwadi and Fursungi area have strong influence of leachate throughout the year.

  1. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed. PMID:26661960

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the yellow river alluvial plain (zhongwei section), northwest china

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analyses, a Piper diagram, the saturation index and the correlations of chemical parameters were used to reveal the hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeochemical evolution of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the Zhongwei section of the Yellow River alluvial plain. The water quality for agricultural and domestic uses was also assessed in the study. The results suggest that the shallow groundwater in the study area is fresh to moderately mineralized water. Higher Ca2+ and HCO3- ...

  3. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems. PMID:26023964

  4. A Conflict-Resolution Model for the Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Resources that Considers Water-Quality Issues: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan-Lari, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Mansoori, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    The conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is one alternative for optimal use of available water resources in arid and semiarid regions. The optimization models proposed for conjunctive water allocation are often complicated, nonlinear, and computationally intensive, especially when different stakeholders are involved that have conflicting interests. In this article, a new conflict-resolution methodology developed for the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources using Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and Young Conflict-Resolution Theory (YCRT) is presented. The proposed model is applied to the Tehran aquifer in the Tehran metropolitan area of Iran. Stakeholders in the study area have conflicting interests related to water supply with acceptable quality, pumping costs, groundwater quality, and groundwater table fluctuations. In the proposed methodology, MODFLOW and MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models are linked with the NSGA-II optimization model to develop Pareto fronts among the objectives. The best solutions on the Pareto fronts are then selected using YCRT. The results of the proposed model show the significance of applying an integrated conflict-resolution approach to conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources in the study area.

  5. Quality manual for Laboratories of the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the first Quality Manual for the Laboratories at the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division. The Manual describes the laboratories, its organization structure, fields of activities, personnel records, equipments, maintenance and calibration. The main aspects concerning quality assurance in the analysis were discussed. The whole system of receiving, identifying and processing analysis of the samples is shown. Since there are many information to be contained in several subjects of the Quality Manual, there were produced separate documents that are cross referenced in the manual. (author)

  6. Characterization of DOM in landfill leachate polluted groundwater with electrospary LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.;

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter in leachate polluted groundwater, downgradient a landfill, was analysed with electrospray mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the DOM change qualitatively in the gradient, becoming more uniform in functional groups and hydrofobicity. Those changes may affect the...

  7. Characterization of land subsidence induced by groundwater withdrawals in Wenyu River alluvial fan, Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Luo, Y; Yang, Y; Tian, F.; Y. Zhou; Tian, M.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    The Beijing plain area has suffered from severe land subsidence owing to groundwater overdraft. A major example is the Wenyu River alluvial fan in the Beijing plain area. This area has experienced as much as 10 m of land subsidence through 2000s. An integrated subsidence-monitoring program, including borehole extensometer and multilayer monitoring of groundwater, has been designed to meet the needs of monitoring land subsidence in this region. This work has allowed us to cha...

  8. Characterization of groundwater flow in the environment of the Boom Clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the possibility to dispose of high-level radioactive waste in the Boom Clay formation has been investigated in Belgium at the test site in Mol. This research involves detailed studies of the hydrogeological system at various scales, observations of groundwater levels in the regional and local piezometric networks, several site investigations including geophysics and core-drilled boreholes. The knowledge gained during the long-term hydrogeological research is integrated in groundwater models. Major differences in the groundwater regimes above and below the Boom Clay gave rise to two models simulating these two sub-systems separately. The Neogene aquifer model is used to simulate the groundwater flow above the Boom Clay and the Deep aquifer pumping model to simulate the groundwater flow below the Boom Clay. The regional groundwater research improved the understanding of the regional flow system, since it has enabled to explain the behaviour of the aquifer system using a combination of a steady-state model for the Neogene aquifers and a transient model for the deep aquifers. This combination of modelling tools can offer a representative set of boundary conditions for the consecutive models that will depend on the scenarios required for the performance assessment of the integrated repository system. (authors)

  9. Water quality and geochemistry evaluation of groundwater upstream and downstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant/Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajjali, William; Al-Hadidi, Kheir; Ismail, Ma'mmon

