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Sample records for characterize fish consumption

  1. Benefits and risks of fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish consumption. However, the balance between health benefits and risks, due to the intake of chemical contaminants, is not well characterized. In the present study, edible samples of 14 marine species were analyzed for the concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a number of metals and organic pollutants. Daily intakes were specifically determined for a standard adult of 70 kg, and compared with the tolerable/admissible intakes of the pollutants, if available. Salmon, mackerel, and red mullet were the species showing the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids. The daily intakes of cadmium, lead, and mercury through fish consumption were 1.1, 2.0, and 9.9 μg, respectively. Dioxins and furans plus dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) intake was 38.0 pg WHO-TEQ/day, whereas those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 20.8, 39.4, 1.53, and 1.50 ng/day, respectively. In turn, the total intake of 16 analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 268 ng/day. The monthly fish consumption limits for human health endpoints based on the intake of these chemical contaminants were calculated for a 70 years exposure. In general terms, most marine species here analyzed should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers. However, the type of fish, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential issues for the balance of the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption

  2. Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize fish consumption patterns and methylmercury dietary exposures from fish and other sea foods among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzaud, Francois; Ibbou, Assia; Blanchemanche, Sandrine;

    2010-01-01

    Hg) exposure in a sample of 161 French pregnant women consuming sea food, including fish, molluscs and crustaceans, and to explore the use of unsupervised statistical learning as an advanced type of cluster analysis to identify patterns of fish consumption that could predict exposure to MeHg and the coverage...... of the Recommended Daily Allowance for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The proportion of about 5% of pregnant women exposed at levels higher than the tolerable weekly intake for MeHg is similar to that observed among women of childbearing age in earlier French studies. At the same time, only...

  3. Consumption patterns and why people fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of any people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the new York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons or angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing or food

  4. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  5. Tendency in fishing development and fish consumption in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and catch of fish in Serbia increases from year to year, while in the world it reached its peak at the beginning of this century. Serbia has all the favorable natural and economic conditions for further development of fishing. Out of total production, that is, annual fish catch in Serbia, the greatest part is sold by organized purchase, lower part is exported, and the reminder goes to the market through retail. It is well known that food consumption, therefore fish consumption, depends on several factors such as the production level, retail price, consumers purchasing power and their eating habits. Therefore, when analyzing the tendency of production and consumption of fish in Serbia, it is important to investigate the influence of production, price and purchasing power of consumers on it. In order to investigate the set objective, there were used corresponding quantitative data obtained by Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. On the basis of the original data, there were determined certain parameters, which were used as variables for calculation of correlational-regressive and maginal analysis for determining the elasticity of demand and consummation of fish per capita in Serbia. Production and catch of fish in Serbia tended to increase during the observed period, with annual growth rate of 17.4%. Beside the fact that annual growth rate is 4.8%, fish consumption per capita in Serbia is still quite small (X=4.89kg, what is a consequence of population habit to consume predominantly meat. In our study we have found out that fish consumption in Serbia mostly depend on fish production per capita (rxy=0.6364, as well as on groos (rxy=0.6045 and net (rxy=0.5969 earnings. Also, it is determined that consumption elasticity has the highest growth in regard to fish production per capita. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  6. Trace elements in fish for consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of toxic elements in fish may constitute a health hazard for consumers in general as well as for people with specific consumption patterns. The levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, total and inorganic arsenic and certain other, primarily essential, metals will be determined in a large number of fish species and originating from freshwater lakes, brackish water and marine waters. The results will be used to make a risk assessment of their impact on human food consumption. (abstract)

  7. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish has been known as a source of non-occupational mercury exposure to fish consuming population groups, and this is shown by the high hair mercury levels. In this study, hair samples collected from fishermen and their families, and commercial marine fishes were analyzed for mercury and methylmercury by neutron activation and gas chromatography. The results showed a correlation between hair mercury levels and fish consumption patterns. The levels of mercury found in this study were similar to those reported by other workers for fish consuming population groups worldwide. (author)

  8. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  9. Fish consumption limit for mercury compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaili-Sari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Methyl mercury can carry out harmful effects on the reproductive, respiratory, and nervous system of human. Moreover, mercury is known as the most toxic heavy metal in nature. Fish and seafood consumption is the major MeHg exposure route for human. The present study tries to cover researches which have been conducted on mercury levels in 21 species of fish from Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland during the past 6 years, and in addition to stating mercury level, it provides recommendations about the restriction of monthly fish consumption for each species separately. Material and methods: Fish samples were transferred to the laboratory and stored in refrigerator under -20oC until they were dissected. Afterwards, the muscle tissues were separated and dried. The dried samples were ground and changed into a homogenous powder and then the mercury concentration rate has been determined by advanced mercury analyzer, model 254. Results: In general, mercury contamination in fishes caught from Anzali Wetland was much more than fishes from Caspian Sea. Also, from among all studied fishes, oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis, caught from Persian Gulf, allocated the most mercury level to itself with the rate of 5.61ml per kg., therefore, it exercises a severe consumption restriction for pregnant women and vulnerable groups. Conclusion: Based on the calculations, about 50% of fishes, mostly with short food chain, can be easily consumed during the year. However, with regard to Oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis and shark (Carcharhinus dussumieri, caught from Persian Gulf, special consideration should be taken in their consumption. On the other hand, careful planning should be made for the high rate of fish consumption among fishing community.

  10. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  11. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) (ΣOTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of ΣOTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day-1, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day-1 set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the ΣOTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  12. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulat...

  13. Intake of mercury through fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the coordinated research programme we plan to carry out a systematic study on the intake of mercury through fish consumption. This will be the first of such a project to be carried out in Malaysia. The objectives are to carry out a systematic study on the analysis of mercury in head hair samples from population groups in selected fishing villages located within industrial zones, and a survey on the daily intake of fish and fishery products by the population group, to carry out a systematic study on the analysis of mercury in fish and fishery products samples available to and consumed by the population group and analyze mercury in riverine, estuarine and marine sediments in the vicinity of the selected fishing villages. 2 tabs, 1 map

  14. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  15. Fish consumption limit for mercury compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Esmaili-Sari; Esmail Abdollahzadeh; Sharif Joorabian Shooshtari; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

    2011-01-01

    Background and objectives: Methyl mercury can carry out harmful effects on the reproductive, respiratory, and nervous system of human. Moreover, mercury is known as the most toxic heavy metal in nature. Fish and seafood consumption is the major MeHg exposure route for human. The present study tries to cover researches which have been conducted on mercury levels in 21 species of fish from Persian Gulf, Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland during the past 6 years, and in addition to stating mercury l...

  16. Motives, barriers and quality evaluation in fish consumption situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim; Olsen, Svein Ottar;

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate motives and barriers for eating fish among light users and heavy users, to discuss consumer evaluation of fish quality, and to explore the existence of cross-cultural fish consumer  segments. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were...... though fish consumption levels differ considerably. The main motives for eating fish are health and taste, while the main barriers are price perception, smell when cooking fish, and that fish does not deliver the same level of satiety as compared to meat. Big differences are found between countries and...

  17. Modeling tribal exposures to methyl mercury from fish consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish consumption are different than for the general U.S. population because of higher fish intake from subsistence fishing and/or from unique cultural practices. This research summarizes analyses of available data ...

  18. Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lincoln, Rebecca A; Shine, James P; Chesney, Edward J;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the U.S. may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives: We examined relationships between fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake, and...

  19. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  20. Attitude toward and Consumption of Fish (Seafood) In Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study uses theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a conceptual framework to investigate the attitude and intention toward the consumption of fish in a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese consumers. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to test the reliability, validity, and relationships...... in the proposed model. The results show that the variation in the frequency of fish consumption is significantly explained by intention and perceived behavioural control. Intention to consume fish is significantly determined by subjective norms and attitude toward consuming fish as a meal. Perceived...... behavioural control is significantly related to fish consumption, but not to the intention to consume fish, indicating that there may be a difference between perceived control and actual control. At the specific-belief level, the study found that negative affect, perceived quality, and price are significant...

  1. Benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed at identifying and discussing scientific evidences on the benefits and risks of fish consumption the human health. There was a systematic survey for articles published from 2003 and May 2011, at the MedLine, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases. The key words used were: fish, food intake, omega-3 fatty acids, fatty fish, benefits, risk, and consumption. The search produced 12,632 articles, 25 eligible cohort studies on possible benefits, 61 on risks and 10 studies that assessed the "risk/benefit" relation. Of the 25 works, 14 suggested a preventive effect of fish consumption related to cardiovascular diseases, depression, cataract and some types of cancer. Evidences of a relation between exposure to mercury and an increase in the risk of neurological disorders, but not of cardiovascular diseases, were also found. Given the importance of fish consumption, its possible risks and the lack of Brazilian studies on the topic, it is important to conduct more longitudinal studies that assess both the benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health. We also emphasize the need for policies to reduce exposure of fish and seafood to mercury and other contaminants.

  2. Why don’t adolescents eat fish? Factors influencing fish consumption in school

    OpenAIRE

    Prell, Hillevi; Berg, Christina; Jonsson, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Background: Theory-based research is needed to promote healthy eating in adolescents and to work out interventions. Objective: To examine what factors influence adolescents’ fish consumption in school. Design: A total of 162 pupils from the 8th grade (age º14 years) at two schools completed a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In 150 of these subjects, fish consumption was assessed by observation on four occasions. Results: Attitudes towards the fish, friends’ behaviour a...

  3. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv;

    2003-01-01

    weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated with...... consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish...

  4. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when these are...

  5. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marika.Berglund@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  6. Fish consumption and bioindicators of inorganic mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The direct and close relationship between fish consumption and blood and hair mercury (Hg) levels is well known, but the influence of fish consumption on inorganic mercury in blood (B-IHg) and in urine (U-Hg) is unclear. Objective: Examine the relationship between fish consumption, total, inorganic and organic blood Hg levels and urinary Hg concentration. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 171 persons from 7 riparian communities on the Tapajos River (Brazilian Amazon), with no history of inorganic Hg exposure from occupation or dental amalgams. During the rising water season in 2004, participants responded to a dietary survey, based on a seven-day recall of fish and fruit consumption frequency, and socio-demographic information was recorded. Blood and urine samples were collected. Total, organic and inorganic Hg in blood as well as U-Hg were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results: On average, participants consumed 7.4 fish meals/week and 8.8 fruits/week. Blood total Hg averaged 38.6 ± 21.7 μg/L, and the average percentage of B-IHg was 13.8%. Average organic Hg (MeHg) was 33.6 ± 19.4 μg/L, B-IHg was 5.0 ± 2.6 μg/L, while average U-Hg was 7.5 ± 6.9 μg/L, with 19.9% of participants presenting U-Hg levels above 10 μg/L. B-IHg was highly significantly related to the number of meals of carnivorous fish, but no relation was observed with non-carnivorous fish; it was negatively related to fruit consumption, increased with age, was higher among those who were born in the Tapajos region, and varied with community. U-Hg was also significantly related to carnivorous but not non-carnivorous fish consumption, showed a tendency towards a negative relation with fruit consumption, was higher among men compared to women and higher among those born in the region. U-Hg was strongly related to I-Hg, blood methyl Hg (B-MeHg) and blood total Hg (B-THg). The Odds Ratio (OR) for U-Hg above 10 μg/L for those who ate > 4 carnivorous fish

  7. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Yoon Ling, Cheong; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Che Hussein, Nasriyah; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demog...

  8. Fish consumption, fish atopy and related heavy metals in childhood eczema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing worldwide water pollution, fish might be a source of excessive zinc, mercury, arsenic or  manganese  intake. The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  evaluate if  fish atopy/sensitization and fish consumption behavior are associated with eczema severity and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals.One-hundred and nineteen patients with eczema and 43 patients with miscellaneous non-eczema  skin  diseases were  studied.  There  were  no  differences  in  average weekly fish consumption  and blood  levels of  the  4 heavy metals between eczema and  non-eczema groups.Blood levels of these metals were generally within the upper limits of local reference ranges in all these patients. In eczema patients, freshwater fish consumption  behavior in days-per-week was correlated with blood arsenic and mercury levels (rho=0.17, p<0.01 for both  metals, but not  with zinc or manganese. Levels of arsenic and mercury were also correlated with days of seawater fish consumption per week (arsenic: 0.38, mercury: 0.24, p <0.05.Fish  sensitization was present  in  25%  of  patients  with eczema. Nevertheless,  there was no  difference in  terms  of  fish  consumption  behavior, eczema severity, quality of life, and  heavy metal levels between eczema patients  with or  without  fish sensitization. We  conclude  that   without   exceeding  local  normal  reference  ranges,  blood   arsenic and  mercury  levels correlated  with  fish  consumption  behavior.  There  is  no  evidence to   suggest  that   fish  sensitization  is  associated  with  more  severe  eczema  (bad  for eczema, or that patients have milder eczema with more days of fish consumption (good for eczema.

  9. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively

  10. Trace elements in fish for consumption. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish is a major food in many countries. Certain population groups may have specific consumption patterns due to geographical conditions or may be at risk at specific times, e.g. during pregnancy. It is thus of major importance that fish and fish products are safe for consumption. Contamination of fish by toxic elements may be caused by effluent from populated areas, or industrial activities from which waste water may contaminate local waters. Mining activities are also known to contaminate local waters with an array of elements, including Pb, Cd and Zn. Another problem is the acidification of freshwater lakes making e.g. Al and Hg more mobile. The level of As is invariably higher in marine fish, than in the same species from fresh or brackish waters. Large predatory species from marine waters, e.g. sharks and tuna, may have high levels of Cd and Hg in the muscle tissue. Several international bodies, e.g. the European Union (EU) and Codex Alimentarius have an interest in setting maximum residue limits (MRL) for Pb, Cd, Hg and As in certain foods, in order to protect the population from overexposure to these toxic metals. Much of the background data for these MRLs are old and have not been produced using today's analytical quality assurance (AQA) demands

  11. Fish consumption, fish atopy and related heavy metals in childhood eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Lun Hon; Heike Lui; Shuxin Susan Wang; Hugh Simon Lam; Ting Fan Leung

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide water pollution, fish might be a source of excessive zinc, mercury, arsenic or  manganese  intake. The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  evaluate if  fish atopy/sensitization and fish consumption behavior are associated with eczema severity and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals.One-hundred and nineteen patients with eczema and 43 patients with miscellaneous non-eczema  skin  diseases were  studied.  There  were  no  differences  in  average weekly fish consumption  ...

  12. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  13. Need for Improved Risk Communication of Fish Consumption Advisories to Protect Maternal and Child Health: Influence of Primary Informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption has established benefits, including the promotion of cardiovascular health and pre- and neonatal brain and eye development, but local freshwater fish may be a source of contaminants that are especially harmful to fetuses and young children, such as the neurotoxic and developmentally toxic methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish consumption advisories may be issued by state health departments to limit human exposure to these and other toxicants. This study examined the efficacy of a sign designed by the North Carolina Division of Public Health that was posted along a reservoir (Badin Lake in central North Carolina, USA, for increasing anglers’ awareness of a fish consumption advisory, with a special focus on anglers who share their catch with women and children. In this study, 109 anglers were interviewed about their awareness of fish consumption advisories in general and their knowledge of the Badin Lake fish advisory in particular. Shore anglers were significantly less likely to be aware of the term “fish consumption advisory” and of the specific advisory for Badin Lake than boat anglers. Although a significant increase in knowledge of the specific fish consumption advisory was found for the entire sample of study participants after the sign intervention, a commensurate increase in knowledge was not found for a subsample of anglers who reported sharing their catch with women and children. Study findings underscore differences in fish consumption advisory awareness among subpopulations. Specifically, the study revealed the importance of characterizing the communication needs of shore anglers and anglers who share their catch with sensitive subpopulations (e.g., women and children for the creation of more targeted communications of fish consumption advisories.

  14. Fishing and Fish Consumption in the Swahili Communities of East Africa, 700–1400 CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eréndira M. Quintana Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical and archaeological records of consumption practices indicate that people living along the Swahili coast relied largely on fish for subsistence; however, little research has been done to explore how aquatic subsistence strategies varied among different settlements in the region, both spatially and chronologically. Such questions are particularly interesting, as the communities were largely urban, and relied on fish for the bulk of their protein consumption. We compared evidence of subsistence strategies and exploited fish habitats in two Swahili regions that represent different maritime landscapes. Because particular fish species generally inhabit different sections of the marine environment, the composition of these species at each site can be used to estimate the variable exploitation of these habitats. Overall, the analysed samples showed a heavy exploitation of fish found around coral reefs, but with varying proportions of other exploited habitats, such as estuary, mangrove, sandy/muddy, and outer reef zones. The general pattern indicates that samples from offshore islands have higher representations of fish from coral/rocky habitats while samples from near-shore islands show a lower reliance on coral species. Over time there is an increase at certain sites in the exploitation of oceanic and pelagic fish that coincides with the more frequent consumption of domesticated bovids. We discuss the historical and environmental implications of these variable patterns of aquatic subsistence strategies along the East African coastline, and propose that there is a close link between their ability to exploit these marine resources, their success as urban settlements, and the development of feasting rituals.

  15. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...... and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations....

  16. MERCURY EXPOSURE FROM FISH CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE JAPANESE AND KOREAN COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent ...

  17. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish...

  18. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  19. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  20. Nutrients and Chemical Pollutants in Fish and Shellfish. Balancing Health Benefits and Risks of Regular Fish Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors are clearly associated with at least five of the ten leading causes of death, including coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, non-insulin insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. Concerning specifically fish and seafood consumption, its beneficial health effects in humans are clearly supported by an important number of studies performed in the last 30 years. These studies have repeatedly linked fish consumption, especially those species whose contents in omega-3 fatty acids are high, with healthier hearts in the aging population. The nutritional benefits of fish and seafood are also due to the content of high-quality protein, vitamins, as well as other essential nutrients. However, a number of studies, particularly investigations performed in recent years, have shown that the unavoidable presence of environmental contaminants in fish and shellfish can also mean a certain risk for the health of some consumers. While prestigious international associations as the American Heart Association have recommended eating fish at least two times (two servings a week), based on our own experimental results, as well as in results from other laboratories, we cannot be in total agreement with that recommendation. Although a regular consumption of most fish and shellfish species should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers, the specific fish and shellfish species consumed, the frequency of consumption, as well as the meal size, are essential issues for adequately balancing the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption. PMID:25486051

  1. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between...

  2. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York state angler cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, G.M.; Mendola, P.; Vena, J.E.; Kostyniak, P.; Greizerstein, H.; Olson, J.; Stephen, F.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; Sever, L.E. [Battelle, Seattle, WA (United States). Centers for Public Health and Evaluation

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2,445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n = 785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to .82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  3. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  4. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner John M; Swanson Mya; Vena John E; Fitzgerald Edward F; Tee Grace P; Buck Germaine M; Msall Michael E

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with decrements...

  5. New Evidence on Variations of Human Body Burden of Methylmercury from Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Canuel, René; Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher de; Atikessé, Laura; Lucotte, Marc; Arp, Paul; Ritchie, Charles; Mergler, Donna; Chan, Hing Man; Amyot, Marc; Anderson, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies commonly use mercury (Hg) level in hair as a valid proxy to estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption. This study presents the results yielded by a complete data set on fish consumption habits, Hg levels in edible fish resources, and corresponding Hg accumulation in hair, gathered in three distinct communities of eastern Canada. For one of these communities, the average hair Hg concentration was 14 times less than the expected value based o...

  6. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  7. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia

  8. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Elisavet A. Renieri; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Michalis Kiriakakis; Marco Vinceti; Eren Ozcagli; Wilks, Martin F.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively ...

  9. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  10. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.; Corronsoro, M.; Brustad, M.; Kumle, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Lasheras, C.; Janzon, L.; Jansson, J.; Luben, R.; Spencer, E.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel, F.; Linseisen, J.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Benetou, V.; Zavitsanos, X.; Tumino, R.; Galasso, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Ocké, M.C.; Charrondière, R.; Slimani, N.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of...

  11. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles;

    2016-01-01

    significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS...... total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish....... Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. CONCLUSION: We found no consistent evidence of association...

  13. Fish Consumption and Ischemic stroke in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between fish intake and stroke incidence has been inconsistent in previous Swedish studies. Here, we report the risk of stroke and fish intake in a cohort from southern Sweden. Findings Data were obtained from an already available population based case-control study where the cases were defined as incident first-time ischemic stroke patients. Complete data on all relevant variables were obtained for 2722 controls and 2469 cases. The data were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus Conclusions The results suggest fat fish intake to decrease ischemic stroke risk and lean fish intake to increase women's stroke risk. The inconsistent relationship between fish intake and stroke risk reported in previous studies is further stressed by the results of this study.

  14. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  15. Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Saravanan; Inge Geurden; A Cláudia Figueiredo-Silva; Suluh Nusantoro; Sadasivam Kaushik; Johan Verreth; Johan W Schrama

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a...

  16. Fish consumption and risk of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer: a critical evaluation of epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hjartåker, Anette

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between fish consumption and risk of major cancers such as cancer of the breast, colon, rectum and prostate has been insufficiently clarified. The present literature review of epidemiological studies shows somewhat inconsistent results, but overall there seems to be either no association or an inverse association between fish consumption and risk of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. However, very few of the published studies have been designed to investigate properly hy...

  17. Fish consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder that is influenced by psychosocial factors in the workplace. Increasing resilience, the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity, is considered an important strategy to prevent depression. It has been suggested that consumption of fish, which is a major source of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), may prevent depression. However, associations between depression, resilience, and fish consumption have not been documen...

  18. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis...... with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia...... of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...

  19. Communicating Risks and Benefits from Fish Consumption: Impact on Belgian Consumers' Perception and Intention to Eat Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Frewer, L.J.; Sioen, I.; Henauw, de S.; Camp, van J.

    2008-01-01

    Communicating about the health effects of fish and seafood may potentially result in a conflict situation: increasing intake is desirable because of health and nutritional benefits, but higher consumption may also lead to an increased intake of potentially harmful environmental contaminants. In orde

  20. Promoting seafood consumption: An evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N = 641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition was...... harnessed by integrating the campaign under a family-oriented motive. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, availability in shops and meal preparation skills lost their influence in the post-campaign survey (effective N = 523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect...

  1. Mercury accumulation in adolescents scalp hair and fish consumption: a case study comparing populations having natural or anthropogenic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira H.C.; Soares A.M.V.M.; Morgado F.; Abreu S.N.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of fish is usually considered the main route of contamination of mercury in humans. In a climate change scenario implying ocean acidification, mercury methylation is expected to increase leading to bioaccumulation increments in the food chain, affecting mainly coastal populations. In this study, mercury accumulation and fish consumption was evaluated considering mercury concentrations in human scalp hair in relation to fish consumption habits in adolescents (16 to 21 years ...

  2. Impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement and risk perception of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples represen......Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples......-culturally validated measures of health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to be used in further studies. Originality/value - This paper provides a unique model relating health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to fish consumption tested and validated on a pan-European large sample of consumers...

  3. The consumption of commercially valuable fish by pinnipeds in Northwest Icelandic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Nebel, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries are one of the most valuable exports for Iceland. In order to protect valuable fish stocks, it is necessary to understand their ecological context. Interspecific competition between humans and pinnipeds for commercially valuable fish requires consideration when managing fisheries and marine resources. The foundation for the study of interspecific competition lies in the analysis of the overlap in prey consumption between competing predators. This requires an understanding of the con...

  4. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to organochlorines (OCs). In order to assess the potential health risks associated with these contaminants due to fish consumption, five species of fish were collected from a local market in Zhoushan City, an island in the East China Sea. Dioxin-like compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans, in the fish samples were screened by H4IIE-luc cell bioassay, and the concentrations of specific organochlorines were measured by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The bioassay results indicated that concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in the fish samples were below detection limit (0.64 pg/mL). The concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs ranged from 0.67 to 13 and 0.24 to 1.4 ng/g wet wt., respectively. Significantly, concentrations of p,p'-DDE in fish meat were comparatively high (average 3.9 ng/g wet wt.) compared with the other OC pesticides. The daily fish consumption, based on a dietary survey conducted among 160 local healthy residents, was determined to be 105 g/person. The relevant cancer benchmark concentrations of HCB, dieldrin, chlordane, DDTs and PCBs were 0.36, 0.04, 1.6, 1.7, and 0.29 ng/kg per day, respectively, based on the local diet. The hazard ratios (HRs), based on non-cancer endpoints were all less than 1.0, while the HRs based on cancer were greater than 1.0 for certain contaminants based on the 95th centile concentration in fish tissue. - Health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption reveals potential cancer risks for some contaminants in a coastal population in China

  5. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg. This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76 and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89 respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% female participants exceeded the USEPA recommendation of 1 ppm. The average fish consumption was 180.19+11.34 g/day/person with higher fish consumption in both rural coastal areas compared with the urban communities (p=0.0001. Age was positively correlated with THg (rs=0.4588; p=0.0001 followed by the amount of fish eaten (rs=0.4199; p=0.0001, use of whitening cream (rs=0.2410; p=0.006, BMI (rs=0.2034; p=0.0041, location of study (rs=0.1818; p=0.01, and gender (0.1637; p=0.0241. However, we found negative correlation between the numbers of filling with THg (rs=-0.2485; p=0.004.

  6. Hair Mercury Levels in Relation to Marine Fish Consumption among Adults in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of carnivorous fish is one of the major sources of human exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg). This study presents the data on fish consumption habits and hair mercury levels taken from 201 adults aged between 17- 72 years from four districts in the Peninsular Malaysia. The means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 0.93 ppm-1.69 ppm. The means for females and males were 1.21 ppm (SD=0.76) and 1.48 ppm (SD=0.89) respectively. The THg level for 59.30% of the study population (26.60% fe...

  7. Application of exploratory factor analysis to assess fish consumption in a university community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika da Silva Maciel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to use the technique of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA for the adequacy of a tool for the assessment of fish consumption and the characteristics involved in this process. Data were collected during a campaign to encourage fish consumption in Brazil with the voluntarily participation of members of a university community. An assessment instrument consisting of multiple-choice questions and a five-point Likert scale was designed and used to measure the importance of certain attributes that influence the choice and consumption of fish. This study sample was composed of of 224 individuals, the majority were women (65.6%. With regard to the frequency of fish consumption, 37.67% of the volunteers interviewed said they consume the product two or three times a month, and 29.6% once a week. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was used to group the variables; the extraction was made using the principal components and the rotation using the Quartimax method. The results show clusters in two main constructs, quality and consumption with Cronbach Alpha coefficients of 0.75 and 0.69, respectively, indicating good internal consistency.

  8. Double-Hurdle Model of Fresh Fish Consumption among Urban Households in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Akinbode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on consumption of products with possibility of observing zero-consumption for some consumers have modeled consumption function using the Tobit model, assuming that factors that are responsible for whether to consume a product or not are equally responsible for determining how much to consume. This approach has been severally faulted. This study investigated factors affecting consumption of fresh fish using the single step estimation method of the Tobit model, the independent double-hurdle approach and the dependent double-hurdle model. Data collected from 218 households in Abeokuta, South-west Nigeria were used for the study. Model fitness criteria revealed the superiority of joint estimation (dependent double-hurdle model. The model results revealed that husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on beef and dependency ratio significantly affected participation (decision to consume while household size, husband’s education, husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on dry fish and dependency ratio significantly affected consumption (how much to consume. It is recommended that public enlightenment should focus on the importance of consuming fresh fish among households and fresh fish sellers should focus on educated and high income households as this segment of the market demand more of the product.

  9. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  10. The diet and consumption of dominant fish species in the upper Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.;

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...... trophic niche overlap showed that, in general, niche overlap between individuals of the same species was significantly higher than overlap between individuals from different species, suggesting that the available food resources were partitioned. The total annual prey consumption by the dominant fish...

  11. ECONOMIC FEASABILITY OF CULTURE OF CONSUMPTION FISH UNDER DIFFERENT FEEDING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In experimental ponds of individual sizes 0.1 ha-1 the fish farm Draganići, the economic feasibility of the culture of consumption carp fish in poli culture with herbivorous fish was investigated (Hypophthalmichthys, molitrix, Val. Aristichthys nobilis Rich. Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The stock density was 3250 ind.ha-1of total one year old fish: carp 77%, herbivorous 23%. Investiga- tions were investigations were carried out during the culturing season, from 25 April to 4 October 1990. Thre treatments were investigated: I - feeding the carp with grains, without fertilizig the pond, II - feeding the fish with grains and fertilizing the pond with mineral fertilizer NPK of the formula 17:8:9 with the total quantity of 400 kg.ha-1, and III - feeding the carp with industrial brickets with 20% animal protein. The results show that treatments II and III had appositive affect on the growth and amount of all species of fish in poli culture. The most favorable economic result was reached with treatment II where the carp were fed with grains. The fish treated in this variation reached the highest economic production, accumulation and gain. The highest total gain was reached in the III variation along with supplement protein feeding. The result of investigations showed a satisfactory application of animal proteins in food of consumption carp, along with the proper choice of polyculture and stock density.

  12. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tumwesigye Nazarius M; Atuyambe Lynn; Wanyenze Rhoda K; Kibira Simon PS; Li Qing; Wabwire-Mangen Fred; Wagner Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Methods Face-to-...

  13. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  14. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    OpenAIRE

    Schiepers, Olga; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Van Boxtel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  15. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  16. Value based segmentation : a study of wild fish versus farmed fish consumption in Nha Trang

    OpenAIRE

    Suneth Jayampathi, R.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify market segments based on personal values, values and lifestyles, environmental concern, fish welfare concern, ethical concern for fish farming and health involvement. A self-administrated questionnaire was conducted on a convenience sample of 209 Vietnamese consumers. It was designed to investigate consumers’ concern for issues used as segmentation basis together with variables used in profiling the segments. The measurement scales used in thi...

  17. Sustainable Development Commission response to the review of Food Standard Agency’s advice on fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2009-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission's response to the Food Standards Agency's review of its advice on fish consumption uses sustainable development as a lens through which to examine how the Agency can align its advice on fish consumption for health with evidence on sustainable sourcing.

  18. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  19. Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anil; Jordan, Melissa; Watkins, Sharon; Washam, Robert; DuClos, Chris; Jones, Serena; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek; Blackmore, Carina

    2014-12-01

    The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk-infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants' hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18-49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. PMID:24807406

  20. EFFECT OF CONSUMPTION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED FISH (TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN RABBITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolawa O.E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the biochemical effect of the consumption of heavy metals contaminated fish on metabolic parameters in rabbit. Total glucose, cholesterol, protein and levels of alkaline phosphate, alkaline aminotransferase (ALT together with aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the serum were measured. Compared with the control a significant decrease of total protein and total cholesterol (p was ascertained in the serum of the experimental groups. Total glucose level was level was significantly increased in the serum of the experimental (p . The values of alkaline phosphate, ALT and AST significantly increased in the serum of the groups. The above results on the biochemical consumption profile indicate the toxic effect of the consumption of these contaminated fishes in rabbits.

  1. Need for Improved Risk Communication of Fish Consumption Advisories to Protect Maternal and Child Health: Influence of Primary Informants

    OpenAIRE

    W. Gregory Cope; Consuelo Arellano; Brennan D. Bouma; Mercedes Hernández-Pelletier; Gray, Kathleen M.; Catherine E. LePrevost

    2013-01-01

    Fish consumption has established benefits, including the promotion of cardiovascular health and pre- and neonatal brain and eye development, but local freshwater fish may be a source of contaminants that are especially harmful to fetuses and young children, such as the neurotoxic and developmentally toxic methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish consumption advisories may be issued by state health departments to limit human exposure to these and other toxicants. This study examined t...

  2. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the...... absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...... some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored....

  3. Inoculum characterization: identification of acetate consumption routes

    OpenAIRE

    García Ruiz, Javier; Flotats Ripoll, Xavier; Tey, Laura; Fernández García, Belén

    2015-01-01

    A mesophilic inoculum, likely to have syntrophic acetate oxidation bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogen (HM) activity due to operational conditions, was characterized by means of methanogenic activity tests, submitting it to different acetate and ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations.

  4. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  5. Fishing, fish consumption, and awareness about warnings in a university community in central New Jersey in 2007, and comparisons with 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-09-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, but the risks from consuming fish have become a national concern. Over the past 7 years, there have been a number of national advisories regarding saltwater fish. Fish consumption patterns and public knowledge about advisories and warnings have been examined for at-risk populations, but there is little information about the latter for a general population, or of temporal trends in such information acquisition. Information about the benefits and health risks of consuming fish, health warnings from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the Food and Drug Administration, belief in these warnings, and trust in different sources of information were examined in a sample of 460 people within a university community in central New Jersey in 2007. The null hypothesis of no differences in fishing, consumption, and knowledge about advisories as a function of age, gender, ethnicity, and education was tested. In 2007, only 30% of the study population fished, and 83% of the study population ate fish, either commercial or self-caught. There were differences in fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and awareness of advisories as a function of gender, ethnicity, age, and education. Most notably, nearly twice as many men as women fished, Whites fished more and Blacks and Indian/Pakistanis fished less than other ethnic groups, and people aged 23-35 fished more than did others. About 8% of fish meals were from self-caught fish, 32% were eaten in restaurants, and 60% were of fish bought in stores and cooked at home. Men ate more meals of self-caught fish than did females, and Asians ate more meals of fish in restaurants, and Blacks ate more meals of store-bought fish than other ethnic groups. The total number of fish meals consumed per month increased significantly with age. Overall, more people had heard about the benefits (92%) than the risks (78%) of fish consumption. When asked whom they trust for information about health

  6. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Imer Haziri; Muhamed Zogaj; Fatgzim Latifi; Jetmira Abeshi; Dorjana Beqiraj; Luljeta Dhaskali; Enkelejda Ozuni

    2011-01-01

    A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg). Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21...

