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Sample records for characterize fish consumption

  1. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and ...... products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  3. Use of advanced cluster analysis to characterize fish consumption patterns and methylmercury dietary exposures from fish and other sea foods among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzaud, Francois; Ibbou, Assia; Blanchemanche, Sandrine;

    2010-01-01

    % of the women reached the recommended intake of 500 mg/day n-3 PUFA. Cluster analysis of the fish consumption showed that they could be grouped in five major clusters that are largely predictable of the intake of both MeHg and n-3 PUFA. This study shows that a global increase in seafood consumption could lead......Hg) exposure in a sample of 161 French pregnant women consuming sea food, including fish, molluscs and crustaceans, and to explore the use of unsupervised statistical learning as an advanced type of cluster analysis to identify patterns of fish consumption that could predict exposure to MeHg and the coverage...... of the Recommended Daily Allowance for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The proportion of about 5% of pregnant women exposed at levels higher than the tolerable weekly intake for MeHg is similar to that observed among women of childbearing age in earlier French studies. At the same time, only about 50...

  4. Fish consumption preferences and factors influencing it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ferit Can

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption preferences are affected by individuals’ socioeconomic characteristics. The aims of the present paper were (i to obtain information on fish consumption level and frequency; (ii to investigate the associations between the socioeconomic characteristics of consumers and their preferences; and (iii to examine the influence of determinants on fish consumption. Data were gathered through a questionnaire completed by a total of 127 randomly selected individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds from the Antakya, Turkey. The average consumption was found to be 2.98 kg/person/year for fish. Anchovies, gilt-head sea bream, and sea bass were reported as the most consumed three species, respectively. Significant differences in fish consumption were found among age groups, gender groups, and education groups, as well as between marital statuses. A majority of the consumers eat fish once a month throughout the year or only during the winter months. Fish consumption level and frequency were significantly positively correlated with education (p<0.01, income (p<0.05 and total meat consumption (p<0.01. The stepwise multiple regression model explained 41.7% (p<0.01 of the total variance for fish consumption. The amount and frequency of the consumption in the region, which is very far below the world and Turkey average especially for lower socioeconomic groups and for less-consumed fish species, can be increased by certain policies, such as training, advertising and different marketing strategies. Moreover, consumption should be distributed equally throughout the year instead of consuming only in certain seasons.

  5. Evaluating microcystin exposure risk through fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Poste, Amanda E.; Hecky, Robert E.; Guildford, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Microcystin is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin that is found worldwide, and poses a serious threat to the ecological communities in which it is found as well as to those who rely on these waters for drinking, sanitation, or as a food source. Microcystin is known to accumulate in fish and other aquatic biota, however the prevalence of microcystin in fish tissue and the human health risks posed by microcystin exposure through fish consumption remain poorly resolved. Here we show that microcystin i...

  6. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  7. Mercury advisories: Information, education, and fish consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Shimshack, Jay P; Ward, Michael B.; Beatty, Timothy K.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines responses to a national FDA advisory that urged at-risk individuals to limit store-bought fish consumption due to the dangers of methyl-mercury. We investigate consumer response using both parametric and nonparametric methods. Some targeted consumers significantly reduced canned fish purchases as a result of the advisory, suggesting that information-based policies can achieve the issuing agency’s goals. Education and newspaper readership were important determinants of resp...

  8. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  9. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG...

  10. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L. Carwile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion. Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18 compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish.

  11. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG......, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically......). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. RESULTS: In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P

  12. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variat...

  13. Knowledge and barriers relating to fish consumption in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Miller, Michelle; Cobiac, Lynne

    2012-10-01

    Among 854 Australians ≥ 51 years of age, this cross-sectional survey explored knowledge regarding finfish consumption, sources of information on fish and omega 3 fatty acids, what barriers limit finfish consumption and what factors predict its consumption. The survey consisted of a validated quantitative fish frequency questionnaire with additional questions on barriers and knowledge relating to finfish. Twelve percent of respondents consumed oily fish ≥ 2 times per week. Cost was the most frequently (37%) reported barrier for fresh finfish consumption. In multiple regression analysis, respondents' exposure to multiple sources of information (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.135 (1.01, 1.28), who correctly identified the current recommendations for fish consumption; 1.87 (1.13, 3.07), agreed that fish improves general health; 3.57 (1.13, 11.30), and reported fewer barriers towards canned fish consumption; 0.59 (0.41, 0.84) were more likely to consume ≥ 2 servings of fresh finfish per week. Education and health programs need to be readily available highlighting current recommendations for fish consumption and how targets can be achieved. Meal plans with various finfish/seafood and amounts of omega 3 fatty acids required to achieve recommendations, and within a suitable budget, is likely to be an important strategy to target older consumers to increase consumption.

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and...

  15. Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lincoln, Rebecca A; Shine, James P; Chesney, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the U.S. may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives: We examined relationships between fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake...... collected and analyzed for total Hg. Questionnaires provided information on species-specific fish consumption over 3 months prior to the survey. Results: Anglers' median hair-Hg concentration was 0.81 µg/g (n=398; range: 0.02-10.7 µg/g), with 40% of participants above 1 µg/g, the level that approximately...... corresponds to the U.S. EPA's reference dose. Fish consumption and Hg intake were significantly positively associated with hair-Hg. Participants reported consuming nearly 80 different fish types, many of which are specific to the region. Unlike the general U.S. population, which acquires most of its Hg from...

  16. Benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aimed at identifying and discussing scientific evidences on the benefits and risks of fish consumption the human health. There was a systematic survey for articles published from 2003 and May 2011, at the MedLine, Scopus, SciELO, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases. The key words used were: fish, food intake, omega-3 fatty acids, fatty fish, benefits, risk, and consumption. The search produced 12,632 articles, 25 eligible cohort studies on possible benefits, 61 on risks and 10 studies that assessed the "risk/benefit" relation. Of the 25 works, 14 suggested a preventive effect of fish consumption related to cardiovascular diseases, depression, cataract and some types of cancer. Evidences of a relation between exposure to mercury and an increase in the risk of neurological disorders, but not of cardiovascular diseases, were also found. Given the importance of fish consumption, its possible risks and the lack of Brazilian studies on the topic, it is important to conduct more longitudinal studies that assess both the benefits and risks of fish consumption for the human health. We also emphasize the need for policies to reduce exposure of fish and seafood to mercury and other contaminants.

  17. Motives, barriers and quality evaluation in fish consumption situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-01-01

    though fish consumption levels differ considerably. The main motives for eating fish are health and taste, while the main barriers are price perception, smell when cooking fish, and that fish does not deliver the same level of satiety as compared to meat. Big differences are found between countries....../implications - This study is based on qualitative focus group discussions in two European countries only. Originality/value - This study explores and compares motives, barriers and quality evaluation among heavy and light fish consumers in two European countries. The paper yields valuable insights for further quantitative......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate motives and barriers for eating fish among light users and heavy users, to discuss consumer evaluation of fish quality, and to explore the existence of cross-cultural fish consumer  segments. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were...

  18. Maternal Fish Consumption, Mercury Levels, and Risk of Preterm Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Fei; Holzman, Claudia; Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Trosko, Kay; Fischer, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pregnant women receive mixed messages about fish consumption in pregnancy because unsaturated fatty acids and protein in fish are thought to be beneficial, but contaminants such as methylmercury may pose a hazard. Methods In the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study, women were enrolled in the 15th to 27th week of pregnancy from 52 prenatal clinics in five Michigan communities. At enrollment, information was gathered on amount and category of fish consumed during th...

  19. Assessment of mercury intake associated with fish consumption in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Saša; Antonijević, Biljana; Ćurčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Nikolić, Dragica; Ćupić, Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional benefits of fish can be attributed primarily to the content of high-quality proteins, vitamins, elements and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, fish and fishery products are susceptible to contamination by chemicals that have been recognized as ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as toxic elements and polychlorinated organic compounds. Fish consumption could be therefore considered as one of the major sources of human exposure to all above-mentioned envir...

  20. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-03-28

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  1. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Picklo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  2. Why don’t adolescents eat fish? Factors influencing fish consumption in school

    OpenAIRE

    Prell, Hillevi; Berg, Christina; Jonsson, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Background: Theory-based research is needed to promote healthy eating in adolescents and to work out interventions. Objective: To examine what factors influence adolescents’ fish consumption in school. Design: A total of 162 pupils from the 8th grade (age º14 years) at two schools completed a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In 150 of these subjects, fish consumption was assessed by observation on four occasions. Results: Attitudes towards the fish, friends’ behaviour a...

  3. Fish consumption and advisory awareness among expectant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliori, Gemma; Imm, Pam; Anderson, Henry A; Knobeloch, Lynda

    2006-03-01

    During the spring of 2003, the Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services (DHFS) piloted a fish consumption advisory program targeted at pregnant women. Fish consumption recommendations and information about the prenatal effects of methylmercury were illustrated in multilingual posters, brochures, fact cards, and other promotional items. These materials were mailed to Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program providers, local health departments, and medical clinics, along with a cover letter that encouraged them to display the materials in waiting areas and distribute them to new mothers and expectant women who visited their facilities. In August 2003, a survey was mailed to 1000 women who had given birth during the first week of June 2003. The survey was intended to provide an estimate of the number and types of fish meals the women had consumed during pregnancy and evaluate their familiarity with the outreach materials. On average, survey respondents consumed 3 fish meals a month. The most frequently consumed fish were canned tuna and frozen fish. Approximately one third of women knew that older fish and predatory fish have the highest levels of mercury. While almost half of the women were aware of Wisconsin's sport fish advisory, only 13% of them remembered seeing any of the outreach materials.

  4. Fish consumption and cardiovascular response during mental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Takehiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent fish consumption is related to a lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect are as yet unknown. We therefore examined certain cardiovascular physiological variables of fish eaters during rest, whilst conducting mental arithmetic, and during recovery. Findings The participants were 12 fish eaters (eating baked fish more than 3–4 times/week and 13 controls (eating fish less than 1–2 times/week. Analysis of the collected data revealed that heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly lower and pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly higher in the fish eaters than in the controls during both rest and mental arithmetic, and that systolic and mean blood pressure recovery from mental arithmetic were faster in the fish eaters than in the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest a possible physiological mechanism that may explain why frequent fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease risk.

  5. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    on adult particulate feeding fish is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the availability of the large copepods determines food consumption and growth conditions of lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) in the North Sea. Analysis of stomach content suggested that food...... consumption is higher for fish feeding on large copepods, and additional calculations revealed how handling time limitation may provide part of the explanation for this relationship. Comparing stomach data and zooplankton samples indicated that lesser sandeel actively target large copepods when...