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater in the northeastern Amman-Zarqa basin is an important source of water for irrigation. The quality and quantity of water has deteriorated due to mismanagement and misunderstanding of the hydrogeological system. Overexploitation of groundwater resources upstream of the Khirbet Al-Samra wastewater treatment plant (KSWTP) has lowered the water table 43 m since the beginning of groundwater development in 1968. Heavy pumping of groundwater downstream of KSWTP has not dropped the water level due to constant recharge from the Zarqa river bed. The water level of groundwater is rising continuously at a rate of 20 cm per year since building the KSWTP in 1985. Groundwater salinity has also shifted the quality of the aquifer from fresh to brackish. Continual irrigation from the groundwater upstream of KSWTP dissolves accumulated salt from the soil formed by evaporation, and the contaminated water infiltrates back to the aquifer, thereby increasing both salt and nitrate concentrations. The intense irrigation from the reclaimed water downstream of KSWTP and leakage of treated wastewater from the Zarqa River to the shallow groundwater is a secondary source of salt and nitrates. The isotopic composition of groundwater varies over a wide range and is associated with the meteoric water line affected by Mediterranean Sea air moisture. The isotopic composition of groundwater is represented by evaporation line (EL) with a low slope of 3.6. The enrichment of groundwater in δ18O and δD is attributed mainly to the two processes of evaporation before infiltration of return flow and mixing of different types of water in KSWTP originating from different aquifers. The EL starts from a location more depleted than the weighted mean value of the Amman rainfall station on the Eastern Meteoric Water Line indicating that the recharge took place under the climate regime prevailing today in Jordan and the recharge of the groundwater originates from a greater elevation than that of the

  10. Stream-Groundwater Interaction Buffers Seasonal Changes in Urban Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Urban streams in the northeastern United States have large road salt inputs during winter, increased nonpoint sources of inorganic nitrogen, and decreased short-term and permanent storage of nutrients. Meadowbrook Creek, a first order stream in Syracuse, New York, flows along a negative urbanization gradient, from a channelized and armored stream running through the middle of a roadway to a pool-riffle stream meandering through a broad, vegetated floodplain with a riparian aquifer. In this study we investigated how reconnection to groundwater and introduction of riparian vegetation impacted surface water chemistry by making bi-weekly longitudinal surveys of stream water chemistry in the creek from May 2012 until June 2013. Chloride concentrations in the upstream, urban reach of Meadowbrook Creek were strongly influenced by discharge of road salt to the creek during snow melt events in winter and by the chemistry of water draining an upstream retention basin in summer. Chloride concentrations ranged from 161.2 mg/L in August to 2172 mg/L in February. Chloride concentrations in the downstream, 'connected' reach had less temporal variation, ranging from 252.0 mg/L in August to 1049 mg/L in January, and were buffered by groundwater discharge, as the groundwater chloride concentrations during the sampling period ranged from 84.0 to 655.4 mg/L. Groundwater discharge resulted in higher chloride concentrations in summer and lower concentrations in winter in the connected reach relative to the urban reach, minimizing annual variation. In summer, there was little-to-no nitrate in the urban reach due to a combination of limited sources and high primary productivity. In contrast, during the summer, nitrate concentrations reached over 1 mg N/L in the connected reach due to the presence of riparian vegetation and lower nitrate uptake due to cooler temperatures and shading. During the winter, when temperatures fell below freezing, nitrate concentrations in the urban reach

  11. Effect of the decommissioned Roger open dump, João Pessoa, Brazil, on local groundwater quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliano de Souza Fagundes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout 45 years (1958-2003 the solid wastes from João Pessoa were disposed off in the former Roger’s open dump, which is situated adjacent to the mangrove at the sides of Sanhauá river, intensifying environmental problems and threatening the health of people living nearby. Between 1999 and 2003 the decommissioned open dump received wastes from the cities of Cabedelo and Bayeux. Several environmental impacts result from this inadequate disposal of solid wastes, including the pollution of groundwater nearby the former Roger´s open dump, which is the major point of investigation of this paper. The water quality of 6 wells situated in the region of influence of the open dump were monitored. Results have shown that the groundwater near the open dump cannot be drunk by the population without previous treatment, since it has some parameters of water quality in discordance with Brazilian legislation concerned with drinking water. Results have also shown that the level of pollution is higher in the wells closer to the open dump.