  7. Some results of recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption by age and region of U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since ingestion of foods is considered a major source of pollutant intake by man, the knowledge of detailed food consumption patterns is necessary to determine health risks and compliance with regulatory standards. As currently available literature lacks data necessary for complete evaluation of aquatic foods via human consumption of fish and shellfish, a review of recent surveys of fish consumption in the U.S. was performed. The data in these surveys were subjected to statistical analysis to determine percentage distributions of individuals eating different quantities of marine and freshwater fish and shellfish. Included are surveys on consumption of sportfish from the Columbia River and Lake Michigan areas and a comprehensive study of fish consumption in the nine census regions of the U.S. The results of these studies indicate that the quantity, as reported, of each type of fish eaten increases as a function of the age of consumers. Regional differences are most apparent in the use of shellfish and freshwater fish. About 94% of children and 96-100% of adults eat some kind of fish with a per capita average of 4.97 kg/yr. Since this quantity is on an actual consumption basis, as as opposed to 'as purchased', the per capita consumption rate is lower than usually reported in the literature. (author)

  8. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  9. The role of variety seeking in consumers’ fish consumption: a study in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Salpage, Nesha Dushani

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore the role of variety seeking behaviour towards fish consumption frequency. Second, it aimed to investigate how personality related factors; variety seeking tendency (related to food and personality) and perceived behavioural control affect the nature of variety seeking behaviour. Third, to investigate how product and motivational related factors; attitudes, health involvement and perceived risk affect the nature of variety seeking behaviour and ...

  10. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  11. Childhood urine mercury excretion: dental amalgam and fish consumption as exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the effect of amalgam fillings and fish consumption on urine mercury level (UHg), in children aged 4-8 years old inclusive. Using a sample of 60 children, we found that children with amalgam fillings had significantly higher UHg levels than children without amalgams (geometric mean=1.412 μg Hg/g versus 0.436 μg Hg/g, respectively, P=0.0001). Subjects with reported higher fish consumption also had significantly higher UHgs (P=0.004). Univariate analyses provide evidence of an association between elevated UHg level and young age (P=0.009), short height (P=0.024), and low weight (P=0.049) in children with amalgam chewing surfaces. We also found a negative correlation between urine mercury and age (-0.378), height (-0.418), and weight (-0.391). A multiple logistic regression model shows that the presence of amalgam fillings leads to increased odds of high UHg in children (OR=47.18), even after adjusting for high fish consumption (OR=8.66) and height (OR=11.36)

  12. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadari-Bratfisch Regina C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1 could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2 modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3 also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C and stressed (CS rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F and stressed (FS rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration

  13. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2011, 2 September). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Poster presented at the the 14th biannual EARLI conference, Exeter, Unit

  14. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 86(3), 113-117. doi:10.1016/

  15. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012, May). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Paper presented at the 10th Congress of the International Society for the Study

  16. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Roa-Ureta, Ruben H; Borchers, David L; Milessi, Andrés C; Barrientos, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    The food consumption to biomass ratio (C) is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed. PMID:26528721

  17. Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman M. Sabry; Hassan, Mohamed M.; Mohamed, Alaa A.

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), Mousa (Solea solea), Hamor (Greasy grouper), Shour (Lethrinus lentjan), Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus), Harid (Scarus arabicus) and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm) were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were co...

  18. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Th I; Meltzer, H M; Thorsdottir, I; Knudsen, V; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth...... length, and head circumference among singleton full-term infants. Fish consumption was ascertained by food frequency questionnaire. The birth of infants classified below the 10th percentile for gestational age and gender was significantly increased among women who consumed more than 60 g of fish per day.......00, 1.45). These increases in risk were followed by small decreases in average values for these growth measures. Furthermore, the inverse association for total fish consumption could be explained by consumption of fatty fish, while no association was found for lean fish. These results indicate that...

  19. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  20. Fish consumption as a driver of risk-management decisions and human health-based water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Nancy; Lowney, Yvette; Anderson, Paul; Baird, Suzanne; Bay, Steven M; Breidt, Jay; Buonanduci, Michele; Dong, Zhao; Essig, Don; Garry, Michael R; Jim, Rebecca C; Kirkwood, Gemma; Moore, Shelly; Niemi, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Rory; Ruffle, Betsy; Schaider, Laurel A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E

    2015-11-01

    The use and interpretation of fish consumption surveys and interviews, the application of fish consumption rates for sediment evaluation and cleanup, and the development of human health water quality criteria (HH WQC) are complex and interrelated issues. The present article focuses on these issues using examples from the United States, although the issues may be relevant for other countries. Some key considerations include the fact that there are many types of fish consumption surveys (e.g., 24-h recall surveys, food frequency questionnaires, creel surveys), and these surveys have different advantages and limitations. Identification of target populations for protection, identification of the species and quantities of fish consumed, and determination of bioaccumulation assumptions are important factors when developing water quality and sediment screening levels and standards. Accounting for the cultural importance of fish consumption for some populations is an even more complex element. Discussions about HH WQC often focus only on the fish consumption rate and may not have broad public input. Some states are trying to change this through extensive public participation efforts and use of probabilistic approaches to derive HH WQC. Finally, there are limits to what WQC can achieve. Solutions beyond the establishment of WQC that target toxics reduction from other sources may provide the greatest improvements to water quality and reductions in human health risks in the future. PMID:26496131

  1. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average...... contents derived from pooled stomach samples rather than individual stomachs, and (3) the effect of ignoring biological factors that affect the evacuation of prey. Estimating consumption from only two stomach samples yielded results close to the actual intake rate in a simulation study. In contrast to this......, a serious positive bias was introduced by estimating food intake from the contents of pooled stomach samples. An expression is given that can be used to correct analytically for this bias. A new method, which takes into account the distribution and evacuation of individual prey types as well as the...

  2. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar;

    representative within each country for age and region. This study uses descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc multiple comparison analysis (Scheffe's) to compare differences between countries. First, a cross-culture overview of fish consumption is given. The average weekly consumption....... This study also reports consumption frequency for wild versus farmed fish. However, it seems that many consumers are not aware if the fish they buy are wild or farmed. Secondly, this study also investigated similarities and differences in shopping habits. Supermarkets and fishmongers were the most......The objective of this paper is to explore eating and shopping habits related to fish across five European countries. A cross sectional consumer survey was carried out in Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A total sample of 4800 consumers was obtained, and the sample was...

  3. Preparation and characterization of the fish reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The certified reference materials (CRMs) play an important role in obtaining measurement results traceable to the International System of Units, through an unbroken chain of comparisons. Thus, the demand for new certified reference materials (CRMs) increases every day in all areas of knowledge. The availability of reference materials, mainly in Brazil is still incipient, given that the demand far exceeds the available variety of these materials. The amount of certified reference materials available in the country is insufficient to meet the need of the scientific community and demands for development of new methodologies. Among the many areas in need of reference materials, we highlight the importance for the food trade balance for these products within the country. The certification of food products, intended both for export and for domestic consumption, requires analysis methods that provide precise and accurate results to ensure product quality. This paper describes the preparation and certification of a reference material in the fish matrix in mercury and methylmercury. The study brings together since the stage of material selection, preparation, development of homogeneity and stability studies and characterization. The certification was performed by means of measurements using two analytical techniques, flow injection analysis - cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-CV-AAS) and isotope dilution applied to mass spectrometry (IDMS), which is a primary method. In this work the standards of the ISO 30 (ABNT 30-34) and ISO Guide 35 was used as the basis for the preparation and characterization of the material. For the calculation of uncertainties was used the GUM and Eurachem guide. As a result, was produced and certified a lot of material in relation to the concentration of mercury (Hg = 0.271 ± 0.057 mg g-1) and methylmercury (MeHg = 0.245 ± 0.038 mg g-1), and informational values of lead and arsenic. (author)

  4. Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Sabry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, Mousa (Solea solea, Hamor (Greasy grouper, Shour (Lethrinus lentjan, Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus, Harid (Scarus arabicus and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were considered as monomorphic bands. The RAPD OPA-06 primer revealed 100% polymorphism for 19 produced bands where band width ranged from 190 to 2100 bp. Likewise Rep- PCR ERIC1R primer exhibited 100% polymorphism for 18 bands produced bands where band width ranged from 50 to 1400bp. Data of the three types of genetic markers were combined for phylogenetic analysis. The resulted dendergram produced two large linages with around 59% genetic similarity. One linage only included Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, and the other linage comprised the other six species. This result suggested that this six species were descended from Morgan fish. The second linage comprised two clades; the first clade contained four species (Mousa, Hamor, Shour, and Dennis, where the next clade included only Harid and Black surgeon. Generally genetic distance among native fishes was relatively low. The smallest genetic distance (0.512 was estimated between Shour fish and Black surgeon fish. To the best of our knowledge this work is breaking new ground in two directions, first, molecular characterization of Saudi fish, second employment Rep- PCR genetic marker for molecular characterization of fish species. This work could be considered as preliminary work towards an establishment of Saudi genetic conservation program.

  5. MERCURY, LEAD, CADMIUM AND CHROME CONCENTRATION LEVELS IN FISH FOR PUBLIC CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imer Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of seventy cultured fish from the local market of Tirana were sampled and the concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome was evaluated. Their concentration always resulted below the maximum permitted level for human consumption set by EC (Hg- 1.0 mg/kg, Pb – 0.30 mg/kg, Cd – 0.05 mg/kg and Cr -8 mg/kg. Heavy metal concentration varied among the muscle tissue of different fish species. The concentration level of mercury, lead, cadmium and chrome ranged between 0.002-0.21 mg/kg (Hg; 0.01-0.16 mg/kg (Pb; nd - 0.002 (Cd, and 0.01-0.03 (Cr mg/kg wet weight. The results collected from this monitoring process revealed that these groups of cultivated fish species show low levels of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and chrome (Cr. This monitoring process is very important to safeguard the health of Tirana consumers.

  6. [Outbreak of Salmonella paratyphi B infections in connection with consumption of smoked fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, H; Gericke, B; Klepp, M; Fellmann, G; Rabsch, W

    1994-04-01

    In the period from 2-10 August 1991 an outbreak caused by S. paratyphi B occurred in five rural areas of the district of Leipzig. Eleven patients and one excreter were involved, and mild forms of disease were observed in most cases. In three of the patients a mixed infection with S. litchfield was diagnosed. Moreover at the same time 21 cases of enteritis caused by S. litchfield and three excreters associated with this serovar were registered in these five rural areas. Both infections with S. paratyphi B and S. litchfield occurred 1-3 days after consumption of smoked halibut. The fish smoked in a smokehouse in the Grimma rural area was delivered to the shops every day. The inspection of the smokehouse and the dispatch department provided no signs of contaminations. In the smoked fish samples investigated subsequently, Salmonella were no longer detectable. The results of typing confirm the identity of all S. paratyphi B strains isolated. The possibilities of contamination of the smoked halibut are discussed. This study emphasises the possible transmission of salmonella by way of the food fish. On that occasion also a non-frequent serovar such as S. paratyphi B can be isolated and a light course of disease as e.g. febrile gastroenteritis can be observed and may attain epidemiological significance. PMID:8019069

  7. Characterisation of Aeromonas spp. isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Escarpulli, G; Figueras, M J; Aguilera-Arreola, G; Soler, L; Fernández-Rendón, E; Aparicio, G O; Guarro, J; Chacón, M R

    2003-07-15

    A total of 82 strains of presumptive Aeromonas spp. were identified biochemically and genetically (16S rDNA-RFLP). The strains were isolated from 250 samples of frozen fish (Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) purchased in local markets in Mexico City. In the present study, we detected the presence of several genes encoding for putative virulence factors and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in bacterial infection. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial patterns of those strains. Molecular identification demonstrated that the prevalent species in frozen fish were Aeromonas salmonicida (67.5%) and Aeromonas bestiarum (20.9%), accounting for 88.3% of the isolates, while the other strains belonged to the species Aeromonas veronii (5.2%), Aeromonas encheleia (3.9%) and Aeromonas hydrophila (2.6%). Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of genes encoding putative virulence factors common in Aeromonas, such as aerolysin/hemolysin, lipases including the glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT), serine protease and DNases, revealed that they were all common in these strains. Our results showed that first generation quinolones and second and third generation cephalosporins were the drugs with the best antimicrobial effect against Aeromonas spp. In Mexico, there have been few studies on Aeromonas and its putative virulence factors. The present work therefore highlights an important incidence of Aeromonas spp., with virulence potential and antimicrobial resistance, isolated from frozen fish intended for human consumption in Mexico City. PMID:12781953

  8. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  9. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included. PMID:26768970

  10. Characterization of fish consumers in the town of Lavras, Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cicinato Vieira Melo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and characterize the fish consumption profile in the town of Lavras, Minas Gerais. A descriptive-quantitative study was conducted. A structured questionnaire elaborated using previously formulated questions and answers was used for data collection. The questionnaire was applied between March and May 2014 to the household reference person. A total of 402 households were sampled. The data were analyzed by analysis of the distribution of frequencies using the SPSS program. The results showed that fish meat occupied fourth place in the preference of household consumption in the town of Lavras, after beef, poultry and pork meat. It was also observed that fish is usually purchased as fillet and is consumed occasionally in the households. The price is an important factor for the choice of meat. Most respondents prefer to consume fried fish. The species most appreciated by consumers in the town of Lavras is Dourado. Most respondents usually buy less than 2.0 kg/household/year.

  11. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects. PMID:27353298

  12. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  13. Mercury accumulation in adolescents scalp hair and fish consumption: a case study comparing populations having natural or anthropogenic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira H.C.

    2014-07-01

    Total mercury (THg determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry with the Advanced Mercury Analyzer (AMA-254, LECO, and the analytical quality of the procedure was checked using reference materials TORT-2.The surveyed young populations showed similar fish consumption habits (0 to 6 meals in a week schedule and revealed mercury concentrations in scalp hair ranging from 0.79 to 1.82μg g-1. In spite of being young population consumers, results show a pattern of increased mercury concentration with increasing fish consumption habits.

  14. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumwesigye Nazarius M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT, having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. Results The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having

  15. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  16. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. PMID:25176279

  17. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  18. Healthy Eating and Barriers Related to Social Class. The case of vegetable and fish consumption in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, Silje Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. PMID:25982927

  19. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  20. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kalmijn, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Indications have been seen of a protective effect of fish consumption and the intake of n¿3 fatty acids on cognitive decline. However, studies are scarce and results inconsistent. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between fish consumption, the intake o

  1. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  2. Characterizing catches taken by different gears as a step towards evaluating fishing pressure on fish communities

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconnet, Laurence; Trenkel, Verena M.; Morandeau, Gilles; Caill-milly, Nathalie; Rochet, Marie-joelle

    2015-01-01

    To implement an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, there is a need to characterize the total pressure exerted by fisheries at the community level. French onboard observer data were used to derive catch metrics and compare fishing distribution across community components between two sites in the Southern Bay of Biscay. Sample-based rarefaction curves were used to standardize metrics across different active and passive gears, and correct for sample size differences. Six metrics for spe...

  3. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eGrung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n=27 or a control group (n=22 were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60. The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72. In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and

  4. The role of perceived risk, knowledge, price and cost in explaining dry fish consumption in Bangladesh within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin

    2011-01-01

    Dry fish is the low-cost dietary protein source in Bangladesh. As far the concern of the researcher, this study is the first of its kind to explore the dry fish consumption behaviour in Bangladesh. The general purpose of this study is to apply the general framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), explain attitudes, intention and dry fish consumption in Chittagong city and to extend the traditional TPB-model with some additional variables; perceived risk, knowledge, price and cost. ...

  5. The role of perceived quality, ambivalence and health involvement as a basis for clustering : a study of fish consumption in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Xuan, Bui Bich

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of benefits sought – based segmentation for fish market in Vietnam. A convenient sample of 809 Vietnamese households was provided to answer the questionnaires, including the questions about attitudes towards fish consumption. Cluster analysis was used to identify three distinctive consumer segments based on evaluation of quality, ambivalence and health involvement towards fish consumption. These three segments were termed the Satisfie...

  6. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  7. The history of critical group doses from the consumption of freshwater fish at Trawsfynydd, North Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides discharged into the aquatic environment from Trawsfynydd power station are, as for all UK facilities, subject to statutory controls to ensure that the resulting public radiation exposure complies with nationally-accepted criteria. Environmental monitoring by MAFF has shown that near this facility the consumption of freshwater fish is radiologically the most important pathway with Cs-137 the dominant radionuclide. Information gathered from consumers over a twenty-five year period has been interpreted so as to derive doses to the public. Committed effective doses (CEDs) are presented using ICRP 1990 methodology and compared with the recommended dose limit of 1 mSv year-1. Doses to the critical group are shown to have exceeded 1 mSv year-1 for two years but do not exceed this limit when averaged over a period of 5 years. Because of the changing habits of the consumers it is suggested that the average annual CED over the lifetime of any member of the public will not exceed 1 mSv year-1 during the operation of the station. (author)

  8. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.;

    2011-01-01

    risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption......Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...

  9. Gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand I. Prevalence and fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaiyasith, Tossapon; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Komalamisra, Chalit

    2004-09-01

    Between August 2000 and August 2001, 12,216 fish of 73 species were purchased from several local markets in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, and examined for the presence of Gnathostoma larvae. Almost all species were fresh-water fish that had grown naturally, rather than raised commercially. Eight species were found to be infected with gnathostome larvae. The overall prevalence was 5.1% (626/12,216) and a total of 5,969 larvae was recovered. The highest rate of infection (30.1 %) was found in Monopterus albus (swamp eel). The rates in the remaining infected fish were as follows: Anabas testudineus (climbing perch) 7.7%, Channa striata (striped snake-head fish) 7.4%, Clarius macrocephalus (Gunther's walking catfish) 6.7%, Channa micropeltes (giant snake-head fish) 5.1%, Channa lucius (blotched snake-head fish) 4.0%, Clarius batrachus (Batrachian walking catfish) 1.4%, and Ompok krattensis (butter sheatfish) 0.6%. The mean number of larvae/fish was highest in swamp eels (10.0 larvae/eel), and the maximum number of 698 larvae was recovered from one eel. The body sizes of the recovered G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae were 2.70-5.10 mm in length (average, 3.97+/-0.50 mm) and 0.29-0.60 mm in width (average, 0.40+/-0.04 mm). The average number of cephalic hooklets of the larvae from rows 1 to 4 were 41.8+/-0.5 (range, 40-43), 43.6+/-0.6 (range, 42-45), 46.1+/-0.9 (range, 44-48) and 49.3+/-0.7 (range, 48-51), respectively. PMID:15689060

  10. Heavy metals and arsenic concentrations in ten fish species from the Šalek lakes (Slovenia): assessment of potential human health risk due to fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayegh Petkovšek, Samar; Mazej Grudnik, Zdenka; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2012-05-01

    The study, which measured the concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and As in various fish tissues (muscle, gill and liver) of 10 fish species (Abramis brama danubii, Alburnus alburnus alburnus, Barbus meridionalis petenyi, Carassius auratius gibelio, Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis gibossus, Leuciscius cephalus cephalus, Perca fluviatilis fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, Scardinus erythrophtlalmus erythrophtlalmus) collected in the Šalek lakes, is the first survey regarding metal concentrations in fish species with samples originating from Slovene lakes, while only a limited number of such studies have been carried out in southeastern Europe. Since these lakes are situated in the close vicinity of the largest Slovene thermal power plant, the study provides an insight into the potential impact of increased levels of metals in the environment as well as an estimate of the contamination of fish tissues with metals. Furthermore, it was possible to compare the results obtained with those from other studies regarding metal levels in freshwater fish species. The mean metal concentrations of different tissues irrespective of species varied in the following ranges: Zn 4.31-199 mg/kg ww, Pb 0.01-0.48 mg/kg ww, As 0.02-0.44 mg/kg ww, Hg <0.01-0.31 mg/kg ww, Cd < 0.01-0.19 mg/kg ww. In general, higher contents of Hg were found in muscles and livers than in gills and higher contents of As in gills and livers than in muscles, respectively. The accumulation of Pb and Zn was most pronounced in gills. The result obtained regarding metal concentrations in fish revealed that the ecosystems of the Šalek lakes are not polluted with Hg and Pb, slightly loaded with As and Cd and moderately polluted with Zn. In addition, the potential human health risk due to fish consumption was assessed. This showed that the estimated weekly intakes for all metals were far below provisional permissible tolerable weekly intakes determined by WHO/FAO. The consumption of fish from the Šalek lakes, therefore

  11. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide (40K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  12. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values heavy metal contents and a potential use in agricultural soils, which could reduce the risks of water pollution on water from fish farming. PMID:16962324

  13. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  14. Characterization of Chenopodium quinoa chromosomes using fish and repetitive sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinoa is one of the underestimated crops, which recently attracted attention. During last few years many efforts were done to save the natural genetic diversity of quinoa cultivars and landraces as well as to obtained new variability by mutagenesis. Plant characteristics based mainly on morphological and molecular markers. Cytogenetic analysis was not used for these studies. Quinoa is an allotetraploid species with 36 small chromosomes. To follow the chromosomal rearrangement cause by spontaneous or induced mutations it is necessary to find cytogenetics markers for chromosomes and chromosome arms. The physical mapping of repetitive DNAs by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can provide a valuable tool in studies of genome organization and chromosome rearrangements. To characterized quinoa genome several repetitive sequences were used as DNA probes for FISH. Double FISH with rRNA genes as probes allowed to distinguished three pairs of homologue chromosomes. Telomeric repeats hybridisation signals were present only in terminal part of all chromosome arms and no intercalar position was observed. Other tandem repetitive sequence - minisatellite was characteristic for centromeric and pericentromeric region of all quinoa chromosomes although number of repeats differ between loci. It allowed to divided quinoa chromosomes into few groups. Disperse repetitive sequences such as mobile element-like sequences used in this study were detected in all eighteen chromosome pairs. Hybridization signals were characteristics for pericentromeric region of one or both chromosome arms as relatively weak but discrete signals although few chromosomes exhibited signals in intercalary position. Two others repetitive sequences also exhibited disperse organization; however they are not mobile elements. Their FISH signals were spread throughout whole chromosome arms but only one was present on all quinoa chromosomes. The other revealed hybridization signals only on the half of the

  15. A study of fish consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among the circumpolar population of the rural Nenets Autonomous Area in comparison with the urban population of Arkhangelsk County

    OpenAIRE

    Petrenya, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Russia is a country with a high level of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) death. The nation has experienced several economic crises after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. While CVD-related deaths have decreased in Japan, North America and Western Europe during recent decades, CVD deaths in Russia have increased. Fish consumption is believed to have cardio-protective effects. Fish consumption in the Russian Federation dropped dramatically during the period of post Soviet reforms...

  16. Potential exposure to PCBs, DDT, and PBDEs from sport-caught fish consumption in relation to breast cancer risk in Wisconsin.

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, Jane A; Kanarek, Marty S.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Robert, Stephanie A.; Hampton, John M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Anderson, Henry A.; Remington, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    In Wisconsin, consumption of Great Lakes fish is an important source of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and other halogenated hydrocarbons, all of which may act as potential risk factors for breast cancer. We examined the association between sport-caught fish consumption and breast cancer incidence as part of an ongoing population-based case-control study. We identified breast cancer cases 20-69 years...

  17. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asakereh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

  18. [Effect of a nutrition education intervention on consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish in families of prescholers and scholers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretes, Gabriela; Salinas, Judith; Vio, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on fruits, vegetables and fish consumption in pre-school and school age children families, through a three months education intervention with a pre-post evaluation in 27 intervened families and 32 controls from public schools in Santiago, Chile. A food-frequency questionnaire on fruits, vegetables and fish, and a survey on food and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices were applied to children and their parents. The intervention consisted in six 90 minutes cooking workshops, including the utilization of videos and photovoice for those who cooked in the families. Results showed a significant more consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish in the intervened than in the control group (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, test de Wilcoxon, p healthy food improvement at home. Results showed that it is possible to change food habits in families with the implementation of a nutrition education intervention including cooking workshops, videos and photovoice. PMID:24167956

  19. A population assessment of mercury exposure from two cities of Pakistan with respect to freshwater and marine fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to estimate the level of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair samples of human subjects and its association with consumption of sea- and freshwater fish species. The scalp hairs were collected from both genders (male and female) aged between 15 and 50 years (n = 200), living in coastal areas of Karachi, who mostly consumed sea fish species, referred to as exposed subjects. For comparison purposes, scalp hair samples of both genders (n = 160) were collected from the inhabitants of Karachi and Hyderabad cities who consumed freshwater fish species termed as referent subjects. The frequently consumed fresh and marine fish species were also collected. The level of Hg was determined in fish and scalp hair samples by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to ultrasonic-assisted acid digestion in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The validity of methodology was checked by certified reference material (CRM) BCR 397 (human hair) and DORM-2. The concentrations of Hg in sea- and freshwater fish were found in the range of 1.47-2.09 and 0.402-0.676 μg/g, respectively. The exposed subjects had significantly elevated levels of Hg in scalp hair samples (1.8-4.3 μg/g) as compared to referent subjects (0.87-1.95 μg/g) (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was obtained between the concentration of Hg in hair and age of study population. Exposed and referent female subjects had higher levels of Hg in scalp hair than that in males of both study groups (p = 0.02-0.031). PMID:25147303

  20. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) is a nutrient-rich, small fish found in ponds and rice fields in Bangladesh. The aim of the present intervention was to assess the effect of mola consumption on iron status in children with marginal vitamin A status. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN......: Bangladeshi children (n=196), aged 3-7 years, with marginal vitamin A status were randomly allocated to one of three intervention groups served different fish curries: mola curry (experimental group); rui (Labeo rohita) curry with added retinyl palmitate (positive control group); or rui curry (negative...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...

  1. The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998-1999 12-state survey of women age 18-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In 2002, in the United States, 48 states issued advisories for sport-fish consumers that included 39 chemical contaminants. The most commonly identified chemical was methyl mercury, which is linked to reproductive and developmental effects. Advisories to reduce consumption of contaminated fish have been issued by states since the early 1970s. Advisories are being integrated to include both sport and commercial fish. Methods: As part of a comprehensive risk-communication project, from December 1998 through August 1999 the Wisconsin Division of Public Health and the State of Maine Bureau of Health conducted a 12-state random-digit-dial telephone survey of 3015 women of childbearing age (ages 18-45). The goal was to assess the prevalence of fish consumption, understanding of mercury toxicity, and awareness of state sport-fish consumption advisories for mercury. We gathered information concerning respondents' demographic characteristics, understanding of mercury toxicity, fish consumption during the preceding 12 months, and sport-fish consumption advisory awareness. Results: The overall survey completion rate was 57% with a Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO)-calculated response rate of 50%. Completion rates varied from 37% in New Jersey to 73% in Minnesota. Fish consumption during the previous 12 months was reported by 87% of respondents (range by state of 82-90%). Nearly 10% of women reported consuming two or more fish-meals per week over the prior 12 months. Twenty-nine percent reported sport-fish consumption during the same time period, with a greater state-to-state variability (14-43%). Most women (71%) were aware of mercury's toxicity to a developing child (87% among those aware of an advisory and 67% among those unaware of an advisory). However, awareness of state advisories was only 20%, ranging by state from 8% to 32%. Women who were older, had more than a high school education, and had a household member with a fishing

  2. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State has occurred the bioaccumulation process. Several studies have demonstrated it. In samples of 42 specimens of carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1.90 mg/g with a maximum of 6.04 mg/g. As first job it was necessary to identify and classify the infrastructures of each town according to their use due to the lack of updated demographic information. In this investigation is described the home characteristics with relation to its residence conditions and work status of home bosses through the design and application of a survey by home in two communities nearby reservoir Guri: 'La Paragua' and 'El Manteco'. A simple questionnaire was also designed and applied where home bosses were asked for the weekly frequency of consumption of fish, especially those of carnivorous habits as well as the quantity in grams consumed per week. Homes were better structured at 'La Paragua' than at 'El Manteco' but in the latest the monthly income by home was bigger nevertheless, it does not meet the requirements of the basic basket in Venezuela of US $ 323 for a four people family. The overall consumption of fish per week was twice higher at 'El Manteco' (1,485 kg) than at 'La Paragua' (678 kg). The fish specie consumed as first priority at 'La Paragua' was Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo') which is of detritivorous alimentary habits while the second more consumed was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') of carnivorous alimentary habits. On the opposite side, at 'El Manteco' the first priority of fish was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') while the second one was for Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo'). Next step will be the organic mercury analysis in hair samples and the nutritional profile in individuals from the selected homes: 36 at 'La Paragua' and 50 at 'El Manteco' towns. (author)

  3. DEMAND FOR QUANTITY VERSUS QUALITY IN BEEF, CHICKEN AND FISH CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundari, Kolawole

    2012-01-01

    This study examines income elasticity of demand for quantity and quality beef, chicken, and fish in Nigeria. The analysis is based on randomly selected 134 households in Ondo state. The empirical results show that income elasticity of demand for beef, chicken, and fish are inelastic. This suggests that these food items are considered necessities among households in the sample. The computed income elasticity of demand for quality was found to be positive for all food items. The implication of ...

  4. Seasonal variation of Sarpa salpa fish toxicity, as related to phytoplankton consumption, accumulation of heavy metals, lipids peroxidation level in fish tissues and toxicity upon mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Hamza, Asma; van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfatteh

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate for Sarpa salpa the seasonal trend in the food sources, heavy metals bioaccumulation and the oxidative stress in the organs. In addition, the toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of extract of the fish's organs collected in autumn, the peak of occurrence of hallucinatory syndrome. The toxicity was further studied for compounds present in epiphyte collected from the sea at the end of spring and in summer that are digested by the S. salpa in these seasons. We observed a higher lipid peroxydation in different tissues of S. salpa compared to the control fish Diplodus annularis. Furthermore, heavy metals accumulation in organs of these fish showed a significant variation between the two species (P ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain and muscle of S. salpa were as follows: 1.217, 2.195, 14.395, 18.645 g/kg mouse, respectively. We noticed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between the total amount of toxic dinoflagellates and the level of TBARS in the liver, the brain and the muscle, this for all seasons and all sizes. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect observed for epiphytes extract confirms the transfer of toxins originating from toxic dinoflagellates, which live as epiphytes on P. oceanica leaves, to the fish by grazing. Our work indicates that, toxic phytoplanktons and heavy metals accumulation are responsible for the increase of oxidative stress in the organs of S. salpa. Hence, the edible part of S. salpa, especially the viscera and liver, can cause a threat to human health, and consumption should, for this reason, be dissuaded. PMID:22535366

  5. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  6. Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Fish Peptone

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    The by-products of industrially processed fish are enzymatically converted into fish protein isolates and hydrolysates having a wide biological activity and nutritional properties. However, the heat processing may cause their thermal denaturation thereby causing the conformational changes in them. The present study utilized the strategy of biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on various properties of the fish peptone as compared to the untreated (control) sample. The fish peptone...

  7. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Fish Chymotrypsin: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solid fish waste is generated from the unwanted parts of fish including heads, tails, fins, frames, offal (guts, kidney and liver and skin. It accounts for up to 80% of material from production of surimi, 66% from production of fillet and 27% from production of headed and gutted fish. Currently, fish wastes are disposed off in land-based waste disposal systems or at sea generating toxic by-products during the decomposition process. However, fish processing waste can be used to produce commercially valuable by-products, such as chymotrypsin. Approach: A comperehensive review of the literature on the extraction, purification and characeterization of fish chymotrypsin was performed. Results: Chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase secreted by the pancreatic tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. It has 3 different structures (chymotrypsin A, B and C varying slightly in solubility, electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and cleavage specificity. Only chymotrypsin A and B are found in fish. Compared with mammal chymotrypsin, fish chymotrypsins have similar amino acid composition and molecular weights. Fish chymotrypsins have higher specific activity, especially those from cold-water fish, and low pH and temperature tolerance. The factors affecting the concentration and activity of chymotrypsin in fish are water temperature, fish species, fish age, fish weight and starvation. Chymotrypsin has application in various industries including the food industry, leather production industry chemical industry and medical industry. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extraction techniques for chymotrypsin include: ultra-filtration, ammonium sulphate fractionation precipitation or water-in-oil microemulsions. Purification can be carried out using re-crystallization and gel-filtration, ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Further studies should focus on the optimization of purifiying chymotrypsin from fish processing wastes.

  8. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-01-01

    quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During...... the follow-up period 263 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Overall, there was no association between cardiovascular disease and fish intake, confidence intervals for effect estimates in the different fish intake groups were wide, overlapped and for all but one they encompassed unity...

  9. Tissue specific metal characterization of selected fish species in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mukhtiar; Ahmad, Taufiq; Liaquat, Muhammad; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz; Farid, Ibrahim Bayoumi Abdel; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Concentration of various metals, i.e., zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and silver (Ag), was evaluated in five indigenous fish species (namely, silver carp, common carp, mahseer, thela fish, and rainbow trout), by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It is proved from this study that, overall, mahseer and rainbow trout had high amount of zinc, whereas thela fish and silver carp had high concentration of copper, chromium, silver, nickel, and lead, while common carp had highest amount of iron contents. Furthermore, a tissue-specific discrimination among various fish species was observed, where higher metal concentrations were noticed in fish liver, with decreasing concentration in other organs like skin, gills, and finally the least contents in fish muscle. Multivariate data analysis showed not only a variation in heavy metals among the tissues but also discrimination among the selected fish species. PMID:26951449

  10. Predicting the 137Cs ingestion dose from marine fish consumption in Hong Kong after an accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-137 is one of the more important radionuclides released during a nuclear power plant accident. Based on a mathematical model developed earlier by the present authors for estimating 137Cs ingestion dose from consumption of marine fish in Hong Kong, doses due to an accidental release into Daya Bay from the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station are predicted. Assuming a release of 30 000 TBq of 137Cs, results show that the cumulative dose rises rapidly during the first five years and then gradually levels off. In the first and 50th years after discharge, doses to an average Hong Kong citizen would cumulate to 17 and 38 μSv respectively, which are dominated by the contribution from fish cultured in Hong Kong waters. The first year dose to members of the critical group of local fish farmers is estimated to be 1600 μSv, accumulating to 3600 μSv in the 50th year. Apart from this small number of critical group members whose doses may need some monitoring, the doses to the population at large are considered small compared with an annual dose of 175 μSv from ingestion of natural radionuclides in food and drinks in Hong Kong. (note)

  11. Distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river and the fish Labeo victorianus in Tanzania and possible risks for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataba, Gordian Rocky; Verhaert, Vera; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2016-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to assess the distribution of trace elements in the aquatic ecosystem of the Thigithe river. Samples of surface water, sediment and fish were collected up- and downstream of the North Mara Gold Mine (Tanzania) and following trace elements were analysed: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Trace element concentrations in surface water were below or near the detection limit. Regarding the sediments, relative high concentrations of arsenic at all sites and high levels of mercury at a site downstream of the mine where artisanal mining is performed were observed. Trace element concentrations in Ningu fish tissues (Labeo victorianus) were comparable to slightly higher than levels in fishes from unpolluted environments. For none of the measured human health risk by consumption of fish from the Thigithe river is expected when the Tanzanian average amount of 17g/day is consumed. However, for Hg and As the advised maximum daily consumption of Ningu fish was lower than 100g. As a result fishermen and people living along the shores of the river consuming more fish than the average Tanzanian fish consumption set by the FAO (2005) are possibly at risk. PMID:26780131

  12. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjin Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n = 7154 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (n = 2658 were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4–5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis.