  6. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marika.Berglund@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-01

    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  7. Association of health involvement and attitudes towards eating fish on farmed and wild fish consumption in Belgium, Norway and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Vanhonacker, F.; Verbeke, W.; Luten, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers in many European countries do not equally meet the recommended daily intake levels for fish consumption. Various factors that can influence fish consumption behaviour have been identified but limited research has been performed on fish consumption behaviour, discriminating between farmed a

  8. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  9. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  10. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  11. Need for Improved Risk Communication of Fish Consumption Advisories to Protect Maternal and Child Health: Influence of Primary Informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption has established benefits, including the promotion of cardiovascular health and pre- and neonatal brain and eye development, but local freshwater fish may be a source of contaminants that are especially harmful to fetuses and young children, such as the neurotoxic and developmentally toxic methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish consumption advisories may be issued by state health departments to limit human exposure to these and other toxicants. This study examined the efficacy of a sign designed by the North Carolina Division of Public Health that was posted along a reservoir (Badin Lake in central North Carolina, USA, for increasing anglers’ awareness of a fish consumption advisory, with a special focus on anglers who share their catch with women and children. In this study, 109 anglers were interviewed about their awareness of fish consumption advisories in general and their knowledge of the Badin Lake fish advisory in particular. Shore anglers were significantly less likely to be aware of the term “fish consumption advisory” and of the specific advisory for Badin Lake than boat anglers. Although a significant increase in knowledge of the specific fish consumption advisory was found for the entire sample of study participants after the sign intervention, a commensurate increase in knowledge was not found for a subsample of anglers who reported sharing their catch with women and children. Study findings underscore differences in fish consumption advisory awareness among subpopulations. Specifically, the study revealed the importance of characterizing the communication needs of shore anglers and anglers who share their catch with sensitive subpopulations (e.g., women and children for the creation of more targeted communications of fish consumption advisories.

  12. Comparison of patterns and knowledge of benefits and warnings of fish consumption between parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Lin, Shao; Chen, Ming; Luo, Ming; Tang, Jianzhong; Hwang, Syni-An

    2014-07-01

    We examined generational differences in fish consumption and knowledge of benefits/warnings of fish consumption among parents and children. This cross-sectional study gathered self-administered questionnaire data, including demographics, fish consumption behavior (including specific fish species) and knowledge of fish consumption warnings and benefits. Fish were later grouped into four categories by potential mercury contamination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for all variables comparing all adults and children. Benefit/risk knowledge variables were also descriptively analyzed among parent-child pairs only. Multivariate Poisson regression was conducted on pairs to assess risk factors for children eating higher mercury fish. 421 adults and 207 children (171 adult-child pairs) participated (family response rate: 71%). Slightly more adults (97.6%) ate fish in the last year than children (92.3%); however, there was no difference between consumption of fish by category of potential mercury contamination. Both adults (44%) and children (45%) ate high-mercury fish. In 71% of parent-child pairs, both the parent and the child knew of benefits of consuming fish; only 31% knew of warnings. Parental consumption of high or moderately-high-mercury fish was related to the child's consumption of fish in the same category. Parents and children need additional education to make better choices about fish consumption. Education should target the family and include specifics about benefits and risks.

  13. Fishing and Fish Consumption in the Swahili Communities of East Africa, 700–1400 CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eréndira M. Quintana Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Historical and archaeological records of consumption practices indicate that people living along the Swahili coast relied largely on fish for subsistence; however, little research has been done to explore how aquatic subsistence strategies varied among different settlements in the region, both spatially and chronologically. Such questions are particularly interesting, as the communities were largely urban, and relied on fish for the bulk of their protein consumption. We compared evidence of subsistence strategies and exploited fish habitats in two Swahili regions that represent different maritime landscapes. Because particular fish species generally inhabit different sections of the marine environment, the composition of these species at each site can be used to estimate the variable exploitation of these habitats. Overall, the analysed samples showed a heavy exploitation of fish found around coral reefs, but with varying proportions of other exploited habitats, such as estuary, mangrove, sandy/muddy, and outer reef zones. The general pattern indicates that samples from offshore islands have higher representations of fish from coral/rocky habitats while samples from near-shore islands show a lower reliance on coral species. Over time there is an increase at certain sites in the exploitation of oceanic and pelagic fish that coincides with the more frequent consumption of domesticated bovids. We discuss the historical and environmental implications of these variable patterns of aquatic subsistence strategies along the East African coastline, and propose that there is a close link between their ability to exploit these marine resources, their success as urban settlements, and the development of feasting rituals.

  14. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household......Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  15. MERCURY EXPOSURE FROM FISH CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE JAPANESE AND KOREAN COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent ...

  16. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5......·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0......·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did...

  17. Public Awareness of Mercury in Fish: Analysis of Public Awareness and Assessment of Fish Consumption in Vermont

    OpenAIRE

    Damsky, William E.; Duncan, Elizabeth; Flanagan, Noreen; Fromhold, Karen; Dung, Hyunh; Meyer, Russell; Sax, Jordan; Delaney, Thomas; Bress, William; Hoffman-Contois, Razelle; Carney, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to mercury from environmental sources, such as fish consumption, poses potential health risks to the public. The state of Vermont has developed educational brochures and posters displaying safe fish consumption guidelines in order to educate the public regarding mercury exposure through fish. In this study, a group of medical students from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, in partnership with the Vermont Department of Health, conducted a study in Chittenden County, Vermo...

  18. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL, a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g (p < 0.01. Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01. Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38 times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01. The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  19. Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Jensen, Emily L; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2014-06-26

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84-16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  20. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.

  1. Statement on the benefits of fish/seafood consumption compared to the risks of methylmercury in fish/seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Scientific Committee (SC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to carry out a risk benefit analysis as regards the risks and benefits to human health of fish/seafood consumption related to methylmercury, the EFSA Scientific Committee used previous work performed by the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain and the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies to create scenarios based on typical fish consumption patterns of population groups at risk of exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI for methylmercury. The Scientific Committee then estimated how many servings of fish/seafood per week these population groups would need to reach the TWI for methylmercury and the dietary reference value (DRV for n-3 (Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (LCPUFA. When consuming species with a high methylmercury content, only a few numbers of servings (<1–2 can be eaten before reaching the TWI, which may be attained before the DRV. To protect against inter alia neurodevelopmental toxicity of methylmercury and achieve the benefits of fish consumption (effect of fish/seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and on cardiovascular diseases in adults, which are associated with 1–4 fish servings per week, fish/seafood species with a high content of mercury in the daily diet should be limited. Because a variety of fish species are consumed across Europe, it is not possible to make general recommendations on fish consumption. The Scientific Committee therefore recommends that each country needs to consider its own pattern of fish consumption, especially the species of fish consumed, and carefully assess the risk of exceeding the TWI of methylmercury while obtaining the health benefits from consumption of fish/seafood.

  2. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  3. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst...... the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...... orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm...

  4. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobsen, M.U.; Due, K.M.; Dethlefsen, C.; Halkjaer, J.; Holst, C.; Forouhi, N.G.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Palli, D.; Masala, G.; A, van der D.; Wareham, N.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Overvad, K.

    2012-01-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between

  5. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M;

    2013-01-01

    weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over......- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has...

  6. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  7. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  8. Fish consumption during pregnancy: an overview of the risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Evidence supports the benefits of fish consumption during pregnancy, primarily because of the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the neurodevelopment of the fetus. Many fish may also be potent sources of methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenol exposure, which have been shown to have severe negative impacts on both the mother and fetus. Therefore, all women of childbearing age should be informed of both the benefits and risks of fish consumption.

  9. Comprehension of Fish Consumption Guidelines Among Older Male Anglers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle R; Thompson, Brooke A; Schrank, Candy S; Williams, Meghan C W; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-02-01

    Although awareness of Wisconsin's fish consumption guidelines is high among older male anglers, little is known about comprehension of guideline content, and many anglers have levels of contaminants high enough to be associated with adverse health outcomes. The Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes Restoration Initiative supported evaluation and revision of Wisconsin's fish consumption guideline program, using a web based survey of male Wisconsin anglers over the age of 50. A total of 3740 men completed the online survey; the median age of respondents was 62 years, and nearly all had lived and fished in Wisconsin for over 10 years. Comprehension of guideline content was relatively high, although two knowledge gaps were identified, one relating to mercury exposures and fish preparation, and the other to polychlorinated biphenyl content of certain fish species. The fishing regulations booklet distributed with annual fishing licenses and warning signs posted at fishing locations were commonly reported sources of guideline information in Wisconsin. Residents of coastal counties and consumers of Great Lakes fish were more likely to report guideline knowledge and behavior changes reflective of guideline knowledge, when compared to inland residents and those not consuming Great Lakes fish, respectively. In general, Wisconsin's consumption guidelines do not appear to discourage men from eating the fish they catch; rather, the most common behavioral changes included modifying the species eaten or the water body source of their meals. Continued efforts to educate anglers about the risks and benefits of fish consumption are needed.

  10. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people. -- Intake of mercury through consumption of some marine fish species might be hazardous to the people in Southeast Asia.

  11. Theory of planned behavior applied to fish consumption in modern Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie HIGUCHI

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite being an important source of protein, fish consumption in Peru is low compared with other coastal countries. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the core determinants of such consumption. We based our analysis on the framework provided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB where attitudes, subjective norms, past experience and health involvement determine the intention and frequency of fish consumption. Primary data were gathered through 159 consumers of fish in modern Metropolitan Lima between August and October 2015. From a set of likert scale indicators a structural model was specified to evaluate the relationships given by the theoretical framework of the TPB. The results showed that the intention to eat fish is determined by personal attitudes, norms and past experience, and as expected, intention itself causes the frequency of fish consumption. Nonetheless, although consumers’ interest in healthy eating was shown to positively influence fish consumption behavior by theory, Metropolitan Lima fish consumers seem to be not concerned by positive health attributes related to fish consumption. These results may have important implications on production decisions, sales and marketing for the promotion of fish in Lima as a means of economic development.

  12. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  13. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  14. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis ...

  15. Public awareness of mercury in fish: analysis of public awareness and assessment of fish consumption in vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsky, William E; Duncan, Elizabeth; Flanagan, Noreen; Fromhold, Karen; Dung, Hyunh; Meyer, Russell; Sax, Jordan; Delaney, Thomas; Bress, William; Hoffman-Contois, Razelle; Carney, Jan K

    2009-11-16

    Exposure to mercury from environmental sources, such as fish consumption, poses potential health risks to the public. The state of Vermont has developed educational brochures and posters displaying safe fish consumption guidelines in order to educate the public regarding mercury exposure through fish. In this study, a group of medical students from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, in partnership with the Vermont Department of Health, conducted a study in Chittenden County, Vermont in order to assess both fish consumption practices and overall awareness of such safe eating guidelines and mercury advisories. A total of 166 Vermont residents were surveyed during a six week period. The results of this survey suggest that in Chittenden county of Vermont, these educational efforts are markedly successful, with 48% of respondents being specifically aware of the safe eating guidelines. Further, these results suggest that 61% of those respondents that reported low monthly canned tuna consumption had a decreased their consumption in response to the safe eating guidelines. last, a series of specific, yet widely applicable recommendations are presented for future public educational efforts regarding mercury exposure through fish consumption.

  16. Modeling Tribal Exposures to Methyl Mercury from Fish Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — data is from NHANES study and EPA fish intake and HG concentration in fish tissue. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Xue , J., V. Zartarian...

  17. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus; Halkjaer, Jytte; Holst, Claus; Forouhi, Nita G; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference.

  18. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qian; Goncalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas

  19. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas.

  20. Factors in exposure assessment: Ethnic and socio-economic differences in fishing and consumption of fish caught along the Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J. [Rutgers-the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Nelson Biological Lab.]|[Environmental and Occupational health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Stephens, W.L.; Boring, C.S. [Environmental and Occupational health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kuklinski, M. [Environmental and Occupational health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gibbons, J.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Gochfeld, M. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States). Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

    1999-06-01

    South Carolina has issued fish consumption advisories for the Savannah River based on mercury and radionuclide levels. The authors examine differences in fishing rates and fish consumption of 258 people interviewed while fishing along the Savannah River, as a function of age, education, ethnicity, employment history, and income, and test the assumption that the average consumption of fish is less than the recreational value of 19 kg/year assumed by risk assessors. Ethnicity and education contributed significantly to explaining variations in number of fish meals per month, serving size, and total quantity of fish consumed per year. Blacks fished more often, ate more fish meals of slightly larger serving sizes, and consumed more fish per year than did Whites. Although education and income were correlated, education contributed most significantly to behavior; people who did not graduate from high school ate fish more often, ate more fish per year, and ate more whole fish than people who graduated from high school. Computing consumption of fish for each person individually indicates that (1) people who eat fish more often also eat larger portions, (2) a substantial number of people consume more than the amount of fish used to compute risk to recreational fishermen, (3) some people consume more than the subsistence level default assumption (50 kg/year) and (4) Blacks consume more fish per year than Whites, putting them at greater risk from contaminants in fish. Overall, ethnicity, age, and education contributed to variations in fishing behavior and consumption.