  12. Quantity and Quality of Groundwater in Fractured Meta sedimentary Rocks of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater in fractured meta sedimentary rock in Malaysia is a potential source of water for drinking and industrial uses. Industries including agricultural processing, mineral water bottling, manufacturing and golf courses pumped the water from the underlying fractured rocks. Fifty eight tube wells belong to private companies operating in various places in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were evaluated for their yield and quality of water. Rotary percussion methods were used for the drilling to a maximum depth of 200 m. The productivity of the wells and the characteristics of the aquifer were evaluated by pumping test using both the constant discharge rate and steps drawdown methods. The average yield of the wells at allowable drawdown of 40 m was found to be 416 m3 per day. Results from water quality analysis indicated that the water was fresh with an average total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of 101 to 150 mg/ L. The hardness of the water varies from as low as 13 mg/ L to a maximum of 353 mg/ L. On the average, the water was moderately hard with the average hardness value of 80 mg/ L. The water facies of the groundwater was found to be of calcium-sodium-bicarbonate water. (author)

  13. Application of 15N isotope to management of groundwater quality, Jabal Hasouna Wellfields, Great Man-Made River Project, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jabal Hasouna wellfields are located some 700 kilometres south of Tripoli, the capital of Libya, and are part of the Great Man-Made River Project for water supply to coastal areas. The wellfields include 484 deep wells with a total design production rate of 2.5 million cubic metres per day from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstone aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined in the southwestern portion of the wellfields and the remainder is confined, but most of the wells are located in the unconfined part. Water quality is good but concentrations of nitrate up to 133 mg/L occur in the wellfields, with slightly higher concentrations in the unconfined aquifer. Previous 14C dating of the groundwater gave ages of 10.4 ka ± 0.4 ka to 17.2 ka ± 0.1 ka BP and stable isotope data indicate a meteoric origin from recharge during a humid climate phase of the Sahara. Analysis of δ15N and δ18O from groundwater nitrate showed a range of 7.11 to 12.64 per mille for the δ15N and 12.51 to 22.35 per mille for the δ18O. At Jabal Hasouna these ranges suggest that soil nitrate may be the source. There appears to be a low rate of denitrification so high nitrate levels will be a long-term concern for water quality. (author)

  14. Application of 15N isotopes to management of groundwater quality, Jabal Hasouna Wellfields, Great Man-Made River Project, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jabal Hasouna wellfields are located some 700 kilometres south of Tripoli, the capital of Libya, and are part of the Great Man-Made River Project for water supply to coastal areas. The wellfields include 484 deep wells with a total design production rate of 2.5 million cubic metres per day from the Cambro-Ordovician sandstone aquifer. The aquifer is unconfined in the southwestern portion of the wellfields and the remainder is confined, but most of the wells are located in the unconfined part. Water quality is good, but concentrations of nitrate up to 133 mg/L occur in the wellfields, with slightly higher concentrations in the unconfined aquifer. Previous 14C dating of the groundwater gave ages of 10.4 ka ± 0.4 ka to 17.2 ka ± 0.1 ka BP and stable isotope data indicate a meteoric origin from recharge during a humid climate phase of the Sahara. Analysis of δ15N and δ18O from groundwater nitrate showed a range of 7.11 to 12.64 per mille for the δ15N and 12.51 to 22.35 per mille for the δ18O. At Jabal Hasouna these ranges suggest that soil nitrate may be the source. There appears to be a low rate of denitrification so high nitrate levels will be a long-term concern for water quality. (author)

  15. Effects of 1992 farming systems on ground-water quality at the management systems evaluation area near Princeton, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Lamb, J.A.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program was a multiscale, interagency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural systems on water quality in the midwest corn belt. The primary objective of the Minnesota MSEA was to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The 65-hectare Minnesota MSEA was located in the Anoka Sand Plain near the town of Princeton, Minnesota. Three fanning systems were evaluated: corn-soybean rotation with ridge-tillage (areas B and D), sweet corn-potato rotation (areas A and C), and field corn in consecutive years (continuous corn; area E). Water samples were collected four different times per year from a network of 22 multiport wells and 29 observation wells installed in the saturated zone beneath and adjacent to the cropped areas.