  13. Euteleost Fish Genomes are Characterized by Expansion of Gene Families

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Marchand, Oriane; Escriva, Héctor; Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Zelus, Dominique; Hughes, Sandrine; Laudet, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    The presence of additional hox clusters in the zebrafish has led to the hypothesis that there was a whole genome duplication at the origin of modern fish. To investigate the generality of this assumption, we analyzed all available actinopterygian fish gene families, and sequenced nuclear receptors from diverse teleost fish. The origin and timing of duplications was systematically determined by phylogenetic analysis. More genes are indeed found in zebrafish than in mouse. This abundance is sha...

  14. The Characterization of Fish (Tilapia) Collagen Sponge as a Biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Yamamoto; Yuu Yoshizawa; Kajiro Yanagiguchi; Takeshi Ikeda; Shizuka Yamada; Yoshihiko Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    For scaffold manufacturing, the utility of bioactive natural organic materials derived from marine products is useful and indispensable as an alternative to bovine collagen. The weakest feature of fish collagen for scaffold application is its low degeneration temperature (Td), indicating poor stability of fish collagen in mammals in vivo. We have focused on the tropical fish tilapia as a candidate for generating a clinical scaffold. The aim of this study was to confirm the Td of tilapia type ...

  15. Characterization of Molecular Species of Fish Muscle Phosphatidylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Koretaro; Ebina, Hideaki; Egi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Kozo; Zama, Koichi

    1985-01-01

    Dorsal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species of sardine, mackerel, big-eyed tuna, brown sole, sand flounder, rock fish, Alaska pollack, chum salmon, blue shark, mackerel shark, carp and rainbow trout were analyzed on HPLC.Flat fish such as brown sole and sand flounder were extremely characteristic, since these fish contained (16:0) (20:5) as the most prominent molecular species unlike the rest of the fish that had (16:0) (22:6) as the most prominant molecular species.Principal com...

  16. Characterization of fish genomes by GISH and CGH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Symonová, Radka; Sember, Alexandr; Majtánová, Zuzana; Ráb, Petr

    Enfield: CRC Press, 2015, s. 118-131. ISBN 9781482211986 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogentics * genetic analyses * molecular cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Critical group doses arising from the consumption of fish and shellfish from the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocaesium, plutonium and americium concentrations in samples of fish, crustacea and mollusca taken from the western Irish Sea in 1988 and 1989 are presented. A comparison with the corresponding levels reported in the same species from the eastern Irish Sea and, in particular, the coastal waters surrounding the Sellafield reprocessing complex, shows that the former are one to three orders of magnitude smaller. Consequently, the dose to the critical group of Irish fish and shellfish consumers is very much lower than that to the equivalent critical group in the U.K. For radiocaesium, plutonium and americium combined this dose has been conservatively estimated to be less than 1% of the ICRP-recommended principal dose limit for members of the public in both 1988 and 1989. (author)

  18. Tetrodotoxin poisoning caused by Goby fish consumption in southeast China: a retrospective case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate an unusual outbreak of tetrodotoxin poisoning in Leizhou, southeast China, a case series analysis was conducted to identify the source of illness. METHODS: A total of 22 individuals experienced symptoms of poisoning, including tongue numbness, dizziness, nausea and limb numbness and weakness. Two toxic species, Amoya caninus and Yongeichthys nebulosus, were morphologically identified from the batches of gobies consumed by the patients. Tetrodotoxin levels in the blood and Goby fish samples were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The tetrodotoxin levels in the remaining cooked Goby fish were determined to be 2090.12 µg/kg. For Amoya caninus, the toxicity levels were 1858.29 µg/kg in the muscle and 1997.19 µg/kg in the viscera and for Yongeichthys nebulosus, they were 2783.00 µg/kg in the muscle and 2966.21 µg/kg in the viscera. CONCLUSION: This outbreak demonstrates an underestimation of the risk of Goby fish poisoning. Furthermore, the relationships among the toxic species, climates and marine algae present should be clarified in the future.

  19. Risk assessment in a federal regulatory agency: an assessment of risk associated with the human consumption of some species of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Cordle, F.; Locke, R; Springer, J

    1982-01-01

    The problem of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) became a national concern in 1971 when several accidental contaminations of foods were reported. Extensive efforts were undertaken by FDA to reduce the residues of PCBs in food. However, the PCB levels in several species of fresh-water fish have raised concern about the PCB residues from environmental contamination, and it is this concern which has prompted a reassessment of the human risk involved from consumption of such fish. The human epidem...

  20. Explaining fish consumption in Sri-Lanka: The role of consideration set size, attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, price consciousness, and variety seeking tendency

    OpenAIRE

    Pethiyagoda, Niyomi Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study to understand how the consideration set size affect for consumption frequency of fish in Sri-Lanka. Consideration set size of fish is considered to be affected by consumer attitude, convenience orientation, and consumer knowledge in Sri-Lankan context. Thus, the second objective was to investigate how consumer attitude, knowledge, convenience orientation, variety seeking tendency and price consciousness affect the formation of consideration set size. Based on...

  1. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older

    OpenAIRE

    Eunjin Choi; Youngsoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition ...

  2. Genetic characterization of broodstock brown trout from Bled fish-farm, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marić, Saša; Simonović, Predrag; Razpet, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Due to environmental and economic concerns, Bled fish-farm is interested in establishing broodstocks of native brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). Progeny would be reared and released into rivers managed by the Fishing Club Bled. In this study was performed genetic characterization of broodstock from Bled fish-farm in order to assess hybridization of native brown trout of Danubian phylogeographic lineage with trout of the allochtonous Atlantic lineage. Material and Meth...

  3. Popish Habits vs. Nutritional Need: Fasting and Fish Consumption in Iberia in the Early Modern Period

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Grafe

    2004-01-01

    Studies of consumption in early modern Europe fall into two groups. Some have looked at the overall supply of nutritional components to the average consumer in an attempt to trace standards of living. Others have examined the changing demand for particular goods by specific consumers to understand the way in which new goods and cultural and taste changes impacted on the economy. Few have tried to look at the interactions between both. By combining the contradictory evidence coming from supply...

  4. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  5. Characterization of Bovine Meat Quality for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuţa Elena Coşuleanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat is the main source if high biological value proteins in human nutrition. Researches have been done to characterize meat quality through the chemical composition of three muscles from some bovines races specialized on milk and meat production, by gender, which have not been subjected to a process of conditioning before slaughter. Rhomboideus, Longossimus dorsi and Triceps brachial muscles were characterized by protein and lipid composition. Protein content ranged from 20.8% in Rhomboideus muscle from the males of Fleickveih breed and 21.83% in Longissimus dorsi muscle obtained at the same sex but at Pinzgauer race. The fat content varied in wide limits around 3%. Analysis of chemical composition of meat revealed the influence of sex, race, anatomical positioning of the muscle. Meat obtained has a poor quality, which revealed the need of refurbishment of these animals before slaughter.

  6. Secular trends of salted fish consumption and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-jurisdiction ecological study in 8 regions from 3 continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite salted fish being a classical risk factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC), whether secular trends in salted fish consumption worldwide accounted for changes in NPC rates were unknown. The relationship between vegetable and cigarette consumption to NPC risk worldwide were also largely uncertain. We investigated the longitudinal trends in standardised NPC incidence/mortality rates across 8 regions and their associations with secular trends in salted fish, vegetable and tobacco consumptions. Age standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age standardised incidence rate (ASIR) of NPC were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database and Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Per capita consumption of salted fish, tobacco and vegetables in Hong Kong and 7 countries (China, Finland, Japan, Portugal, Singapore, United Kingdom and United States) were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) and Hong Kong Trade and Census Statistics. Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis were performed to examine both crude and adjusted associations. There were markedly decreasing trends of NPC ASIR and ASMR in Hong Kong over the past three decades, which were correlated with corresponding secular changes in salted fish consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years : ASIR = 0.729 (male), 0.674 (female); ASMR = 0.943 (male), 0.622 (female), all p < 0.05 except for female ASMR). However such associations no longer correlated with adjustments for decreasing tobacco and increasing vegetable consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years: ASIR = 2.007 (male), 0.339 (female), ASMR = 0.289 (male), 1.992 (female), all p > 0.05). However, there were no clear or consistent patterns in relations between NPC ASIR and ASMR with salted fish consumption across 7 regions in 3 continents. Our results do not support the notion that changes in salted fish consumption had played an important role in explaining secular trends of NPC rates in Hong

  7. HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS coupling for identification of metal(loid) species in human urine after fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresimon, J.; Grueter, U.M.; Hirner, A.V. [Inst. of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, University of Essen (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    Human urine samples after fish consumption have been investigated by low-temperature gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection after sample derivatization by hydride generation (HG/LT-GC/ICP-MS). This analytical technique enabled the identification of organometal(loid) compounds in human urine; species of the six elements germanium, arsenic, selenium, tin, antimony, and mercury were determined.Three different organic selenium species, two germanium species, seven arsenic species, four tin species, five antimony species, and one species of mercury were found; 18 of the 22 species detected could be identified. The relative detection limits ranged between 2 and 12 pg x L{sup -1} (x=element). These organometal(loid) compounds probably build up in the human body under the influence of micro-organisms, in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and methane, in the human intestine. (orig.)

  8. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River. PMID:26685785

  9. Reliability and relative validity of fish consumption data obtained in an exposure assessment study among Montreal-area sportfishers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatenstein, B. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre]|[Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Dept. de Nutrition; Kosatsky, T.; Nadon, S. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre; Lussier-Cacan, S. [Inst. de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Weber, J.P. [Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec, Ste. Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A two-season exercise was undertaken in 29 high-level sportfish consumers to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of study instruments. Fishers were invited to participate after completing the main study interview (Time 1) in fall 1995 or winter 1996. Over a 4-week period, they provided a nonconsecutive 7-day weighed food record, kept a fish consumption calendar, and responded to a shortened version of the Time 1 instrument at the end of this period (Time 2). A second blood sample (at Time 2) was analyzed for whole blood mercury (Hg) and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and erythrocytes. Identical questions were compared in the Time 1 and Time 2 instruments. Reported sportfish consumption assessed by the different instruments was subjected to nutrient analysis. Three estimates of exposure to the target substances were derived from the dietary intake estimates and correlated with their respective Time 2 plasma (EPA, DHA) or blood (Hg) values, and with a kinetically derived interval-specific plasma/blood uptake value. Remarkable similarities were observed for the data derived from like questions in the Time 1 and 2 questionnaires in both seasons. However, frank discrepancies between some portion size estimates and measured values may signal cause for concern.

  10. Fish Culture Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  11. Calculation of annual radiation doses to human organs due to consumption of marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual radiation doses have been estimated from the analysis of 40 K, 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 228 Ra radionuclides in the marine fish of the Bay of Bengal for ten different organs of man including, red marrow, lung, thyroid, lower large intestine, upper large intestine, small intestine, muscle, stomach, gonads and bone surface. The lowest dose is calculated in thyroid as 2.7x10 -9 Sv/y and the highest in bone surface as 1.1x10-7 Sv/y. The dose due to 226Ra is highest (1.2x10-7 Sv/y) in the whole body while the lowest dose is delivered by 40K (3.6x10-8 Sv/yil)

  12. Fish scales : a hybrid shale gas play : characterization, extent and controls on productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Benteau, R. [EOG Resources Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed regional geology, reservoir types and characterization with particular reference to the extent and controls of fish scales in a sedimentation setting. Regional maps of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were presented along with a stratigraphic column of the cretaceous Colorado group; a cross section index map of the fish scales regional project; and an Accumap of fish scales producing wells in October 2007. Several graphs were included to depict Bindloss well potential; an example of mineral composition; tight rick analysis of TerraTek; a petrophysical analysis plot of the fish scales project in the Bindloss area; the average sonic velocity for the regional fish scales project; a velocity/density crossplot of the regional fish scales project; a typical production plot of fish scales in the Bindloss area; a rate histogram of fish scales in the Chinook, Bindloss and Wintering Hills areas; and summing reserves for unconventional reservoirs. The presentation also included core photographs of the Bindloss well; core photographs of the Drumheller well; fish scales formation and dolomite precipitation and porosity preservation; fish scales formation with the absence of dolomite and quartz overgrowth; and completion and reservoir sensitivity. It was concluded that an integrated approach and multidisciplinary analysis is necessary in high grade producing areas. tabs., figs.

  13. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Dan; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    The present study estimated the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic trace elements [mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As)] due to consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China, and the associated potential health risks posed by these contaminants. The health risks posed by the contaminants were assessed using a risk quotient of the fish consumption rate to the maximum allowable fish consumption rate considering the contaminants for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect endpoints. The results showed that fish consumption would not pose non-cancer risks. However, some species would cause a cancer risk. Relative risks of the contaminants were calculated to investigate the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. As a result, in view of the contaminants for carcinogenic effects, As was the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. However, when non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants were considered, Hg posed the highest risk. The risk caused by PBDEs was negligible. The results demonstrated that traditional contaminants, such as As, Hg, DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), and PCBs, require more attention in Taihu Lake than the other target contaminants. PMID:24727049

  14. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: A prospective cohort study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, P. van 't; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer pa

  15. Consumption of freshwater fish by recreational and native freshwater anglers in the upper St-Maurice (Quebec, Canada) and estimation of the intake of methylmercury in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydro-Quebec is planning to build two hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper Saint-Maurice River, which would flood about 80% of the surrounding area. The methylmercury (MeHg) content in freshwater fish will therefore tend to increase during the first few years. This development will have a direct impact on the amount of MeHg that the actual users of this river section are exposed to. The objective of this study is to assess the consumption of local fish of these target groups using a Monte-Carlo approach. This study is part of a larger research project aimed at assessing human exposure and the health risks related to MeHg contamination in local fish. The fish consumption rate for recreational freshwater anglers was calculated using the duration of the average annual fishing trip, the average number of catches per species, the average fish weight per species exceeding a specific length of fish usually caught, and the edible portion of fish consumed. This rate was calculated for the native communities based on the total number of meals per year per species, the average fish weight per species, and the edible portion. Based on these calculations, average intake for sport fishermen is estimated at 6.9 g/day (sd = 6.4). This value is 5 to 25 times lower on average than for other North American native communities. However, it must be pointed out that the food habits of the native population were very similar to those of non-native populations; less than 30% of the food comes from traditional sources

  16. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marliana, Ana, E-mail: na-cwith22@yahoo.co.id; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, 50 275 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marliana, Ana; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri

    2015-12-01

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  19. Characterization of antioxidant system parameters in four freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Gülüzar; Canli, Esin G; Eroglu, Ali; Canli, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The potential use of antioxidant system parameters has gained considerable interest due to their pivotal role of detoxification mechanisms in environmental studies and culture fish point of view. Fish with different ecological needs may have different antioxidant capacity and response to environmental contaminants. Thus, the optimal working conditions and specific enzyme activities (Vmax and Km) of antioxidant system parameters (Superoxide dismutase, SOD; Catalase, CAT; Glutathione peroxidase, GPX; Glutathione reductase, GR and Glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in four commonly cultured freshwater fish species (tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus, carp; Cyprinus carpio, trout; Onchorhynchus mykiss and catfish; Clarias garipienus). Data showed that optimal concentrations of different buffers, pH and specific chemicals for each enzyme and GSH were similar in most cases for all fish species, except a few differences. The highest Vmax and Km values were found in carp for GPX and GST, though these values were the highest in tilapia, catfish and trout for CAT, SOD and GR, respectively. As a conclusion, optimization assays of these parameters in different bioindicator organisms based on their physiological and ecological differences may be useful for the aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring studies and also present fundamental data for utilization in aquaculture. PMID:26707186

  20. Determinants of the consumption of fish and shellfish in Denmark: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    Consumers differ considerably in the degree to which they eat fish and shell-fish relative to other meat types. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) was used to explain intention to buy three specific sea-food categories ­ fish, frozen fish and shelled shrimps. The impact...

  1. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R L; Arpanaei, A; Pillai, S; Bernbom, N; Enghild, J J; Ng, Y Y; Gram, L; Besenbacher, F; Kingshott, P

    2013-02-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all surfaces were the muscle proteins troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, and the lipid binding protein apolipoprotein. The quantity, viscoelasticity, and hydration of the protein adlayers varied greatly on the different substrates, but this variation did not affect the bacterial repelling properties. Our results imply that these proteins adsorb to all substrates and provide a steric barrier towards bacterial adhesion, potentially providing a universal antifouling solution. PMID:23104021

  2. The Characterization of Fish (Tilapia Collagen Sponge as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For scaffold manufacturing, the utility of bioactive natural organic materials derived from marine products is useful and indispensable as an alternative to bovine collagen. The weakest feature of fish collagen for scaffold application is its low degeneration temperature (Td, indicating poor stability of fish collagen in mammals in vivo. We have focused on the tropical fish tilapia as a candidate for generating a clinical scaffold. The aim of this study was to confirm the Td of tilapia type I atelocollagen (TAC for biomedical application. Furthermore, the physical and structural properties were investigated and evaluated as a scaffold on a sponge form. Different concentrations {0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% (v/v} of TAC solution were analyzed. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the Td of TAC was 35-36°C. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the pore size (90–160 μm of TAC sponges is acceptable for cell proliferation. The tensile strength of porous sponges was in the range of 0.01–0.07 MPa. These findings indicate that the TAC sponge prepared from tilapia is one of candidates as a scaffold. The 1.0% (v/v concentration of TAC solution is especially recommended to be advantageous for preparing and handling the solution and for sponge formation.

  3. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil [1]. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due to the...... characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations in the...

  4. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  5. Exposure assessment and initial intervention regarding fish consumption of tribal members of the Upper Great Lakes Region in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ojibwe Health Study (OHS) has concluded 10 years of data collection and exposure assessment. Eight hundred and twenty-two participants from tribes in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota (USA) completed fish consumption and environmental risk perception questionnaires. Many participants provided hair and blood samples for mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residue analyses as body burden indicators of these persistent environmental pollutants. Fish were collected by the tribal organizations and contaminants were analyzed for numerous tribal reports and professional environmental journal articles, these data were used by the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission to produce tribal-specific geographic information systems maps as part of a public health intervention strategy. These maps are currently available at www.glifwc.org for six Wisconsin tribes that regularly harvest walleye. To determine the health impacts (if any) of pollutants on cancer, diabetes, and reproduction, it was necessary to know the recent trends in key indicators such as cancer mortality ratios and birth gender ratios. The Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council provided the OHS and each participating tribe in Wisconsin and Michigan with a health profile. Total fish consumption (estimated by recall) for 720 tribal participants was self-reported as 60 g/day, but the highest actual consumption was measured as 11.2 g/day in one of the tribal groups. The highest blood concentrations in tribal participants were 18.6 ppb total serum PCBs and 11.8 ppb total blood mercury. Ninety percent of the participants had less than 3.8 ppb total serum PCBs and 2.6 ppb total blood mercury. Compared to other studies of subsistence fishing populations, these exposures were only moderately elevated and not high enough to warrant widespread restrictions on diets. Furthermore, the benefits of eating a fish diet must be continually emphasized. However, sport fishermen and their families who

  6. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury. In the present Opinion, the NDA Panel has reviewed the role of seafood in European diets and evaluated the beneficial effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption of about 1‑2 servings of seafood per week and up to 3‑4 servings per week during pregnancy has been associated with better functional outcomes of neurodevelopment in children compared to no consumption of seafood. Such amounts have also been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease mortality in adults and are compatible with current intakes and recommendations in most of the European countries considered. These associations refer to seafood per se andinclude beneficial and adverse effects of nutrients and non-nutrients (i.e. including contaminants such as methylmercury contained in seafood. No additional benefits on neurodevelopmental outcomes and no benefit on coronary heart disease mortality risk might be expected at higher intakes.

  7. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at the Guri Reservoir, using nuclear techniques; State of Bolivar, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High mercury levels in carnivorous fish at the Guri reservoir located at the southeastern of Venezuela in the State of Bolivar point toward the presence of a bioaccumulation process in this reservoir. It was necessary to identify and classify development unities in settlements nearby reservoir Guri according to their use, due to the lack of up-to-date demographic information. The total mercury concentration in 7 sediment samples from reservoir Guri ranged from 0.0281 to 0.0877 High mercury levels in carnivorous fish at the Guri reservoir located at the southeastern of Venezuela in the State of Bolivar point toward the presence of a bioaccumulation process in this reservoir. It was necessary to identify and classify development unities in settlements nearby reservoir Guri according to their use, due to the lack of up-to-date demographic information. The total mercury concentration in 7 sediment samples from reservoir Guri ranged from 0.0281 to 0.0877 μg/g while methyl mercury levels oscillated from 0.15 to 3.45 ng/g. A total of 33 fish samples were analyzed; in general, according to the remarks on mercury levels the values ranged from very low to high. Ninety seven percent of fish samples had total mercury concentrations below 0.5 μg/g which is the guideline recommended by World Health Organization for human consumption; however, it was found in a sample from the carnivorous trophic level a total mercury concentration of 3.56 μg/g (Hydrolicus scomberoides, common name 'Payara'). Ninety-eight hair samples were collected from the exposed group, the highest mean concentration of mercury was found in 'Los Guacos' (12.82 μg/g) and it was higher than the mean value of the non exposed group (1.62 μg/g; n = 23). A total of 28 cases of the exposed group had hair mercury concentrations above 6.0 μg/g. It was found significant difference between the exposed and non exposed groups (p= 0). A pre-impoundment sampling was carried out in the flood area of reservoir 'Caruachi

  8. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial–temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis; Christensen, Asbjørn; Madsen, Kristine S.; Deurs, Mikael van

    2014-01-01

    fish spawning distribution information and iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve...

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the muscle of highly consumed fish species (Mastacembelus armatus) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. Fe (213.29 mg/kg dry weight) concentration was the most, followed by Zn (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate 19.5 × 10(-3) kg/day, on the basis of a calculation of the amount of fish consumed by adult individuals (male and female). The studied fish species pose non carcinogenic risk for Co and Ni [target hazard quotient (THQ) > 1] only. Hazard index (HI) was high. Carcinogenic risk (TR) posed by this fish for male and female was 3.43 × 10(-3) and 3.91 × 10(-3), respectively for Ni (the carcinogenic potency slope factor was available for Ni only). The study is an alert indicating that inhabitants who consume these fishes (particularly females) were at risk of Co and Ni toxicity. In India recommended guidelines have yet not been established for these heavy metals, which is essential for setting of toxicological standards. PMID:27386262

  10. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE OF FISH FROM LAKE MEAD, USA, RELATED TO FISH SIZE, CONDITION, TROPHIC LEVEL, LOCATION, AND CONSUMPTION RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this first large-scale study of mercury (Hg) in Lake Mead, USA, the nation's largest man- made reservoir, total-Hg concentrations were determined in the skeletal muscle of 339 fish collected during the Fall of 1998 and the Spring of 1999. Five species of fish representing ...

  11. Estimates of population parameters and consumption/biomass ratio for fishes in reservoirs, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder André Gubiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption, natural mortality, and growth are important parameters for the construction for both fisheries and ecosystems models. We estimated k (growth constant of the von Bertalanffy's function, Loo 1(asymptotic length, Woo (asymptotic weight, Ar (caudal fin index, M (natural mortality, and Q/B (consumption/biomass ratio for several fish species inhabiting reservoirs. We explored possible relationships among these parameters for 135 fish species sampled in thirty reservoirs in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Maximum length (Lmax varied from 2.60 to 79.00 cm, Loo from 2.73 to 85.05 cm, Woo from 0.23 to 9,490.26 g, k from 0.01 to 2.38 yr-1, Ar from 0.03 to 3.60, M from 0.16 to 2.82 yr-1, and Q/B from 3.31 to 67.18. Significant correlations were observed between most pairs of parameters, except for Ar and k, Ar and Loo , and for M and Q/B. The estimates presented here may be useful for constructing Ecopath models, both in Brazil and other tropical regions, where the use of ecosystem modeling is growing.O consumo, a mortalidade natural e as estimativas de crescimento são parâmetros importantes para a construção de modelos pesqueiros e ecossistêmicos. Dessa forma, neste trabalho foram calculados os parâmetros k (constante de crescimento da equação de von Bertalanffy, Loo (comprimento assintótico, Woo (peso assintótico, Ar (índice da nadadeira caudal, M (mortalidade natural e Q/B (consumo/biomassa para peixes em reservatórios. Além disso, foram exploradas possíveis relações entre esses parâmetros para 135 espécies de peixes amostradas em 30 reservatórios no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. O comprimento máximo (Lmax variou de 2,60 a 79,00 cm, Loo de 2,73 a 85,05 cm, Woo de 0,23 a 9.490,26 g, k de 0,01 a 2,38 ano-1, Ar de 0,03 a 3,60, M de 0,16 a 2,82 ano-1, e Q/B de 3,31 a 67,18. Correlações significativas foram observadas entre todos os pares de parâmetros, exceto para Ar e k, Ar e Loo e para M e Q/B. As estimativas

  12. Rates of consumption of juvenile salmonids and alternative prey fish by northern squawfish, walleyes, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish in John Day Reservoir, Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonesis, walleyes Stizostedion vitreum, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus were sampled from four regions of John Day Reservoir from April to August 1983-1986 to quantify their consumption of 13 species of prey fish, particularly seaward-migrating juvenile Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.). Consumption rates were estimated from field data on stomach contents and digestion rate relations determined in previous investigations. For each predator, consumption rates varied by reservoir area, month, time of day, and predator size or age. The greatest daily consumption of salmonids by northern squawfish and channel catfish occurred in the upper end of the reservoir below McNary Dam. Greatest daily predation by walleyes and smallmouth bass occurred in the middle and lower reservoir. Consumption rates of all predators were highest in July, concurrent with maximum temperature and abundance of juvenile salmonids. Feeding by the predators tended to peak after dawn and near midnight. Northern squawfish below McNary Dam exhibited this pattern, but fed mainly in the morning hours down-reservoir. The daily ration of total prey fish was highest for northern squawfish over 451 mm fork length, for walleyes 201-250 mm, for smallmouth bass 176-200 mm, and for channel catfish 401-450 mm. Averaged over all predator sizes and sampling months (April-August), the total daily ration (fish plus other prey) of smallmouth bass was about twice that of channel catfish, northern squawfish, and walleyes. However, northern squawfish was clearly the major predator on juvenile salmonids

  13. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Horsewell, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The addition of fish oil to industrial food products is appealing both to the food industry and consumers for reasons such as health benefits and the extra commercial value. Fish oil is rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which contain a large number of double bonds. This feature causes the...... strategy is to add the oil as an emulsion rather than as neat oil. Studies so far have indicated that emulsification of the fish oil changes the oxidative stability of the product but whether emulsification is an advantage seems to be dependent on the food matrix to which the emulsion is added [1, 2]. It...... interface can be stabilized by food grade emulsifiers such as proteins and phospholipids from milk. The main objective of this study is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, size distribution, and ultimately to view the thickness, structure and morphology of the...

  14. Attitudinal determinants of fish consumption in Spain and Poland Actitudes determinantes del consumo de pescado en España y Polonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. Pérez-Cueto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify attitudinal determinants of fish consumption in Spain and Poland, and to discuss the potential impact of local healthy eating policies in the observed reported frequency of fish consumption. Design: Repeated survey analysis , multivariate linear regression analysis. Data collected through a questionnaire that included socio-demographics, self-reported anthropometrics, as well as validated items of attitudinal and involvement scales, validated items of knowledge about fish, and behaviours (reported fish consumption. Setting: Consumer survey in Poland and Spain, 1800 respondents in 2004 and 1815 respondents in 2008. Results: In Poland, intentions to consume more fish and reported fish consumption increased in the four years period between both surveys, together with objective knowledge regarding fish. In Spain with the exception of subjective knowledge, fish consumption at home and total fish consumption, all attitudinal and involvement scale changes were statistically significant. Multivariate regression revealed that age had a small but significant positive effect in all scales, except for satisfaction with life, fish consumption out of home and subjective health. Satisfaction with life and subjective knowledge were significantly determined by household size. The differences between countries were statistically significant for involvement with health and fish, for intention to eat fish, the general attitudes and objective knowledge regarding fish. Conclusions: In Poland, a more positive attitude towards fish, and increased levels of knowledge about this product were observed and could partially be attributed to national policy efforts. In Spain, an interesting feature was observed: more people reported choosing fish when eating out in 2008 compared with respondents in 2004. Such a trend suggests that people slowly move towards healthier choices even in the out of home eating.Objetivo: Identificar los factores determinantes

  15. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Characterization of a hydrolyzed oil obtained from fish waste for nutraceutical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish industry generates high volume of waste from fish oil that can have the extraction of its lipids used as nutraceuticals and foods. The objective of this study was to produce unsaturated fatty acids from industrialized fish oil by means of a differentiated hydrolysis process. The samples used were crude fish oil obtained from Campestre industry and characterized through physical-chemical parameters, according to AOCS: acidity, peroxide, saponification, iodine and percentage of free fatty acids and also obtained the fatty acid profile through derivatization method for gas chromatography. The results obtained for the oleochemical indices for refined oil were similar to the data found on the literature. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was found of 32,78%, with 9,12% of docosahexaenoic (DHA and 10,36% of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, regarding monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was of 30,59% in the hydrolyzed fish oil in relation to refined (20,06%. Thus, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis process used for oils from fish-waste was satisfactory on the production of absolute yield of lipids in the process and significant preservation on the percentages of EPA and DHA, interesting on the production of nutraceuticals and nutrition of aquatic animals, including shrimp in captivity.

  17. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Snakehead Fish Cell Line upon Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in mediating multiple biological processes in eukaryotes and are being increasingly studied to evaluate their roles associated with cellular changes following viral infection. Snakehead fish Vesiculovirus (SHVV has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish during the past few years. To identify specific miRNAs involved in SHVV infection, we performed microRNA deep sequencing on a snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1 with or without SHVV infection. A total of 205 known miRNAs were identified when they were aligned with the known zebrafish miRNAs, and nine novel miRNAs were identified using MiRDeep2 software. Eighteen and 143 of the 205 known miRNAs were differentially expressed at three and 24 h post-infection (poi, respectively. From the differentially-expressed miRNAs, five were randomly selected to validate their expression profiles using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and their expression profiles were consistent with the microRNA sequencing results. In addition, the target gene prediction of the SHVV genome was performed for the differentially-expressed host miRNAs, and a total of 10 and 58 differentially-expressed miRNAs were predicted to bind to the SHVV genome at three and 24 h poi, respectively. The effects of three selected miRNAs (miR-130-5p, miR-214 and miR-216b on SHVV multiplication were evaluated using their mimics and inhibitors via qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that all three miRNAs were able to inhibit the multiplication of SHVV; whereas the mechanisms underlying the SHVV multiplication inhibited by the specific miRNAs need to be further characterized in the future.

  18. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishсhenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to the flows in the Pacific Ocean the radioactivity transfer toKamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and the ingress into theOkhotskSeawas expected in 2014. It is expected a slight increase of the cesium concentration in water and sea biota in the area of Russia fishing zone FAO 61, but not higher than the concentrations in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident. Data on measurements of the pollution of fish caught in the Pacific Ocean,JapanandOkhotskSeasin 2011–2014 years during the sea expeditions organized by the Russian Geographical Society, yet showed that the total content of cesium isotopes in any fish sample have not eceeded the value of 0.7 Bq/kg. The prognose risk assessment carried out for the conservative scenario of water contamination in fishing zones ofRussiaand seafood consumption characteristic for the region showed that this risk is minimal according to the WHO scale and does not exceed the risk from fish caughed in Black Sea and Baltic Sea, contaminated after theChernobylaccident, consumption

  19. Preparation and partial characterization of collagen sheet from fish (Lates calcarifer) scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, S; Sekar, S; Mohan, R; Rani, Sunita; Sundaraseelan, J; Sastry, T P

    2008-01-01

    Fish scales, which are hitherto discarded as waste, were collected and cleaned thoroughly. The scales were hydrolyzed under controlled acidic conditions, neutralized and made in to a sheet, i.e., fish scale collagen sheet (FCS). The FCS was characterized for its infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mechanical properties. The IR study has shown that the sheet contains both organic and inorganic phases revealing that the scales are partially deminaralized. The tensile strength of FCS is enough if it is used as a wound dressing material. The SEM studies have shown that FCS is porous and exhibited fibrous nature. PMID:17936895

  20. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  1. 137Cs and 210Po dose assessment due to consumption of red sea coral reef fishes collected from the local market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of committed effective dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port Sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores and omnivores. Activity concentration of 210Po and 137Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 210Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.32 (herbivores) Bq/kg fresh w. For 137Cs which are several times lower than those of 210Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively for 137Cs this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μSv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 13'7Cs is negligible compared to 210Po.(Author)

  2. 137Cs And 210Po Dose Assessment Due To Consumption Of Red Sea Coral Reef Fishes Collected From The Local Market (Sudan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to consumption of marine fishes (Red Sea area) was performed in 33 different marine fish samples collected from the local market at Port sudan and classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores. Activity concentrations of 210Po and 137Cs were determined and were found to range between 0.25 to 6.42 (carnivores), 0.7-5 (omnivores) and 1.5-3.8 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. for 210Po and 0.1 to 0.46 (carnivores), 0.09 to 0.35 (omnivores) and 0.09 to 0.3 (herbivores) Bq/Kg fresh w. For 137Cs which are several times lower than those of 210Po. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the CED which was found to be 0.012, 0.01 and 0.01 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively, for 137Cs, this contributes about 0.4% of the total dose. While for 210Po, it was found to be 3.47, 4.81 and 4.14 (μ Sv/y) in carnivores, omnivores and herbivores, respectively which represents 99.6% of the total dose. The results of CED suggest that the dose received by Sudanese population from the consumption of marine fishes is rather small and the contribution of 137Cs is negligible compared to 210Po. (Authors)

  3. The patterns and trends of marketing and consumption of the fish of Lake Victoria (Kenya waters). Paper presented at FISA 95: Inaugural Congress of the Fisheries Society for Africa (FISA '95),UNEP Nairobi, Kenya, 31 July - 5th August, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Abila, R.

    1995-01-01

    Lake Victoria, producing over 90% of Kenya's fish, is the principle source of fish for domestic consumption and for export in the country. The three fish species of most economic importance are Lates niloticus, Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis species. These constitute 50%, 37% and 6% respectively of the lakes's tonnage. The structure and performance of the marketing system for each of these species differ, depending on certain market features. Among these are the marketing history and ...