  1. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers.

  2. Determination of households fish consumption structure and purchase behaviors in urban areas of Van

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Terin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the household fish consumption structure and purchase behaviors in urban areas of Van Province. The main data of this study has been compiled through questionnaires from 260 households. In the analysis of the data, frequency tables, chi-square independence test were used and the relationships between the quantity of fish consumption of the households and some socio–demographic categorical variables have been examined through f and t tests. It has been determined that 89.2 % of the participating households consume fish while 10.8 % do not. Nearly a third (35.7 % of the households that do not consume fish do so for the smell of the fish. 84.1 % of the households consume fish in winter. 87.2 % consume fresh fish while 40 % consume fish by frying. Mostly preferred fish are anchovy, trout and tarek respectively. It has been determined that the amounts of fish consumption per month per household and per person are 6.3 kg and 1.4 kg respectively. It has also been determined that households with children, employed head and owning the house consume more fish than those households without children, unemployed head and tenants.

  3. The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-10-06

    Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old, mean 35.8±11.1 years) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, university students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules), was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ(2) (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = 0.35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.

  4. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M; May, Anne M; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Sieri, Sabina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der A, Daphne L; Engeset, Dagrun; Hjartåker, Anette; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Key, Timothy J; Chajès, Veronique; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H M; Overvad, Kim

    2013-01-28

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.

  5. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and risk of early childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Muhammad T; Li, Yu-Fen; Langholz, Bryan; Gilliland, Frank D

    2005-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy may affect children's asthma risk by modulating early-life immune development. Type of fish intake may be important because of differences in fatty acid content. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a nested case-control study, selecting subjects from the Children's Health Study, a population-based study of school-aged children in southern California. Cases had physician-diagnosed asthma and controls were asthma-free by age 5 years. Mothers or guardians provided information on fish consumption during pregnancy in telephone interviews. We computed odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using conditional logistic regression models that accounted for the sampling. In children born to mothers with a history of asthma, the OR of asthma was 0.20 (95% CI = 0.06-0.65) when mothers ate oily fish at least monthly during pregnancy compared with no consumption (p(trend) = 0.006). Maternal oily fish consumption during pregnancy did not benefit children of non-asthmatic mothers. In contrast, fish stick (a source of trans-fats) consumption during pregnancy increased asthma risk in children (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.18-3.51). Our results suggest that maternal oily fish intake during pregnancy may protect offspring from asthma; however, eating fish sticks during pregnancy may increase asthma risk in children.

  6. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites.

  7. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fish Consumption and Ischemic stroke in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between fish intake and stroke incidence has been inconsistent in previous Swedish studies. Here, we report the risk of stroke and fish intake in a cohort from southern Sweden. Findings Data were obtained from an already available population based case-control study where the cases were defined as incident first-time ischemic stroke patients. Complete data on all relevant variables were obtained for 2722 controls and 2469 cases. The data were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus Conclusions The results suggest fat fish intake to decrease ischemic stroke risk and lean fish intake to increase women's stroke risk. The inconsistent relationship between fish intake and stroke risk reported in previous studies is further stressed by the results of this study.

  9. Cd, Pb and Hg Biomonitoring in Fish of the Mediterranean Region and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisavet A. Renieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg are toxic metals with increasing interest due to their tendency to bioaccumulate in fish tissue which may pose a threat to human health via fish consumption. This review of the recent literature on Cd, Pb, Hg levels summarizes data of fish biomonitoring studies in the Mediterranean Sea in order to determine potential risks due to dietary intake of metals. The analytical methods applied are described, with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy being the most popular. Most of the literature reviewed is focused on the Eastern Mediterranean. Results from the studies indicate that metals mostly accumulate in liver, followed by muscle. Although there are few studies reporting metal levels in fish exceeding the maximum residue levels (MRLs, the bulk of the studies cite levels below the MRLs. The hazard index (HI of fish consumption, namely the ratio of estimated weekly intake to provisional tolerable weekly intake (EWI/PTWI was estimated for adult consumers and no risk emerged. The EWI/PTWI ratios of lead and mercury for Italy (0.14 and 0.22 respectively represent the highest HI levels estimated. In view of maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risks of fish consumption, a more detailed fish-specific database on intakes for consumers is required and extended bimonitoring in as many regions as possible.

  10. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  11. Fish consumption and incidence of heart failure: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-hua; ZHOU Cheng-hui; PEI Han-jun; ZHOU Xian-liang; LI Li-huan; WU Yong-jian; HUI Ru-tai

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between fish consumption and heart failure (HF) incidence is inconsistent.Methods We performed a systematic search of Pubmed and Embase (from 1953 to June 2012) using key words related to fish and HF.Studies with at least three categories of fish consumption reporting both relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for HF incidence were included.The pooled RR and 95%C/were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model.The generalized least squares regression model was used to quantify the dose-response relationship between fish consumption and HF incidence.Results Five prospective cohort studies including 4750 HF events of 170 231 participants with an average of 9.7-year follow-up were selected and identified.Compared with those who never ate fish,individuals with higher fish consumption had a lower HF incidence.The pooled RRs for HF incidence was 0.99 (95%CI,0.91 to 1.08) for fish consumption 1 to 3 times per month,0.91 (95%C/,0.84 to 0.99) for once a week,0.87 (95%C/,0.81 to 0.95) for 2 to 4 times per week,and 0.86 (95%C/,0.84 to 0.99) for 5 or more times per week.An increment of 20 g of daily fish intake was related to a 6% lower risk of HF (RR:0.94,95% CI,0.90 to 0.97; P for trend =0.001).Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that there is a dose-dependent inverse relationship between fish consumotion and HF incidence.Fish intake once or more times a week could reduce HF incidence.

  12. Fish consumption in pregnancy and fetal risks of methylmercury toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Because I practise in a rural area with a large number of lakes, I have patients planning pregnancy who consume relatively large amounts of fish harvested by their families. What should be my advice to them?

  13. Fish consumption (hair mercury) and nutritional status of Amazonian Amer-Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C; Ferrari, Iris; De Souza, Jurandir R

    2005-01-01

    Fish are abundant and important dietary items for the Amer-Indians, and total hair-Hg (HHg) concentration is a reliable marker of fish consumption. We studied the impact of fish consumption (HHg) on the nutritional status of Indian children of Eastern Amazonia. Weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) was measured, and HHg was determined in 203 children younger than 10 years of age in three villages. There was significantly higher fish consumption in Kayabi children (16.55 microg Hg/g; SD, 11.44) than in children of the Munduruku villages of Missão-Cururu (4.76 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.09) and Kaburua (2.87 microg Hg/g; SD, 2.13). Anthropometric indices showed WHZ means of -0.27, -0.22, and 0.40, respectively, for Kayabi, Missão-Cururu and Kaburua villages. Despite a different pattern of fish-protein consumption between tribes, there was no significant correlation between WHZ and HHg concentrations (r2 = 0.0079; P < 0.2021). Dietary differences among Amazonian tribes can be traced and used in measuring health outcomes. Higher fish consumption, although important for Kayabis, was compensated by other protein sources by the Kaburua villagers.

  14. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta;

    2015-01-01

    that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis...... with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia...... of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify...

  15. Communicating Risks and Benefits from Fish Consumption: Impact on Belgian Consumers' Perception and Intention to Eat Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Frewer, L.J.; Sioen, I.; Henauw, de S.; Camp, van J.

    2008-01-01

    Communicating about the health effects of fish and seafood may potentially result in a conflict situation: increasing intake is desirable because of health and nutritional benefits, but higher consumption may also lead to an increased intake of potentially harmful environmental contaminants. In orde

  16. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofus C Larsen

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG, and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup.To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity.A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC sampling the most obese women (n = 990 and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128. Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC (n = 4,841. We included 32 body mass index (BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS. Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined.In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01. For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01 per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings.We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs.

  17. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. PMID:27886131

  18. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish), substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies). Recent evidence indicate...

  19. Double-Hurdle Model of Fresh Fish Consumption among Urban Households in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Akinbode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on consumption of products with possibility of observing zero-consumption for some consumers have modeled consumption function using the Tobit model, assuming that factors that are responsible for whether to consume a product or not are equally responsible for determining how much to consume. This approach has been severally faulted. This study investigated factors affecting consumption of fresh fish using the single step estimation method of the Tobit model, the independent double-hurdle approach and the dependent double-hurdle model. Data collected from 218 households in Abeokuta, South-west Nigeria were used for the study. Model fitness criteria revealed the superiority of joint estimation (dependent double-hurdle model. The model results revealed that husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on beef and dependency ratio significantly affected participation (decision to consume while household size, husband’s education, husband’s income, wife’s income, expenditure on dry fish and dependency ratio significantly affected consumption (how much to consume. It is recommended that public enlightenment should focus on the importance of consuming fresh fish among households and fresh fish sellers should focus on educated and high income households as this segment of the market demand more of the product.

  20. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Goncalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results fr...

  1. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  2. Risk trade-offs in fish consumption: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Hammitt, James K

    2012-11-20

    Fish consumption advisories instruct vulnerable consumers to avoid high mercury fish and to limit total fish intake to reduce neurotoxic risk. Consumption data from the U.S. suggest that nontarget consumers also respond to such advice. These consumers reduce exposure to mercury and other toxicants at the cost of reduction in cardioprotective fatty acids. We present a probabilistic model to assess these risk trade-offs. We use NHANES consumption data to simulate exposure to contaminants and nutrients in fish, employ dose-response relationships to convert exposure to health end points, and monetize them using benefit transfer. Our results suggest that newborns gained on average 0.033 IQ points from their mothers' compliance with the prominent FDA/EPA advisory. The welfare gain for a birth cohort is estimated at $386 million. This gain could be fully offset by increments in cardiovascular risk if 0.6% of consumers aged 40 and older reduced fish intake by one monthly meal until they reached the age of 60 or if 0.1% of them permanently reduced fish intake.

  3. Development of a single-meal fish consumption advisory for methyl mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsberg, G.L.; Toal, B.F.

    2000-02-01

    Methyl mercury (meHg) contamination of fish is the leading cause of fish consumption advisories in the US. These advisories have focused upon repeated or chronic exposure, whereas risks during pregnancy may also exist from a single-meal exposure if the fish tissue concentration is high enough. In this study, acute exposure to meHg from a single fish meal was analyzed by using the one-compartment meHg biokinetic model to predict maternal hair concentrations. These concentrations were evaluated against the mercury hair concentration corresponding to the US Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose (RfD), which is intended to protect against neurodevelopmental effects. The one-compartment model was validated against blood concentrations from three datasets in which human subjects ingested meHg in fish, either as a single meal or multiple meals. Model simulations of the single-meal scenario at different fish meHg concentrations found that concentrations of 2.0 ppm or higher can be associated with maternal hair concentrations elevated above the RfD level for days to weeks during gestation. A single-meal fish concentration cutoff of {ge} 2.0 ppm is an important consideration, especially because this single high exposure event might be in addition to a baseline meHg body burden from other types of fish consumption. This type of single-meal advisory requires that fish sampling programs provide data for individual rather than composited fish, and take into account seasonal differences that may exist in fish concentrations.