  16. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  17. Quality-control results for ground-water and surface-water data, Sacramento River Basin, California, National Water-Quality Assessment, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Cathy; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating the extent that bias and variability affect the interpretation of ground- and surface-water data is necessary to meet the objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Quality-control samples used to evaluate the bias and variability include annual equipment blanks, field blanks, field matrix spikes, surrogates, and replicates. This report contains quality-control results for the constituents critical to the ground- and surface-water components of the Sacramento River Basin study unit of the NAWQA Program. A critical constituent is one that was detected frequently (more than 50 percent of the time in blank samples), was detected at amounts exceeding water-quality standards or goals, or was important for the interpretation of water-quality data. Quality-control samples were collected along with ground- and surface-water samples during the high intensity phase (cycle 1) of the Sacramento River Basin NAWQA beginning early in 1996 and ending in 1998. Ground-water field blanks indicated contamination of varying levels of significance when compared with concentrations detected in environmental ground-water samples for ammonia, dissolved organic carbon, aluminum, and copper. Concentrations of aluminum in surface-water field blanks were significant when compared with environmental samples. Field blank samples collected for pesticide and volatile organic compound analyses revealed no contamination in either ground- or surface-water samples that would effect the interpretation of environmental data, with the possible exception of the volatile organic compound trichloromethane (chloroform) in ground water. Replicate samples for ground water and surface water indicate that variability resulting from sample collection, processing, and analysis was generally low. Some of the larger maximum relative percentage differences calculated for replicate samples occurred between samples having lowest absolute concentration differences and(or) values near

  18. A Review of Groundwater Quality Issue in Jharkhand Due to Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is elixir of life. Water resources are categorized as surface sources and Groundwater sources. The groundwater have certain dissolved ions , among which presence of fluoride has got significance as it is required by the human body for mineralization of bones and formation of enamel. As per the WHO standard prescribe maximum level for fluoride in drinking water, is 1.5 mg/l, and IS : 10500 specifies required desirable limit of fluoride concentration in drinking water as 0.6-1.0 mg/L, maximum limit is extended to 1.5 mg/l. In the study area, Jharkhand, Palamu, Garhwa, Giridih, Bokaro, Gumla, Godda, Ranchi are the districts where fluoride pollution in water is prevalent. The Daltonganj block in Palamu district is severely affected by this problem. The fluoride problem in the area is mainly geogenic. Other factors like pH, climatic conditions also play a major role.

  19. Constructing Regional Groundwater Models from Geophysical Data of Varying Type, Age, and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vest Christiansen, Anders; Auken, Esben; Marker, Pernille Aabye; Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Foged, Nikolaj; Wernberg, Thomas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    methodology by show-casing a study from Denmark were a regional groundwater model is constructed by including lithological information from 3100 boreholes over an 710 sqkm area. The geophysical models spans more than 30 years of data collection and includes approx. 225,000 DC models, and 35,000 EM models......Regional hydrological models are important tools in water resources management, but prediction uncertainties are often high due to non-uniqueness of the hydrostratigraphical model. This model is often based on borehole lithology only. However, a much better resolution can be obtained from large...... geophysical datasets covering the entire domain. Using boreholes to link between hydrostratigraphical classes and resistivity is efficient and emphasizes the need for an all-inclusive data interpretation procedure that can be integrated in groundwater model calibration. We present an automatic method for...

  20. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  1. Complex Controls on Groundwater Quality in Growing Mid-sized Cities: A Case Study Focused on Nitrate and Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, C. A.; Godsey, S.; Welhan, J. A.; Larson, D. M.; Lohse, K. A.; Finney, B.; Derryberry, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions rely on quality groundwater to support urban growth. Groundwater quality often responds in a complex manner to stressors such as land use change, climate change, or policy decisions. Urban growth patterns in mid-sized cities, especially ones that are growing urban centers in water-limited regions in the western US, control and are controlled by water availability and its quality. We present a case study from southeastern Idaho where urban growth over the past 20 years has included significant ex-urban expansion of houses that rely on septic systems rather than city sewer lines for their wastewater treatment. Septic systems are designed to mitigate some contaminants, but not others. In particular, nitrates and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, are not removed by most septic systems. Thus, even well-maintained septic systems at sufficiently high densities can impact down gradient water quality. Here we present patterns of nitrate concentrations over the period from 1985-2015 from the Lower Portneuf River Valley in southeastern Idaho. Concentrations vary from 0.03 to 27.09 nitrate-nitrogen mg/L, with average values increasing significantly over the 30 year time period from 3.15 +/- 0.065 to 3.57 +/- 0.43 mg/L. We examine temporal changes in locations of nitrate hotspots, and present pilot data on emerging contaminants of concern. Initial results suggest that high nitrate levels are generally associated with higher septic densities, but that this pattern is influenced by legacy agricultural uses and strongly controlled by underlying aquifer properties. Future work will include more detailed hydrological modeling to predict changes in hotspot locations under potential climate change scenarios.