  4. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico;

    2008-01-01

    countries. Methods - A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18-84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking...... subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusions - Although...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish) consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption......Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products...... effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence of...

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the muscle of highly consumed fish species (Mastacembelus armatus) were measured using atomic absorption spectrometer. Fe (213.29 mg/kg dry weight) concentration was the most, followed by Zn (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate 19.5 × 10−3 kg...

  7. Integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to describe spatiotemporal building energy demand patterns was developed. • The model integrates existing methods in urban and energy planning domains. • The model is useful to analyze energy efficiency strategies in neighborhoods. • Applicability in educational, urban and energy planning practices was found. - Abstract: We introduce an integrated model for characterization of spatiotemporal building energy consumption patterns in neighborhoods and city districts. The model addresses the need for a comprehensive method to identify present and potential states of building energy consumption in the context of urban transformation. The focus lies on determining the spatiotemporal variability of energy services in both standing and future buildings in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. This detailed characterization facilitates the assessment of potential energy efficiency measures at the neighborhood and city district scales. In a novel approach we integrated existing methods in urban and energy planning domains such as spatial analysis, dynamic building energy modeling and energy mapping to provide a comprehensive, multi-scale and multi-dimensional model of analysis. The model is part of a geographic information system (GIS), which serves as a platform for the allocation and future dissemination of spatiotemporal data. The model is validated against measured data and a peer model for a city district in Switzerland. In this context, we present practical applications in the analysis of energy efficiency measures in buildings and urban zoning. We furthermore discuss potential applications in educational, urban and energy planning practices

  8. Ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po through fish consumption in the Cananeia-Iguape system, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po in the Cananeia - Iguape System, coast south of the Sao Paulo State was estimated. After the dissolution of the fish muscle (by microwave) radiochemical methods were applied for the analysis of those radionuclides.210 Pb was detected by using a Geiger-Muller detector while 210 Po by alpha spectrometry. The estimates of individual ingestion of 210 Pb and 210 Po for the fish of higher economical importance for the population of the System were of 0.004 and 0.035 Bq.d-1, respectively. Although, the levels of individual ingestion of these radionuclides obtained in this work are below the recommended levels it is advisable a periodic monitoring of these radionuclides in estuarine samples, especially, for the organisms such as fish that can be used as bio-indicators of 210 Pb and 210 Po. (author)

  9. Human exposure to mercury from fish consumption in Latin America and Africa: Effects of mercury-selenium interactions on mercury methylation rates in tropical waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dominating human exposure to mercury is generally via fish as food. The Hg levels in fish depend crucially on parameters influencing net methylation and on interactions with selenium. Other variables known to be important are organic acids, metals such as Fe and Mn, geochemical factors such as pH, and microbial activity. However, parameters affecting methylation and other transformations of Hg in tropical environments are not well understood, why a profound study is needed. Methylation potential will be determined in sediments and in the root zone of floating macrophytes by incubating samples with 203Hg. We will also determine total Hg and Se concentrations in fish species important to human consumption. The bacterial production, determined by incorporation of 14C leucine, will be related to Hg methylation potential, among others to evaluate the importance of different groups of bacteria for methylation. Similar experiments will be conducted in the presence of variable Se concentrations. Pilot studies and screening surveys at selected sites will be performed during the first year. The study is expected to increase the knowledge about Hg-transformations in the tropics and to point out proper measures to reduce health hazards due to Hg-exposure. (author)

  10. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.;

    1998-01-01

    Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...... further characterized and 43 strains were inhibitory against Listeria monocytogenes. The strains were inhibitory to other Gram- positive (lactic acid) bacteria probably because of production of bacteriocins. All 44 strains inhibited both Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 37 were inhibitory...... to a mesophilic fish spoilage bacterium tan Aeromonas sp.). Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was attributed to production of lactic acid. Most strains were identified as Lactobacillus spp., and all grew well at ambient temperatures (25-37 degrees C) and tolerated up to 6.5% NaCl. Glucose was...

  11. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State arose from damming the Caroni river and its main tributary, the Paraguay river. It was built between the years 1963 and 1986. The reservoir, whose primary use is the electric power generation followed by others beneficial uses such as water supply and recreation, was opened to commercial fishing recently. The riparian population is about 8,030 inhabitants: 7,389 toward the left side (west) and 641 toward the right side (cast) and it is distributed in populated centers, villages and in dispersed areas. The young population is the most conspicuous: 46 % and 52% on the right and left sides, respectively, with predominance of the masculine sex (86%). The reservoir Guri, the same as some reservoirs from other countries has shown what has been called 'dam effect', a term used to designate the occurrence of bioaccumulation process in reservoirs due to the high mercury levels found mainly in piscivorous fish species which are the most preferred by fish consumers. In a sample of 42 specimens of the carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1. 90 ppm, with a maximum value of 6.04 ppm. For the detritivorous trophic level, in a sample of 17 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.27 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.69 ppm, while for the omnivorous trophic level, in a sample of 6 specimens, the average value of total mercury was 0.55 ppm, with a maximum value of 0.99 ppm. The source of mercury in fishes from reservoir Guri has not been determined; however, in some sectors of the flooded area activities were carried out of exploitation of aluvional gold using metallic mercury for gold recovery and burning the amalgam at open ceiling. The objective of this research project is to determine the relationship among the ingestion of fish coming from reservoir Guri, the levels of organic mercury in hair and the appearance of signs and symptoms of neurotoxicity in a sample

  12. Assessment of the pelagic fish populations using CEN multi-mesh gillnets: consequences for the characterization of the fish communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deceliere-Vergès C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of CEN standard pelagic nets to the assessment of fish communities is tested by comparing three metrics (species composition, species abundance, and size structures measured in accordance with the standard (i.e. using benthic nets only to those calculated from the total effort (i.e. including pelagic nets. Hydroacoustic surveys were used simultaneously to assess fish densities in the pelagic habitat. The results show that in most cases the pelagic nets did not provide any extra information about these three metrics. However, their inclusion in the calculation of CPUE and size structures may affect the picture of the fish communities, especially in lakes containing salmonid populations. This study highlights the need to sample pelagic fish when assessing fish communities in order to determine lake quality.

  13. Assessment of the pelagic fish populations using CEN multi-mesh gillnets: consequences for the characterization of the fish communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deceliere-Vergès

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of CEN standard pelagic nets to the assessment of fish communities is tested by comparing three metrics (species composition, species abundance, and size structures measured in accordance with the standard (i.e. using benthic nets only to those calculated from the total effort (i.e. including pelagic nets. Hydroacoustic surveys were used simultaneously to assess fish densities in the pelagic habitat. The results show that in most cases the pelagic nets did not provide any extra information about these three metrics. However, their inclusion in the calculation of CPUE and size structures may affect the picture of the fish communities, especially in lakes containing salmonid populations. This study highlights the need to sample pelagic fish when assessing fish communities in order to determine lake quality.

  14. Assessing the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing to characterize fish community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.; Pollock, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-pass backpack electrofishing data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing. A two-capture removal model was used to estimate, within 10 river basins across the United States, proportional fish species richness from one-pass electrofishing and probabilities of detection for individual fish species. Mean estimated species richness from first-pass sampling (p??s1) ranged from 80.7% to 100% of estimated total species richness for each river basin, based on at least seven samples per basin. However, p??s1 values for individual sites ranged from 40% to 100% of estimated total species richness. Additional species unique to the second pass were collected in 50.3% of the samples. Of these, cyprinids and centrarchids were collected most frequently. Proportional fish species richness estimated for the first pass increased significantly with decreasing stream width for 1 of the 10 river basins. When used to calculate probabilities of detection of individual fish species, the removal model failed 48% of the time because the number of individuals of a species was greater in the second pass than in the first pass. Single-pass backpack electrofishing data alone may make it difficult to determine whether characterized fish community structure data are real or spurious. The two-pass removal model can be used to assess the effectiveness of sampling species richness with a single electrofishing pass. However, the two-pass removal model may have limited utility to determine probabilities of detection of individual species and, thus, limit the ability to assess the effectiveness of single-pass sampling to characterize species relative abundances. Multiple-pass (at least three passes) backpack electrofishing at a large number of sites may not be cost-effective as part of a standardized sampling protocol for large-geographic-scale studies. However, multiple

  15. Characterization of household energy consumption in Sweden : energy savings potential and feedback approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Vassileva, Iana

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is on a constant rise with domestic use contributing substantially to the overall consumption. The population growth along with ever increasing comfort levels and daily appliance usage are driving the domestic electricity demand to higher levels. Targeting domestic consumption is thus of great importance if global consumption is to be lowered. This involves understanding and changing consumers’ behaviour, awareness and increasing their knowledge on the subject of energy use...

  16. Fish consumption as a source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances in Italy: analysis of two edible fish from Lake Maggiore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Ciccotelli, V; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2014-11-01

    Extensive screening analyses of perfluorooctane sulfonate and related perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in biota samples from all over the world have identified PFCs as global pollutants and have shown their bioaccumulation into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmental contaminants belonging to a chemical group known as perfluorinated compounds. PFOS and PFOA are very persistent in the environment and bioaccumulate in humans. They are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) considers both compounds to be carcinogenic and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recently pointed out that they are associated with adverse health effects. Diet is considered the main source of exposure to PFCs, which have been found more frequently in fish and other seafood, compared to other food groups. In fact, aquatic ecosystems represent the final reservoir for PFCs due to their great affinity for sedimentary and living organic matter. In these systems, measured levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could increase along the trophic web, ultimately affecting humans that consume aquatic species. In this study, PFOS and PFOA was detected by LC-MS/MS in muscle samples of Coregonus lavaretus (European whitefish) and Perca fluviatilis (European perch) collected from Lake Maggiore, a large lake located on the south side of the Italian Alps. PFOA was not found in any of the investigated samples above the limit of quantitation of 0.50 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw), whereas PFOS was detected in all 90 samples with concentrations of up to 46.0 ng g(-1)fw. Mean concentrations were 22.2 ng g(-1)fw in P. fluviatilis and 20.0 ng g(-1)fw in C.lavaretus. Comparison of our results with literature data on PFOS intake suggested that fish from Lake Maggiore may be a significant source of

  17. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.; Van Der Geyten, S; Kaptein, Ellen; Darras, Veerle; Kuhn, E.R.; Leonard, J L; Visser, Ton

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) coding for D3 in fish (Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia). This cDNA contains 1478 nucleotides and codes for a protein of 267 amino acids, including a putative selenocysteine (Sec) residue, encoded by a TGA triplet, at position 131....

  18. Ten novel microsatellite loci characterized for a remarkably widespread fish: Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, Cecilia; Paterson, Ian G; Cussac, Victor E; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2009-11-01

    Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers (five tetra-, one compound tetra-, one octa- and three dinucleotides) were isolated and characterized for Galaxias maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. Markers were tested in 89 individual samples from a single location and the number of alleles ranged between 2 and 28. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.910 and 0.098 to 0.935 respectively. No evidence was detected for either linkage disequilibrium (P-values > 0.05 for each locus pair) or deviations from HWE (P-values > 0.05 for every loci). PMID:21564945

  19. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  20. In silico identification and molecular characterization of genes predominantly expressed in the fish oocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahé Sophie

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, molecular mechanisms that control follicle-enclosed oocyte progression throughout oogenesis and oocyte developmental competence acquisition remain poorly understood. Existing data in mammals have indicated that the so called "oocyte-specific" genes play an important role in oogenesis, fertilization, and early embryo development. In teleost species, very little is known about "oocyte-specific" genes. The present study therefore aimed at identifying and characterizing oocyte-specific genes in fish. Results Using digital differential display PCR, mouse ESTs exhibiting an oocyte-predominant expression were identified. Those murine ESTs were subsequently used to identify cognate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ESTs using a reciprocal Blast search strategy. In the present study we report the identification of five previously uncharacterized rainbow trout cDNAs exhibiting a oocyte-specific, oocyte-predominant, or gonad-specific expression: zygote arrest 1 (zar1, v-mos Moloney murine sarcoma viral oncogene-like protein (mos, B-cell translocation gene (btg3, growth differentiation factor 9 (gdf9, and mutS homolog 4 (msh4. The orthology relationship of each of these genes with vertebrate counterparts was verified by phylogenetic analysis. Among those five genes, three had never been characterized in any fish species. In addition, we report the oocyte-predominant expression of btg3 for the first time in any vertebrate species. Finally, those five genes are present in unfertilized eggs as maternally-inherited mRNAs thus suggesting that they could participate in ovarian folliculogenesis as well as early embryonic development. Conclusion The expression patterns of zar1, mos, btg3, gdf9 and msh4 in rainbow trout and the functions of their orthologs in higher vertebrates strongly suggest that they might play an important role in follicle-enclosed oocyte development, meiosis control and early embryonic development in fish. Future

  1. Preparation and characterization of the fish reference material; Preparacao e caracterizacao de um material de referencia de peixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Joao Cristiano

    2011-07-01

    The certified reference materials (CRMs) play an important role in obtaining measurement results traceable to the International System of Units, through an unbroken chain of comparisons. Thus, the demand for new certified reference materials (CRMs) increases every day in all areas of knowledge. The availability of reference materials, mainly in Brazil is still incipient, given that the demand far exceeds the available variety of these materials. The amount of certified reference materials available in the country is insufficient to meet the need of the scientific community and demands for development of new methodologies. Among the many areas in need of reference materials, we highlight the importance for the food trade balance for these products within the country. The certification of food products, intended both for export and for domestic consumption, requires analysis methods that provide precise and accurate results to ensure product quality. This paper describes the preparation and certification of a reference material in the fish matrix in mercury and methylmercury. The study brings together since the stage of material selection, preparation, development of homogeneity and stability studies and characterization. The certification was performed by means of measurements using two analytical techniques, flow injection analysis - cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-CV-AAS) and isotope dilution applied to mass spectrometry (IDMS), which is a primary method. In this work the standards of the ISO 30 (ABNT 30-34) and ISO Guide 35 was used as the basis for the preparation and characterization of the material. For the calculation of uncertainties was used the GUM and Eurachem guide. As a result, was produced and certified a lot of material in relation to the concentration of mercury (Hg = 0.271 {+-} 0.057 mg g{sup -1}) and methylmercury (MeHg = 0.245 {+-} 0.038 mg g{sup -1}), and informational values of lead and arsenic. (author)

  2. Methylmercury and inorganic mercury in serum -- correlation to fish consumption and dental amalgam in a cohort of women born in 1922

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, I.A.; Schuetz, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Ahlqwist, M. [Medicinargatan 12, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oral Diagnostic Radiology; Bengtsson, C. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Vasa Hospital; Lissner, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Vasa Hospital]|[Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Lapidus, L.; Hulten, B. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    Methylmercury in serum (S-MeHg) was assessed from serum concentrations of total (S-TotHg) and inorganic mercury (S-InoHg), determined by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected from 135 women on two occasions, in 1968--1969 and 1980--1981. In a subgroup of 29 women, an association was found between S-MeHg and the amount of fish consumed in 1968--1969. The association was stronger when the individuals` mean S-MeHg from 1968--19659 and 1980--1981 were plotted vs fish consumption 1968--1969. In the group, as a whole, there was an association between S-InoHg and number of dental amalgam surfaces, in both 1968--1969 and 1980--1981. The S-InoHg increased by approximately 0.1 nmol/L per amalgam tooth surface, corresponding to an uptake of approximately 0.2 {micro}g/day per amalgam surface, but with considerable interindividual differences. The levels were lower in 1980--1981 than in 1968--1969 for both MeH and InoHg.

  3. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  4. Identification and Characterization of Pathogenic Aeromonas veronii Biovar Sobria Associated with Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fish in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mokhlasur; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Kühn, Inger; Huys, Geert; Swings, Jean; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Sparse information is available on the virulence factors of Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish, from the environment, and from humans. In the present study, 52 Aeromonas isolates obtained from epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) lesions in fish, from the aquatic environment, and from children with diarrhea in Bangladesh were identified by biochemical phenotyping (i.e., PhenePlate [PhP] typing) and DNA fingerprinting and then characterized with respect to certain putative virulence ...

  5. Characterization of monomer/crosslinker consumption and polymer formation observed in FT-Raman spectra of irradiated polyacrylamide gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy was undertaken in the study of irradiated polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) used in 3D radiation dosimetry. By employing correlation techniques, monomer and crosslinker consumption were characterized in the spectra as a function of absorbed dose. The consumption of both monomer and crosslinker is monoexponential up to 13 Gy, although the rates of consumption differ for the two molecules. A sensitivity parameter, D0, in the exponential function has been used to characterize this difference. Up to 13 Gy, D0(acr) = 12±2 Gy while D0(bis) = 8.0±0.5 Gy, indicating that bis is consumed at a greater rate than acrylamide and that bis is the limiting factor in the onset of gel saturation, for a gel composition of 6% by weight total monomer (6%T) and where 3% of the total monomer is crosslinker (50%C). Direct evidence of polymer formation was observed in the Raman spectra of irradiated PAG. Polymer formation is monoexponential to a dose of 13 Gy, with a sensitivity parameter of D0(poly) = 14±2 Gy. This is in good agreement with the consumption rate of acrylamide. The exponential nature of the polymer formation observed here is compared with existing MRI and x-ray CT dose response measurements previously reported to be linear. The results confirm previous studies indicating that Raman spectroscopy provides a direct and useful tool for characterization of irradiated PAG. (author)

  6. ND - Contaminants and Potential Consumption Advisories for Game Fish Populations in National Wildlife Refuges in North Dakota and Montana, 2006-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service supports recreational fishing in Refuge waters throughout the state of North Dakota. Recent research indicates popular commercial...

  7. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  8. Purification and characterization of a fish granzymeA involved in cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yuta; Yabu, Takeshi; Shiba, Hajime; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2016-07-01

    Granzymes are serine proteases involved in the induction of cell death against non-self cells. The enzymes differ in their primary substrate specificity and have one of four hydrolysis activities: tryptase, Asp-ase, Met-ase and chymase. Although granzyme genes have been isolated from several fishes, evidence for their involvement in cytotoxicity has not yet been reported. In the present study, we attempted to purify and characterize a fish granzyme involved in cytotoxicity using ginbuna crucian carp. The cytotoxicity of leukocytes was significantly inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor ''3, 4-dichloroisocoumarin''. In addition, we found that granzymeA-like activity (hydrolysis of Z-GPR-MCA) was inhibited by the same inhibitor and significantly enhanced by allo-antigen stimulation in vivo. Proteins from leukocyte extracts were subjected to two steps of chromatographic purification using benzamidine-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 26,900 Da by SDS-PAGE analysis. The purified enzyme displayed a Km of 220 μM, a Kcat of 21.7 sec(-1) and a Kcat/Km of 98,796 sec(-1) M(-1) with an optimal pH of 9.5 for the Z-GPR-MCA substrate. The protease was totally inhibited by serine protease inhibitors and showed granzymeA-like substrate specificity. Therefore, we conclude that the purified enzyme belongs to the mammalian granzymeA (EC 3.4.21.78) and appears to be involved in cytotoxicity in fish. PMID:26872543

  9. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption. PMID:24815343

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e. , Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) fro m sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red se a bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is ozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results sho wed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their cor responding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly di fferent from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and de tection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in compa rison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without mor phological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compa red to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  11. Extraction and characterization of biocompatible hydroxyapatite from fresh water fish scales for tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Niladri Nath; Pramanik, Krishna; Sukla, Lala Behari

    2014-03-01

    In bone tissue engineering, porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) is used as filling material for bone defects, augmentation, artificial bone graft and scaffold material. The present paper compares the preparation and characterization of HAp from fish scale (FS) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) solution. Thermo gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analysis of the samples have been performed. The analysis indicates that synthesized HAp consists of sub-micron HAp particle with Ca/P ratio corresponding to FS and SBF 1.62 and 1.71, respectively. MTT assay and quantitative DNA analysis show growth and proliferation of cells over the HA scaffold with the increase in time. The shape and size (morphology) of mesenchymal stem cells after 3 days show a transition from rounded shape to elongated and flattened shape expressing its spreading behavior. These results confirm that HAp bio-materials from fish scale are physico-chemically and biologically equivalent to the chemically synthesized HAp from SBF. Biological HAp, thus, possesses a great potential for conversion of industrial by-product into highly valuable compounds using simple effective and novel processes. PMID:23846299

  12. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Highlights and achievements: At present, according to our results so far, we have teamed that this project has an important social component which we have to take into account. The characteristics of the population in the nearby of reservoir Guri and the changes in the circumstances economic, politic and social of this country are causing quickly and severely modifications on the living conditions of that people. It is a reality that these changes can occur in a sensible manner between the time we collect the information and when the data arrives finally to the institutions. The communities included in this project are represented by social groups consolidated for more than 200 years so even if we may observe changes in their living conditions, it is intrinsic to them the presence of subjective structures that impose both individual and group behaviors that some time do not agree with the planner interest. On the other hand we believe that was obtained a very important information related to the socioeconomic situation of the two populated centers sampled and on the habits of fish consuming. In addition, we did an approximation of the total population in these localities. In the future we have to do the same with the other communities because of the lack information up to date. The 2001 census will be available next year. We have now the selected homes and individuals to start working with the next steps of the project. In the framework of the project we promote several meeting in order to design an intercalibration program among different laboratories for metal analysis. Actually these labs are filling in a simple questionnaire to harmonize the program. This activity has had the acceptance of the Pan-American Sanitary Office, Regional Office of the World Health Organization in Venezuela. (author)

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a new fish-virulent Vibrio vulnificus serovar that lacks potential to infect humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouz, Belén; Roig, Francisco J; Amaro, Carmen

    2007-06-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a bacterial species that is virulent for humans and fish. Human isolates are classified into biotypes 1 and 3 (BT1 and BT3) and fish isolates into biotype 2 (BT2). However, a few human infections caused by BT2 isolates have been reported worldwide (zoonosis). These BT2 human isolates belong to serovar E (SerE), which is also present in diseased fish. The aim of the present work was to characterize a new BT2 serovar [serovar A (SerA)], which emerged in the European fish-farming industry in 2000, by means of phenotypic, serological and genetic [plasmid profiling, ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] methodologies. The results confirmed that SerA constitutes a homogeneous O-serogroup within the species that shares plasmidic information with SerE. Like SerE, this new serogroup was resistant to fresh fish serum, as well as being highly virulent for fish. In contrast, it was sensitive to human serum and avirulent for mice, even after pretreatment with iron. The two serovars presented different biochemical profiles as well as specific patterns by ribotyping and RAPD analysis. In conclusion, SerA seems to constitute a different clonal group that has recently emerged within the species V. vulnificus, with pathogenic potential for fish but not for humans. PMID:17526849

  14. Characterization of Street Food consumption in Palermo: possible effects on health

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi Silvio; Barile Annamaria; Maniaci Vincenza; Batsis John A; Mattina Alessandro; Verga Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Street Food (SF) consists of out-of-home food consumption and has old, historical roots with complex social-economic and cultural implications. Despite the emergence of modern fast food, traditional SF persists worldwide, but the relationship of SF consumption with overall health, well-being, and obesity is unknown. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study. The study was performed in Palermo, the largest town of Sicily, Italy. Two groups were identified: con...

  15. Characterization of street food consumption in palermo: possible effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Silvio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street Food (SF consists of out-of-home food consumption and has old, historical roots with complex social-economic and cultural implications. Despite the emergence of modern fast food, traditional SF persists worldwide, but the relationship of SF consumption with overall health, well-being, and obesity is unknown. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study. The study was performed in Palermo, the largest town of Sicily, Italy. Two groups were identified: consumers of SF (n = 687 and conventional restaurant food (RES consumers (n = 315. Study subjects answered a questionnaire concerning their health conditions, nutritional preferences, frequency of consumption of SF and a score relative to SF consumption ranging from 0 to 20 was calculated. Results Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was significantly and independently correlated with the score of street food consumption (r = 0,103; p Conclusions This study suggests that SF consumption in Palermo is associated with a higher BMI and higher prevalence of hypertension in milza consumers. Further studies should evaluate whether frequent SF consumers have unfavourable metabolic and cardiovascular profile.

  16. Contribution to the risk characterization of ciguatoxins: LOAEL estimated from eight ciguatera fish poisoning events in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Virginie; Soliño, Lucia; Leroy, Patricia; David, Eric; Velge, Pierre; Dragacci, Sylviane; Krys, Sophie; Flores Quintana, Harold; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    From 2010 to 2012, 35 ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) events involving 87 individuals who consumed locally-caught fish were reported in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). For 12 of these events, the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) was indicated in meal remnants and in uncooked fish by the mouse bioassay (MBA). Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTXs) were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using a cell-based assay (CBA), and the only available standard Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), the lowest toxins level detected in fish samples causing CFP was 0.022 µg P-CTX-1 equivalent (eq.)·kg(-1) fish. Epidemiological and consumption data were compiled for most of the individuals afflicted, and complete data for establishing the lowest observable adverse effects level (LOAEL) were obtained from 8 CFP events involving 21 individuals. Based on toxin intakes, the LOAEL was estimated at 4.2 ng P-CTX-1 eq./individual corresponding to 48. 4 pg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) body weight (bw). Although based on limited data, these results are consistent with the conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) opinion which indicates that a level of 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish, regardless of source, should not exert effects in sensitive individuals when consuming a single meal. The calculated LOAEL is also consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance levels for CTXs (0.1 µg C-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) and 0.01 µg P-CTX-1 eq.kg(-1) fish). PMID:26409497

  17. Variation of methylmercury concentration in hair of the Kuala Lumpur residents in terms of race, gender, age and fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    level of methylmercury in females (1.25mg kg-1) was found to be higher than those of males (1.03 mg kg-1). A positive correlation was found between methylmercury concentrations and the amount of fish consumed by the population (r=0.89, P<0.01). There is also a statistically significant correlation (r=0.26, P<0.05) between age and the level of methylmercury. (author)

  18. Characterization of Redistilled Liquid Smoke of Oil-palm Shells and its Application as Fish Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    P. Septiaji; R. Nursyamsi; N.R. Mubarik; S.S. Achmadi

    2013-01-01

    Oil-palm shells as an agricultural waste can be pyrolysed producing gaseous material that can be condensed into liquid smoke. Redistilled liquid smoke has been proven effective as fresh fish preservative due to its antibacterial activity. In the present study, the redistilled liquid smoke is evaluated as fish preservative of fresh catch and as fly repellent in fish salting-fermenting process. The tests included total volatile base-nitrogen levels in fish muscle and antibacterial activity usin...

  19. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  20. Characterization of natural nanostructured hydroxyapatite obtained from the bones of Brazilian river fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, T. M.; Nogueira, E. S.; Steimacher, A.; Medina, A. N.; Weinand, W. R.; Lima, W. M.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the characterization of the optical properties of natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is discussed. In the first stage of the experiment, natural HAp was processed from the bones of Brazilian river fish such as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans), jaú (Paulicea lutkeni), and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum). The bones were calcined at 900°C for different amounts of time (4-12h) and reduced to powder using two different milling times (2 and 4h) in a high-energy ball mill, in order to determine the best procedure for obtaining natural nanostructured HAp powder for the study. In the second stage, material calcined for 8h was milled for 2, 4, 8, and 16h. The techniques of photoacoustic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry were applied to characterize these samples. The O-H stretching shown by photoacoustic spectroscopy was correlated to the HAp nanostructure. Structural analysis indicated a Ca /P ratio close to 1.67 (˜1.64±0.04) and the presence of morphology and particle phase structure in the nanostructured HAp powder.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare. PMID:18660972

  2. Haff Disease after Eating Buffalo Fish: Report of a Severe Case in Northern California and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Offerman; Ethan Bodle

    2013-01-01

    Background:Toxic contamination of fish may compromise food safety. Haff disease is a rare syndrome characterized by rhabdomyolysis following consumption of cooked, freshwater fish. Case Report: A healthy 42 year old female presented three hours after eating fried buffalo fish (Ictiobus cyprinellis). Her symptoms began while eating the fish, described as diffuse muscle aches followed by generalized muscle fatigue, most pronounced in her proximal lower extremities. Vital signs were normal. Her ...

  3. History of fish-eating culture and latest trends in seafood consumption in Japan%日本食鱼文化历史演变和水产品加工消费最新动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于克锋; 袁春红; 木村郁夫

    2011-01-01

    日本的食鱼文化内涵受历史、经济、政治、地理、气候等多方面的影响一直在不断发展变化.近年来,受西方生活方式的影响,畜禽肉和奶制品的消费量逐年增加,相对来说水产品的消费呈现下降趋势,但是动物性蛋白的一半仍然来源于水产品.介绍了日本食鱼文化的历史和发展演变,以及从最新的水产品家庭消费统计数据和具体的水产加工制品的消费变化来介绍日本最近的水产品消费动向.%Japan has a long history of fish-eating culture due to the geographical features, which is comprised of many islands surrounded by sea. Fish-eating culture has been handed down and accumulated from generation to generation in eating life, centering on fish, including the techniques of catching, handling and judging fish, way of processing and preserving fish. It has been changed and developed due to the effect of many factors such as history, economic, politics, geography, and climate. In spite of the decline in the annual catch and the growth of fishery imports, the per capita consumption of seafood is still about 60 kg in Japan. In recent years, livestock meat and dairy consumption increase year by year in Japan and aquatic products consumption has relatively declined because of more westernized lifestyle. However, half of animal protein still comes from the aquatic products. In contrast, with the rapid development of economy, Chinese people are paying more attention to healthy and high nutrition aquatic products. This paper introduces the history of Japanese fish-eating culture by the analysis of the latest aquatic product households consumption statistics data and the processed aquatic products consumption changes, to introduce Japanese recent seafood culture trend. We hope that it provide some reference for aquatic products processing industry and scientific researchers in China.

  4. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Horsewell, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil [1]. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is init...

  5. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    this is a barrier for their access to the market and it is necessary to develop techniques to protect the oil against oxidation. Emulsification of the oil has been put forward as a strategy for protection against oxidation, but whether that is beneficial seems to depend on the food matrix to which the...... bonds which causes the fish oil to be susceptible to oxidation. The shelf lives of fish oil enriched products are thus limited by fast oxidation rates of the fish oil which causes development of off flavours as well as degeneration of the beneficial health effects of the fish oil. At the present moment...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite from Salmon Fish Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nano-Hydroxyapatite (nHA was isolated from salmon bone by alkaline hydrolysis. The resulting nHA was characterized using several analytical tools, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, to determine the purity of the nHA sample. The removal of organic matter from the raw fish was confirmed by TGA. FT-IR confirmed the presence of a carbonated group and the similarities to synthetic Sigma HA. XRD revealed that the isolated nHA was amorphous. Microscopy demonstrated that the isolated nHA possessed a nanostructure with a size range of 6–37 nm. The obtained nHA interacted with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and was non-toxic. Increased mineralization was observed for nHA treated MSCs compared to the control group. These results suggest that nHA derived from salmon is a promising biomaterial in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  7. Characterization of catalytic efficiency parameters of brain cholinesterases in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Marcuschi, Marina; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature. PMID:24980148

  8. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Zebra Fish Ferroportin in Hek 293T Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Memarnejadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferroportin (Fpn, a regulator of iron homeostasis is a conserved membrane protein that exports iron across the enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes into the blood circulation. Fpn has also critical influence on survival of microorganisms whose growth is dependent upon iron, thus preparation of Fpn is needed to study the role of iron in immunity and pathogenesis of micoorganisms.Methods: To prepare and characterize a recombinant ferroportin, total RNA was extracted from Indian zebrafish duodenum, and used to synthesize cDNA by RT-PCR. PCR product was first cloned in Topo TA vector and then subcloned into the GFP expression vector pEGFP-N1. The final resulted plasmid (pEGFP-ZFpn was used for expression of Fpn-EGFP protein in Hek 293T cells.Results: The expression was confirmed by appearance of fluorescence in Hek 293 T cells. Recombinant Fpn was further characterized by submission of its predicted amino acid sequences to the TMHMM V2.0 prediction server (hidden Markov model, NetOGlyc 3.1 and NetNGlyc 3.1 servers. The obtained Fpn from indian zebrafish also contained eight transmembrane domains with N- and C-termini inside the cytoplasm and harboured 78 O-glycosylated amino acids.Conclusion: The recombinant Fpn from Indian zebra fish was successfully expressed in Hek 293 cell line. Although the discrepancy in two amino acids was observed in our produced Fpn and resulted in an additional O-glycosylation site, but had no effect on the topology of the protein compared to other Fpn described by other researchers. Therefore this construct can be used in future iron studies.

  9. Multibiomarker toxicity characterization of uranium mine drainages to the fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, M L; Antunes, S C; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F J M; Nunes, B

    2016-07-01

    The release of acidic effluents, naturally enriched in metals and radionuclides, is the main legacy of uranium mines. Generally, metals dissolved by these acidic effluents can cause significant alterations in exposed organisms, with distinct toxicological outcomes. In this study, 72 individuals of the freshwater fish species Carassius auratus were exposed in situ for different periods (8, 16, 24, and 48 h) to water from a pond (treatment pond (TP)) with a chemically treated effluent and a reference pond (PRP), in the vicinity of the Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Portugal). Comparing the water of the two ponds, the PRP pond was characterized by higher pH and oxygen values and lower conductivity and hardness values. Regarding total metal concentrations, among others, magnesium (56,000 μg/L), sodium (17,400 μg/L), zinc (86 μg/L), manganese (6340 μg/L), and uranium (1380 μg/L) concentrations in the TP pond were above the values obtained for the PRP pond. The values of manganese and uranium exceeded the values of quality criteria established for surface waters for cyprinids and for irrigation purposes. After exposure to pond water, significant differences were recorded for several biomarkers: (i) between ponds for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with higher activities for animals from the PRP and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities that were particularly enhanced in animals from the TP pond; (ii) between ponds and exposure periods for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, since organisms from PRP pond presented always higher values than those from the TP pond, and among these, organisms exposed for the longer period presented a further depression in LDH activity; and (iii) between exposure periods for erythrocyte micronucleus. GSTs and LDH were the most sensitive biomarkers within the timeframe of the in situ assay performed. Despite the alleged efficacy of the chemical treatment (evidenced by a significantly lower pH), some metals persisted in the treated

  10. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules;

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead...

  11. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically a...... alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved...

  12. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly...

  13. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish, and...... actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N=641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition was that...... integrating the campaign under family-oriented motive. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, avaliability in shops and meal preparations skills lost their influence in the post-campaigh survey ( effective N=523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect (mediated by...

  14. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna Nevárez; Leal, Luz O.; Myriam Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercur...