  4. Elemental characterization of injuries in fish liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stori, E.M., E-mail: elistori@gmail.com [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Post-Graduation Program on Science Materials – PGCIMAT, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rocha, M.L.C.F.; Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico, 191 Butantã, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, C.E.I. dos [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Amaral, L; Dias, J.F. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Post-Graduation Program on Science Materials – PGCIMAT, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Fish liver is the primary organ related to the biotransformation of organic contaminants and metals. This organ is very sensitive to organic and inorganic contaminants and can accumulate them in higher amounts relative to the environment itself and to other organs. One of the most common injuries is a histopathology called melanomacrophage centers, characterized as modifications of the cellular structure of the tissue and usually accompanied by pigmented cells. The aim of this study is to apply micro-PIXE in combination with conventional PIXE as a qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements to characterize histopathologies in the liver of fishes. Micro-PIXE results show that there is a higher concentration of Fe, P, K, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn in melanomacrophage centers. On healthy tissue, the distribution of these elements is homogeneous. In cases where the histopathological study showed injuries without melanomacrophage centers, the micro-PIXE analysis showed much smaller clusters with higher concentrations of these elements, suggesting the presence of melanomacrophage centers which are too small to be detected by histopathological conventional methods. Broad PIXE results showed that the concentration of Si, Cl, K, Ti, Fe and Cu are directly related to the presence of melanomacrophage centers. Moreover, it could be observed that the concentration of Cr, Mn and Ni is directly related to the injuries but not to melanomacrophage centers.

  5. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  6. Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population

    OpenAIRE

    Schiepers, Olga; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; VAN BOXTEL Martin

    2010-01-01

    Schiepers, O. J., De Groot, R. H. M., Jolles, J., & Van Boxtel, M. P. J. (2010). Fish consumption, not fatty acid status, is related to quality of life in a healthy population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 83(1), 31-35.

  7. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  8. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average ...

  9. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  10. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  11. Impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement and risk perception of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption in five European countries. Design/methodology/approach - Cross-sectional data were collected through the SEAFOODplus pan-European consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples...... representative for age and region in Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Poland. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used in order to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of all relationships in our model.- Our model contributes to a better understanding of factors influencing fish......-culturally validated measures of health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to be used in further studies. Originality/value - This paper provides a unique model relating health beliefs, involvement and risk perception to fish consumption tested and validated on a pan-European large sample of consumers...

  12. EFFECT OF CONSUMPTION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED FISH (TILAPIA OREOCHROMIS ON METABOLIC PARAMETERS IN RABBITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolawa O.E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the biochemical effect of the consumption of heavy metals contaminated fish on metabolic parameters in rabbit. Total glucose, cholesterol, protein and levels of alkaline phosphate, alkaline aminotransferase (ALT together with aspartate aminotransferase (AST in the serum were measured. Compared with the control a significant decrease of total protein and total cholesterol (p was ascertained in the serum of the experimental groups. Total glucose level was level was significantly increased in the serum of the experimental (p . The values of alkaline phosphate, ALT and AST significantly increased in the serum of the groups. The above results on the biochemical consumption profile indicate the toxic effect of the consumption of these contaminated fishes in rabbits.

  13. Metabolic cold adaptation of polar fish based on measurements of aerobic oxygen consumption: fact or artefact? Artefact!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2002-01-01

    a considerably elevated resting oxygen consumption, or standard metabolic rate, compared with oxygen consumption values of tropical or temperate fish extrapolated to similar low polar temperatures. Recent experiments on arctic and Antarctic fish, however, do not show elevated resting aerobic oxygen consumption......Whether metabolic cold adaptation in polar fish, based on measurements of aerobic standard metabolic rate, is a fact or an artefact has been a dispute since Holeton asked the question in 1974. So far polar fish had been considered to be metabolically cold adapted because they were reported to have...

  14. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  15. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico;

    2008-01-01

    Background - The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+) or without (CVD-) medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European...... a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits - rather than a medical history of CVD - account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish...

  16. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  17. Designing and validating the methodology for the Internet assessment of fish consumption at a university setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika da Silva Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing fish consumption is complex and involves several factors; however, the use of questionnaires in surveys and the use of the Internet as tool to collect data have been considered promising approaches. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design a data collection technique using a questionnaire to assess fish consumption by making it available on a specific home page on the Internet. A bibliographical survey or review was carried out to identify the features of the instrument, and therefore pre-tests were conducted with previous instruments, followed by the Focus Group technique. Specialists then performed an analysis and conducted an online pre-test. Multivariate data analysis was applied using the SmartPLS software. The results indicate that 1.966 participants belonging to the University of São Paulo (USP community participated in the test, and after the exclusion of some variables, a statistically significant results were obtained. The final constructs comprised consumption, quality, and general characteristics. The instrument consisted of behavioral statements in a 5-point Likert scale and multiple-choice questions. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient was 0.66 for general characteristics, 0.98 for quality, and 0.91 for consumption, which indicate good reliability of the instrument. In conclusion, the results proved that the Internet assessment is efficient. The instrument of analysis allowed us to better understand the process of buying and consuming fish in the country, and it can be used as base for further research.

  18. Hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of jam enriched with microencapsulated fish oil decreases insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Soares de Oliveira Carvalho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic syndrome is related to the increase in cardiovascular diseases. Polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil help in reducing cardiovascular risk factors and are natural bindings of PPARy2. Objective: To evaluate the impact of hypocaloric diet associated with microencapsulated fish oil supplementation in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial with adult women who presented metabolic syndrome (n = 30 for 90 days. The volunteers were divided into two groups: placebo group (n = 15 and microencapsulated fish oil group (n = 15 (3 g/day of microencapsulated fish oil containing 0.41 g/day of eico-sapentaenoic acid and decosahexaneoic acid. Anthropometric, body composition, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. We considered p < 0.05 as significant values. Results: The comparison between groups revealed a significant reduction of blood glucose, insulinemia and the homeostasis model assessment in the microencapsulated fish oil group after 90 days, as opposed to the placebo group. We also observed reduction of the systolic arterial pressure in the microencapsulated fish oil group. Conclusion: A hypocaloric diet associated with the consumption of microencapsulated fish oil was effective in reducing blood glucose, insulinemia and insulin resistance in women with MS.

  19. Excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption is independent from lactate accumulation in two cyprinid fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genz, J.; Jyde, M.B.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2013-01-01

    the increase in oxygen consumption in fish required following strenuous exercise or low environmental oxygen availability has been frequently considered, the primary contributing mechanism remains unknown. This study utilized the close relationship but strongly divergent physiology between C. carpio and C....... carassius to examine the possible correlation between excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) and lactate accumulation. No difference in the EPHOC:O2 deficit ratio was observed between the two species after 2.5 h anoxia, with ratios of 2.0 ± 0.6 (C. carpio) and 1.3 ± 0.3 (C. carassius). As predicted...

  20. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  1. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  2. Trophic ecology and food consumption of fishes in a hypersaline tropical lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, P H; Tubino, R A; Zambrano, L C; Hunder, D A; Garritano, S R; Monteiro-Neto, C

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the trophic ecology (diet composition, trophic strategy, similarities and overlap between species, feeding period and food consumption) of six benthivorous fish species in Araruama Lagoon, the largest hypersaline tropical lagoon on the east coast of South America, with an area of 210 km(2) and an average salinity of 52. The burrfish Chilomycterus spinosus fed on Anomalocardia flexuosa shell deposits, ingesting associated fauna. The caitipa mojarra Diapterus rhombeus differed from all other species, having not only the highest proportions of algae and Nematoda, but also feeding on polychaete tentacles. The two mojarras Eucinostomus spp. showed similar trophic strategies, feeding mostly on Polychaeta. The corocoro grunt Orthopristis ruber also fed mainly on Polychaeta, but differed from Eucinostomus spp. in secondary items. The whitemouth croacker Micropogonias furnieri fed mainly on small Crustacea at night, showing a high number of secondary prey items with low frequencies and high prey-specific abundance. The daily food consumption (g food g(-1) fish mass) for Eucinostomus argenteus was 0·012 and was 0·031 and 0·027 for M. furnieri in two different sampling events. The diet similarities between Araruama Lagoon and other brackish and marine environments indicate that hypersalinity is not a predominant factor shaping the trophic ecology of fishes in this lagoon. The stability of hypersaline conditions, without a pronounced gradient, may explain the presence of several euryhaline fishes and invertebrates well adapted to this condition, resulting in a complex food web.

  3. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Th I; Meltzer, H M; Thorsdottir, I;

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth l...

  4. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2011, 2 September). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Poster presented at the the 14th biannual EARLI conference, Exeter, Unit

  5. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 86(3), 113-117. doi:10.1016/

  6. Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Ouwehand, C., & Jolles, J. (2012, May). Eating the right amount of fish: Inverted U-shape association between fish consumption and cognitive performance, and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents. Paper presented at the 10th Congress of the International Society for the Study

  7. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish consumption. However, the balance between health benefits and risks, due to the intake of chemical contaminants, is not well characterized. In the present study, edible samples of 14 marine species were analyzed for the concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a number of metals and organic pollutants. Daily intakes were specifically determined for a standard adult of 70kg, and compared with the tolerable/admissible intakes of the pollutants, if available. Salmon, mackerel, and red mullet were the species showing the highest content of omega-3 fatty acids. The daily intakes of cadmium, lead, and mercury through fish consumption were 1.1, 2.0, and 9.9microg, respectively. Dioxins and furans plus dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) intake was 38.0pg WHO-TEQ/day, whereas those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 20.8, 39.4, 1.53, and 1.50ng/day, respectively. In turn, the total intake of 16 analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 268ng/day. The monthly fish consumption limits for human health endpoints based on the intake of these chemical contaminants were calculated for a 70 years exposure. In general terms, most marine species here analyzed should not mean adverse health effects for the consumers. However, the type of fish, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential issues for the balance of the health benefits and risks of regular fish consumption.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  9. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Roa-Ureta, Ruben H; Borchers, David L; Milessi, Andrés C; Barrientos, Mauricio A

    2015-01-01

    The food consumption to biomass ratio (C) is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed.

  10. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Wiff

    Full Text Available The food consumption to biomass ratio (C is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed.

  11. Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dewailly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of a public health intervention to reduce blood mercury (Hg concentration levels in pregnant Bermudian women. METHODS: In 2003, we conducted a study entitled "Prenatal exposure of the Bermudian Population to Environmental Contaminants" which provided Bermuda's first baseline data on prenatal exposure to several environmental contaminants, including Hg. The mean Hg concentration from 42 healthy newborns measured in umbilical cord blood was 41.3 nmol/L, ranging from 5-160 nmol/L. This concentration was much higher than expected, being approximately 8 times the general levels found in Canada and the U.S. Furthermore, we estimated that 85% of total Hg measured was in the form of methylmercury (MeHg, indicating that seafood consumption was the primary source of Hg exposure during pregnancy in Bermuda. Locally sourced seafood was identified as the most significant possible contributory source of Hg exposure. In 2005 the authors began a complementary research programme to study the levels of Hg in local commercial fish species. Coming out of this research were specific local fish consumption guidelines issued by the Department of Health advising pregnant women to avoid those local fish species found to be high in Hg while still encouraging consumption of fish species having lower Hg levels. RESULTS: In 2010, under another research initiative, we returned to Bermuda to carry out another evaluation of Hg in human blood. Hg was measured in the blood of 49 pregnant women. The arithmetic mean Hg blood concentration was 6.6 nmol/L and the geometric mean 4.2 nmol/L. The maximum concentration found was 24 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: Hg exposure of Bermudian pregnant women has dropped significantly by a factor of around 5 since the foetal cord blood study in 2003.