  2. Does Groundwater Protection in Europe Require New Eu-Wide Environmental Quality Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Filippini, Maria; Gemitzi, Alexandra; Klöve, Björn; Petitta, Marco; Trevisan, Marco; Wachniew, Przemysław; Witczak, Stanislaw; Gargini, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The European Groundwater Directive could be improved by limiting the scopes of the Annexes I and II to the manmade and natural substances, respectively, and by defining a common monitoring protocol. The changes in the European landuse patterns, in particular the urban sprawl phenomena, obscure the distinction between the point and diffuse sources of contamination. In the future more importance will be given to the household contamination. Moreover, the agricultural environment could be used for developing new conceptual models related to the pharmaceuticals.

  3. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2015-07-07

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant saline solutions from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). Batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal contaminated brine leakage. The sediments used in this work were collected from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, and contained 0-4 wt% carbonates. Cd and As were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine that could intrude into groundwater aquifers with leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 114 and 40 ppb, respectively. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both batch and column studies, even for sediment samples without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. However, the mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties [e.g., the calcite content; the presence of adsorbed As(III); and the presence of P in the natural sediment]. The competitive adsorption between phosphate and arsenate may result in higher concentrations of As in the aqueous phase.

  4. The Energy-Water Nexus: potential groundwater-quality degradation associated with production of shale gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Thomas, Randal B.

    2013-01-01

    Oil and natural gas have been the main sources of primary energy in the USA, providing 63% of the total energy consumption in 2011. Petroleum production, drilling operations, and improperly sealed abandoned wells have caused significant local groundwater contamination in many states, including at the USGS OSPER sites in Oklahoma. The potential for groundwater contamination is higher when producing natural gas and oil from unconventional sources of energy, including shale and tight sandstones. These reservoirs require horizontally-completed wells and massive hydraulic fracturing that injects large volumes (up to 50,000 m3/well) of high-pressured water with added proppant, and toxic organic and inorganic chemicals. Recent results show that flow back and produced waters from Haynesville (Texas) and Marcellus (Pennsylvania) Shale have high salinities (≥200,000 mg/L TDS) and high NORMs (up to 10,000 picocuries/L) concentrations. A major research effort is needed worldwide to minimize all potential environmental impacts, especially groundwater contamination and induced seismicity, when producing these extremely important new sources of energy.

  5. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in the Gadilam river basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prasanna; S Chidambaram; A Shahul Hameed; K Srinivasamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+), Bicarbonate (HCO$_{3}^{-}$), Sulphate (SO$_{4}^-$), Phosphate (PO$_{4}^{-}$) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes.

  6. Coupled Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 and Contaminants from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on Groundwater Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbo; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Lawter, Amanda R; Bowden, Mark E; Brown, Christopher F

    2015-07-01

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant brine from deep storage reservoirs to overlying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major potential risks associated with geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS). In this work both batch and column experiments were conducted to determine the fate of trace metals in groundwater in the scenarios of CO2 and metal-contaminated brine leakage. The sediments for this study were from an unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer in Kansas, containing 0-4 wt % carbonates. Cd (114 μg/L) and As (40 μg/L) were spiked into the reaction system to represent potential contaminants from the reservoir brine. Through this research we demonstrated that Cd and As were adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the lowered pH due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations in the effluent were below the Cd MCL, even for sediments without detectable carbonate to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations in the effluent were also significantly lower than the influent concentration, suggesting that the sediments tested have the capacity to mitigate the coupled adverse effects of CO2 leakage and brine intrusion. The mitigation capacity of sediment is a function of its geochemical properties (e.g., the presence of carbonate minerals, adsorbed As, and phosphate). PMID:26039150

  7. The energy-water nexus: potential groundwater-quality degradation associated with production of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and natural gas have been the main sources of primary energy in the USA, providing 63% of the total energy consumption in 2011. Petroleum production, drilling operations, and improperly sealed abandoned wells have caused significant local groundwater contamination in many states, including at the USGS OSPER sites in Oklahoma. The potential for groundwater contamination is higher when producing natural gas and oil from unconventional sources of energy, including shale and tight sandstones. These reservoirs require horizontally-completed wells and massive hydraulic fracturing that injects large volumes (up to 50,000 m3/well) of high-pressured water with added proppant, and toxic organic and inorganic chemicals. Recent results show that flow back and produced waters from Haynesville (Texas) and Marcellus (Pennsylvania) Shale have high salinities (≥200,000 mg/L TDS) and high NORMs (up to 10,000 pico-curies/L) concentrations. A major research effort is needed worldwide to minimize all potential environmental impacts, especially groundwater contamination and induced seismicity, when producing these extremely important new sources of energy. (authors)