  15. Molecular characterization and genetic analysis of Gnrh2 and Gthβin different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Long; Huan Zhong; Shaojun Liu; Min Tao; Lin Chen; Jun Xiao; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin hormone (GTH) play crucial roles in regulating the gonadal development of the vertebrate. In this study, the Gnrh2, Fshβ and Lhβ cDNAs were cloned and characterized in red crucian carp, trip-loids and tetraploids, and their phylogenetic relations were comparatively analyzed. All the Gnrh2 cDNAs in different ploidy fishes encoded proteins of 86 amino acids, which consisted of a signal peptide, a GnRH2 decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a proteolytic cleavage site (Giy-Lys-Arg). The GnRH2 decapeptide and proteolytic cleavage site were absolutely con-sistent among the three ploidy fishes, but the differences in signal peptide and GAP between diploids and tetraploids were fewer than those between diploids and triploids. It was presumed that the red crucian carp was the original maternal parent of tetraploids, so they had closer relationship. In addition, the Fshβ and Lhβ cDNAs of these three fishes encoded proteins of 130 and 140 amino acids, respec-tively. Compared with the molecules of other teleosts, the cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites of Lhβ in these three fishes are fully conserved. However, most teleosts of Fshβ had 12 cysteine residues, while those of these three fishes were 13, and 12 of which might form six conserved disulfide bridges by utilizing the cleavage sites between the first and the second cysteine residues. Moreover, the lack of the second glycosylation site in Fshβ of these three fishes might influence the special structure and biological activities. On the other hand, the phylogenic tree analyses revealed that Gnrh2, Fshβ and Lhβ had similar phylogeny relationships among the cyprinids, which indicated that they were conserved in molecular structure and function during the evolution.

  16. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  17. Self-healing fish gelatin/sodium montmorillonite biohybrid coacervates: structural and rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazvini, Nader Taheri; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    Complex coacervation driven by associative electrostatic interactions was studied in mixtures of exfoliated sodium-montmorillonite (Na(+)-MMT) nanoplatelets and fish gelatin, at a specific mixing ratio and room temperature. Structural and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques. Independent of the technique used, the results consistently showed that there is an optimum pH value at which the coacervate phase shows the tightest structure with highest elasticity. The solid-like coacervates showed an obvious shear-thinning behavior and network fracture but immediately recovered back into their original elastic character upon removal of the shear strain. The nonlinear mechanical response characterized by single step stress relaxation experiments revealed the same trend for the yield stress and isochronal shear modulus of the coacervates as a function of pH with a maximum at pH 3.0 and lower values at 2.5 and 3.5 pHs, followed by a very sharp drop at pH 4.0. Finally, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data confirmed that at pHs lower than 4.0 the coacervate phases were dense and structured with a characteristic length scale (ξ(SAXS)) of ~7-9 nm. Comparing the ξ(SAXS) with rheological characteristic length (ξ(rheol)) estimated from low-frequency linear viscoelastic data and network theory, it was concluded that both the strength of the electrostatic interactions and the conformation of the gelatin chains before and during of the coacervation process are responsible for the structure and rigidity of the coacervates. PMID:22642874

  18. Differential expression and characterization analysis of a new gene with WD domains in fish oogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Jianjun(

    2001-01-01

    trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Cytokine, 1998. 10:555-563.[12]Shibata, N.. Yoshikuni, M., Nagahama, Y., Vitellogenin incorporation into oocytes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,in vitro: effects of hormones on denuded oocytes, Dev. Growth Diff., 1993, 35: 115-121.[13]Dong. J., Albertini, D. F., Nishimori, K. et al., Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis, Nature, 1996, 383: 531-535.[14]Yang, Z. A., Li, Q. H., Wang, Y. F. et al., Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp, Cell Res., 1999, 9:145-154.[15]Yang. S. T., Gui, J. F., A comparison of sperm proteins between males from gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp,Acta Zoologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 47: 79-84.[16]Gui, J. F., A unique study system: gynogenetic fish Carassias auratus gibelio, Science Foundation in China, 1996, 4: 44-46.[17]Gui. J. F., Retrospects and prospects of studies on the mechanism of natural gynogenesis in silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibellio), Bulletin of Natural National Foundation of China (in Chinese), 1997, 11:11-16.[18]Zhou. L., Wang. Y., Gui, J. F., Analysis of genetic heterogeneity among five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch based on detection of RAPD molecular markers, Cytogenet. Cell Genet., 2000, 88:133-129.[19]Zhou, L., Wang, Y., Gui, J. F., Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays, J. Mol. Evol., 2000, 51: 498-506.[20]Datta, P. K., Chytil, A., Gorska, A. E. et al., Identification of STRAP: a novel WD domain protein in transforming growth factor- β signaling. J. Biol. Chem.. 1998, 237:34671-34674.[21]Fan, L. C.. Yang, S. T., Gui, J. F., Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between

  19. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically...... associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric...

  20. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...... cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified by...... gas chromatography-olfactometry were 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, and (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, but despite their potency, none of the separated volatiles imparted a fishy or metallic odor. Two isomers, (E,Z,Z) and (E,E,Z) of 2...

  1. Characterization of reef fish populations within St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCCOS' Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA) is working closely with a number of divisions in the USVI DPNR (e.g., Divisions of Fish and Wildlife and...

  2. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix and St John, US Virgin Islands 2001-02-06 to 2010-10-29 (NODC Accession 0125236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish database is the result of a mutlifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize and monitor the...

  3. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix, US Virgin Islands 2010-10-18 to 2011-11-10 (NODC Accession 0125270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance, and size of both reef fishes and macro-invertebrates...

  4. Chemical and biological treatment of fish canning wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cristovão, Raquel; Botelho, Cidália; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

    2012-01-01

    he main environmental problems of fish canning industries are high water consumption and high organic matter, oil and grease and salt content in their wastewaters. This work aims to analyze the situation (water consumption, wastewater production, wastewater characterization, etc.) of different plants located north of Douro river, in Portugal, in order to propose various solutions to their problems. Thus, initially it was made an identification and implementation of prevent and control polluti...

  5. Characterization of derived natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, A. N. K. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is recognised as a biomaterial that is widely used for bone implant due to its chemical and structural similarity to the mineral components in human bone and enamel. The elements of HAp are primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous is 1.67 capable to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implant. Enormous amounts of by-product waste produced from fish factories generated an undesirable environmental impact. Thus, this study was conducted to obtain natural biological HAp from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales from fishery waste. Therefore, fish bones and scales can be as cheap source to produce biological HAp for medical applications. For this purpose, fish bones and scales of tilapia fish were boiled at 100°C to remove adhering meat and other impurities. Later, fish bones and scales were separated into several groups and subjected to different calcination temperatures of 800° C and 900° C for 3h respectively. Afterward, all calcined samples were crushed to form a fine powder. The XRD result revealed the presence of derived Hapfrom the samples powder and were identical with standard Hap. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder from different types of fish bones and scales. SEM results show porous structure appeared in calcined samples compared to raw samples. The findings are the promising alternative to produce calcium and phosphorus from fishery wastes that beneficial to medical applications.

  6. Characterization of Cryptocaryon irritans isolates from marine fishes in Mainland China by ITS ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Y; Zhu, X Q; Xie, M Q; Wu, X Y; Li, A X; Lin, R Q; Song, H Q

    2006-07-01

    Seven isolates of Cryptocaryon irritans from different host species and geographical locations in Mainland China were characterized by the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using two isolates of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis for comparative purposes. The rDNA region including the ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2, and flanking 18S and 28S sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the amplicons were sequenced directly. The ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 sequences were 129, 160, and 190 bp in length, respectively, for all seven C. irritans isolates, whereas the corresponding sequences for the two I. multifiliis isolates were 142, 153, and 194 bp, respectively. While sequence variation among the seven C. irritans isolates ranged from 0 to 1.6% in both the ITS-1 and ITS-2, and the two I. multifiliis isolates differed by 1.4% in the ITS-1 and 1.0% in the ITS-2; C. irritans differed from I. multifiliis by 57.1-60.9% in the ITS-1 and 79.4-83.0% in the ITS-2, indicating that ITS sequences provide reliable genetic markers for the identification and differentiation of the two species. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence pairwise-distance data using the neighbor-joining method inferred that the seven C. irritans isolates from Mainland China and two other isolates (T.A and Aus.C) from other countries clustered together to show monophyly, which could be readily distinguished from the other monophyletic group all from other regions. Therefore, ITS sequence data and phylogenetic analysis provided strong support that C. irritans isolates from Mainland China represent a single species. The definition of genetic markers in the ITS rDNA provide opportunities for studying the ecology and population genetic structures of the C. irritans from Mainland China and elsewhere and is also relevant to the diagnosis and control of fish diseases they cause. PMID:16523350

  7. Fish farming characterization of space in Basin River Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Assunção Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to know the spatial distribution of the fish culture, size, water sheet area, cultivated species and the estimated production of fish culture business, defined into Cuiabá river basin. The fish farming secondary data were provided by the Environment State Secretary and systematizated in terms of the spatial distribution using techniques like geoprocessing. Data showed that from 490 registered fish culture, 26.1% didn’t say the geographical coordinates. About 74.3% of the fish culture defined into are micro business, 16.6% are little size, 3.9% are medium size, 0.8% are big size and 4,4% didn’t say the area in the in the register. The basin represents 1,395 ha of water sheet area, with estimated production of 9,128.87 ton year-1. Várzea Grande has the major water sheet area (60.4%, followed by Cuiabá (12.7%, and Nossa Senhora do Livramento (10%, totalizing more than 83%, compared to other cities into the basin. Piaractus mesopotamicus is the favorite specie for the cultive (36.7% as first category, followed by other species like Colossoma macropomum (female + Piaractus mesopotamicus (male, 20.9%; Brycon microleps, second category (10%; tambaqui (allochthonous specie and other categories (12.3%. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans represents 2.5% and Salminus maxillosus, 0.4%. The other species, with 5.6% and 5.2% (NI, didn’t reported. Várzea Grande has the higher percentage in the estimative of fish production, with 53.9%, followed by Cuiabá, with 20.1%.

  8. Dietary α‐Linolenic Acid, Marine ω‐3 Fatty Acids, and Mortality in a Population With High Fish Consumption: Findings From the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sala‐Vila, Aleix; Guasch‐Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B.; Sánchez‐Tainta, Ana; Bulló, Mònica; Serra‐Mir, Mercè; López‐Sabater, Carmen; Sorlí, Jose V.; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Serra‐Majem, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of α‐linolenic acid (ALA), a plant‐derived ω‐3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ω‐3 fatty acids (long‐chain n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for diet...

  9. Dietary α‐Linolenic Acid, Marine ω‐3 Fatty Acids, and Mortality in a Population With High Fish Consumption: Findings From the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sala‐Vila, Aleix; Guasch‐Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B.; Sánchez‐Tainta, Ana; Bulló, Mònica; Serra‐Mir, Mercè; López‐Sabater, Carmen; Sorlí, Jose V.; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Serra‐Majem, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of α‐linolenic acid (ALA), a plant‐derived ω‐3 fatty acid. It is unclear whether ALA is beneficial in a background of high marine ω‐3 fatty acids (long‐chain n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) intake. In persons at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a country in which fish consumption is customarily high, we investigated whether meeting the International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids recommendation for die...

  10. Characterization of Branchial Na,K-ATPase from Three Freshwater Fish Species (Oreochromis niloticus, Cyprinus carpio, and Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Atli, Gülüzar; CANLI, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Branchial Na,K-ATPase activity was characterized in 3 freshwater fish species (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oreochromis niloticus, and Cyprinus carpio) with different ecological needs. Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations in the gills were also measured. The maximal Na,K-ATPase activity was observed at 100 mM Na+, 20-40 mM K+, 3-4 mM Mg2+, and 1 mM ouabain. The maximal velocity (Vmax) of Na,K-ATPase isolated from O. mykiss (1.07 µmol Pi/mg prot/h) was lower than that isolated from O. niloticus (7.25 µmol ...

  11. Characterization of ISR region and development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jose R; Hamman-Khalifa, Abdel M; Navas, José I; de la Herran, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the 16S-23S internal spacer region of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae and to develop a PCR assay for its identification and detection. All T. soleae strains tested displayed a single internal spacer region class, containing tRNA(I) (le) and tRNA(A) (la) genes; nevertheless, a considerable intraspecific heterogeneity was observed. However, this region proved to be useful for differentiation of T. soleae from related and non-related species. Species-specific primers were designed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the internal spacer region region, yielding a 1555-bp fragment. Detection limit was of 1 pg DNA per reaction (< 30 bacterial cells) when using pure cultures. The detection level in the presence of DNA from fish or other bacteria was lower; however, 10 pg were detected at a target/background ratio of 1 : 10(5) . The PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than agar cultivation for the detection of T. soleae from naturally diseased fish, offering a useful tool for diagnosis and for understanding the epidemiology of this pathogen. PMID:22092820

  12. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistant genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are still widely applied in animal husbandry to prevent diseases and used as feed additives to promote animal growth. This could result in antibiotic resistance to bacteria and antibiotic residues in animals. In this paper, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from four integrated fish farms in Zhongshan, South China were tested for antibiotic resistance, tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and class 1 integrons. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were carried out to test antibiotic susceptibility and resistance genes, respectively. Relatively high antibiotic resistance frequencies were found, especially for ampicillin (80%), tetracycline (52%), and trimethoprim (50%). Out of 203 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 98.5% were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was found highest in animal manures with a MAR index of 0.56. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(C)) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul2) were detected in more than 50% of the isolates. The intI1 gene was found in 170 isolates (83.7%). Both classic and non-classic class 1 integrons were found. Four genes, aadA5, aadA22, dfr2, and dfrA17, were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in China and the first time that gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 has been detected in such fish farms. Results of this study indicated that fish farms may be a reservoir of highly diverse and abundant antibiotic resistant genes and gene cassettes. Integrons may play a key role in multiple antibiotic resistances posing potential health risks to the general public and aquaculture.

  13. Oldest isotopically characterized fish otoliths provide insight to Jurassic continental climate of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William P.

    1999-03-01

    Large, shallow, epeiric seas and adjacent lagoons such as those described herein likely played a significant role in moderating Jurassic coastal and continental climate. Jurassic (Bathonian) ocean surface temperatures in Scotland have been calculated from δ18O(CaCO3) values of a suite of the oldest well-preserved fish otoliths analyzed to date. Otolith δ18O values range from -4.7‰ to -1.9‰ (Vienna Peedee belemnite, VPDB), while δ13C(CaCO3) values vary from -5.4‰ to +1.5‰ (VPDB), representing the oldest stable isotopic record of paleodiet, paleoecology, and fish migration to date. Using a global ocean δ18O(H2O) value of -1.0‰ (Vienna standard mean ocean water, VSMOW) for an ice-free Jurassic, fish species that migrated from estuarine to open marine water record time-averaged temperatures of 23 °C. Estuarine fish, assuming a similar temperature, record variation in δ18O(H2O) values from -3.7‰ to -2.0‰ (VSMOW). That significant mixing of fresh water and seawater occurred in the Jurassic in Scotland is in general agreement with data presented by others (molluscan fauna, lithostratigraphy, paleogeography, and paleocirculation models). The δ18O values and temperatures derived in this study correspond to the meteorologic and hydrologic parameters of a mid-latitude maritime climate with low seasonality, a mean temperature of 23 °C, and abundant precipitation and humidity. The δ18O(H2O) values calculated from estuarine fish indicate that rainfall must have a δ18O(H2O) value lower than -3.7‰ (VSMOW). Values of δ18O and δ13C suggest an environment hydrologically similar to that observed in the Everglades of south Florida or the estuaries of south Texas, both notable fish nurseries today. However, sea-surface temperatures were lower than those of modern Florida or Texas as evidenced by reduced evaporative enrichment of δ18O(H2O) values.

  14. Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Present in Smoked Fish from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M.N. Palm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in smoked Scomba japonicus sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation, smoked fish comes into contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of PAH generation. Levels of 20 individual PAHs including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(epyrene, benzo(ghiperylene, benzo(jfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cdpyrene, dibenzo(ahanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1, 2, 3-cdpyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 34 smoked fish samples using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(apyrene, which is one of the very few PAHs for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices inaddition to other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogens, were detected in most samples.

  15. Characterization of microbiota composition and presence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in carriage water of ornamental fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Gerzova

    Full Text Available International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G, sul2 and aadA were present in 1-2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%, Bacteroidetes (29.5%, Firmicutes (17.8%, Actinobacteria (2.1% and Fusobacteria (1.6%. Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A, tet(B tet(G, cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes.

  16. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  17. Characterization and production and consumption processes of N2O emitted from temperate agricultural soils determined via isotopomer ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Nishimura, Sei-Ichi; Akiyama, Hiroko; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Koba, Keisuke; Sudo, Shigeto; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Makabe, Akiko; Tobari, Yoshifumi; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-06-01

    Isotopomer ratios of N2O (bulk nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, δ15Nbulk and δ18O, and intramolecular 15N site preference, SP) are useful parameters that characterize sources of this greenhouse gas and also provide insight into production and consumption mechanisms. We measured isotopomer ratios of N2O emitted from typical Japanese agricultural soils (Fluvisols and Andisols) planted with rice, wheat, soybean, and vegetables, and treated with synthetic (urea or ammonium) and organic (poultry manure) fertilizers. The results were analyzed using a previously reported isotopomeric N2O signature produced by nitrifying/denitrifying bacteria and a characteristic relationship between δ15Nbulk and SP during N2O reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Relative contributions from nitrification (hydroxylamine oxidation) and denitrification (nitrite reduction) to gross N2O production deduced from the analysis depended on soil type and fertilizer. The contribution from nitrification was relatively high (40%-70%) in Andisols amended with synthetic ammonium fertilizer, while denitrification was dominant (50%-90%) in the same soils amended with poultry manure during the period when N2O production occurred in the surface layer. This information on production processes is in accordance with that obtained from flux/concentration analysis of N2O and soil inorganic nitrogen. However, isotopomer analysis further revealed that partial reduction of N2O was pronounced in high-bulk density, alluvial soil (Fluvisol) compared to low-bulk density, volcanic ash soil (Andisol), and that the observed difference in N2O flux between normal and pelleted manure could have resulted from a similar mechanism with different rates of gross production and gross consumption. The isotopomeric analysis is based on data from pure culture bacteria and would be improved by further studies on in situ biological processes in soils including those by fungi. When flux/concentration-weighted average isotopomer

  18. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  19. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  20. Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent.

  1. Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of Thai fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-03-18

    Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor≥6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors≥5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce. PMID:25730550

  2. Genome characterization of a novel vibriophage VpKK5 (Siphoviridae) specific to fish pathogenic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Tamrin M; Sano, Motohiko; Ransangan, Julian

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has long been known pathogenic to shrimp but only recently it is also reported pathogenic to tropical cultured marine finfish. Traditionally, bacterial diseases in aquaculture are often treated using synthetic antibiotics but concern due to side effects of these chemicals is elevating hence, new control strategies which are both environmental and consumer friendly, are urgently needed. One promising control strategy is the bacteriophage therapy. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a novel vibriophage (VpKK5), belonging to the family Siphoviridae that was specific and capable of complete lysing the fish pathogenic strain of V. parahaemolyticus. The VpKK5 exhibited short eclipse and latent periods of 24 and 36 min, respectively, but with a large burst size of 180 pfu/cell. The genome analysis revealed that the VpKK5 is a novel bacteriophage with the estimated genome size of 56,637 bp and has 53.1% G + C content. The vibriophage has about 80 predicted open reading frames consisted of 37 complete coding sequences which did not match to any protein databases. The analysis also found no lysogeny and virulence genes in the genome of VpKK5. With such genome features, we suspected the vibriophage is novel and could be explored for phage therapy against fish pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus in the near future. PMID:26960780

  3. Characterization of structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from surimi processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongle; Li, Xianghong; Chen, Zhijun; Yu, Jian; Wang, Faxiang; Wang, Jianhui

    2014-05-15

    Structural and functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) from surimi processing by-products, prepared by Protamex and Alcalase, were evaluated. As the DH increased, the zeta potentials of the hydrolysates increased (p>0.05). The surface hydrophobicity of the hydrolysates was significantly affected by DH (phydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, contained more large protein molecules than did the others. Hydrolysis by both enzymes increased solubility to more than 65% over a wide pH range (pH 2-10). The interfacial activities of hydrolysates decreased with increasing DH (phydrolysate with DH 10%, prepared by Protamex, exhibited the best interfacial properties among all of the samples. Thermal properties were also affected by the hydrolysis. The results reveal that structures and functionalities of the hydrolysates were determined both by DH and enzyme type employed. PMID:24423557

  4. In Situ Polymerization and Characterization of Highly Conducting Polypyrrole Fish Scales for High-Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhal, Ninad B.; Patil, Narayan D.; Puri, Vijaya R.

    2015-12-01

    Polypyrrole (Ppy) thin films on alumina were synthesized by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method at 300 K with equal monomer-to-oxidant ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Ppy. A thickness-dependent change from cauliflower to fish-scale morphology was observed. Microwave properties such as transmission, reflection, shielding effectiveness, permittivity, and microwave conductivity are reported in the frequency range from 8 GHz to 12 GHz. The direct-current (DC) conductivity varied from 9.45 × 10-3 S/cm to 17.29 × 10-3 S/cm, whereas the microwave conductivity varied from 63.07 S/cm to 349.08 S/cm. The shielding effectiveness varied between 6.18 dB and 10.39 dB.

  5. Design and characterization of self-assembled fish sarcoplasmic protein-alginate nanocomplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm; Wattjes, Jasper;

    2015-01-01

    Macrostructures based on natural polymers are subject to large attention, as the application range is wide within the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study we present nanocomplexes (NCXs) made from electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged alginate and positively charged...... caused a decreased viability in HeLa and U2OS cell lines. The simple processing procedure and the high stability of the NCXs, makes them excellent candidates for use in the food and pharmaceutical industry. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP), prepared by bulk mixing. A concentration screening revealed that there was a range of alginate and FSP concentrations where stable NCXs with similar properties were formed, rather than two exact concentrations. The size of the NCXs was 293 +/- 3 nm, and the zeta...

  6. Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Melanocortin (MC) systems are composed of MC peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), several molecular forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) and MC receptors (MCRs). Here we demonstrated that the cartilaginous fish, Dasyatis akajei (stingray) expresses five subtypes of MCR genes-mc1r to mc5r-as in the case of teleost and tetrapod species. This is the first evidence showing the presence of the full repertoire of melanocortin receptors in a single of cartilaginous fish. Expression of respective stingray mcr cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that Des-acetyl-α-MSH exhibited cAMP-producing activity indistinguishable to ACTH(1-24) on MC1R and MC2R, while the activity of Des-acetyl-α-MSH on MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were similar to or slightly greater than that of ACTH(1-24). Notably, in contrast to the other vertebrates, MC2R did not require coexpression with a melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein 1 (mrap1) cDNA for functional expression. One of the roles of MC system resides in regulation of the pituitary-interrenal (PI) axis-a homologue of tetrapod pituitary-adrenal axis. In stingray, interrenal tissues were shown to express mc2r and mc5r as major MCR genes. These results established the presence of functional PI axis in stingray at the level of receptor molecule. While MC2R participates in adrenal functions together with MRAP1 in tetrapod species, the fact that sensitivity of MC5R to Des-acetyl-α-MSH and ACTH(1-24) were two order of magnitude higher than MC2R without coexpression with MRAP1 suggested that MC5R could play a more important role than MC2R to transmit signals conveyed by ACTH and MSHs if MRAP1 is really absent in the stingray. PMID:27021018

  7. Structural and functional characterization of neuromedin S in the teleost fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Huang, Hongxin; Chen, Xinggui; Deng, Siping; Zhu, Chunhua; Huang, Hai; Li, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS) has been demonstrated to have important roles in many vertebrate physiological processes. However, the function of NMS in teleost fishes remains unclear. We explored the physiological roles of the NMS gene in the zebrafish model. An NMS cDNA was cloned from zebrafish brain tissue, and the full-length cDNA sequence was 521 bp in length and encoded a precursor of 110 amino acid residues. Interestingly, fish prepro-NMS is predicted to generate a short 34-residue peptide, designated as NMS-related peptide (NMSRP). Zebrafish prepro-NMS does not contain the NMS peptide which is found in the NMS precursors of mammals, and just retains the MNSRP peptide. A multiple-species sequence alignment showed that NMSRPs are conserved among the other sampled vertebrates. Zebrafish NMS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR revealing a tissue-specific distribution with high levels of expression in the brain, spleen, ovary, pituitary, and muscle. Furthermore, the locations of NMS-expressing cells in the zebrafish brain were detected by in situ hybridization in the parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa), the ventral zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (Hv), and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH). The levels of NMS mRNA in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after three days of food deprivation. Administration of zebrafish NMSRP by intraperitoneal injection significantly promoted the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin, suggesting an orexigenic role for NMSRP in zebrafish. The present study offers a new understanding of the NMS gene in vertebrates and increases our knowledge of the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding. PMID:26415865

  8. Comparative concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, /sup 239,240/Pu, and 241Am in tissues of fish from the Marshall Islands and calculated dose commitments from their consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body burdens of 90Sr, 137Cs, and the transuranics in bottom-feeding fish from Marshall Island atolls are derived, in part, from the quantities of the radionuclides irreversibly fixed to ingested carbonate material. Radionuclide concentration factors for different species of fish are characterized by relating tissue concentrations to those in filtered seawater. For bottom-feeding fish, the values are lower at the lesser contaminated atolls than those values determined for the same species at the more contaminated atolls. These fish have the ability to lower their gut pH during feeding. When this occurs, there is a dissolution of a fraction of the ingested calcium carbonate containing radionuclides that were fixed or fused internally to the material during nuclear testing. Fractions of the radionuclides released during solution in carbonate matrix are available for passage across the gut wall. Amounts released to solution in the gut are proportional to the levels of contamination at the different atolls. Concentration factors for higher trophic level species, which do not rely on sediments or coral for their source of food, show no such trends between differentially contaminated atolls. A two-source model used to compute the internal concentrations is described. Americium-241 seems to be more biologically available than /sup 239,240/Pu to higher trophic level species from the lagoons, whereas at lower trophic levels the opposite seems to be the case. Cesium-137 is now the largest contributor of the small radiological dose to man from the marine fish pathway, with the transuranics contributing from 2 to 30% of the total dose. 22 references, 1 figure, 19 tables

  9. Caracterización bioquímica del consumo de reservas vitelinas en peces teleósteos de ontogenia indirecta (Cemical caracterization of vitelline reserves consumption in teleost fish of indirect ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavala, Iram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo es un ejercicio de revisión bibliográfica en el cual se describen los principales componentes bioquímicos del vitelo y glóbulo de aceite, su importancia, metabolismo, patrón de consumo y la influencia del contenido de las reservas vitelinas (saco de vitelo y glóbulo de aceite sobre el desarrollo embrionario y la supervivencia larval de peces teleósteos de ontogenia indirecta.SummaryThis work is a bibliography review exercise in which are described the major biochemical’s compounds of yolk sac and oil droplet, his importance, metabolism, consumption pattern and the influence of the vitelline reserves content (yolk sac and oil droplet on embryonic development and larval survival in teleost fishes of indirect ontogeny.

  10. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...... that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even......-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that there are great differences in fuel...

  11. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Histone-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide Teleostin from the Marine Teleost Fishes, Tachysurus jella and Cynoglossus semifasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithanya, E R; Philip, Rosamma; Sathyan, Naveen; Anil Kumar, P R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are host defense peptides that are well conserved throughout the course of evolution. Histones are classical DNA-binding proteins, rich in cationic amino acids, and recently appreciated as precursors for various histone-derived AMPs. The present study deals with identification of the potential antimicrobial peptide sequence of teleostin from the histone H2A of marine teleost fishes, Cynoglossus semifasciatus and Tachysurus jella. A 245 bp amplicon coding for 81 amino acids was obtained from the cDNA transcripts of these fishes. The first 52 amino acids from the N terminal of the peptide were identical to previously characterized histone-derived antimicrobial peptides. Molecular and physicochemical characterizations of the sequence were found to be in agreement with previously reported histone H2A-derived AMPs, suggesting the possible role of histone H2A in innate defense mechanism in fishes. PMID:27335674

  12. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Đurica Kalember; Tatjana Jelen

    1998-01-01

    Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing), comes salting, after which the salted fish can...

  13. Fish consumption and risk of contamination by mercury – Considerations on the definition of edible parts based on the case study of European sea bass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We estimated the risk to humans trough ingestion of sea bass contaminated with Hg. ► Total and organic Hg in muscle exceeded weekly and daily safety limits. ► There’s risk through ingestion although Hg was below the maximum limit set by EU. ► The ingestion of European sea bass contaminated with Hg poses risk to human health. ► Other organs rather than muscle should be considered as edible tissue. - Abstract: In the present study, the risk to humans by consuming European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), captured at three sites along a Hg contamination gradient, was evaluated by comparing muscle and kidney total Hg (T-Hg) levels with the European regulations for marketed fish. Moreover, T-Hg and organic Hg (O-Hg) levels in muscle were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and the Reference Dose (RfD). Although T-Hg levels in muscle were below the European value allowable for marketed fish, kidney’s levels were higher than the set value, stressing the importance of redefining the concept of edible tissue and which tissues should be considered. Mercury weekly ingestion in the contaminated areas was higher than the PTWI, and O-Hg daily ingestion rates were higher than the RfD in all sampling sites. Thus, populations consuming sea bass from the contaminated sites may be at risk, with particular relevance for children and pregnant women.

  14. Danish seine - An environmental friendly fishing method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Eggers, Florian; Frandsen, Rikke;

    the total landings where the seine fleet and catches are decreasing. The Danish seine is a specific type of encircling net to catch demersal fish. It is characterized by moderate fuel consumption and no use of heavy weights or doors, probably resulting in a relatively gentle bottom-contact and low...... economically non-valuable species will be regarded Estimation of potential interactions of the gear with the sea bottom Assessment of survival chance of discarded animals Observation of fish behavior during capture process Combination of all single parts to provide an overall picture of effects of the Danish...... seine fishery on the marine environment This study may contribute to increase understanding the catching process in the seine fishery and the gears interaction with seabed during the different stages of the fishing process. The outcome of such studies will be highly relevant in future discussions on the...

  15. Methyl mercury in nail clippings in relation to fish consumption analysis with gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a first orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Favaro, Paulo; Bode, Peter; Ritsema, Rob

    2012-08-15

    For the identification of human exposure to one of the most toxic compounds, which is methyl mercury (MeHg(+)), fingernail clippings were selected as the matrix of interest. Within this pilot study, six samples from different origins and from people with different food consumption patterns were chosen. Species-analysis of MeHg(+) was performed according to the following procedure: dissolution of the sample material in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), derivatisation of MeHg(+) with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)), extraction into iso-octane and measurement with gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) for the quantification MeHg(+). PMID:22841050

  16. Induction and characterization of a lysogenic bacteriophage of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from marine fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoai, T D; Yoshida, T

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the presence of prophages in Lactococcus garvieae isolated from several marine fish species in Japan. Representative strains of 16 bacterial genotypes (S1-S16) selected from more than 400 L. garvieae isolates were used to induce lysogenic bacteriophages. These strains were treated with 500 ng mL(-1) freshly prepared mitomycin C. A cross-spotting assay was performed to validate the lysogenic and indicator strains. The lysogenic strains were selected for isolation and concentration of the phages. Phage DNA was digested with EcoRI for biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect integrated prophage DNA. Of the 16 representative bacterial genotypes, 12 strains integrated prophages as indicated by the PCR assay, and 10 phages were detected and isolated using two indicator bacterial strains. Analysis of genomic DNA showed that these phages were homologous and named as PLgT-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the morphology of PLgT-1 was consistent with the virus family Siphoviridae. PCR analysis of the prophage DNA revealed that all of the S1 genotype strains were lysogenic (30/30), but none of the S16 genotype strains were lysogenic (0/30). This is the first study to investigate lysogenic bacteriophages from L. garvieae. PMID:26471724

  17. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen of higher thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Adhikari, Basudam; Dhara, Santanu

    2010-05-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein found in animal body and widely used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. However, its applicability is severely limited due to high cost. Fish processing waste, which otherwise cause serious environmental pollution, is a promising cost effective collagen source. In the present study, collagen was isolated from scales of Labeo rohita (Rohu) and Catla catla (Catla). It is first time that these species are used as sources of collagen. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed maximum demineralization achieved after 48h of EDTA treatment of intact scale. The isolated protein was confirmed as collagen by different physico-chemical techniques like FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and CD. Further amino acid analysis corroborates isolation of type I collagen. A major characteristic of obtained collagen was found to have denaturation temperature (T(d)) of 36.5 degrees C, which is promising as an advantage for biomedical application due to closeness in T(d) to mammalian collagen. PMID:20116238

  18. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders; S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Ton)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) co

  19. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  20. Assessment of committed effective dose to human beings due to consumption of fishes collected from Pulicat Lagoon, south east of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity concentration of 210Po and 210Pb were determined in the edible muscle tissues of 20 fish species collected from Pulicat Lagoon, south east of India. The concentrations were found to vary between 38.3 Bq.kg- 109.3 Bq.kg- and 0.72 Bq.kg- - 2.7 Bq.kg- for (210)Po and (210)Pb respectively. These variations in the (210)Po and (210)Pb content in different species were probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. Appropriate conversion factors were used to derive the committed effective dose for human consumers, which were found to be 73.3 - 209.1 μSv.yr-1 and 2.2 - 19.3 μSv.yr-1 for 210Po and 210Pb respectively. (author)

  1. A study on Zinc, Nickel, and Vanadium in fish muscle of Alosa caspia and Sander lucioperca and food risk assessment of its consumption in the southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sadeghi Bajgiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In recent years, anthropogenic and natural activities have caused high levels of metal contamination into the aquatic ecosystem. These pollutants can accumulate in the food chain. The present study examined the amount of metals such as nickel, zinc, and vanadium in the muscle tissue of Sander and Alosa because of their importance in the southeast of the Caspian Sea.             Method and materials:  After bioassay, the samples of Sander and Alosa were prepared through acid digestion method and the amount of metals was measured using atomic absorption device (Scientific Equipment GBS. Results:  Statistical tests showed that there was no significant difference between the amount of zinc in two species of the Sander and Alosa (p>0.05 while the amount of nickel and vanadium in Alosa was significantly higher than Sander (P> 0.05. Statistical analysis of differences in the accumulation of metals in Sander was: Zn>Ni ~ V and of Alosa was Zn>Ni ~ V. There was a correlation between nickel and vanadium of Sander and between zinc and vanadium of Alosa (p>0.05. The amount of nickel metal in both species and vanadium in Alosa were higher than the WHO guideline. The maximum and minimum THQ for Alosa were vanadium (0.059 and zinc (0.017 respectively. Whereas, for Sander, these values were zinc (0.016 and vanadium (0.004 respectively.  In general, the TQM measured in this study was <1, indicating no food risk in present consumption rate (21 g/day of these fish. Conclusion:  Food risk assessment of case study species indicates that the consumption of Sander and Alosa with the current consumption rate causes no danger to consumers from the viewpoint of zinc, nickle, and vanadium.