  12. Social communication network analysis of the role of participatory research in the adoption of new fish consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna

    2012-08-01

    The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to

  13. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen-Taipale, Anna Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Turunen, Anu W; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2010-05-07

    High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492) and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265). Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day) in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01), and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month) in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05). This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  14. Fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to depressive episodes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Liisa Suominen-Taipale

    Full Text Available High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes.We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492 and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265. Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day and independent frequency questions (times/month. Dietary intake (g/day and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01, and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05. This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent.In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression.

  15. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and methylmercury on child's brain development due to consumption of fish by Finnish mother during pregnancy: a probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, O; Karjalainen, A K; Tuomisto, J T

    2013-04-01

    Fish contains both beneficial substances e.g. docosahexaenoic acids but also harmful compounds e.g. methylmercury. Importantly, the health effects caused by these two substances can be evaluated in one common end point, intelligence quotient (IQ), providing a more transparent analysis. We estimated health effects of maternal fish consumption on child's central nervous system by creating a model with three alternative maternal fish consumption scenarios (lean fish, fatty fish, and current fish consumption). Additionally, we analyzed impacts of both regular fish consumption and extreme fish consumption habits. At the individual level, the simulated net effects were small, encompassing a range of one IQ point in all scenarios. Fatty fish consumption, however, clearly generated a beneficial net IQ effect, and lean fish consumption evoked an adverse net IQ effect. In view of the current fish consumption pattern of Finnish mothers the benefits and risks seem to more or less compensate each other. This study clearly shows the significance of which fish species are consumed during pregnancy and lactation, and the results can be generalized to apply to typical western population fish consumption habits.

  16. Fish consumption and its possible preventive role on the development and prevalence of metabolic syndrome - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørris, Christine; Molin, Marianne; Cvancarova Småstuen, Milada

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a huge impact on public health, and today lifestyle interventions remain the primary mode for MetS therapy. It is therefore important to elucidate the possible preventive effects of diet and foods, and their MetS-related health implications. To examine how fish consumption affects the development and prevalence of MetS, we systematically reviewed cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and intervention studies conducted among adults (humans) and, reporting consumption of fish or seafood as being related to MetS (prevalence or incidence), where MetS was defined via an established definition. The literature search in PubMed identified 502 citations, and after screening, 49 full-text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. After excluding duplicates and those not meeting the inclusion criteria, seven studies from Croatia, Finland, France, Iceland, Iran, Korea, and US were included. Four studies (one follow-up and three cross-sectional) found associations between fish consumption and MetS (three among men, and one among women), suggesting that fish consumption may prevent or improve metabolic health and have a protective role in MetS prevention. This protective role might be related to gender, and men may benefit more from the consumption of fish. However, lack of controlling for potential confounders may also inflict the results. Additional research is required to further explore fish consumption and its potential role in improving or reversing MetS and its components.

  17. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Henriksen, Tine B;

    2011-01-01

    was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption...... was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study...

  18. Assessment of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid exposure through fish consumption in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbarossa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg and 487 ng/kg (mean=75 ng/kg, respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA’s scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95th percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA.

  19. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  20. Describing cross-cultural differences in the consumption of fish: Data from a consumer survey in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Toften, Kjell; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    was representative within each country for age and region. This study uses descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc multiple comparison analysis (Scheffe's) to compare differences between countries. First, a cross-culture overview of fish consumption is given. The average weekly consumption...... consumption variables in order to explain differences based on demographic variables such as age, number of children in the household, income and gender....

  1. To evaluation of radiation safety due to consumption of species fished out in the far east region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Onishenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of safety assessment for population of the Russian Federation due to consumption of the Far East region commercial fish contaminated in consequence of the Fukushima nuclear disaster are presented. Estimation of radionuclide level in certain commercial fish species taking into account maximum 137 Cs contamination rate of ocean water on the migration path was performed. Authors worked out 3 fish products consumption scenarios and calculated respective annual 137 Cs intakes. Assessment of health risk associated with 137 Cs in fish products for Russian population was carried out. It was determined that in 2014 maximum 137 Cs dose received with fish products was no more than 365 Bq/year and considered as permissible health risk level. Cancer risk evolution modeling showed that lifetime cancer risk level is minimal. Hence, monitoring of associated with 137 Cs water pollution health risk had to be continued till complete elimination of consequences of Fukushima-1 accident.

  2. Characterization of proton production and consumption associated with microbial metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production or consumption of protons in growth medium during microbial metabolism plays an important role in determining the pH of the environment. Such pH changes resulting from microbial metabolism may influence the geochemical speciation of many elements in subsurface environments. Protons produced or consumed during microbial growth were measured by determining the amount of acid or base added in a 5 L batch bioreactor equipped with pH control for different species including Escherichia coli, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and Geobacter metallireducens. Results An in silico model was used to predict the proton secretion or consumption rates and the results were compared with the data. The data was found to confirm predictions of proton consumption during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate as the carbon source. However, in contrast to proton consumption observed during aerobic growth of E. coli with acetate, proton secretion was observed during growth of Geobacter species with acetate as the donor and Fe(III as the extracellular electron acceptor. Conclusions In this study, we have also shown that the final pH of the medium can be either acidic or basic depending on the choice of the electron acceptor for the same electron donor. In all cases, the in silico model could predict qualitatively the proton production/consumption rates obtained from the experimental data. Therefore, measurements of pH equivalents generated or consumed during growth can help characterize the microbial physiology further and can be valuable for optimizing practical applications such as microbial fuel cells, where growth associated pH changes can limit current generation rates.

  3. Intake of chemical contaminants through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain: health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2007-10-01

    The intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2005, samples of the 14 most consumed marine species in Catalonia were randomly acquired in various cities of the country. Analysis of the above chemical contaminants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques and the daily intakes were estimated. For most pollutants, intake was higher in boys than in girls. Average exposure of children to contaminants through fish and seafood consumption did not exceed the respective tolerable daily intake of those pollutants for which it has been already established (metals, PCDD/Fs plus dioxin-like PCBs, HCB, and PAHs). In relation to body weight, intake by children of most contaminants was higher than that found for other age groups of the general population of Catalonia.

  4. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects from Rice and Fish Consumption: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in humans is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. The general population is primarily exposed to MeHg through consumption of contaminated fish and marine mammals, but recent studies have reported high levels of MeHg in rice and confirmed that in China the main human exposure to MeHg is related to frequent rice consumption in mercury (Hg polluted areas. This article reviews the progress in the research on MeHg accumulation in rice, human exposure and health effects, and nutrient and co-contaminant interactions. Compared with fish, rice is of poor nutritional quality and lacks specific micronutrients identified as having health benefits (e.g., n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, selenium, essential amino acids. The effects of these nutrients on the toxicity of MeHg should be better addressed in future epidemiologic and clinical studies. More emphasis should be given to assessing the health effects of low level MeHg exposure in the long term, with appropriate recommendations, as needed, to reduce MeHg exposure in the rice-eating population.

  5. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included.

  6. Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Xing, Qian; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included. A total of 4202 cases with 128,988 individuals from eight cohort studies were identified in the current meta-analysis. The meta-analyzed RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65–0.90) when any AMD was considered. Subgroup analyses by AMD stages showed that fish consumption would reduce the risk of both early (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and late (RR; 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.97) AMD. When stratified by the follow-up duration, fish consumption was a protective factor of AMD in both over 10 years (n = 5; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.97) and less than 10 years (n = 3; RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97) follow-up duration. Stratified analyses by fish type demonstrated that dark meat fish (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.46–0.99), especially tuna fish (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 95% CI, 0.47–0.71) intake was associated with reduced AMD risk. Evidence of a linear association between dose of fish consumption and risk of AMD was demonstrated. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that fish consumption can reduce AMD risk. Advanced, well-designed, randomized clinical trials are required in order to validate the conclusions in this study. PMID:27879656

  7. Characterization of fish consumers in the town of Lavras, Minas Gerais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cicinato Vieira Melo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate and characterize the fish consumption profile in the town of Lavras, Minas Gerais. A descriptive-quantitative study was conducted. A structured questionnaire elaborated using previously formulated questions and answers was used for data collection. The questionnaire was applied between March and May 2014 to the household reference person. A total of 402 households were sampled. The data were analyzed by analysis of the distribution of frequencies using the SPSS program. The results showed that fish meat occupied fourth place in the preference of household consumption in the town of Lavras, after beef, poultry and pork meat. It was also observed that fish is usually purchased as fillet and is consumed occasionally in the households. The price is an important factor for the choice of meat. Most respondents prefer to consume fried fish. The species most appreciated by consumers in the town of Lavras is Dourado. Most respondents usually buy less than 2.0 kg/household/year.

  8. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  9. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  10. Sensor Fish: an autonomous sensor package for characterizing complex flow fields and fish passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Lu, Jun

    2016-10-04

    Fish passing through dams or other hydraulic structures may be injured or killed despite advances in turbine design, project operations, and other fish bypass systems. The Sensor Fish (SF) device is an autonomous sensor package that characterizes the physical conditions and stressors to which fish are exposed during passage through hydro facilities. It was designed to move passively as a neutrally buoyant object through severe hydraulic environments, while collecting high-resolution sensor data. Since its first generation1, the SF device has been successfully deployed in many fish passage studies and has evolved to be a major tool for characterizing fish passage conditions during fish passage in the Columbia River Basin. To better accelerate hydropower development, the U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program provided funding to develop a new generation (Gen 2 SF) to incorporate more capabilities and accommodate a wider range of users over a broader range of turbine designs and operating environments. The Gen 2 SF (Figure 1) is approximately the size and density of a yearling salmon smolt and is nearly neutrally buoyant. It contains three-dimensional (3D) rotation sensors, 3D linear acceleration sensors, a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, a 3D orientation sensor, a radiofrequency (RF) transmitter, and a recovery module2. A low-power microcontroller collects data from the sensors and stores up to 5 min of data on internal flash memory at a sampling frequency of 2048 Hz. The recovery module makes the SF positively buoyant after a pre-programmed period of time, causing it to float to the surface for recovery.

  11. Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.

  12. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden. Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30, as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  13. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. METHODS: The study population consisted

  14. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children from birth up to age 14 years : the PIAMA cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Saskia W.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Smit, Henriette A.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and BMI in children and the development of this association between birth and 14 years of age, taking into account relevant mother and child covariates. The study population consisted of 3684 Dutch chi

  15. Polymorphisms in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid-pathway, fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, Christine L E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Kram, Nicolien R; Doeselaar, Marina van; Kranen, Henk J van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study on colorectal cancer was to investigate the associations between SNPs in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid (AA)-pathway, their haplotypes and colorectal cancer. Moreover, interactions between SNPs and fish consumption were considered. In this study, a total of 50

  16. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects...

  17. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) is a nutrient-rich, small fish found in ponds and rice fields in Bangladesh. The aim of the present intervention was to assess the effect of mola consumption on iron status in children with marginal vitamin A status. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN...

  18. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Wurtz, Anne Mette Lund; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kuehn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Hjartaker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; Alonso de la Torre, Ramon; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Borje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Can

  19. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  20. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  1. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear.