  8. The use of Kriging Techniques with in GIS Environment to Investigate Groundwater Quality in the Amman-Zarqa Basin/Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef Al-Mashagbah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kriging techniques are called the best linear unbiased estimator since it tries to have a mean residual error equal to zero. It aims to minimizing the variance of the errors and hence is a strong advantage over other estimation methods like inverse distance weighting or moving average. In this study, the ordinary kriging techniques were used to estimate groundwater quality parameters (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl- and NO3-. It was found that the spatial interpolation of groundwater quality of the study area poses various problems due to the complex impact of cultivation and urbanization systems of the study area. Testing of various methods and parameters, by comparing and ranking their cross-correlation errors, show that ordinary kriging method using the different semivariogram models provides the overall good results. Also, most of the groundwater quality parameters have moderate spatial structure except NO3 and Ca that have a strong spatial structure.

  9. In situ, real-time catabolic gene expression: Extraction and characterization of naphthalene dioxygenase mRNA transcripts from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed procedures for isolating and characterizing in situ-transcribed mRNA from groundwater microorganisms catabolizing naphthalene at a coal tar waste-contaminated site. Groundwater was pumped through 0.22-microm-pore-size filters, which were then frozen to dry ice-ethanol. RNA was extracted from the frozen filters by boiling sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis and acidic phenol-chloroform extraction. Transcript characterization was performed with a series of PCR primers designed to amplify nahAc homologs. Several primer pairs were found to amplify nahAc homologs representing the entire diversity of the naphthalene-degrading genes. The environmental RNA extract was reverse transcribed, and the resultant mixture of cDNAs was amplified by PCR. A digoxigenin-labeled probe mixture was produced by PCR amplification of groundwater cDNA. This probe mixture hybridized under stringent conditions with the corresponding PCR products from naphthalene-degrading bacteria carrying a variety of nahAc homologs, indicating that diverse dioxygenase transcripts had been retrieved from groundwater. Diluted and undiluted cDNA preparations were independently amplified, and 28 of the resulting PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed two major groups related to the dioxygenase genes ndoB and dntAc, previously cloned from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4 and Burkholderia sp. strain DNT, respectively. A distinctive subgroup of sequences was found only in experiments performed with the undiluted cDNA preparation. To the authors' knowledge, these results are the first to directly document in situ transcription of genes encoding naphthalene catabolism at a contaminated site by indigenous microorganisms. The retrieved sequences represent greater diversity than has been detected at the study site by culture-based approaches

  10. Comparison of groundwater quality from forested (Waimarino River), urban (Turangi), and natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) subcatchments at the southern end of Lake Taupo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparison of groundwater quality of three different land uses, (1) exotic pine plantation ready for harvest (Waimarino River Catchment), (2) an urban area characterised by a land treatment facility for sewage effluent from Turangi (Turangi oxidation ponds), and (3) a natural wetland (South Taupo Wetlands) demonstrates that groundwater quality in the southern region of the Lake Taupo catchment is controlled by both natural and human influences in the area. Comparative water quality issues can be summarised as follows. (1) Naturally high concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are present in all three study areas, with the highest concentrations found in the natural wetland area and around the Turangi land treatment facility. (2) Concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, and ammonium in the groundwater down-gradient of the Turangi oxidation ponds are elevated relative to the other two study areas. Stable isotopic signatures also show that the groundwater has been influenced by surface water from the oxidation ponds, mostly due to additional evaporation caused by the relatively long residence time of the water (125 days) in the oxidation ponds. Elevated concentrations of ammonium also occur in deep groundwater under the forest areas of the Waimarino River catchment. (3) The water at all three sites is generally unsuitable for drinking supplies due to naturally elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese in the groundwater and elevated concentrations of ammonium at many monitoring sites, particularly around the Turangi land treatment site and the Waimarino deep aquifer monitoring sites. Aeration followed by settling or filtration of the groundwater could significantly reduce the concentrations of iron and manganese. (4) Elevated concentrations of reduced iron and manganese are unlikely to affect the water quality of Lake Taupo as all reduced iron and manganese will be oxidised once the water reaches the lake and precipitate as oxyhydroxide minerals

  11. Characterization of organics in Whiteshell research area groundwater and the implications for radionuclide transport