  2. Biochemical and microbial characterization of Ngari and Hentaak - traditional fermented fish products of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Bejjanki, Sandeep K; Roy, Deepayan; Shitole, Snehal; Saha, Apurba; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2015-12-01

    Ngari and hentaak are the two most preferred traditional salt-free fermented fish products of North-Eastern (NE) states of India. Chemical and microbial composition, antioxidative potential, fatty acid profile and electrophoretic pattern of protein in ngari and hentaak were studied. pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) of the products justified their stability at ambient temperature. Both ngari and hentaak showed higher contents of calcium (362.79 ± 26.89, 472.11 ± 62.7); sodium (199.66 ± 24.92, 94.0 ± 12.78); potassium (58.20 ± 7.36, 75.74 ± 6.62) and magnesium (16.056 ± 3.89, 21.125 ± 3.78) respectively. Iron, copper and zinc were found in lesser amount. DPPH (·) radical scavenging activity was close to 87 % in both the products and the ferric chloride reducing power assay was dose dependent in both the products. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were found in ngari; whereas, only omega-3 fatty acids were observed in hentaak. Linoleic acid (11.68 %) and arachidonic acid (0.65 %) were the n-6 PUFA in ngari; while, in hentaak, it was only arachidonic acid (8.54 %). Apart from essential fatty acids, essential amino acids were also found in considerable quantity in both the products. Micrococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. were found to be the dominant bacterial genus in both the products; while Ngari also had lactic acid bacteria group. The nutritional properties afforded by these products justify their preference by the population. PMID:26604405

  3. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  4. Food Characterization of the Spotted Pimelodid Fish Pimelodus maculatus from a Polluted Urban River in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    David Kuczynski; Juan Carlos Musa; Carla Lorraine Mejias; María Florencia D’Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    On the present study, the nourishment and the digestive system of a population of the spotted pimelodid Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 from a polluted urban river in Argentina were analyzed (Reconquista River, Buenos Aires province). The specimens are characterized by having benthic habits and an omnivore diet. In their intestinal content, a diversity of components was identified. Such components were grouped into ten alimentary items, with dietary variations according to body size while t...

  5. Pollution prevention and wastewater treatment in fish canning industries of Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristovão, Raquel; Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui

    2012-01-01

    The main environmental problems of fish canning industries are high water consumption and high organic matter, oil and grease and salt content in their wastewaters. This work aims to analyze the situation (water consumption, wastewater production, wastewater characterization, etc.) of different plants located north of Douro river, in Portugal, in order to propose various solutions to their problems. Thus, initially it was made an identification and implementation of prevent and control pollut...

  6. Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiphak, Sara

    This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

  7. Health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via fish consumption in Haimen bay (China), downstream of an e-waste recycling site (Guiyu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingchun; Zheng, Gene Jin-Shu; Wong, Ming-Hung; Liang, Hong; Li, Yuelin; Wu, Yinglin; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-05-01

    Guiyu, China has been one of the largest e-waste recycling sites of the world for more than 20 years. Abundant data show that local dwellers there suffered from severe health risks from e-waste contaminants. In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as candidates to test the contamination levels and their possible adverse effects on residents in Haimen Bay, the estuary of Lian River (less than 30km from Guiyu), which has been totally neglected. The concentrations of 16PAHs were determined in collected marine fish with a median ΣPAH concentration of 1478ng/g (wet weight), and the contamination may be mainly influenced by Lian River runoff, specifically from Guiyu. The lifetime excess cancer risk for local dwellers was much higher than the serious risk level (10(-4)). More seriously, outflows of PAHs from the e-waste recycling site (Guiyu) seemed to exert health risks of a much larger scale of population downstream. PMID:26897061

  8. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: Influence of contaminated fish consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels

  9. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: Influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liao, P.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Su, H.J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.L. [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 34 Chung Chie Rd. Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiulin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels.

  10. Rat-atouille: A Mixed Method Study to Characterize Rodent Hunting and Consumption in the Context of Lassa Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwitt, Jesse; Kelly, Ann H; Ansumana, Rashid; Agbla, Schadrac; Sahr, Foday; Saez, Almudena Mari; Borchert, Matthias; Kock, Richard; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic hemorrhagic illness predominant in areas across Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and southern Mali. The reservoir of Lassa virus is the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), a highly commensal species in West Africa. Primary transmission to humans occurs through direct or indirect contact with rodent body fluids such as urine, feces, saliva, or blood. Our research draws together qualitative and quantitative methods to provide a fuller and more nuanced perspective on these varied points of human-animal contact. In this article, we focus on the hunting, preparation, and consumption of rodents as possible routes of exposure in Bo, Sierra Leone. We found that the consumption of rodents, including the reservoir species, is widespread and does not neatly tally against generational or gender lines. Further, we found that the reasons for rodent consumption are multifactorial, including taste preferences, food security, and opportunistic behavior. We argue that on certain topics, such as rodent consumption, establishing trust with communities, and using qualitative research methods, is key to investigate sensitive issues and situate them in their wider context. To conclude, we recommend ways to refine sensitization campaigns to account for these socio-cultural contexts. PMID:26895631

  11. Mercury levels assessment in hair of riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River, Pará State, Amazon, Brazil: fish consumption as a possible route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faial, Kleber; Deus, Ricardo; Deus, Simonny; Neves, Ramiro; Jesus, Iracina; Santos, Elisabeth; Alves, Cláudio Nahum; Brasil, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The study present evaluated the levels of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in hair samples of people from Barreiras community, riverside inhabitants of the Tapajós River (Pará, Brazil), an area impacted by clandestine gold mining, as well as we analyzed the levels of Hg and Se (selenium) in nine fish species (carnivores and non-carnivorous) from the Tapajós River, which stand out as the main species consumed by riverside inhabitants, to evaluate a relationship between frequency of fish consumption and Hg concentration, and also to evaluate possible mechanisms of fish protection (or non-protection) to Hg exposure by Se. Furthermore we analyze the water quality to evaluate the environmental trophic state, fact responsible by creating conditions that can potentiate the effects of toxic mercury. Concentrations of Hg and MeHg were analyzed in hair samples of 141 volunteers in different age band. Of those, 84.40% of samples present values above the threshold for biological tolerance, which is 6.00μgg(-1) of total Hg in hair. Total Hg, in men there was a variation of 2.07-24.93μgg(-1), while for women the variation was 4.84-27.02μgg(-1). Consequently, the level of MeHg in men presented a variation of 1.49-19.57μgg(-1), with an average of 11.68μgg(-1), while with women the variation was from 3.73 to 22.35μgg(-1), with an average of 10.38μgg(-1). In fish species, Hg concentrations in carnivorous species had an average of 0.66μgg(-1), higher than that permitted by current legislation, ranging from 0.30 to 0.98μgg(-1), while the non-carnivorous species have values below the recommended by the legislation averaging 0.09μgg(-1), ranging between 0.02 and 0.44μgg(-1). For Se in fish, show that among carnivores, the contents of Se ranged between 0.18 and 0.54μgg(-1) with a mean of 0.34μgg(-1), while for non-carnivores these values were of the order of 0.16-0.56μgg(-1), with an average of 0.32μgg(-1). In surface water quality variables at the sampling points

  12. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  13. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  14. Characterizing the trophic niches of stocked and resident cyprinid fishes: consistency in partitioning over time, space and body sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Tea; Britton, J Robert

    2016-07-01

    Hatchery-reared fish are commonly stocked into freshwaters to enhance recreational angling. As these fishes are often of high trophic position and attain relatively large sizes, they potentially interact with functionally similar resident fishes and modify food-web structure. Hatchery-reared barbel Barbus barbus are frequently stocked to enhance riverine cyprinid fish communities in Europe; these fish can survive for over 20 years and exceed 8 kg. Here, their trophic consequences for resident fish communities were tested using cohabitation studies, mainly involving chub Squalius cephalus, a similarly large-bodied, omnivorous and long-lived species. These studies were completed over three spatial scales: pond mesocosms, two streams and three lowland rivers, and used stable isotope analysis. Experiments in mesocosms over 100 days revealed rapid formation of dietary specializations and discrete trophic niches in juvenile B. barbus and S. cephalus. This niche partitioning between the species was also apparent in the streams over 2 years. In the lowland rivers, where fish were mature individuals within established populations, this pattern was also generally apparent in fishes of much larger body sizes. Thus, the stocking of these hatchery-reared fish only incurred minor consequences for the trophic ecology of resident fish, with strong patterns of trophic niche partitioning and diet specialization. Application of these results to decision-making frameworks should enable managers to make objective decisions on whether cyprinid fish should be stocked into lowland rivers according to ecological risk. PMID:27547336

  15. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Ching-Chang; Lin Wu-Ting; Liao Po-Chi; Su Huey-Jen [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health/Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic substances, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan); Chen Hsiu-Lin [Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Many reports have suggested that PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) contribute to immune deficiency, liver damage, human carcinogenesis, and neuromotor maturation in children. Therefore, beginning in 1999, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey to determine serum levels of PCDD/Fs in the general populations living around 19 incinerators in Taiwan. Relatively high average serum PCDD/F levels were unexpectedly found in Tainan city, a less industrialized area in southwestern Taiwan, than in other urban areas. We therefore reviewed the usage history of the land and found that a factory situated between Hsien-Gong Li and Lu-Erh Li, two administrative units of Tainan city, had been manufacturing pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1967 and 1982. PCDD/Fs are formed as byproducts in the PCP manufacturing process. Exposure to PCP and its derivatives via the food chain is the most significant intake route of PCDD/Fs in consumers in the European Union (EU). In Japan, in addition to combustion processes, PCP and chlornitrofen (CNP) have also been identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs in Tokyo Bay7. A preliminary investigation showed that the soil in the PCP factory and sediments in the sea reservoir (13 hectares) near the deserted factory were seriously contaminated with PCDD/Fs (260-184,000 and 20-6220 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively), levels higher than those in other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the PCDD/F levels of fish meat in the sea reservoir and the serum in inhabitants living in the vicinity of the closed PCP plant and other nearby areas. The data from human and other biota samples might clarify the transmission pathway of the PCDD/F contaminants from the PCP factory to local residents, provide information about the exposure status of those living in the vicinity of the deserted PCP factory, and also lead to useful suggestions for controlling PCDD/F accumulation in those living near such

  16. Environmental characterization of the reproductive season of migratory fish of the Sinú river (Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kerguelén-Durango

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize some abiotic factors during the reproductive season of migratory fish (bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae, dorada Brycon sinuensis, bagre blanco Sorubim cuspicaudus and barbul Pimelodus blochii in the Sinú River. Materials and methods. From April to October, 2008, in Carrizola (Tierralta, 36.31 km from the Urrá hydroelectric plant factors such as flow=Qriver, daily flow difference =ΔQriver, velocity=Vriver, temperature=Triver, electrical conductivity=CE, total dissolved solids=STD, turbidity=Turb, cloudiness=Nub, rainfall=Pluv and solar brightness=Bs were measured daily three times/day (07:00 h, 12:00 h, 17:00 h. Also, on the same schedule, ichthyoplankton was collected as an indicator of reproductive activity, assessed by reproductive frequency (Fr=number of days with presence of ichthyoplankton/number of days in the period evaluated X 100 and larval density (Dl=larval/m3. Results. The daily values of Qriver ranged between 278.7 and 838.5 m3/s, ΔQriver between 0.0 and 100.7 m3/s, Vriver between 1.40 and 1.53 m/s, Pluv between 0.0 and 88.2 mm, Triver between 27.0 and 28.7°C, STD between 73.0 and 302.3 mg/L, Turb between 9.7 and 679.7 NTU, CE between 81.0 and 361.7 mS/cm, Bs between 0.0 and 11.2 hours, Nub between 2.0 and 7.3 octaves. The Fr was 30.4%, with April (40.0% and May (74.2% as the higher activity reproductive months, while the Dl in the season was 4.9 larvae/m3, with the larvae group other species (2.9 larvae/m3 and bocachico (1.8 larvae/m3 as the most abundant. Conclusions. Most reproductive activity was recorded early in the season (April and May and parameters such as Qriver, Triver, Vriver, Pluv, STD and Nub may be considered final factors associated with migratory fish reproduction.

  17. Design and fabrication of micro-hotplates made on a polyimide foil: electrothermal simulation and characterization to achieve power consumption in the low mW range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of ultra-low power micro-hotplates on a polyimide (PI) substrate supported by thermal simulations and characterization is presented. By establishing a method for the thermal simulation of very small scale heating elements, the goal of this study was to decrease the power consumption of PI micro-hotplates to a few milliwatts to make them suitable for very low power applications. To this end, the mean heat transfer coefficients in air of the devices were extracted by finite element analysis combined with very precise thermographic measurements. A simulation model was implemented for these hotplates to investigate both the influence of their downscaling and the bulk micromachining of the polyimide substrate to lower their power consumptions. Simulations were in very good agreement with the experimental results. The main parameters influencing significantly the power consumption at such dimensions were identified and guidelines were defined allowing the design of very small (15 × 15 µm) and ultra-low power heating elements (6 mW at 300 °C). These very low power heating structures enable the realization of flexible sensors, such as gas, flow or wind sensors, for applications in autonomous wireless sensors networks or RFID applications and make them compatible with large-scale production on foil such as roll-to-roll or printing processes.

  18. Radiological Characterization of cuban coffee and estimation of the doses received by the population due to coffee consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to study the radioactivity levels in the coffee produced and consumed in our country and to estimate the doses received by the Cuban people due to its consumption. As a results of this study the most relevant radionuclide was K 40, due to the concentration levels found only considering it when estimating the annual committed dose that is received thought this via. The K 40 concentration value present in the infusion represented a dose for the consumer of 15.6 u Sv/year

  19. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  20. International Fisheries Agreements and Non-consumptive Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Laukkanen, Marita; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk;

    The management of internationally shared fish stocks is a major economic, environmental and political issue. According to international law, these resources should be managed cooperatively under international fisheries agreements (IFAs). This paper studies the formation and stability of IFAs...... through a coalition game that accounts for both direct consumptive values (harvesting profits) and non-consumptive values of the fish stock per se. The results show that accounting for non-consumptive values helps conserve the fish stock in that equilibrium fishing efforts are smaller and fish stock...

  1. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how...... consumption patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the...

  2. Isolation and characterization of collagen from fish waste material- skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The collagen of skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala were isolated and characterised. Nine fishes of each fish species of three weight groups were collected from a commercial fish farm. Collagen characterisation using SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular weights (kDa) of the C. catla skin, scales, and fins which ranged from 120 to 210, 70 to 201, and 68 to 137 kDa, respectively. The size of the collagen of C. mrigala skin, scales and fins ranged from 114 to 201, 77 to 210, an...

  3. Pharmacological characterization of the oxytocic peptides in the pituitary of a marine teleost fish (pollachius virens) (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of the existence, in the neurohypophysis of a marine fish (pollachius virens), of an oxytocic-active peptide different to the oxytocin in mammals and to the arginine vasotocin. (authors)

  4. Isolation and characterization of acid-soluble collagen from the scales of marine fishes from Japan and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Thuy, Le Thi; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2014-04-15

    Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was successfully extracted from the scales of lizard fish (Saurida spp.) and horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) from Japan and Vietnam and grey mullet (Mugil cephalis), flying fish (Cypselurus melanurus) and yellowback seabream (Dentex tumifrons) from Japan. ASC yields were about 0.43-1.5% (on a dry weight basis), depending on the species. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the ASCs were type I collagens, and consisted of two different α chains, α1 and α2, as well as a β component. ASC of horse mackerel from Vietnam contained a higher imino acid level than that from Japan. ASC denaturation temperature (Td) ranged from 26 to 29 °C, depending on fish species and imino acid content (pcollagens was observed at pHs 1-3. Collagen solubility decreased sharply at NaCl concentrations >0.4M, regardless of fish type. PMID:24295705

  5. Shoreline Units with Results from the 2014 Study Entitled "Characterizing Participation in Non-Commercial Fishing and other Shore-based Recreational Activities on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands"

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project "Characterizing participation in non-commercial fishing and other shore-based recreational activities on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands" was conducted...

  6. Taxing Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Bird

    2009-01-01

    Domestic consumption in most countries is taxed through general sales taxes, excise taxes on specific commodities, and a variety of miscellaneous taxes on such services as hotels and transfers of property. This note considers only the first two of these categories, with particular attention to general sales taxes. Consumption taxes are obviously related both to customs duties and other tax...

  7. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that...... there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish....

  8. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  9. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  10. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) during Infection with Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Asim, Muhammad; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Wei, Shun; Chen, Nan; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yang; Lin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR) was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection. PMID:25988382

  11. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic characterization and optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by fish (Labeo rohita) scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar

    2008-08-15

    The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826

  13. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies the i...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...

  14. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  15. Consumption demand

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, O.

    1998-01-01

    Consumption is the largest component of GDP. Since the 1950s, the life cycle and the permanent income models have constituted the main analytical tools to the study of consumption behavior, both at the micro and at the aggregate levels. Since the late 1970s the literature has focused on versions of the model that incorporate the hypothesis of Rational Expectations and a rigorous treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, I survey the most recent contribution and assess where the life cycle mode...

  16. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal...... and socio-demographic profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Uncertain fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education...

  17. Characterization of osteocalcin (BGP) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) fish specific antibodies: validation for immunodetection studies in lower vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, D C; Williamson, M K; Schaff, B J; Gavaia, P J; Ingleton, P M; Price, P A; Cancela, M L

    2004-02-01

    In fish species the basic mechanisms of bone development and bone remodeling are not fully understood. The classification of bone tissue in teleosts as cellular or acellular and the presence of transitional states between bone and cartilage and the finding of different types of cartilage in teleosts not previously recognized in higher vertebrates emphasizes the need for a study on the accumulation of the Gla-containing proteins MGP and BGP at the cellular level. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies developed against BGP and MGP from A. regius (a local marine teleost fish) and against MGP from G. galeus (a Pacific Ocean shark), were tested by Western blot for their specificity against BGP and MGP from several other species of teleost fish and shark. For this purpose we extracted and purified both proteins from various marine and freshwater teleosts, identified them by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and confirmed the presence of gamma-carboxylation in the proteins with the use of a stain specific for Gla residues. Each antibody recognized either BGP or MGP with no cross-reaction between proteins detected. All purified fish BGPs and MGPs tested were shown to be specifically recognized, thus validating the use of these antibodies for further studies. PMID:14668966

  18. Cytogenetic characterization of three Balistoidea fish species from the Atlantic with inferences on chromosomal evolution in the families Monacanthidae and Balistidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Lorena Corina Bezerra; Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Tetraodontiformes are the most derived group of teleostean fish. Among other apomorphies, they are characterized by a high degree of fusions or significant bone loss in the head and body. In the early phylogenetic proposals presented for this order, the families Balistidae and Monacanthidae have been unanimously considered to be closely related. Although they have moderate species diversity, they are scarcely known in cytogenetic aspect and chromosomal pattern comparisons between these groups have yet to be established. The species Cantherhines macrocerus (Hollard,1853), Cantherhines pullus (Ranzani, 1842) (Monacanthidae) and Melichthys niger (Bloch, 1786) (Balistidae) were cytogenetically analyzed using conventional (Ag-impregnation, C-banding, CMA3- and DAPI-fluorescence) and molecular (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe) cytogenetic protocols. The karyotypes of all three species were very similar possessing diploid chromosome numbers 2n = 40 and composed exclusively of acrocentric chromosomes. Single NOR-bearing pair as well as positive heterochromatic blocks at pericentromeric regions were identified in the karyotypes of the three species studied. NOR-bearing sites were positively labeled after Ag-impregnation, C-banding, CMA3-fluorescence and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe but were negative after DAPI-fluorescence. Such remarkable shared conspicuous chromosomal characters corroborate either close phylogenetic relationship of these families, previously established by morphological and molecular data, or rather conservative nature of karyotype differentiation processes. The later hypothesis, however, appears less probable due to centric or in tandem fusions documented for another Balistoidea species. PMID:24260619

  19. Use of an oiled gravel column dosing system to characterize exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In August 2005, a freight train derailment near the shore of Lake Wabamun near Edmonton, Alberta resulted in the release of nearly 150,000 litres of Bunker C oil on the lakeshore. The purpose of this study was to define the toxic load of oil in sediments to better describe the exposure and toxicity of fish to sunken heavy oil on spawning substrates. Heavy Bunker C fuel contains a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly the 3-4 ringed alkylated forms that cause sublethal toxic responses in early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Oil patches still persist in near-shore sediments where fish spawn. This study evaluated how the behaviour of heavy oil in water interacts with exposure and toxicity to trout embryo. Flow-through oiled gravel columns were used to determine whether the toxic constituents of heavy oil are transferred to water quickly enough to cause toxicity. Embryonic trout exposed to the outflow of these columns showed signs of sublethal toxicity and dose-dependent mortality. In addition, column output of hydrocarbons and CYP1A induction in fish were flow-dependent. The desorption kinetics of the gravel column dosing was characterized in order to evaluate the toxicity of oil on these substrates and relate it back to toxicity of oil in sediments. The time to steady-state desorption of oil constituents in water was first determined, and then the rate at which different classes of oil constituents partition into water were identified.

  20. National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFA) includes all available information describing state-, tribal-, and federally-issued fish consumption...

  1. Should I Be Concerned about Eating Fish and Shellfish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be avoided by young children. Fish sticks and "fast food" sandwiches are commonly made from fish that are lower in mercury. Children should follow the same consumption recommendations as adults, but should consume smaller portions. ...

  2. PROSPECTS OF FISHING INDUSTRY IN GOA

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Morakar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the fishing industry, its prospects and sustainability in Goa. Fishing activities are playing an important role in the Goan economy and is one of the extractive occupations of mankind and older than agriculture. In fact, fish forms an integral part of Goan life and is a staple food. Indeed, people are so fond of fish that no meal is complete without fish dish. The per capita consumption of fish is higher than the National average. The State o...

  3. Characterization of surface fish-eye casting defect Caracterização do defeito superficial de fundição do tipo olho de peixe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Murilo Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish-eye defects are usually observed in the surface of ductile iron casting. Their formation mechanism is not fully understood and very little has been published concerning the subject. This paper investigates the sleeve material effect on fish-eye defect formation in ductile cast irons. Unburnt exothermic and insulating sleeves with different fluorine concentrations have been crushed and mixed in with green sand. These mixtures have been used as facing sands for the casting molds. The morphological and chemical characterization of the fish-eye defects have been performed by light optical microscopy (LOM and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS. Experimental results suggest that surface fish-eye defects on ductile cast irons are caused by the buildup of fluorine-containing sleeve materials in the molding sand.O defeito de olho de peixe é geralmente observado em ferros fundidos nodulares. O mecanismo de formação desses defeitos não é totalmente compreendido e muito pouco tem sido publicado a esse respeito. Esse trabalho investiga o efeito de diferentes luvas na formação do defeito olho de peixe. Luvas exotérmicas e isolantes, com diferentes concentrações de flúor, foram trituradas e misturadas com areia a verde. A mistura foi usada como areia de faceamento dos moldes de fundição. A caracterização morfológica e química do defeito foi realizada por microscopia óptica (MO e microscopia eletrônica de varredura com microanálise química por dispersão de raios X (MEV/EDS. Os resultados de EDS mostraram elevadas concentrações de alumínio e flúor na região do defeito.

  4. Caracterização de hidrolisados enzimáticos de pescado Characterization of enzymatic fish hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.M. Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidrolisados enzimáticos são utilizados no tratamento clínico de pacientes com dificuldade em digerir e absorver proteínas, sendo preferidos em relação às misturas de aminoácidos livres. Neste trabalho foram caracterizados quimicamente seis hidrolisados de minced de pescado, obtidos pelo emprego de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos, quanto à extensão da hidrólise, distribuição de peso molecular dos peptídios, composição química e perfil de aminoácidos. A hidrólise resultou na solubilização de 63,4 a 94,2% das proteínas, sendo esta diretamente proporcional ao grau de hidrólise e dependente do sistema enzimático e das variáveis do processo (relação enzima/substrato e atividade enzimática. A composição dos hidrolisados atendeu à recomendação de ingestão dietética para aminoácidos essenciais, tanto para crianças como para adultos. A relação entre a concentração de aminoácidos ramificados e aromáticos (Relação de Fischer resultou em valores superiores a 3,5 indicando que os hidrolisados obtidos podem ser úteis para a manutenção dietética de pacientes com doenças hepáticas crônicas. Os hidrolisados forneceram peptídios com pesos moleculares bem definidos, destacando-se o obtido com pepsina e protease de Streptomyces griseus, que apresentou 57% de peptídios menores do que 3 kDa, adequado para o uso em formulações hipoalergênicas.Enzymatic hydrolysates have been used in the clinical treatment of patients with protein digestion and absorption impairment and have been preferred to mixtures of free amino acids. In this present work, six protein hydrolysates of minced fish, obtained by distinct enzymatic systems were characterized regarding the extent of hydrolysis, distribution of molecular size of peptides, chemical composition and amino acids profiles. The hydrolysis resulted in solubilization of 63,4% to 94,2% of proteins according to the enzymes used and process variables (enzyme substrate ratio

  5. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures. PMID:23364271

  6. Mammalian metabolic rates in the hottest fish on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Brix, Kevin V; De Boeck, Gudrun; Bergman, Harold L; Bianchini, Adalto; Bianchini, Lucas F; Maina, John N; Johannsson, Ora E; Kavembe, Geraldine D; Papah, Michael B; Letura, Kisipan M; Ojoo, Rodi O

    2016-01-01

    The Magadi tilapia, Alcolapia grahami, a small cichlid fish of Lake Magadi, Kenya lives in one of the most challenging aquatic environments on earth, characterized by very high alkalinity, unusual water chemistry, and extreme O2, ROS, and temperature regimes. In contrast to most fishes which live at temperatures substantially lower than the 36-40 °C of mammals and birds, an isolated population (South West Hot Springs, SWHS) of Magadi tilapia thrives in fast-flowing hotsprings with daytime highs of 43 °C and night-time lows of 32 °C. Another population (Fish Springs Lagoon, FSL) lives in a lagoon with fairly stable daily temperatures (33-36 °C). The upper critical temperatures (Ctmax) of both populations are very high; moreover the SWHS tilapia exhibit the highest Ctmax (45.6 °C) ever recorded for a fish. Routine rates of O2 consumption (MO2) measured on site, together with MO2 and swimming performance at 25, 32, and 39 °C in the laboratory, showed that the SWHS tilapia exhibited the greatest metabolic performance ever recorded in a fish. These rates were in the basal range of a small mammal of comparable size, and were all far higher than in the FSL fish. The SWHS tilapia represents a bellwether organism for global warming. PMID:27257105

  7. Fish availability and consumer preference in Batticaloa district in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Devadawson C; Jayasinghe C; Sivakanesan R

    2015-01-01

    Fishes are the primary source of animal protein more than 70% Sri Lankans population depends on fish product for fulfill their daily protein requirement. In 2013, per capita fish consumption was 40.4 g/day. Fish consumption varies among consumers and it determined by many factors, including sociodemographics and fish availability in the local market. To determine the availability and frequency of fish occurrence in local and urban markets, as well as other factors associated with ...

  8. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-parties, etc.). Originality/value – The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...

  9. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...

  10. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  11. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind. PMID:15768676

  12. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article, ...... unsustainable consumption are mostly unintentional, which means that informational and educational means are not sufficient to produce the needed changes. They need to be implemented in concert with pervasive structural changes to make the right choice the easy choice....

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    showed higher antioxidant activity both in in vitro assays and in 5 % oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In spite of the higher phenolic content and very good antioxidant activity in some of the in vitro assays, the absolute ethanol extracts of both the species showed a pro-oxidative...... tendency in 5 % fish oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In order to investigate the reason for the higher antioxidant activity of 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides, these extracts were further fractionated into polyphenol-rich, protein-rich, polysaccharide-rich and low......In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...

  14. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in neotropical fish of the genus Apistogramma (Perciformes : Labroidei : Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Quérouil, Sophie; Diaz, A. V.; Garcia-Davila, C.; Romer, U.; Renno, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The South American genus of Cichlid fish Apistogramma comprises over 100 species, most of which are difficult to identify. There is a need to clarify species limits and evolutionary relationships, conduct fine-scale phylogeographic revision of some species complexes, and collect information on population conservation status. In addition, recent studies suggest that female mate choice may lead to reproductive isolation and potentially to sympatric speciation in some species. Highly variable bi...

  15. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sludge, sediment and fish from municipal dumpsite at Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Sudaryanto, Agus; Setiawan, Iwan E; Riyadi, Adi S; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs contamination in sludge, sediments and fish from various locations including raw leachate pond, leachate treatment plans (LTPs), control wells and reference site at open landfill of municipal dumpsite, Surabaya City, Indonesia. 62 PCBs and 14 PBDEs congeners, and 3 HBCDs isomers were identified and quantified using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Concentration ranges and median (value in parentheses) of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs were from not detected (ND) to 60 (3.9) ng g(-1) dw, 0.0075 to 45 (4.5) ng g(-1) dw and ND to 2.8 (0.052) ng g(-1) dw in sludge and sediments, respectively. While in two polled of fish samples were 30-55 ng g(-1) lw, 6.6-11 ng g(-1) lw and 1.6-3.3 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. Among the sampling sites, the highest level of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in sludge from raw leachate pond. However, PCBs and PBDEs levels were showing decreased in LTP-1 that could be due to the bacterial degradation but not in LTP-2, HBCDs were more stable in both LTPs. Levels of PCBs and BFRs in sludge at the present study were lower than those reported in sewage sludge reported from some other countries. PCBs profiles were mainly composed in that order by CB-138, -153, -180, -101, -118 and -28, while by BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -28 for PBDEs in sludge, sediments and fish. Profiles of HBCDs were predominantly composed by γ- and α-isomers in sludge and fish, respectively. Debromination, dechlorination, commercial formulations used and congener-specific accumulation of those contaminants are the factors influenced the profiles. PMID:24054131

  16. Purification and Characterization of a Psychrophilic, Calcium-Induced, Growth-Phase-Dependent Metalloprotease from the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    OpenAIRE

    Secades, P; Alvarez, B.; Guijarro, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a fish pathogen that commonly affects salmonids. This bacterium produced an extracellular protease with an estimated molecular mass of 55 kDa. This enzyme, designated Fpp1 (F. psychrophilum protease 1), was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the culture supernatant by using ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and size exclusion chromatography. On the basis of its biochemical characteristics, Fpp1 ca...

  17. Isolation and characterization of collagen from fish waste material- skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboob, Shahid

    2015-07-01

    The collagen of skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala were isolated and characterised. Nine fishes of each fish species of three weight groups were collected from a commercial fish farm. Collagen characterisation using SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular weights (kDa) of the C. catla skin, scales, and fins which ranged from 120 to 210, 70 to 201, and 68 to 137 kDa, respectively. The size of the collagen of C. mrigala skin, scales and fins ranged from 114 to 201, 77 to 210, and 70 to 147 kDa, respectively. Glycine and alanine were the most abundant amino acid, whereas tryptophan was totally absent in all selected tissues. Thus, significant variation exists in type of collagen and amino acid profile within the weight groups of the two fish species. The imino acid (proline and hydroxyproline) contents estimated in C. catla and C. mrigala skin (161-165 and 160-168), scales (155-159 and 152-161) and fins (162-171 and (152-155) residues/1,000 residues, respectively. The proximate analysis was also performed for skin, scales and fins. The maximum protein content of the skin was determined as 26.10 % and 22.90 % in the C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively, from the W3 weight group. The scales of the W3 weight group exhibited maximum protein contents of 25.90 and 21.77 % for C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively. The maximum protein contents (19.04 % and 18.12 %) were recorded for C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively in the fins. PMID:26139894

  18. [Characterization of the genetic diversity of the fish Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae) in central Colombia with RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Santis, Hermes; Arboleda Chacón, Lucy; Echeverry Echavarria, Amparo; Urcuqui Inchima, Silvio; Pareja Molina, Diego; Olivera Angel, Martha; Builes Gómez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge on the genetic diversity of wild fish species is essential for conservation and appropriate management of individuals in repopulation programs. In Colombia, Brycon henni has been reported in the Magdalena and Cauca river basins, but the population and range have diminished as a consequence of anthropic activities. In this study, the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to estimate the actual genetic structure in this species. For the purpose, six sample sites located in the department of Antioquia (Central Chain Mountains of Colombia) were used. Thirty five primers (87.5%), out of forty used, yielded 1 466 reliable and consistent fragments; 417 were considered as unique fragments able to discriminate among the Magdalena (Humarada-1 and Humarada-2) and Cauca (Piedras, La Clara y Guaracfi) river basins samples, suggesting that each is a discrete unit. This diversity suggests that anthropic effects of over fishing, dam building, deforestation and water pollution, have contributed to the isolation of these fish groups on the high mountains. Brycon moorei and Colossoma macropomum, as an interspecific control groups, were placed out of the B. henni general group, confirming their taxonomic classification through morphologic data. The RAPD technique was useful to know the genetic diversity and to discriminate among B. henni populations from different geographic origins, as a basis for an appropriate plan of repopulation, conservation and wildlife management. PMID:19086404

  19. Sources of variation in oxygen consumption of aquatic animals demonstrated by simulated constant oxygen consumption and respirometers of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt;

    2016-01-01

    consumption rates (M˙O2 ) of a fish, by continuously injecting anoxic water into a respirometer, altering the injection rate to correct for the washout error. The effect of respirometer-to-fish volume ratio (RFR) on SMR measurement and variability was also investigated, using the simulated constant M˙O2 and...... oxygen consumption rates of fishes in systems with reasonable RFRs mainly comes from the animal, not from the measuring equipment....

  20. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil Isolamento e caracterização de Flavobacterium columnare de quatro espécies de peixes tropicais no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    F. Pilarski; AJ. Rossini; PS. Ceccarelli

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish w...

  1. Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, Nagarajan; Jeya Shakila, Robinson; Sukumar, Durairaj; Jeyasekaran, G.