  2. Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van B.M.; Tijhuis, M.J.; Kalmijn, S.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Indications have been seen of a protective effect of fish consumption and the intake of n¿3 fatty acids on cognitive decline. However, studies are scarce and results inconsistent. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between fish consumption, the intake o

  3. Is high consumption of fatty fish during pregnancy a risk factor for fetal growth retardation? A study of 44,824 Danish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Th I; Meltzer, H M; Thorsdottir, I; Knudsen, V; Olsen, S F

    2007-09-15

    The authors examined the relation between fish consumption during pregnancy and fetal growth among 44,824 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). They evaluated the associations between consumption of total fish, fatty fish, and lean fish in midpregnancy and birth weight, birth length, and head circumference among singleton full-term infants. Fish consumption was ascertained by food frequency questionnaire. The birth of infants classified below the 10th percentile for gestational age and gender was significantly increased among women who consumed more than 60 g of fish per day, as compared with women who consumed 5 g or less per day. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.49) for birth weight and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.43) for head circumference. The adjusted odds ratio was borderline significant for birth length (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.45). These increases in risk were followed by small decreases in average values for these growth measures. Furthermore, the inverse association for total fish consumption could be explained by consumption of fatty fish, while no association was found for lean fish. These results indicate that consumption of fatty fish, a known route of exposure to persistent organic pollutants, could be associated with reduced fetal growth.

  4. The Transtheoretical model for fruit, vegetable and fish consumption: associations between intakes, stages of change and stage transition determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are caused by multiple behavioral factors, including different dietary factors. We examined to what extent fruit, vegetable and fish consumption are related, and whether behavioral determinants vary across these dietary behaviors from a Transtheoretical model perspective. Methods Data were collected among 1142 participants (T0; response rate 46% selected from an Internet panel, who were followed-up one-week later (T1; N = 1055, response rate 92%. Mean age was 35.4 (SD = 11.9 years, 35% was male, and most respondents were of Dutch origin (90%. Of the respondents, 13%, 44% and 43% had a low, medium or high level of education, respectively. Electronic questionnaires assessed fruit, vegetable and fish intake (food frequency questionnaires, stages of change, decisional balance and self-efficacy, for each of these three behaviors. Results Stages of change and (changes in fruit, vegetable and fish intake were only weakly associated; decisional balance and self-efficacy were more strongly associated. Some presumed predictors of stage transitions were similar for fruit, vegetable, and fish intake, i.e., strong pros predicted progress out of precontemplators and low self-efficacy predicted relapse from action/maintenance for all behaviors. However, progress out of contemplation and out of preparation showed different patterns for fruit, vegetable and fish intake. Conclusion The weak associations between intakes and potential determinants for fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption do not warrant an integrated dietary change approach targeting the same determinants for each behavior.

  5. Density, growth and annual food consumption of gobiid fish in the saline Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornbos, G.; Twisk, F.

    Within the scope of a study of the carbon budget of the 108 km 2 saline Lake Grevelingen, investigations were made on density, mortality, growth and food consumption of the main gobiid fish during the period 1980 to 1982. In August 1980 the O-group of Pomatoschistus minutus was estimated at 424 million individuals (on average 3.9 fishes per m 2) with a biomass of 203 tons FW. In 1981 and 1982 peak numbers were less high. O-group P. microps accounted for 282 million individuals (2.6 fishes per m 2) and 133 tons FW in September 1981. By far the highest density was found in the 0 to 0.6 m zone, 15 common gobies per m 2 (7 g FW·m -2). With approximately 5.1 million individuals (13 tons FW) Gobius niger was most abundant in 1982. For adult G. niger a monthly mortality of 27% was estimated. Mortality rates in P. minutus and P. microps were found to be fairly constant over the year. The estimated rates of annual mortality of 99.9% (˜46% per month) and 99.996% (˜57% per month), respectively, appear to be much higher than recorded for estuarine populations. Approximately 60% of the decline in numbers of demersal gobiid fish could be accounted for by the predation of two species of flatfish and two species of piscivorous birds. Young of the year of over 20 mm total length of both species were first caught in June. At the end of the first growing season, the average length and weight of P. microps was 39 mm and 0.6 g FW. In their second year they attained an average size of 51 mm. In O-group P. minutus, the 1980 and 1981 year classes reached an average length of 45 mm and 57 mm, respectively. In their second year, however, the difference disappeared and the mean length in both classes approximated 62 mm. Juvenile G. niger were first caught in August at a length of approximately 3.5 cm. They attained an average size of 4 to 5 cm in the first year, 8 to 8.5 cm in the second and 11 to 12.5 cm in the third year. The maximum production of P. minutus and P. microps, although

  6. Diet composition and fish consumption of double-crested Cormorants from three St. Lawrence River Colonies in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F; Mazzocchi, Irene M; Bendig, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were first observed nesting in the upper St. Lawrence River at Strachan Island in 1992. Cormorants now nest at a number of islands in the Thousand Islands section of the river. Griswold, McNair, and Strachan islands are among the largest colonies in the upper river. Until 2011, nest counts had remained relatively stable, ranging from 200 to 603 nests per colony. However, since 2011 the number of nests at McNair Island have exceeded 700 each year. Although the size of cormorant colonies in the upper St. Lawrence River is smaller than those in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, the close proximity of islands in the upper river that have colonies may cause a cumulative fish consumption effect similar to a larger colony. Because of increasing numbers of Double-crested Cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River and the possible effects on fish populations, studies were initiated in 1999 to quantify cormorant diet and fish consumption at the three largest colonies. From 1999 to 2012, these studies have shown that cormorants consumed about 128.6 million fish including 37.5 million yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 17.4 million rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and 1.0 million smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolemieu) (Johnson et al. 2012). During this same time period fish assessment studies near some of these islands have shown a major decrease in yellow perch populations (Klindt 2007). This occurrence is known as the halo effect and happens when piscivorous birds deplete local fish populations in areas immediately surrounding the colony (Ashmole 1963). This paper describes the diet and fish consumption of cormorants in the upper St.

  7. Characterizing lentic freshwater fish assemblages using multiple sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Quist, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing fish assemblages in lentic ecosystems is difficult, and multiple sampling methods are almost always necessary to gain reliable estimates of indices such as species richness. However, most research focused on lentic fish sampling methodology has targeted recreationally important species, and little to no information is available regarding the influence of multiple methods and timing (i.e., temporal variation) on characterizing entire fish assemblages. Therefore, six lakes and impoundments (48–1,557 ha surface area) were sampled seasonally with seven gear types to evaluate the combined influence of sampling methods and timing on the number of species and individuals sampled. Probabilities of detection for species indicated strong selectivities and seasonal trends that provide guidance on optimal seasons to use gears when targeting multiple species. The evaluation of species richness and number of individuals sampled using multiple gear combinations demonstrated that appreciable benefits over relatively few gears (e.g., to four) used in optimal seasons were not present. Specifically, over 90 % of the species encountered with all gear types and season combinations (N = 19) from six lakes and reservoirs were sampled with nighttime boat electrofishing in the fall and benthic trawling, modified-fyke, and mini-fyke netting during the summer. Our results indicated that the characterization of lentic fish assemblages was highly influenced by the selection of sampling gears and seasons, but did not appear to be influenced by waterbody type (i.e., natural lake, impoundment). The standardization of data collected with multiple methods and seasons to account for bias is imperative to monitoring of lentic ecosystems and will provide researchers with increased reliability in their interpretations and decisions made using information on lentic fish assemblages.

  8. Consumptive effects of fish reduce wetland crayfish recruitment and drive species turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christopher M; Dorn, Nathan J

    2012-04-01

    Predators and dry-disturbances have pronounced effects on invertebrate communities and can deterministically affect compositional turnover between discrete aquatic habitats. We examined the effect of sunfish (Lepomis spp.) predators on two native crayfish, Procambarus alleni and P. fallax, that regionally coexist in an expansive connected wetland in order to test the hypotheses that sunfish predation limits crayfish recruitment (both species) and that it disproportionately affects P. alleni, the species inhabiting temporary wetlands. In replicate vegetated wetlands (18.6 m(2)), we quantified summertime crayfish recruitment and species composition across an experimental gradient of sunfish density. Separately, we quantified effects of sunfish on crayfish growth, conducted a complimentary predation assay in mesocosms, and compared behavior of the two crayfish. Sunfish reduced P. alleni summertime recruitment by >99% over the full sunfish gradient, and most of the effect was caused by low densities of sunfish (0.22-0.43 m(-2)). P. alleni dominated wetlands with few or no sunfish, but the composition shifted towards P. fallax dominance in wetlands with abundant sunfish. P. fallax survived better than P. alleni over 40 h in smaller mesocosms stocked with warmouth. Sunfish reduced P. fallax recruitment 62% in a second wetland experiment, but growth rates of caged crayfish (both species) were unaffected by sunfish presence, suggesting predatory effects were primarily consumptive. Consistent with life histories of relatively fish-sensitive invertebrates, P. alleni engaged in more risky behaviors in the laboratory. Our results indicate that sunfish predators limit recruitment of both species, but disproportionately remove the more active and competitively dominant P. alleni. Spatially and temporally variable dry-disturbances negatively co-varying with sunfish populations allow for regional coexistence of these two crayfish and may release populations of either species from

  9. Exploratory multivariate analysis of the effect of fatty fish consumption and medicinal use on heart rate and heart rate variability data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eGrung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between medicinal use and fatty fish consumption on heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR in a group of forensic inpatients on a variety of medications. A total of 49 forensic inpatients, randomly assigned to a fish group (n=27 or a control group (n=22 were included in the present study. Before and by the end of the food intervention period HR and HRV were measured during an experimental test procedure. An additional aim of this paper is to show how multivariate data analysis can highlight differences and similarities between the groups, thus being a valuable addition to traditional statistical hypothesis testing. The results indicate that fish consumption may have a positive effect on both HR and HRV regardless of medication, but that the influence of medication is strong enough to mask the true effect of fish consumption. Without correcting for medication, the fish group and control group become indistinguishable (p = 0.0794, Cohen’s d = 0.60. The effect of medication is demonstrated by establishing a multivariate regression model that estimates HR and HRV in a recovery phase based on HR and HRV data recorded during psychological tests. The model performance is excellent for HR data, but yields poor results for HRV when employed on participants undergoing the more severe medical treatments. This indicates that the HRV behavior of this group is very different from that of the participants on no or lower level of medication. When focusing on the participants on a constant medication regime, a substantial improvement in HRV and HR for the fish group compared to the control group is indicated by a principal component analysis and t tests (p = 0.00029, Cohen’s d = 2.72. In a group of psychiatric inpatients characterized by severe mental health problems consuming different kinds of medication, the fish diet improved HR and HRV, indices of both emotional regulation and

  10. Exposure to hexachlorobenzene through fish and seafood consumption in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2008-01-25

    The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS in 42 composite samples of the 14 most consumed marine species (sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp) in Catalonia, Spain. The daily intake of HCB associated with this consumption was also estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, adolescents, adults and seniors, which were in turn divided according to sex. The highest HCB levels were found in salmon and mackerel: 1.68 and 0.80 ng/g of wet weight, respectively, whereas the lowest HCB levels were found in cuttlefish, mussel, and shrimp (0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 ng/g of wet weight, respectively). In general terms, these results are within the range of data reported in recent years by a number of authors. The highest and lowest HCB intake (ng/day) corresponded to female adults (13.3) and girls (4.0), respectively. For most age/sex groups, salmon and sole were the species showing the highest contribution to HCB intake. When HCB intake was calculated according to the average body weight of the individuals in each group, the highest and lowest values corresponded to boys (0.32 ng/kg/day) and female adolescents (0.14 ng/kg/day). For all groups, HCB intake from fish and seafood consumption was considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), for non-cancer effects and for neoplastic effects in humans.

  11. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  12. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: A case study of the south central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kimberly J; Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Donato, David I

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass-equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  13. Consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy and development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring: role of maternal atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Alessandri, Claudia; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Panetta, Valentina; Pingitore, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Salvatore; Zappalà, Daniela; Zicari, Anna Maria

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that changes in dietary habits, particularly increased consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and decreased consumption of omega-3 PUFAs may explain the increase in atopic disease seen in recent years. Furthermore, it seems possible that it is mainly prenatal or very early life environmental factors that influence the development of allergic diseases. It has also been suggested that intrauterine risk factors may act differently if mother themselves suffer from allergic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the consumption of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy might influence the development of allergic sensitizations in the offspring. The study population was divided into the offspring of allergic and non-allergic mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study enrolling 295 offspring of allergic mothers and 693 of non-allergic mothers. Information regarding maternal intake of fish, butter and margarine during pregnancy as well as other prenatal and perinatal confounding factors were retrospectively assessed by parental report via a standardized questionnaire. Atopy was determined by skin-prick tests (SPT) to eight prevalent inhalant allergens and two foods. In the allergic mothers' group there is no clear correlation between maternal intakes of fish, butter and margarine and sensitizations to food or inhalants. In the non-allergic mothers' group there was no correlation between butter and margarine intake and food or inhalant sensitizations. On the contrary, a protective effect of fish intake on SPT positivity was observed. In particular, frequent maternal intake ('2-3 times/wk or more') of fish reduced the risk of food sensitizations by over a third (aOR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.69). A similar trend, even if not significant, was found for inhalants. Finally, even in the whole study population, i.e. allergic group plus non-allergic group, there was a similar trend between increased consumption of

  14. Dietary exposure to a group of naturally produced organohalogens (halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles) via consumption of fish and seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2004-04-07

    Concentrations of four naturally produced halogenated dimethyl bipyrroles (HDBPs) were quantitated in marine fish (n = 10), freshwater fish (n = 10), canned fish (n = 10), and shrimp composites (n = 10) collected from 1992 to 2002 for the Canadian Total Diet Study. Canned fish composites composed of epipelagic higher trophic level species contained the highest concentration of HDBPs (SigmaHDBP geometric mean +/- standard error = 880 +/- 690 pg/g of wet weight, n = 10), which was significantly higher than that found in the other three composites. There were no significant temporal trends of HDBP concentrations observed for any of the four composites. The estimated daily intake of HDBPs via consumption of fish and seafood was determined to be 53 pg/kg of body mass/day and 0.10 pg of TEQ/kg of body mass/day when transformed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents (TEQs). In the canned fish and shrimp composites collected in 1998, HDBPs accounted for approximately 98 and 19%, respectively, of the total quantitated TEQ (which included polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans). The results of this study provide the first estimate of human exposure to naturally produced bioaccumulating organohalogens.

  15. Fish consumption measured during pregnancy and risk of cardiovascular diseases later in life: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik L; Henriksen, Tine B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long chain n-3 PUFAs against cardiovascular disease; however, the overall evidence remains uncertain, and there is a general lack of knowledge in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology in women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the association between fish intake and cardiovascular disease among 7429 women from a prospective pregnancy cohort in Aarhus, Denmark, who were followed for 12-17 years. Exposure information derived from a questionnaire sent to the women in gestation week 16, and daily fish consumption was quantified based on assumptions of standard portion sizes and food tables. Information on admissions to hospital was obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and diagnoses of hypertensive, cerebrovascular and ischaemic heart disease were used to define the outcome: cardiovascular disease. During the follow-up period 263 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Overall, there was no association between cardiovascular disease and fish intake, confidence intervals for effect estimates in the different fish intake groups were wide, overlapped and for all but one they encompassed unity. Restricting the analysis to women who had reported the same fish intake in a questionnaire in gestation week 30 did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our data from a prospective cohort of relatively young and initially healthy women from Aarhus linked with information from registries could not substantiate a protective effect of fish intake against cardiovascular disease.

  16. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Asakereh; Asadalah Akram; Shahin Rafiee; Afshin Marzban

    2010-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, con...

  17. Effects of Ag nanoparticles on survival and oxygen consumption of zebra fish embryos, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Dominique A; Guida, Stephanie M; Shah, S Ismat; Marsh, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafine silver (Ag) particles, defined as having one dimension in 1-100 nanometer (nm) size range, pose a unique threat to aquatic ecosystems due to their wide use in the healthcare and commercial industries. Previous studies have demonstrated some consequences of nanosilver exposure for earlier life stages of aquatic organisms, but few focus on the effects on metabolic processes such as oxygen consumption. Additionally, few authors have tackled the issue of how size, shape and composition of nanosilver particles are important in determining their level of bioactivity and biodistribution in the aquatic environment. In this study, embryos of the zebra fish, Danio rerio, (n = 2373) were exposed to varying concentrations of two Ag particle sizes, 12 and 21 nm, at time points 24 and 48 h after fertilization. The 12 nm particles were found to be more bioactive with a lethal dose 50 (LD(50)) concentration of 15.8 μg/mL compared to 50.1 μg/mL for 21 nm particles. The effective dose level (ED) was measured as 12.6 μg/mL for the 12 nm particles and 5.0 μg/mL for the 21 nm particles. Using survival curves, we found that in terms of number of particles in suspension, 21 nm particles have a greater impact on survival than 12 nm particles. Our measured respiration rates for 24 and 48 h embryos (n = 528) exposed to 0 0.02-0.14 mg/mL Ag showed no active upregulation of an energetically expensive detoxification pathway at this early point in development. Results from this study illustrate that advancements in the development of environmentally friendly nanoparticles can only occur if there is continued research to identify the most bioactive characteristics of these metallic particles.

  18. Estimation of intake of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) from canned fish consumption in Europe and migration survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Theobald, A; Wiltschko, D; Anklam, E

    1999-11-01

    The exposure to bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether (BADGE) from canned fish in oil was assessed from consumption data collected for each Member State of the European Union and Switzerland, and migration data from a European survey on 382 samples. Trade figures were used when no consumption data were available. The average consumption of canned fish in Europe was 2.3 kg per person per year, with values ranging from 0.2 kg per person per year in the United Kingdom to 5.1 kg per person per year in Denmark. The exposure to BADGE was calculated as microgram per person per day. The data indicated that exposure to BADGE was in the range below 4 mg per person per year, i.e. 9 micrograms per person per day, hence a fairly low exposure in part due to the fact that canned fish is a relatively minor dietary item. An approximation assuming the general figure of a 60 kg adult, would thus be 0.15 microgram/kg body weight per day. This is a fairly limited exposure considering the provisional limit in food had been set a 1 mg/kg and assumed 1 kg of food ingested. In countries for which increased exposure was found, the reason was mainly caused by one individual sample exhibiting a high concentration rather than a larger number of samples with mildly elevated concentrations.

  19. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.;

    2011-01-01

    risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption......Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...... for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. (C) 2011...

  20. Promoting seafood consumption: An evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplementary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of family expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...... by integrating the campaign under a family-oriented motive. Consistent with the intended effects of the campaign, availability in shops and meal preparation skills lost their influence in the post-campaign survey (effective N = 523). Instead, family norms were the only direct as well as indirect (mediated...

  1. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  2. Pectoral fin beat frequency predicts oxygen consumption during spontaneous activity in a labriform swimming fish (Embiotoca lateralis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudorache, Christian; Jordan, Anders D.; Svendsen, Jon Christian

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify kinematic variables correlated with oxygen consumption during spontaneous labriform swimming. Kinematic variables (swimming speed, change of speed, turning angle, turning rate, turning radius and pectoral fin beat frequency) and oxygen consumption (MO2......) of spontaneous swimming in Embiotoca lateralis were measured in a circular arena using video tracking and respirometry, respectively. The main variable influencing MO2 was pectoral fin beat frequency (r (2) = 0.71). No significant relationship was found between swimming speed and pectoral fin beat frequency...... consumption patterns are likely to be quite different in field situation compared to a small lab tank. In addition, our methods could be useful to measure metabolic costs of growth and development, or bioassays for possible toxicological effects on fish....

  3. Using Theory to Identify Beliefs Associated with Intentions to Follow Fish Consumption Advisories Among Anglers Living in the Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Connelly, Nancy A; Labuer, T Bruce; Knuth, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by states, tribes, and federal agencies to provide guidance to consumers about eating sport-caught fish potentially affected by chemical contaminants. Previous work has found that while anglers report being aware that advisories are available, awareness and use of specific advisory recommendations is low. This study uses the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to identify beliefs with potential to increase intentions to follow fish consumption advisories in Great Lakes states. We conducted a mail survey of 1,712 licensed anglers in seven of eight Great Lakes states (excluding Ohio) to gauge advisory awareness, cognitive factors influencing fish consumption behaviors (informed by the IMBP), and sociodemographic characteristics. Results show that most anglers reported being generally or vaguely aware of fish consumption advisories and try to follow them, but far fewer report being aware of specific advice needed to decide whether or not to consume different types of sport-caught fish. Informed by the IMBP, we also identify several behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that have sufficient room to change, strong associations with intentions to follow the advisories, and potential to be modified if targeted with strategic risk messages. Targeting these beliefs with strategic communication holds potential to increase the proportion of anglers intending to follow fish consumption advisory recommendations in choosing which fish to eat.

  4. Impact of a risk-benefit advisory on fish consumption and dietary exposure to methylmercury in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, P; Houdart, S; Marette, S; Roosen, J; Blanchemanche, S

    2007-08-01

    We designed the CORAI (COnsumer Risk Advisory Inquiry) study to observe consumer reactions' after an advisory revealing risk of methylmercury contamination together with benefits of Long-Chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids of the n-3 variety (LC n-3 PUFA). The message was very close to the ones commonly delivered by national food agencies and included recommendations for women of childbearing age and children below 15 years old. Two groups of subjects including consumers at risk were selected. Participants recorded the frequency of their fish consumption detailed by species for them and their family over a one-month period one month before, a month immediately after and 3 month after the advisory. Results were compared between consumers receiving the advisory and controls. Results show that the message revelation led to a significant decrease in total fish consumption which is greater for children below 6 years old than for the children between 6 and 15 years old and women. The consumption of the most contaminated fish quoted in the advisory, rarely consumed and poorly known by French consumers did not decrease in any group despite the advice to avoid their consumption. The consumption of other fish products quoted in the advisory but frequently consumed and better known, as canned tuna, did decrease and was a major contributor to the overall reduction of exposure for the advised group. Before the information, about 3% of women of childbearing age are exceeding the PTWI for MeHg and both the average and the high percentiles of the exposure to MeHg are decreasing significantly in the advised group. Regarding the number of subjects of the advised group exceeding the PTWI, they were 6, 3 and 2, respectively, in May, June and September. Accompanying questionnaires show that consumers imperfectly memorize most of the fish species quoted in the recommendation. This paper concludes that consumer advisory, which is a major tool for risk management, has a minimal effect

  5. Quantitative risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption for women of child-bearing age in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M Y Y; Wong, W W K; Chung, S W C; Tran, C H; Chan, B T P; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption is associated with both risks from methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial effects from omega-3 fatty acids to the developing foetal brain. This paper assessed the dietary exposure to MeHg of women of child-bearing age (20-49 years) in Hong Kong, and conducted risk-benefit analysis in terms of the effects in children's intelligent quotient (IQ) based on local data and the quantitative method derived by the expert consultation of FAO/WHO. Results showed that average and high consumers consume 450 and 1500 g of fish (including seafood) per week, respectively. About 11% of women of child-bearing age had a dietary exposure to MeHg exceeding the PTWI of 1.6 µg kg(-1) bw. In pregnant women MeHg intake may pose health risks to the developing foetuses. For average consumers, eating any of the 19 types of the most commonly consumed fish and seafood during pregnancy would result in 0.79-5.7 IQ points gain by their children. For high consumers, if they only ate tuna during pregnancy, it would cause 2.3 IQ points reduction in their children. The results indicated that for pregnant women the benefit outweighed the risk associated with eating fish if they consume different varieties of fish in moderation.