    2011-01-01

    Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46–50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49–58% yield for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64–71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased the yield by 30–45%. The yields of collagen from skin and bone were higher than muscle. SDS-PAGE pattern revealed that skin and bone collagen as Ty...

  2. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  3. Distribution and Consumption Risk Assessment of Cu, Pb and Cd in Six Freshwater Fishes from the Main Market in Hefei%合肥市场6种淡水鱼体内Cu、Pb和Cd的分布及食用风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏泽慧; 王兴明; 楼巧婷; 刘桂建

    2012-01-01

    重金属沿食物链传递并最终在人体中富集的事实已经得到越来越多的重视和研究.从合肥市场采集鲢鱼、鲈鱼、鳜鱼、鳊鱼、鲫鱼和草鱼,研究Cu、Pb和Cd在这6种鱼体内的分布和食用风险.结果表明:鲢鱼、鲈鱼、鳜鱼、鳊鱼、鲫鱼和草鱼的肌肉中w(Cu)、w(Pb)和w(Cd)均低于我国NY 5073-2006《无公害食品水产品中有毒有害物质限量》、GB 2762-2005《食品中污染物限量》及澳大利亚国家卫生和医学研究理事会制定的人体消费卫生标准,其总重金属食人健康风险数值也小于国际辐射防护委员会(ICRP)推荐的最大可接受水平5.0×10-5a-1,说明合肥市场上这6种淡水鱼的肌肉通过食入途径所产生的Cu、Pb和Cd健康风险均在可接受水平.%The distribution and consumption risk of Cu, Pb and Cd were investigated in six freshwater fishes - Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) , Bass ( Lateolabrax japonicus) , Mandarin Fish ( Siniperca chuatsi) , Bream ( Parabramis pekinensis) , Crucian Carp ( Carassius aumtus) and Crass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idelliu) - from the main market in Hefei. The results showed that concentrations of Cu, Pb and Cd in the muscles of all the fishes were lower than the standard values in the national NY 5073-2006 limited Quantity of Poisonous and Harmful Contents of the National Pollution-Free Aquatic Products, national standard GB 2762-2005 Limited Quantity of Contaminants in Foods, as well as those established by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council ( ICRP). The total consumption risk of the heavy metals in the six fishes was lower than 5. 0× 10-5 a01, as recommended by ICRP. The health risks of Cu, Pb and Cd in the muscles of the six fishes in the main market of Hefei were acceptable for people's consumption.

  4. Isolation and characterization of fish scale collagen from tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) by a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Kuo, Jen-Min; Wu, Shu-Jing; Tsai, Hsing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is highly valued both as a food additive and a functional food ingredient. It is generally extracted by treatments with acid or alkali, enzyme, and microorganisms. However these methods are generally batch type, time-, energy-, reactant-, and cost-consuming. Extrusion is widely used in the food industry, and offers many advantages, such as ease of operation, continuous production, high yield, and little waste. In this study, we developed a novel extrusion-hydro-extraction (EHE) process for extraction of collagen from tilapia fish scale. Extruded scale samples had a 2-3 times higher protein extraction yield than that of non-extruded scale samples. All extracts contained hydroxyproline (61-73 residues/1000 residues) and hydroxylysine (5-6 residues/1000 residues) and were identified as type-I collagens by FTIR, SDS-PAGE, and molecular weight distribution analyses. The physicochemical studies revealed that extracted collagens could have promising applications in the food, medical, and cosmetic industries. PMID:26213067

  5. Characterization of multi-layered fish scales (Atractosteus spatula) using nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Paul G; Rodriguez, Rogie I; Moser, Robert D; Williams, Brett A; Poda, Aimee R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lafferty, Brandon J; Kennedy, Alan J; Chandler, Mei Q

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram's horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented. PMID:25046233

  6. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Aeromonas spp. isolated from South African freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenia, Hafizah Yousuf

    2016-08-16

    An increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp., which are both fish and emerging opportunistic human pathogens, has been observed worldwide. Quinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. isolates are increasingly being observed in clinical and environmental settings, and this has been attributed primarily to target gene alterations, efflux, and transferable quinolone resistance. Thirty-four Aeromonas spp., obtained from freshwater aquaculture systems, were screened for the presence of GyrA and ParC substitutions, efflux activity and the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, qnr and aac-6'-Ib-cr. Although 44% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, the majority were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The predominant GyrA substitution was Ser-83→Val among Aeromonas veronii isolates whilst Aeromonas hydrophila isolates displayed a Ser-83→Ile substitution, and Ser-80→Ile substitutions were observed in ParC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluoro(quinolones) were determined in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Addition of PAβN had no effect on the levels of fluoro(quinolone) resistance observed for these isolates. Although no aac-6'-Ib-cr variant genes were identified, qnrB and qnrS were detected for 41% and 24% of isolates, respectively, by Southern hybridization and confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Quinolone resistance in these fish-associated Aeromonas isolates was related to mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of GyrA and ParC and presence of qnrB and qnrS. The presence of qnr alleles in Aeromonas spp. isolates may facilitate high-level fluoroquinolone resistance and potentially serve as reservoirs for the dissemination of qnr genes to other aquatic microbes. PMID:27180024

  7. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with 60Co (10.00 ± 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  8. Characterization of human gene encoding SLA/LP autoantigen and its conserved homologs in mouse, fish, fly, and worm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Teufel, Andreas; Cheruti, Uta; Grötzinger, Joachim; Peter R. Galle; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Herkel, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To approach the elusive function of the SLA/LP molecule, we have characterized genomic organization and conservation of the major antigenic and functional properties of the SLA/LP molecule in various species.

  9. Socio-demographic factors and fish eating trends in eastern community, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chandravathany Devadawson; Chamilla Jayasinghe; Ramaiah Sivakanesan

    2015-01-01

    Fish are considered as a unique source of protein and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In Sri Lankan population, fish consumption habits and attitudes are determined by the availability of fish and socio-demography of fish consumers. An extensive survey was carried out among fish consumers (N=1777) in stratified random manner. Among the total studied respondents, 73.3% of the respondents had eaten all type of fish while10% had only sea fishes, 19.5 % brackish water a...

  10. Survey on marine food consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the future effluence of low level radioactive waste water from the nuclear fuel retreating facilities to the ocean, critical food and critical group were investigated in the inhabitants of the coast of Ibaragi Prefecture since 1969. The survey included investigation of drinking water, menu of meal, and marine food consumption, and the results of the third item were chiefly presented in this paper. Both interview by visiting each family, and questionaire were adopted for investigation. Subjects were fishermans' families in Wada-cho in Chiba Prefecture and Kuji-cho in Hitachi City, non-fishermans' families in Tokai vilage, and both families in Nakaminato City and Oarai. The ratio of animal protein consumption per whole protein consumption was remarkably higher than the average of all over the country(23.8 per cent), showing 49 per cent in Kuji-cho. Fishermans' families in Kuji-cho revealed to be a critical group. Marine products of their whole body edible included immature anchovy, sardine, and immature prawn with their maximum individual consumption being 5 kg, 10 kg, and 5.6 kg respectively. Therefore, sardine and immature prawn should be taken care of other than immature anchovy. Marine food consumption of a person per day was estimated from the amount consumed during one week in every season, i.e., during 28 days a year. Marine food consumption of fishermans' families in Kuji-cho showed no seasonal change. Average of marine food consumption in fishermans' families of Kuji-cho and Nakaminato, was 190 g and 132 g of raw fishes, 8 g and 6 g of raw shells, and 4 g and 5 g of dried algae. Consumption frequency and consumption rate of marine foods by kinds and seasons were presented in the tables. (Mukohata, S.)

  11. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castellani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  12. Anisakidae in fishing products sold in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ferrantelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A. from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37, in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37 and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34. Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea.

  13. Phenotypic characterization and description of two major O-serotypes in Tenacibaculum maritimum strains from marine fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Magariños, Beatriz; López-Romalde, Sonia; Romalde, Jesús L; Toranzo, Alicia E

    2004-01-28

    Tenacibaculum maritimum is the etiological agent of marine flexibacteriosis disease, with the potential to cause severe mortalities in various cultured marine fishes. The development of effective preventive measures (i.e. vaccination) requires biochemical, serological and genetic knowledge of the pathogen. With this aim, the biochemical and antigenic characteristics of T. maritimum strains isolated from sole, turbot and gilthead sea bream were analysed. Rabbit antisera were prepared against sole and turbot strains to examine the antigenic relationships between the 29 isolates and 3 reference strains. The results of the slide agglutination test, dot-blot assay and immunoblotting of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and membrane proteins were evaluated. All bacteria studied were biochemically identical to the T. maritimum reference strains. The slide agglutination assays using O-antigens revealed cross-reaction for all strains regardless of the host species and serum employed. However, when the dot-blot assays were performed, the existence of antigenic heterogeneity was demonstrated. This heterogeneity was supported by immunoblot analysis of the LPS, which clearly revealed 2 major serological groups that were distinguishable without the use of absorbed antiserum: Serotypes O1 and O2. These 2 serotypes seem to be host-specfic. In addition, 2 sole isolates and the Japanese reference strains displayed cross-reaction with both sera in all serological assays, and are considered to constitute a minor serotype, O1/O2. Analysis of total and outer membrane proteins revealed that all strains share a considerable number of common bands that are antigenically related. PMID:15038445

  14. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  15. Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Modeling of Pancreatic Lipase from a Cartilaginous Fish, the Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaâla, Emna; BouAli, Madiha; Ben Ali, Yassine; Miled, Nabil; Gargouri, Youssef; Fendri, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we have chosen the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), one of the most primitive living jawed aquatic vertebrates as a starting biological material to purify a lipase. A stingray pancreatic lipase (SPL) was purified from delipidated pancreatic powder. The SPL molecular weight was around 55 kDa which is slightly higher than that of known classical pancreatic lipases (50 kDa). This increase in the molecular weight was due to glycosylation. Like classic pancreatic lipases, SPL was found to be much more active on short-chain triacylglycerols than on long-chain ones. Natural detergents act as inhibitors of the SPL activity. This inhibition can be reversed by the addition of stingray colipase. Starting from total pancreatic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), partial stingray pancreatic lipase complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the PGEM-T vector. Partial amino acid sequence of the SPL was homologous to that of Japanese eel, porcine, and human pancreatic lipases. A 3D structure model of the sequenced part of SPL was built using the 3D structure of porcine pancreatic lipase as template, since both lipases shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60%. PMID:25795061

  16. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim;

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive and...... systematic and will benefit from a variety of different perspectives. There are a number of opportunities for future research, and three areas are explored in detail. First, the essay considers the inconsistency between the attitudes and behaviors of consumers with respect to sustainability; next, the agenda...... is broadened to explore the role of individual citizens in society; and finally, a macro institutional approach to fostering sustainability is explored. Each of these areas is examined in detail and possible research avenues and public policy initiatives are considered within each of these separate...

  17. Comprehensive survey and genomic characterization of toll-like receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: identification of novel fish TLRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of channel catfish Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) was undertaken following a genomic PCR approach based on degenerate primers. Twenty different TLRs were identified in channel catfish. Channel catfish TLR sequences were characterized by phylogenetic analysis based on their conserv...

  18. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil; Friis-Møller, Alice; Krossøy, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetica...

  19. Haff Disease after Eating Buffalo Fish: Report of a Severe Case in Northern California and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Offerman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Toxic contamination of fish may compromise food safety. Haff disease is a rare syndrome characterized by rhabdomyolysis following consumption of cooked, freshwater fish. Case Report: A healthy 42 year old female presented three hours after eating fried buffalo fish (Ictiobus cyprinellis. Her symptoms began while eating the fish, described as diffuse muscle aches followed by generalized muscle fatigue, most pronounced in her proximal lower extremities. Vital signs were normal. Her physical exam was notable for diffuse muscle tenderness and difficulty standing. Baseline complete blood count and chemistries were normal, but serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK was 12,777 U/L. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were 268 U/L and 1431 U/L respectively. She was treated with aggressive hydration, sodium bicarbonate, and oral N-acetylcysteine. The serum CPK peaked at 76,364 U/L, twenty hours post-exposure. Her creatinine remained normal. Over the next 5 days the CPK slowly resolved. Discussion: Haff disease is a rare syndrome characterized by rhabdomyolysis following consumption of certain cooked, freshwater fish. Although the exact toxin has yet to be identified, this disorder is felt to be caused by a heat-stable toxin contaminating certain fish. Our case was unique due to the immediate onset of symptoms and the extremely high serum CPK levels. Conclusion: Haff disease may result in the rapid onset of severe rhabdomyolysis. Aggressive treatment with fluids and bicarbonate prevented renal damage in this case. Because cases may occur outside of endemic areas, fish consumption should be included in the history for any case of rhabomyolysis of unknown etiology. Suspected cases of Haff disease should be reported to local public health authorities and samples collected for analysis.

  20. Forecasting of the energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urged by earlier continuous failures in forecasting the consumption of energy in the world, essentially characterized by megalomania, the author presents his views on causes of such occurrences. Fundamental cause is considered - logic of a circle - insensitive to social and economic effects on the humanity in general and particularly to the energy consumption. Besides, a lethal influence of voluntarism has been specially studied as well. (author)

  1. Characterizing the fishing strategies and the temporal dynamics of the small-scale fleet operating in the Cíes Islands (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ouréns

    2014-06-01

    In total 33 fishing strategies operating in Cíes Islands were described, being the most used ones: pots targeting common octopus and velvet crab; gillnet targeting hake and pouting; trammel net targeting either European spider crab or Ballan wrasse; clam rakes; and manual harvesting for goose-barnacles and razor shells. The main season in which each fishing strategy was used changed according to the fishing policy (e.g. closed seasons for target species or fishing gears, the fish prices, and the temporal variation in the abundance of target species.

  2. Characterization of uranium effects on the zebra fish Danio rerio. Stress mechanisms, neuro-toxicity and mitochondrial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research explored several biological effects of uranium (U) in zebra fish exposed to low waterborne uranium concentrations (20 and 100 microgram/L). In tissue specific study (brain, liver, skeletal muscles and gills) of transcriptional responses in 20 genes identified the nature of the potential U effects during 28 days of exposure followed by an 8-day depuration phase in connection with U bioaccumulation. Liver and gills accumulate high concentrations of U and the depuration is efficient contrary to the brain and muscles. U exposure induced a later response in liver (inflammatory process, apoptosis and detoxification) and gills (oxidative balance) and an early one in brain (neuronal response) and muscles (mitochondrial metabolism). Brain and muscles appear sensitive since defence mechanisms are inefficient above low concentrations. A further study on these two organs examined the function and protein content of the respiratory mitochondrial chain following U exposure. An inhibition of the respiratory control ratio for the lowest concentration, variation in the protein synthesis of the complex IV (induction of cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I and IV) and histological damage (dilatation in brain and vacuolisation in muscles) were observed. Another study focused on the early effects on the brain and was accomplished through a large transcriptional analysis coupled with examinations of the olfactory bulb ultrastructure. A depression of genes encoding olfactory receptor or111-7 and or102-5 was observed as rapidly as 3 days post-exposure to the lowest concentration of U. These responses and histological injuries suggest that the olfactory system could be sensitive to U exposure. (author)

  3. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  4. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    OpenAIRE

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is an all-time high (FAO, 2010. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO, Rome, Italy). Fish for consumption can be harvested directly from the wild (capture fisheries), but a growing proportion...

  5. Cholinesterase activity of muscle tissue from freshwater fishes: characterization and sensitivity analysis to the organophosphate methyl-paraoxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renato Matos; Filho, Moacelio Veranio Silva; de Salles, João Bosco; Bastos, Vera Lúcia Freire Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2014-06-01

    The biochemical characterization of cholinesterases (ChE) from different teleost species has been a critical step in ensuring the proper use of ChE activity levels as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. In the present study, ChE from Oreochromis niloticus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Prochilodus lineatus was biochemically characterized by specific substrates and inhibitors. Moreover, muscle tissue ChE sensitivity to the organophosphate pesticide methyl-paraoxon was evaluated by determining the inhibition kinetic constants for its progressive irreversible inhibition by methyl-paraoxon as well as the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for 30 min for each species. The present results indicate that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) must be present in the muscle from P. mesopotamicus, L. macrocephalus, and P. lineatus and that O. niloticus possesses an atypical cholinesterase or AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Furthermore, there is a large difference regarding the sensitivity of these enzymes to methyl-paraoxon. The determined IC50 values for 30 min were 70 nM (O. niloticus), 258 nM (P. lineatus), 319 nM (L. macrocephalus), and 1578 nM (P. mesopotamicus). The results of the present study also indicate that the use of efficient methods for extracting these enzymes, their kinetic characterization, and determination of sensitivity differences between AChE and BChE to organophosphate compounds are essential for the determination of accurate ChE activity levels for environmental monitoring programs. PMID:24648156

  6. Texture Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  7. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  8. Fish Myogenic Regulatory Protein LUC7L: Characterization and Expression Analysis in Korean Rose Bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ju Lan; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Young-Ok; An, Cheul Min

    2014-01-01

    Serine-arginine-rich nuclear protein LUC7L plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis in mice. In the present study, we isolated and characterized the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii Luc7l cDNA, designated RuLuc7l. The RuLuc7l cDNA is 1,688 bp long and encodes a 364-amino-acid polypeptide containing serine/arginine-rich region at the C-terminus. The deduced RuLuc7l protein has high amino acid identity (71-97%) with those of other species including human. Phylogenetic analys...

  9. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetica......; but is susceptible to ceftazidime, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin. Based on the molecular and phenotypical characteristics, we suggest that this GM2212 isolate, may represent a new species of Francisella. Isolate GM2212(T) (=CNCM I-3481(T) = CNCM I-3511(T) = DSM 18777(T))....

  10. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak. PMID:19595384

  11. Characterization of human gene encoding SLA/LP autoantigen and its conserved homologs in mouse,fish,fly,and worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Xia Wang; Andreas Teufel; Uta Cheruti; Joachim Gr(o)tzinger; Peter R Galle; Ansgar W Lohse; Johannes Herkel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To approach the elusive function of the SLA/LP molecule, we have characterized genomic organization and conservation of the major antigenic and functional properties of the SLA/LP molecule in various species.METHODS: By means of computational biology, we have characterized the complete SLA/LP gene, mRNA and deduced protein sequences in man, mouse,zebrafish, fly, and worm.RESULTS: The human SLA/LP gene sequence of approximately 39 kb, which maps to chromosome 4p15.2, is organized in 11 exons, of which 10 or 11 are translated, depending on the splice variant. Homologous molecules were identified in several biological model organisms. The various homologous protein sequences showed a high degree of similarity or homology, notably at those residues that are of functional importance. The only domain of the human protein sequence that lacks significant homology with homologous sequences is the major antigenic epitope recognized by autoantibodies from autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients.CONCLUSION: The SLA/LP molecule and its functionally relevant residues have been highly conserved throughout the evoluti n, suggesting an indispensable function of the molecule. The finding that the only non-conserved domain is the dominant antigenic epitope of the human SLA/LP sequence, suggests that SLA/LP autoimmunity is autoantigen-driven rather than being driven by molecular mimicry.

  12. Characterization of a new fish-derived bioactive neuropeptide involved in bone remodelling. Its physiological function and therapeutic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Suarez-Bregua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex network of autocrine and paracrine signals, hormones and neuronal factors preserve the structural integrity of the skeleton and regulate mineral metabolism in vertebrates. We have characterized a new neuropeptide belonging to parathyroid hormone (PTH family. PTH family members are known to play a key role in maintaining mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling and in regulating embryonic development of skeleton and other tissues. This new neuropeptide is synthesized by two clusters of neurons located in lateral hypothalamus as showed in whole mount in situ hybridization. The functional characterization of the gene using a stable transgenic line revealed its key role in the regulation of bone mineral density. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics results of conserved synteny reveal that this new neuropeptide is a new ohnolog of the PTH family present in teleosts and some tetrapods like chicken, but absent in mammals . Our findings suggest a new brain to bone pathway, where neuronal factors from hypothalamus signal to receptors on bone cells promoting bone remodeling. Further investigations about this new neuropeptide system would be relevant for developing therapies for bone mineral disorders in humans, since this neuropeptide has a conserved domain similar to other PTH-related peptides which have anabolic effects on bone.

  13. Application of exploratory factor analysis to assess fish consumption in a university community Aplicação de análise fatorial exploratória para avaliar o consumo de pescado em uma comunidade universitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika da Silva Maciel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to use the technique of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA for the adequacy of a tool for the assessment of fish consumption and the characteristics involved in this process. Data were collected during a campaign to encourage fish consumption in Brazil with the voluntarily participation of members of a university community. An assessment instrument consisting of multiple-choice questions and a five-point Likert scale was designed and used to measure the importance of certain attributes that influence the choice and consumption of fish. This study sample was composed of of 224 individuals, the majority were women (65.6%. With regard to the frequency of fish consumption, 37.67% of the volunteers interviewed said they consume the product two or three times a month, and 29.6% once a week. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA was used to group the variables; the extraction was made using the principal components and the rotation using the Quartimax method. The results show clusters in two main constructs, quality and consumption with Cronbach Alpha coefficients of 0.75 and 0.69, respectively, indicating good internal consistency.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi utilizar-se da técnica de Análise Fatorial Exploratória (AFE para a adequação de instrumento de avaliação do consumo de pescado e as características envolvidas nesse processo. A coleta de dados ocorreu durante campanha de incentivo ao consumo de pescado no Brasil e contou com a participação de membros de uma comunidade universitária. Foi construído e utilizado um instrumento de avaliação composto por questões de múltipla escolha e em escala Likert de cinco pontos para avaliar a importância de determinados atributos no processo de aquisição e consumo de pescado. A amostra contou com a participação de 224 pessoas, sendo a sua maioria (65,6% composta por mulheres. Quanto à frequência de consumo de pescado, 37,67% dos voluntários entrevistados

  14. Characterization of Interactions between Surface Water and Near-Stream Groundwater along Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, by Using Heat as a Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Essaid, Hedeff I.

    2009-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary of the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Local residents began observing an increase in the growth of algae and aquatic plants in the stream during the last decade. Due to the known importance of groundwater to surface water in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to characterize the interactions between surface water and near-stream groundwater along Fish Creek. The study has two main objectives: (1) develop an improved spatial and temporal understanding of water flow (fluxes) between surface water and groundwater, and (2) use a two-dimensional groundwater-flow and heat-transport model to interpret observed temperature and hydraulic-head distributions and to describe groundwater flow near Fish Creek. The study is intended to augment hydrologic information derived from previously published results of a seepage investigation on Fish Creek. Seepage measurements provide spatially averaged gains and losses over an entire reach for one point in time, whereas continuous temperature and water-level measurements provide continuous estimates of gain and loss at a specific location. Stage, water-level, and temperature data were collected from surface water and from piezometers completed in an alluvial aquifer at three cross sections on Fish Creek at Teton Village, Resor's Bridge, and Wilson from October 2004 to October 2006. The flow and energy (heat) transport model VS2DH was used to simulate flow through the streambed of Fish Creek at the Teton Village cross section from April 15 to October 14, 2006, (183 recharge periods) and at the Resor's Bridge and Wilson cross sections from June 6, 2005, to October 14, 2006 (496 recharge periods). A trial-and-error technique was used to determine the best match between simulated and measured data. These results were then used to calibrate the

  15. Fishing Long-Fingered Bats (Myotis capaccinii) Prey Regularly upon Exotic Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Alberdi, Antton; Garin, Inazio;

    2013-01-01

    The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and...... seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish...... Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing...

  16. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency distribu......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N.;

    2016-01-01

    simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage, respectively, and a dose‐response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose......In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm‐to‐consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model...... product types. Fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence...

  18. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared to...... other life cycle stages. The energy consumption is significant, particularly from some fishing methods, and it generates a considerable impact potential. In addition, other types of impacts such as seafloor damage and discard tend to be proportional to energy consumption per kg caught fish. It is...

  19. PROSPECTS OF FISHING INDUSTRY IN GOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Morakar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the fishing industry, its prospects and sustainability in Goa. Fishing activities are playing an important role in the Goan economy and is one of the extractive occupations of mankind and older than agriculture. In fact, fish forms an integral part of Goan life and is a staple food. Indeed, people are so fond of fish that no meal is complete without fish dish. The per capita consumption of fish is higher than the National average. The State of Goa has an area of 3,702 square kilometres with the total population of 14, 57,723. It has a large coastline area of 105 km and a significant area of brackish water, which provides tremendous scope for development of fisheries in the State. Fishing and its allied activities are important sources of livelihood of the fishermen living in the State. Over the years, the State has experienced rapid mechanization in fishing. The Directorate of Fisheries deals with the registration of fishing vessels, fishing canoes/crafts and fishing nets, besides providing infrastructural facilities. It also implements various developmental as well as welfare schemes for the upliftment of the fishing industry and fishermen. The date has been collected from the Directorate of Fisheries, Goa and analytical method has been employed in the study

  20. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  1. Comparative application of direct sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and cytogenetic markers in the genetic characterization of Pimelodus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) species: possible implications for fish conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M; Bressane, K C O; Moresco, A R C; Moreira-Filho, O; Almeida-Toledo, L F; Garcia, C

    2014-01-01

    Pimelodus (Pimelodidae) is a genus comprising a group of South American species with complex taxonomic relationships. Cytogenetics, polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and sequencing data of mitochondrial genes were analyzed to characterize 4 Pimelodus species: P. fur, P. heraldoi, P. maculatus, and Pimelodus sp. All populations presented 2n=56 chromosomes and distinct karyotypic formulae. The heterochromatin distribution pattern and the number and location of 5S and 18S rDNA sites are discussed. The application of PCR-RFLP markers and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA genes provided species-specific haplotypes, which allowed us to differentiate the species studied. The mitochondrial gene sequences presented nucleotide mutations in the restriction sites and throughout the sequences, and they were mostly related to synonymous substitutions in the coded proteins; however, they did not affect the protein and its function. Comparing the data obtained using these 3 methodologies, the existence of a species complex in P. maculatus along the basins studied might be inferred, showing that cytogenetics is an important tool in studies focusing on the conservation or management of both natural and captive populations of these fishes. PMID:25036358

  2. Application of Gene Transfer Technology for Genetic Improvement of Fish

    OpenAIRE

    SARMAŞIK, Aliye

    2003-01-01

    The worldwide decline of natural fish stocks, the accumulation of chemical pollutants in aquatic environments and increasing world consumption of fish products has provided an impetus in many countries for a rapid growth in aquaculture. Fish produced from aquaculture currently account for over one-fourth of fish consumed by humans. However, success in aquaculture mainly depends on breeding, feeding and protection from disease. Application of recombinant DNA technology in aquaculture can he...

  3. Designer Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  4. Hundreds of SNPs versus dozens of SSRs: which dataset better characterizes natural clonal lineages in a self-fertilizing fish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eMesak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, mitochondrial DNA sequences and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellite loci have served as gold standards in population genetics. More recently, next generation sequencing (NGS has enabled researchers to address biological questions that can benefit from hundreds or even thousands of nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs generated by restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Here we compare the performance of SSR and RAD-seq SNP methods to characterize clonal patterns in a self-fertilizing and highly inbred killifish, Kryptolebias marmoratus (mangrove rivulus in Florida. RAD-seq analyses conducted on 18 inbred lineages of mangrove rivulus obtained from western Florida and a distant location in eastern Florida unveiled 481 polymorphic RAD loci of which 129 were homozygous within individuals and 352 loci were heterozygous in at least one individual. An initial UPGMA phenogram was constructed, based on 32 microsatellite loci, and used as a benchmark for comparisons with SNP-based phenograms, using a number of different criteria for SNP selection. A phenogram produced by the homozygous SNPs was in excellent agreement with the one generated from 32 microsatellite loci. However, heterozygous SNP data and RAD loci with more than one polymorphic site contributed more noise than usable signal and were unable to resolve clades consistently. This is likely due to errors in identifying homologous loci in the absence of a reference genome. In summary, although the RAD data were powerful in distinguishing the clonal lineages identified by SSR analyses, they also carried considerable phylogenetic noise. Our results suggest that RAD-seq methods should be used with caution for inferring fine population structure, and that stringent quality controls are necessary to reduce false phylogenetic signals.

  5. The application of radiography to the study of fish nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of individual food consumption rates of fish held in groups using radiography has enabled the development of a new approach to fish nutrition trials. In order to compare diets, groups of individually numbered fish are fed different experimental diets over extended periods of time (similar to standard nutrition trials) and food consumption rates are measured regularly over the course of the experiment. Analysis of covariance is then used to compare regression coefficients, obtained from mean consumption-growth relationships, from each diet. The advantages of the approach are several: (1) differences in appetite between fish fed different diets are monitored; (2) fewer fish are needed to establish consumption-growth curves over a large range of consumption rates; (3) measured food consumption rates, not ration levels, are used to calculate ‘true’ growth efficiencies; and (4) other factors, such as absorption efficiency, trypsin activity, the concentration of free amino acids in tissues and protein turnover can be measured for individual fish and related to differences in food consumption between fish in the same group. The approach has been used successfully with a variety of species to compare the growth response of groups fed two or more diets

  6. Site-specific fish tissue mercury at four eastern North Carolina National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mercury concentrations above levels of concerns in fish tissue have prompted the North Carolina Division of Public Heath to issue a consumption advisory for several...

  7. Chemical analysis of sediments and fish from the Mahoning River, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July, 1988, the Ohio Department of Health issued a swimming, wading and fish consumption advisory for the Mahoning River between Warren, Ohio and the...

  8. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p...

  9. Chemical characterization of fish species employed to Asthma treatment southern region of Rio Grande do Sul/
    Caracterização química de pescados empregados para tratamento de Asma brônquica na Região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Muccillo Baisch; Ademir Larrea Bastos; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2006-01-01

    Intenting to add scientic knowledge to popular culture and about fish species available in South Coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the objective of this paper was chemical characterization of two fishes species, Balistes capriscus (peixe-porco) and Meticirrhus littoralis (papa-terra) that the local population believes in its pharmacologic properties to asthma treatment. The fishes were collected in industries and in the public market of the city. The edible part(muscle) were separated from the skin...

  10. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat and...

  11. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  12. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  14. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this...

  15. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and...

  16. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53% (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08% (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6% (17/652) and 34.2% (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV. PMID:26350771

  17. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish provide substantial benefits to both humans and ocean food webs, but these benefits may be in conflict unless there are effective policies governing human activities, such as fishing. Collapses of forage fish induce widespread ecological effects on dependent predators, but attributing collapses to fishing has been difficult because of natural fluctuations of these stocks. We implicate fishing in forage fish stock collapses by showing that high fishing rates are maintained when sto...

  18. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... were mailed to a stratified random sample from the Norwegian population registry in 1996 and 2001. Complete data sets for both periods were obtained from N = 4590 respondents. Data were analyzed by means of multivariate linear models. Results indicate that overall consumption of fat fish and processed...

  19. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for on-line characterization, monitoring and isotopic profiling of the main selenium-metabolite in human urine after consumption of Se-rich and Se-enriched food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of selenium (Se) in the human body has yet not completely been unravelled and hence, an efficient method for characterization and on-line monitoring of the main Se-compound in human urine after consumption of Se-rich food was developed. Total Se-concentration in human urine after consumption of several Se-rich products was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest Se concentration in urine was observed after 4-10 h. The urine samples were brought onto a reversed phase column and the Se was detected by ICP-MS. Parameters for liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) measurements were optimized by using commercially available sugars, because it is known that some of the urinary metabolites contain a sugar moiety. In order to characterize the predominant Se-metabolite, it was necessary to extensively clean-up the sample and preconcentrate the species. The main metabolite was measured on its precursor ion on three different m/z according to three isotopes of Se. Relative peak surfaces matched the relative abundances of the isotopes. The product ions could be measured in a human urine sample in accordance to the product ions of the commercially available sugars. Moreover, the evidence of a selenosugar was demonstrated by the use of the Se-isotopes when measuring the product ions. LC-ESI-MS-MS was proven to be very efficient for the characterization of the main urinary Se-metabolite and can be used for on-line monitoring of the compound in urine samples. The method can be extended for clinical screening after consumption of Se-(en)rich(ed) food by use of the Se-isotopic profile and/or of the typical product ions of (methyl)-N-acetyl-hexosamines

  20. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.;

    2014-01-01

    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey...... populations in a “predator pit”. To assess the likely impact of such effects, it is important to know how consumption and consequent predation mortality respond to the changing availability of prey.Wepresent a model of grey seal consumption as a function of the availability of multiple prey types [a Multi...

  1. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loids, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Y. Luna-Porres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww, respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loids in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  2. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  3. Comparative studies of metals in fish organs, sediments and water from Nigerian fresh water fish ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish samples (Illisha africana) were collected from six man-made fish pond in Edo and Ondo states, Nigeria. Some organs of the fish sediment and water from the fish habitat were analysed for Cd, Pb, Hg, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Cr, Physico-chemical properties of water samples from the ponds were also re-corded. The concentration of the metals varied in the sediment water as well as in different organs of the fish. However, chromium was absent in all the samples. The descending order of metal concentration in fish organs was: gills intestine, head and muscle. To avoid harmful accumulation of these metals in the human system, the gills and the intestine should preferably be discarded while processing fish for consumption. The head with a relatively high concentration of calcium might be useful in feed formulation. (author)

  4. Characterization of the energetic consumption habits in communities in the countryside area of Amazon State concerning energetic planning; Perfil dos habitos de consumo de energeticos em comunidades do interior do Estado do Amazonas para fins de planejamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem C.R.; Santos Conserva, Auricelia dos; Muniz, Marcos W.C. [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    To outline an energetic politic to Amazons State is a difficult task considering the enormous peculiarities of the region. In order to do so it is necessary to elaborate an energy balance of the state. This paper aims to help in this procedure by performing the characterization of the energetic consumption habits of small communities in the countryside area of the above named state. Four different representative cities were studied in concerning of its socio-economical and energetic characteristics. It was concluded that parameters such as demographic density, familiar income, energy sources, etc. are to be considered during the elaboration of the state energy balance 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Ecological characterization of two species of exotic fish, pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides in the international Minho river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lages

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of exotic species is considered the main cause for the decline of native species. The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus are two native species from North America, introduced in Portugal to enhance sport fishing. However, their diet and great adaptability made them considered predatory and harmful. In order to understand the ecological impact of M. salmoides and L. gibbosus in the international section of the Minho River, three sampling sites were selected: two in Vila Nova de Cerveira and one in Lapela, at distance of the mouth of the river of 17 and 45 Km, respectively. The fish were gathered using fyke nets and trammel nets, electric fishing and fishing rod, with performed samplings since July 2014 until October 2015. For all fish caught the biometric data (weight, total and fork length, gonad and liver weight, sex, stomach contents analysis were registered as well as collection of otoliths and scales for age reading. Both species feed on small macroinvertebrates specially the juveniles while adults of largemouth bass and pumpkinseed sunfish prefer eat fish and gastropods, respectively. Because L. gibbosus is a recent introduction in the Minho river estuary its abundance increased a lot in the last two years and it was possible verify the increase of the fish population average length. With this work it is intended to evaluate the impact in the Minho River estuary of both exotic species studying the population structure, trophic webs and reproduction.

  6. When cooking fish wreaks havoc in Danish kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel

    2008-01-01

    Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow.......Ignorance about the purchase and cooking of fish hampers consumption of fish in Denmark. A new research project shows that this ignorance is likely to produce many chaotic incidents in Danish kitchens, but also that relatively simple measures can combat the lack of knowhow....

  7. Screening and characterization of sex-specific DNA fragments in the freshwater fish matrinchã, Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eder Marques; Wong, Marina Sek Lien; Martins, Cesar; Wasko, Adriane Pinto

    2012-10-01

    The matrinchã Brycon amazonicus, a commercially important freshwater fish resource, has no heteromorphic sex chromosomes so far described. In the present study, we performed a screening of sex-associated DNA markers in this species, through the use of a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and a genomic DNA restriction digestion analysis. DNA digestions evidenced no differences between sexes. Sixty-six random primers were used in pooled and individual DNA samples of males and females, and the analysis of the RAPD fingerprints revealed one female sex-associated band. Cloning and sequencing of this band led to the identification of two distinct DNA segments. While one of the isolated fragments showed a significant identity with a described protein gene (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W), the other fragment, composed of 535 bp, corresponds to a novel DNA marker. Further experiments were performed with this second DNA fragment in order to verify its sex-specificity. Data on dot blot hybridization, using total DNA of both sexes, confirmed its female-specificity in B. amazonicus. A primer set was designed based on its sequence data and used in PCR with DNA samples of this species, leading to diagnose the animals' sexes with a 100 % overall accuracy through a sequence characterized amplified region approach. No amplification results were found for two other species of the genus--B. orbignyanus and B. lundii. The obtained data can lead to the hypothesis that B. amazonicus may present heteromorphic sex chromosomes that should be in an early phase of differentiation. PMID:22527611

  8. Fish protein hydrolysates based on Atlantic salmon by-products. Enzyme cost-efficiency and characterization of sensory, surface-active and nutritional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Aspevik, Tone

    2016-01-01

    The world fisheries and fish farming industries generate large amounts of by-products after the primary processing of fish to edible products. In Norway alone, this accounted for almost 900,000 tons in 2014. Based on present industrial practice, most of the by- products are either discarded or used in the manufacture of low-value commodity products such as fish silage, fishmeal and oil. By-product material from the primary filleting process, such as heads and backbones, contain high-quality f...

  9. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  10. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

  11. Fish demand and supply projections

    OpenAIRE

    Sverdrup-Jensen, S.

    1997-01-01

    It has been predicted that the global demand for fish for human consumption will increase by more than 50% over the next 15 years. The FAO has projected that the increase in supply will originate primarily from marine fisheries, aquaculture and to a lesser extent from inland fisheries, but with a commensurate price increase. However, there are constraints to increased production in both marine and inland fisheries, such as overfishing, overexploitation limited potential increase and environme...

  12. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2000-08-21 to 2009-08-21 (NODC Accession 0125202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  13. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2010-08-10 to 2012-09-21 (NODC Accession 0125201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  14. Las Vegas Wash Monitoring and Characterization Study: Ecotoxicologic Screening Assessment of Selected Contaminants of Potential Concern in Sediment, Whole Fish, Bird Eggs, and Water, 2005-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Las Vegas Wash is the sole drainage from the Las Vegas Valley watershed to Lake Mead. The four flow components in the Las Vegas Wash are tertiary treated...

  15. Las Vegas Wash Monitoring and Characterization Study: Ecotoxicologic Screening Assessment of Selected Contaminants of Potential Concern in Sediment, Whole Fish, Bird Eggs, and Water, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee has implemented long-term management strategies for the Las Vegas Wash (Wash). A series of projects was...

  16. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands 2012-06-12 to 2012-06-22 (NODC Accession 0125418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  17. St. Croix, USVI Land-sea characterization of East End Marine Park to evaluate zones and support management plan review: 2011 fish community assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially...

  18. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix, US Virgin Islands 2012-05-07 to 2012-05-18 (NODC Accession 0125237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reef fish populations are a conspicuous and essential component of USVI coral reef ecosystems. Yet despite their importance, striking population and community level...

  19. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr−1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr−1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture. (paper)

  20. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  1. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  2. Fish Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can harm the brain of your unborn baby even before he or she is conceived. Yet many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  3. Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV’s activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v. In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity, 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity, 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity, and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4% respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did.

  4. A long-term fatty fish intervention improved executive function in inpatients with antisocial traits and a history of alcohol and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Grung, Bjørn; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of fatty fish consumption on cognitive functioning in a group of inpatients characterized by antisocial behavior. Eighty-three male forensic inpatients participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group (e.g., meat, chicken, pork). One decision-making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and one planning task, the Tower of Hanoi (ToH), were administered before (pre-test) and at the end of the intervention period (post-test). For the IGT the Fish group showed improved performance from pre- to post- test. Moreover, the Fish group showed significantly better performance than the Control group on the IGT at post-test. The Fish group also demonstrated improved performance from pre- to post-test on the ToH; however, this was limited to participants with a history of substance abuse. Further, the improvement was only significant for tasks with high working memory load (5-7 move problems), and not for tasks with low working memory load (1-4 move problems). The Control group showed no improvement on any of the tasks regardless of alcohol or drug abuse history. The present study suggests that regular fatty fish consumption may improve executive functions in forensic inpatients with antisocial traits and a history of substance abuse. Thus, the current results may have important implications with regard to health care interventions. PMID:26032440

  5. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  6. Can N2O stable isotopes and isotopomers be useful tools to characterize sources and microbial pathways of N2O production and consumption in tropical soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; PéRez, T.; Boering, K. A.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gil, J.; Marquina, S.; Tyler, S. C.

    2011-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas in which the main sources are tropical rainforest and agricultural soils. N2O is produced in soils by microbial processes, which are enhanced by the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. The soil N2O bulk isotopic composition (δ15Nbulk and δ18O) and the "site-specific," or intramolecular, 15N isotopic composition, i.e., the 15N/14N ratio at the cenral (α) or terminal (β) nitrogen position, expressed in this study as δ15Nα and δ15Nβ could help identify both the sources (natural and anthropogenic) and microbial pathways of N2O production and consumption prior to emission.We report new isotope measurements of soil N2O emissions and from soil air collected during the rainy season in a mature tropical forest (Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil) and in a tropical agricultural corn field ("Fundo Tierra Nueva," Guárico State, Venezuela). The statistically different δ15Nbulk emission weighted average between the mature forest (-18.0‰ ± 4.0‰, n = 6) and agricultural corn field (-34.3‰ ± 12.4‰, n = 17) suggest that the δ15Nbulk data are useful for distinguishing N2O fluxes from fertilized agricultural and natural "background" soils. They also demonstrate that the site-specific δ15N measurements have the potential to provide a new tool to differentiate between the production and consumption N2O microbiological processes in soils. This study further demonstrates that the observed correlations (or lack thereof) between δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, and δ18O can be used to estimate the relative proportion of N2O that would have been emitted to the air but was consumed via reduction of N2O to N2 within the soil.

  7. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  8. Characterization of the Life Cycle of a Fish Eye Fluke, Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae (Digenea: Diplostomidae), with Notes on Two Other Diplostomids Infecting Biomphalaria havanensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae) from Catfish Aquaculture Ponds in Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Thomas G; Alberson, Neely R; Khoo, Lester H; Woodyard, Ethan T; Pote, Linda M; Griffin, Matt J

    2016-04-01

    Ocular diplostomiasis is caused by trematode species in the family Diplostomidae, specifically those in the genera Austrodiplostomum, Diplostomum, and Tylodelphys. Diplostomid trematodes are globally distributed parasites of fish. Heavy infections of diplostomids that parasitize the eyes of fish can result in acute mortality while chronic infections are often characterized by impaired vision or blindness. In the southeastern United States, commercial catfish production is threatened by piscivorous birds and the many trematode species that parasitize them. The life cycles typically involve a piscivorous avian definitive host, a mollusk first intermediate host, and a fish second intermediate host. A survey of parasites infecting the snail host Biomphalaria havanensis (= B. obstructa ) in catfish production ponds was undertaken. Snails were collected from 2 separate ponds during the summer of 2014 and observed for the release of trematode cercariae. A total of 1,740 snails were collected. Three distinct longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were observed and these cercariae were characterized morphologically and molecularly. Sequencing of ∼4,200 base pairs (bp) of the nuclear ribosomal genes and ∼450 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene revealed 3 genetically distinct species. One morphotype shared 99-100% sequence identity with metacercariae from the aqueous and vitreous humors of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus as well as an adult trematode, Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae, a parasite of the double-crested cormorant Nannopterum auritus. The remaining 2 cercariae morphotypes shared 99-100% sequence identity with an unidentified Tylodelphys sp. and Austrodiplostomum sp. metacercaria from the brain and eyes of several freshwater fish. Herein we molecularly link the cercaria, metacercaria, and adult stage of the life cycle of A. ostrowskiae, identifying the snail host for this parasite, in addition to providing notes

  9. A novel oxyconforming response in the freshwater fish Galaxias maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A; Glover, Chris N; Forster, Malcolm E

    2012-03-01

    How fish oxygen consumption is modulated by external PO(2) has long been a matter of interest, yet is an experimentally complicated question to answer. In this study closed and semi-closed respirometry were used to evaluate the oxygen consumption rate of the scaleless galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) as a function of decreasing external PO(2). Both respirometry techniques showed that as environmental oxygen levels declined, oxygen consumption rates also decreased. At no point did inanga regulate oxygen consumption. This is strong evidence that inanga is an oxyconformer. Partitioned respirometry experiments showed that skin plays an important role in oxygen uptake in this fish species, and cutaneous oxygen uptake may have an important role in shaping the oxygen consumption response to hypoxia. PMID:22138470

  10. Energetics of swimming of schooling fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Soc for experimental Biol Annual Meeting - Salzburg 2012 John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) When a fish school swims through the water, every individual consumes a certain amount of oxygen, which means that less will be available for the trailing fish in the school. In 1967 Mc...... separate schools. Oxygen consumption of swimming fish increases exponentially or as a power function with respect to swimming speed, and hence the decrease in oxygen saturation through the school is related to the swimming speed of the school. A model describing the oxygen saturation in a fish school from...... front to rear at different swimming speeds will be presented. The model reveals that the school has a maximum length at the optimal swimming speed, and that a very large school cannot swim at slow speeds. Oxygen saturation through a fish school is also influenced by several parameters other than...

  11. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  12. Urban energy consumption mapping for energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of energy consumption of individual buildings is a widely discussed theme. However, there are few studies that have analyzed the consumption of energy by groups of buildings. This work aims to develop a model able to estimate the energy consumption by residential sectors, in different areas inside a city, through the adoption of an energy planning methodology using the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil as a case study. In this model, the most important variables of consumption behavior are related to the economy. The methodology coupled different approaches. Its first step was to survey the ownership of appliances and the socioeconomic profile of households in each region inside of the city, through the statistical analysis of census data. The second step was to characterize the average energy consumption by typical residential equipment. Then, it was possible to compute the energy consumption according to equipment and region. Finally, the modeled municipal energy consumption was compared with that recorded by the energy utility company. As a result, maps of energy consumed by end use are presented for the years 1991, 2000, and 2007. The conclusions of this work can be applied in energy planning projections and in local urban planning. - Highlights: • We develop a model for calculating location-specific energy consumption for cities. • The methodology couples different approaches to the traditional energy planning. • As a result, we produce maps of the spatial distribution of energy consumption. • Those maps allow the evaluation of the impacts of energy consumption on urban areas

  13. Fishing long-fingered bats (Myotis capaccinii) prey regularly upon exotic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Baagøe, Hans; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2013-01-01

    The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold a high density of G. holbrooki, suggesting that the amount of fish at the water surface may be the principal factor triggering fishing. The observed six-fold increase in percentage of consumed fish across the study period may be related to recent pond-building in the area. We discuss whether this quick behavioral response is a novel feature of M. capaccinii or an intrinsic feature that has erupted and faded locally along the species' history. PMID:24312200

  14. Characterization of the profile of energy consumption in isolated regions of Mozambique; Caracterizacao do perfil de consumo energetico em regioes isoladas de Mocambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Cruz, Ricardo A. Passos da; Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira

    2008-07-01

    This article summarizes the characterization of energy demand in isolated regions of Mozambique, the result of a work for government of that country. In essence, the profile does not differ much from Brazilian reality in poor regions, except for tribal characteristics, absent here. The importance of anthropogenic energy and almost no zoogenic energy are still points of major difference between the two realities.

  15. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...... IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  16. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. PMID:24767045

  17. Research on Fish Consumer Profile Evaluation in Romanian Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at shaping a fish consumer profile in the Romanian Plain area. 150 people were interviewed. Preferences evaluation was conducted by means of a questionnaire with 27 questions. Favorite fish species, purchasing place and manner, favorite preparation choices, consumption frequency and place have been identified.

  18. 21 CFR 172.385 - Whole fish protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.385 Whole fish protein concentrate. The food... addition to the other information required by the Act: (1) The label of consumer-sized or bulk containers of the additive shall bear the name “whole fish protein concentrate”. (2) The label or labeling...

  19. Hypoxia in paradise: widespread hypoxia tolerance in coral reef fishes.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Göran E.; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara

    2004-01-01

    Using respirometry, we examined the hypoxia tolerance of 31 teleost fish species (seven families) inhabiting coral reefs at a 2-5 m depth in the lagoon at Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). All fishes studied maintained their rate of oxygen consumption down to relatively severe hypoxia (20-30% air saturation). Indeed, most fishes appeared unaffected by hypoxia until the oxygen level fell below 10% of air saturation. This, hitherto unrecognized, hypoxia tolerance among coral reef f...

  20. Fluorescent Receptor Binding Assay for Detecting Ciguatoxins in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Hardison, D. Ransom; Holland, William C.; McCall, Jennifer R.; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Darius, H. Taiana; Chinain, Mireille; Tester, Patricia A.; Shea, Damian; Harold A. Flores Quintana; Morris, James A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is an illness suffered by > 50,000 people yearly after consumption of fish containing ciguatoxins (CTXs). One of the current methodologies to detect ciguatoxins in fish is a radiolabeled receptor binding assay (RBA(R)). However, the license requirements and regulations pertaining to radioisotope utilization can limit the applicability of the RBA(R) in certain labs. A fluorescence based receptor binding assay (RBA(F)) was developed to provide an alternative method of s...

  1. Efficiency of fish propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, A P; Triantafyllou, M S; Yue, D K P

    2015-08-01

    The system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined, hence we introduce the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it requires for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is a rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms, consistent with the goal to minimize fuel consumption under size and velocity constraints. We perform two-dimensional viscous simulations and apply the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of two-dimensional undulating foils employing first carangiform and then anguilliform kinematics. We show that low efficiency may be due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, which cannot be accounted for by an increase in friction drag, as done previously, since at the Reynolds number Re = 5 000 considered in the simulations, pressure is a major contributor to both thrust and drag. PMID:26226349

  2. Are fish eaters healthier and do they consume less health-care resources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Sørensen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Regular dietary intake of fish is associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, and may improve general well-being. If fish eaters are healthier, they may use fewer health-care resources. The present study aimed to describe the reported intake of...... fish and fish products in a Danish general population, and to investigate whether fish consumption is associated with generic measures of self-reported health and consumption of health-care resources. Design: Data on eating patterns and health status for 3422 Danish adults were obtained by telephone...... interview in the Funen County Health Survey. These data were merged with individual-level register data on health-care utilisation. Survey respondents were categorised into those consuming fish at least once weekly (fish eaters) and those consuming fish less frequently (non-fish eaters). Results: People who...

  3. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Frozen Fish and Fish Processing Materials from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjee, Sohana Al; Karim, Md Ekramul

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at the microbiological analysis of export oriented frozen fishes, namely, Jew fish, Tongue Sole fish, Cuttle fish, Ribbon fish, Queen fish, and fish processing water and ice from a view of public health safety and international trade. Microbiological analysis includes the determination of total viable aerobic count by standard plate count method and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms by most probable number method. The presence of specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae were also investigated. The TVAC of all the samples was estimated below 5 × 10(5) cfu/g whereas the total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were found below 100 MPN/g and 10 MPN/g, respectively, which meet the acceptable limit specified by International Commission of Microbiological Specification for Food. The microbiological analysis of water and ice also complies with the specifications having TVAC < 20 cfu/mL, and total coliforms and fecal coliforms count were below the limit detection of the MPN method. Specific fish pathogens such as Salmonella sp. and V. cholerae were found absent in all the samples under the investigation. From this study, it can be concluded that the investigated frozen fishes were eligible for export purpose and also safe for human consumption. PMID:27019847

  6. Study of the beef consumption pattern in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Diniz Brandão Dias; Luiza Isernhagen; Ricardo Carneiro Brumatti; Fábio José Carvalho Faria; Gumercindo Loriano Franco; Charles Kiefer; Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira Ítavo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify beef consumption patterns compared to the consumption of chicken meat, pork, fish and lamb. The data were collected by questionnaire applied to the population of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Social, educational, economic and specific factors of beef consumption in relation to the order of consumption, meat attributes and consumer preference were included. The study was conducted on 429 consumers interviewed at the entrance of supermarke...

  7. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  8. Characterization of microbial associations with methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria through statistical comparison of nested Magneto-FISH enrichments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-Reichert, Elizabeth; Case, David H; Orphan, Victoria J

    2016-01-01

    Methane seep systems along continental margins host diverse and dynamic microbial assemblages, sustained in large part through the microbially mediated process of sulfate-coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). This methanotrophic metabolism has been linked to consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). These two groups are the focus of numerous studies; however, less is known about the wide diversity of other seep associated microorganisms. We selected a hierarchical set of FISH probes targeting a range of Deltaproteobacteria diversity. Using the Magneto-FISH enrichment technique, we then magnetically captured CARD-FISH hybridized cells and their physically associated microorganisms from a methane seep sediment incubation. DNA from nested Magneto-FISH experiments was analyzed using Illumina tag 16S rRNA gene sequencing (iTag). Enrichment success and potential bias with iTag was evaluated in the context of full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, CARD-FISH, functional gene clone libraries, and iTag mock communities. We determined commonly used Earth Microbiome Project (EMP) iTAG primers introduced bias in some common methane seep microbial taxa that reduced the ability to directly compare OTU relative abundances within a sample, but comparison of relative abundances between samples (in nearly all cases) and whole community-based analyses were robust. The iTag dataset was subjected to statistical co-occurrence measures of the most abundant OTUs to determine which taxa in this dataset were most correlated across all samples. Many non-canonical microbial partnerships were statistically significant in our co-occurrence network analysis, most of which were not recovered with conventional clone library sequencing, demonstrating the utility of combining Magneto-FISH and iTag sequencing methods for hypothesis generation of associations within complex microbial communities. Network analysis pointed to many co

  9. Trends in postmortem aging in fish: Understanding of proteolysis and disorganization of the myofibrillar structure

    OpenAIRE

    Delbarre Ladrat, Christine; Cheret, Romuald; Taylor, Romuald; VERREZ-BAGNIS Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Introduction : Quality attributes of fish flesh, including food safety, organoleptic features, nutritional quality and aptitude to industrial transformation, influence consumption and acceptability of fish as food. Fish sensorial changes and texture properties are closely linked to freshness. Along with ante mortem muscle biochemistry, postmortem biochemical processes are directly linked to final quality attributes. The understanding of postmortem mechanisms is a prerequisite for an accur...

  10. Isolation and characterization of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the migratory freshwater fish Leporinus obtusidens (Characiformes: Anostomidae) using 454 shotgun pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, G V; Vera, M; Díaz, J; Martinez, P; Calcaterra, N B; Arranz, S E

    2015-03-01

    Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Neotropical fish Leporinus obtusidens using a next generation sequencing approach and tested in two other characifomes species, Schizodon platae and Prochilodus lineatus. Microsatellite loci alleles in L. obtusidens ranged between 2 and 20 alleles per locus (mean = 5·7), with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0·097 to 0·956 (mean = 0·578) and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0·000 to 0·800 (mean = 0·400) in a sample of 20 specimens from the lower Paraná River (Argentina). Most of these markers will be a valuable tool for captive breeding and stocking programmes, as well as for analyses of population connectivity and genetic structure in this broadly distributed Neotropical migratory fish. PMID:25683648

  11. ANALYSIS OF FISH AND FISH PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE ON TEMPORARY STAGE OF FORMATION OF MARKET RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Smirnyuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze production of fish and fish products in Ukraine and to determine aspects pg successful functioning of fish products at internal market of Ukraine. Methods. Analysis of fish and fish products in Ukraine was conducted using methods generally accepted in economy. Variants of forecasted demand-proposition balances were calculated oriented at forecasted data of the “State purpose-oriented economical program of fish industry development for 2012-2016”. For composing forecasted demand-proposition balances for fish products, we used a methodological approach based on the “Method for composing demand and proposition balances of agricultural products and food supplies” according to generally accepted international scheme. Findings. The studies demonstrated that the tendency of fish harvest amounts reduction in Ukraine continued. E.g., according to the State Statistics Service, during the period of 2008-2012, fish catches dropped from 224.2 thousand tons to 203.9 thousand tons or by 9.1%, and by 3.4% compared to the previous year 2011 that is 96.6% of the catch of 2011. The analysis demonstrated that production of fish products in Ukraine in 2012 was 148.18 thousand tons. During last five years, amounts of their production dropped by 25.3%.It was estimated that supply of domestic food fish products for population of Ukraine during last 5 years was on average about 4 kg per capita. The deficiency of domestic production was covered by import. It was found that per capita consumption of fish and fish products in Ukraine for 5 last years dropped from 17.5 kg in 2008 to 13.6 kg in 2012 that first of all was due to decrease of fish and fish products import to Ukraine from 581.6 thousand tons in 2008 to 439.8 thousand tons in 2012. Despite decrease of amounts of fish and fish products imported to Ukraine, its part in internal consumption fund of these products remains high enough and is at the level of 71.0% with a 30% threshold

  12. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  13. Genomic characterization of the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax reveals the presence of a novel uncoupling protein (UCP gene family member in the teleost fish lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Mbaye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncoupling proteins (UCP are evolutionary conserved mitochondrial carriers that control energy metabolism and therefore play important roles in several physiological processes such as thermogenesis, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, growth control, lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin secretion. Despite their importance in various physiological processes, their molecular function remains controversial. The evolution and phylogenetic distribution may assist to identify their general biological function and structure-function relationships. The exact number of uncoupling protein genes in the fish genome and their evolution is unresolved. Results Here we report the first characterisation of UCP gene family members in sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, and then retrace the evolution of the protein family in vertebrates. Four UCP genes that are shared by five other fish species were identified in sea bass genome. Phylogenetic reconstitution among vertebrate species and synteny analysis revealed that UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 evolved from duplication events that occurred in the common ancestor of vertebrates, whereas the novel fourth UCP originated specifically in the teleost lineage. Functional divergence analysis among teleost species revealed specific amino acid positions that have been subjected to altered functional constraints after duplications. Conclusions This work provides the first unambiguous evidence for the presence of a fourth UCP gene in teleost fish genome and brings new insights into the evolutionary history of the gene family. Our results suggest functional divergence among paralogues which might result from long-term and differential selective pressures, and therefore, provide the indication that UCP genes may have diverse physiological functions in teleost fishes. Further experimental analysis of the critical amino acids identified here may provide valuable information on the physiological functions of

  14. Epidemiologic confirmation that fruit consumption influences mercury exposure in riparian communities in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since deforestation has recently been associated with increased mercury load in the Amazon, the problem of mercury exposure is now much more widespread than initially thought. A previous exploratory study suggested that fruit consumption may reduce mercury exposure. The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fruit consumption on the relation between fish consumption and bioindicators of mercury (Hg) exposure in Amazonian fish-eating communities. A cross-sectional dietary survey based on a 7-day recall of fish and fruit consumption frequency was conducted within 13 riparian communities from the Tapajos River, Brazilian Amazon. Hair samples were collected from 449 persons, and blood samples were collected from a subset of 225, for total and inorganic mercury determination by atomic absorption spectrometry. On average, participants consumed 6.6 fish meals/week and ate 11 fruits/week. The average blood Hg (BHg) was 57.1±36.3 μg/L (median: 55.1 μg/L), and the average hair-Hg (HHg) was 16.8±10.3 μg/g (median: 15.7 μg/g). There was a positive relation between fish consumption and BHg (r=0.48; P2=36.0%) and HHg levels (fish: β=1.2, P2=21.0%). ANCOVA models showed that for the same number of fish meals, persons consuming fruits more frequently had significantly lower blood and HHg concentrations. For low fruit consumers, each fish meal contributed 9.8 μg/L Hg increase in blood compared to only 3.3 μg/L Hg increase for the high fruit consumers. In conclusion, fruit consumption may provide a protective effect for Hg exposure in Amazonian riparians. Prevention strategies that seek to maintain fish consumption while reducing Hg exposure in fish-eating communities should be pursued

  15. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  16. Rice consumption contributes to arsenic exposure in US women

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Gruber, Joann F.; Punshon, Tracy; Sayarath, Vicki; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Baker, Emily R.; Jackson, Brian P.; Folt, Carol L; Margaret R Karagas

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's ho...

  17. Attitude, motivation, and consumption of seafood in Bacninh province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Nguyen Tien

    2007-01-01

    This study applies the theory planed behavior (TPB - Ajzen, 1991) to investigate the general antecedents of seafood consumption in Bacninh province of Vietnam. The results show that customers in the area consume seafood at a low frequency although they have high motivation and positive attitude toward fish consumption. A further investigation reveals that quality, negative effects, and suitability have significant impact on attitude, while availability, suitability, and value are main determi...

  18. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  19. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  20. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  1. Replacing fish meal by food waste to produce lower trophic level fish containing acceptable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing-Yin; Lam, Cheung-Lung; Choi, Wai-Ming; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at using different types of food wastes (mainly containing cereal [food waste A] and meat meal [food waste B]) as major sources of protein to replace the fish meal used in fish feeds to produce quality fish. The traditional fish farming model used to culture low trophic level fish included: bighead, (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), and mud carp, (Cirrhinus molitorella) of omnivorous chain. The results indicated that grass carp and bighead carp fed with food waste feeds were relatively free of PAHs. The results of health risk assessment showed that the fish fed with food waste feeds were safe for consumption from the PAHs perspective. PMID:25880597

  2. Energy consumptions per sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  3. Ethical Food Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn

    aspects of ethical food consumption and, based on this, provide concrete policy inputs. The scope of the research is highly interdisciplinary, and includes perspectives from ethics and the social sciences on food consumption. Paper I: Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes? In the...... mitigation via decreased consumption of meat. Second, we investigate the extent to which the reduced consumption of meat by organic food consumers is motivated by climate change concerns. The questions are approached by analysing panel and survey data on organic food consumption. Paper II: The role of......So-called ‘ethical’ food products have spread across the industrialised world. These are products that are produced under labelling schemes with extraordinary attentiveness to issues such as farm animal welfare and environmental protection. Political decision-makers and other stakeholders in food...

  4. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN FISH OF THE LIGURIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prearo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this investigation was to evaluate heavy metals contamination (mercury, cadmium and lead in fish and shellfish from Ligurian Sea. 58 muscle samples (45 fish and 13 shellfish were collected and analyzed. 20 samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs set by regulation for mercury (16 fish and 4 shellfish samples, while only one fish sample was not consistent with the MRL for lead. Therefore, 35,8% of Ligurian fishing turned out to be not adequate and potentially harmful for consumers. In order to estimate the real risk for human health it is necessary to enforce this study, correlating the results with fish species and with the effective fish consumption.

  5. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  6. Essays on consumption cycles and corporate finance

    OpenAIRE

    Issler, Paulo Floriano

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two chapters that concern with the consumption cycle and corporate finance. The first chapter analyzes the role of durability in characterizing the consumption cycle. There is strong empirical evidence demonstrating that decreases in residential investments and durable expenditures are early indicators of economic downturns. Analogously, once the economy goes into recession, early increases in residential investments and durable expenditures signal economic recov...

  7. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Ruqu Wang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  8. The Optimal Consumption and the Quitting of Harmful Addictive Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Ruqu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a model of rational consumption and quitting in the context of harmful addictive goods. We assume that a person has imperfect information about his ability to resist and terminate the addiction. We first characterize the optimal consumption path of a non-addicted person, along which his stock of the addictive substance is either always increasing (and thus addiction occurs stochastically), always decreasing, or always unchanged. We then characterize the optimal consumpt...

  9. Consumption and asset prices with homothetic recursive preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Mark; Gilles, Christian

    1999-01-01

    When preferences are homothetic, utility can be expressed in terms of current consumption and a variable that captures all information about future opportunities. We use this observation to express the differential equation that characterizes utility as a restriction on the information variable in terms of the dynamics of consumption. We derive the supporting price system and returns process and thereby characterize optimal consumption and portfolio decisions. We provide a fast and accurate n...

  10. Customer Consumption Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Vižintin, Matija

    2014-01-01

    A major Slovenian public utility needed an application that would facilitate its customers to insert gas consumption data on its measurement places. We developed a web application to automatically retrieve gas consumption data. This automated data retrieval solution was developed to allow consumers to provide consumption data to the system operator in an electronic and secure way. We put a big effort in application security aspect, since it had to be assured on every communication layer, beca...

  11. Understanding Government Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka V. Půlpánová

    2013-01-01

    Government fi nal consumption represents one of the key indicators provided by national accounts, but at thesame time one with relatively problematic economic interpretation. Th e concept of government fi nal consumptionexpenditure involves a number of conventions. As a result, its economic and statistical character diff ersfrom other fi nal expenditure components in total economy like household consumption or investment. Th earticle explains how government fi nal consumption expenditure and ...

  12. Conspicuous Consumption and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Traditional tools of welfare economics identify the envy-related welfare loss from conspicuous consumption only under very strong assumptions. Measured income and life satisfaction offers an alternative for estimating such consumption externalities. The approach is developed in the context of luxury car consumption (Ferraris and Porsches) in Switzerland. Results from household panel data and fixed effects panel regressions suggest that the prevalence of luxury cars in the municipality of resi...

  13. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  14. Energy Consumption of Escalators

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Semen

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the impact of passenger load and different load scenarios on the energy consumption of escalators. The scope of thesis is analysis of energy used, in kWh, by an escalator pair with specific technical requirements, and effect of the passenger flow on energy consumption of the selected escalator pair. Previous studies revealed lack of knowledge about the effects of power saving modes on the power consumption profiles of escalators. This study provides typical daily energy co...

  15. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  16. Mercury in fish from two Nicaraguan lakes: A recommendation for increased monitoring of fish for international commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured total mercury concentrations in water and fish of Lake Managua and Lake Apoyo. Water mercury concentrations were 10-fold higher in Lake Managua than in Lake Apoyo, although differences in mercury concentration in the most common native fish were not significant. One-fourth of the commercially fished tilapia in Lake Managua exceeded maximum recommended mercury levels for consumption among pregnant women and other at-risk groups, although bioavailability to fishes was lower than in previously studied sites in Brazil and Western Maryland. The lower bioavailiability may present important information for management options to reduce mercury exposure to fishes and humans. We recommend closer mercury monitoring among freshwater fish destined for international commerce. - Fish commonly exported into the international food supply may be contaminated with mercury

  17. Mercury in fish from two Nicaraguan lakes: A recommendation for increased monitoring of fish for international commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrary, Jeffrey K. [University of Central America, Apdo. 69, Managua (Nicaragua) and College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)]. E-mail: jmccrary2@yahoo.com; Castro, Mark [Appalachian Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532 (United States); McKaye, Kenneth R. [University of Central America, Apdo. 69, Managua (Nicaragua); Appalachian Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 301 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We measured total mercury concentrations in water and fish of Lake Managua and Lake Apoyo. Water mercury concentrations were 10-fold higher in Lake Managua than in Lake Apoyo, although differences in mercury concentration in the most common native fish were not significant. One-fourth of the commercially fished tilapia in Lake Managua exceeded maximum recommended mercury levels for consumption among pregnant women and other at-risk groups, although bioavailability to fishes was lower than in previously studied sites in Brazil and Western Maryland. The lower bioavailiability may present important information for management options to reduce mercury exposure to fishes and humans. We recommend closer mercury monitoring among freshwater fish destined for international commerce. - Fish commonly exported into the international food supply may be contaminated with mercury.

  18. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  19. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  20. Café da manhã: caracterização, consumo e importância para a saúde Breakfast: characterization, consumption and importance for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Caroline Trancoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O café da manhã é uma das três principais refeições do dia, mas, apesar da sua importância para a saúde, a diminuição do seu consumo é uma modificação importante no comportamento alimentar atual. Neste estudo, reflete-se sobre a caracterização dessa refeição e a implicação de seu consumo para a saúde; discutem-se, também, sua importância e as recomendações de consumo. Após revisão de artigos e respectivas contribuições científicas em bases de dados da área, pode-se afirmar que o café da manhã, objeto desta comunicação, é ainda bastante carente de pesquisas na literatura científica. Contudo, evidências científicas associam o consumo habitual de café da manhã a baixo risco de sobrepeso e obesidade, bem como melhoria na capacidade de aprendizagem. Estudos identificam que o perfil dos consumidores frequentes dessa refeição é de não fumantes que praticam atividade física, que controlam o peso e que não fazem uso frequente de álcool. Os autores pesquisados sugerem, assim, uma relação positiva entre o consumo de café da manhã e um estilo de vida saudável, justificando a recomendação de programas de incentivo ao seu consumo.Breakfast is one of the main daily meals but despite its importance for health, skipping breakfast is becoming increasingly common and constitutes an important change from former to current food habits. This study discusses the characterization of this meal, its implication on health, its importance and consumption recommendations. Searching databases in the field for articles and their respective scientific contributions evidences that there are very few studies on this meal. However, the existing studies show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity and improved learning ability. Individuals who have breakfast regularly are usually physically active nonsmokers who monitor their weight and drink only sporadically. Thus, the