  6. Health effects of lean fish consumption in overweight and obese young adults following an energy-restricted diet for eight weeks

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In the cross-European study SEAFOODplus YOUNG it was recently shown that consumption of lean fish increases weight loss in men and has other positive health effects. The aims of this thesis were to investigate whether lean fish consumption increases weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors in a dose-dependent manner during an eight-week energy restriction in young overweight or mildly obese healthy adults. A total of 126 Icelandic individuals were grouped into three isocaloric die...

  7. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gases Emission form Canned Fish Production in Iran a Case Study: Khuzestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asakereh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life but intensive use of it causes problems threatening public health and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission from canned fish production in the Khuzestan province, Iran, to determine the losing energy factors and pollutant emission. In this research, canneries, consuming human labor, electricity and diesel fuel energy sources w ere investigated. Total input energy was 22681.8 MJ/t that diesel fuel had the biggest share in the total energy up to 98%. Energy of labour was a small amount of total input energy, but it is the most expensive input in the canned fish production. Primary cooking and sterilization operations are most consumers of input energy in canning fish production with 21202.6 MJ/t. Manual operations of fish cleaning and transferring, includes the lowest energy and this stage includes 43.33% of total human labour. Amount of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions from diesel fuel is much greater than electricity in fish cannery. Emission of CO2, NOX and SO2 are the most gas emission with 1071.282, 7.264 and 6.52 Kg/t, respectively. Productivity of labour and electricity, diesel fuel and labour energy were 0.025 t/La 1h and 2.2, 0.044 t/GJ and 0.056 t/MJ, respectively. Using agitating retorts in steed of still retorts and reform path of transferring vapor will decrease the diesel fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

  8. Oily Fish Consumption Modifies the Association between CD36 rs6969989 Polymorphism and Lipid Profiles in Korean Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Kim, Yangha

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, rs6969989 polymorphism with the serum lipid profiles in Korean women, together with their modulation by oily fish consumption. Subjects were participants from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES), which was initiated in 2001 as a large-scale. A total of 4,210 women aged 39 to 70 were included in this study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and blood chemical analysis. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The minor allele frequency for rs6969989 was found in 12% of this population. Homozygotes minor G allele at the rs6868989 exhibited significantly higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P-trend=0.043) and lower fasting glucose (P-trend=0.013) than major allele A carriers. The risk of low HDL-C was significantly lower in homozygotes for the G allele than the A allele carriers (P-trend=0.032). Gene-diet interaction effects between rs6969989 and oily fish intake were significantly associated with the risk of dyslipidemia (P-interaction= 0.004). Subjects with homozygotes minor G allele and high oily fish intake generally had a lower risk of dyslipidemia than did those with major allele homozygotes and low oily fish intake. These findings supported that oily fish consumption may modulate the contributions of CD36 rs6969989 on genetic predisposition to the risk of dyslipidemia. PMID:27752496

  9. The diet and consumption of dominant fish species in the upper Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.;

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...

  10. Methodological Aspects of Analyzing and Assessing the Per Capita Consumption of Fish and Seafood in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mikhailovich Selin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and increased competition leads to the need to strengthen the functions of the Russian government to ensure food security of the country and, accordingly, the consolidation of mechanisms of state regulation of agricultural economy and food markets. The importance of solving the problems of information security, a high degree of reliability of the information provided by the Government of the relevant statistical authorities is growing. The relevance of obtaining high-quality statistical information for the adoption of timely and informed decisions by the government on the management of the national economy has increased significantly during the period of political and economic confrontation between Russia and the West in terms of sanctions and counter-sanctions. Taking fishing industry and its product – the water biological resources – as an example, the author of the present study carried out a structural analysis of the methodology for composing the balance of fish and fish products to determine the per capita level of consumption, described the different approaches to assessing the level of consumption of water biological resources, structured export indicators of water biological resources gathered from various official sources, on the basis of which the author revealed significant differences in the assessment of the situation. The subject of statistics as the problem was raised at the Presidium of the State Council from October 19, 2015 devoted to the development of the fishing industry of the Russian Federation and was reflected as a separate item in the Order of the President following the results of the State Council. Established by the Order of the Federal State Statistics Service dated October 21, 2013 No. 419, the new method of determining the level of per capita consumption of fish and fish products, based on the compilation of the balance of water biological resources, and composed after the

  11. In situ determination on food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of a marine fish species, Hyporhamphus sa jori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙耀; 于淼; 张波; 唐启升

    2002-01-01

    -- The food consumption and ecological conversion efficiency of a species marine pelagic and small size fish, Hyporhamphus sajori, were determined by using in situ stomach content method presented by Eggers. The results showed that: (1) the fish was taken in food all day, so empty-stomach rate was very low, taking up about 4.5% of the total determined fish number. However, the fish still has significant daily feeding rhythm. A feeding peak was found 0: 00 o' clock at night, but feeding level was always high in the daytime; (2) relationship between instantaneous food content in stomach and corresponding time could be described as St = a@ e- b@t. There was not significant difference of instantaneous gastric evacuation rate between two determinations, with average value being 0.13 × 10- 2g/ (g@h) (wet weight); (3) the daily food consumption tended to change in irregular waving form, with average value being (10.16 × 10-2 ± 1.19 × 10-2) g/ (g@ d) (wet weight) or (55.56 × 10-2 ± 6.51 ×10-2) kJ/ (g@d). The wave distance is constant and about 14 d, but the wave height changed largely;(4) actual determining value of daily growth rate was 3.24× 10-2g/ (g@d) (wet weight) or 12.91 ×10-2kJ/ (g@d), from which 31.89% (wet weight) or 23.24% kJ of ecological conversion efficiency could be obtained.

  12. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  13. The effect of daily consumption of the small fish Amblypharyngodon mola or added vitamin A on iron status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anna Birkmose; Schmidt, Lise K H; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) is a nutrient-rich, small fish found in ponds and rice fields in Bangladesh. The aim of the present intervention was to assess the effect of mola consumption on iron status in children with marginal vitamin A status. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN...... control group). The intervention meals were served 6 days/week for 9 weeks. The experimental and positive control meals were designed to contain similar amounts of retinol activity equivalents per portion. The mola curry contained four times more iron compared to the rui curries due to different iron...... to the positive control group, while there were no differences between groups in ferritin or haemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of mola instead of rui has potentially an effect on iron status in children with marginal vitamin A status, seen as a decrease in serum transferrin receptor concentration....

  14. Relationship between self-reported fish and shellfish consumption, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and total mercury concentrations in pregnant women (II from Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bentzen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is a valuable source of nutrients important for fetal development. However, seafood consumption is the main route of exposure to monomethyl mercury (MeHg+ for humans. MeHg+ is highly bioavailable and potentially adversely affects fetal neurodevelopment. MeHg+ exposure from fish consumption varies significantly by age and trophic level of fish consumed as well as the frequency and amount of fish consumed. This study investigates total Hg concentrations ([THg] in hair segments of pregnant Mexican women in relation to (1 self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption, (2 maternal trophic level and marine diet contributions, determined using hair carbon (C and nitrogen (N stable isotopes, and (3 relates [THg] to various hair advisory thresholds. We also examined whether variation in C and N isotope values is explained by self-reported frequency of fish and shellfish consumption. A significant proportion of hair samples had [THg] higher than suggested agency thresholds and, for women within the range of the various advisory thresholds (1–20 μg g−1, the specific statistic used and threshold applied are important considerations for assessing and communicating risk. Individuals enriched in 15N (δ15N values had higher [THg] as did individuals that reported consuming fish and shellfish more frequently, suggesting that variation in [THg] can be explained by both consumer reported diet and diet as determined by C and N stable isotope assessment. However, at higher reported fish consumption levels the trophic level is maintained while [THg] is paradoxically lower. This suggests that THg exposure and assimilation are more complicated in higher fish frequency consumption categories. [THg] is more variable at the higher concentrations, possibly indicating some exposure to non-dietary Hg, heritable variations affecting Hg toxicodynamics, and BMI and tobacco exposure factors as outlined in our companion paper.

  15. Fish consumption and its motives in households with versus without self-reported medical history of CVD: A consumer survey from five European countries

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    Brunsø Karen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-cultural differences in the frequency of fish intake and in motivations for fish consumption between people from households with (CVD+ or without (CVD- medical history of cardiovascular disease, using data obtained in five European countries. Methods A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in November-December 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4,786 respondents, aged 18–84 and who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results Individuals from households in the CVD+ group consumed fish more frequently in Belgium and in Denmark as compared to those in the CVD- group. The consumption of fatty fish, which is the main sources of omega-3 PUFA associated with prevention of cardiovascular diseases, was on the same level for the two CVD groups in the majority of the countries, except in Belgium where CVD+ subjects reported to eat fatty fish significantly more frequently than CVD- subjects. All respondents perceived fish as a very healthy and nutritious food product. Only Danish consumers reported a higher subjective and objective knowledge related to nutrition issues about fish. In the other countries, objective knowledge about fish was on a low level, similar for CVD+ as for CVD- subjects, despite a higher claimed use of medical information sources about fish among CVD+ subjects. Conclusion Although a number of differences between CVD- and CVD+ subjects with respect to their frequency of fish intake are uncovered, the findings suggest that fish consumption traditions and habits – rather than a medical history of CVD – account for large differences between the countries, particularly in fatty fish consumption. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about fish, not only to the people facing chronic

  16. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  17. Estimates of population parameters and consumption/biomass ratio for fishes in reservoirs, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Éder André Gubiani

    Full Text Available Consumption, natural mortality, and growth are important parameters for the construction for both fisheries and ecosystems models. We estimated k (growth constant of the von Bertalanffy's function, Loo 1(asymptotic length, Woo (asymptotic weight, Ar (caudal fin index, M (natural mortality, and Q/B (consumption/biomass ratio for several fish species inhabiting reservoirs. We explored possible relationships among these parameters for 135 fish species sampled in thirty reservoirs in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Maximum length (Lmax varied from 2.60 to 79.00 cm, Loo from 2.73 to 85.05 cm, Woo from 0.23 to 9,490.26 g, k from 0.01 to 2.38 yr-1, Ar from 0.03 to 3.60, M from 0.16 to 2.82 yr-1, and Q/B from 3.31 to 67.18. Significant correlations were observed between most pairs of parameters, except for Ar and k, Ar and Loo , and for M and Q/B. The estimates presented here may be useful for constructing Ecopath models, both in Brazil and other tropical regions, where the use of ecosystem modeling is growing.

  18. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  19. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Fish Chymotrypsin: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solid fish waste is generated from the unwanted parts of fish including heads, tails, fins, frames, offal (guts, kidney and liver and skin. It accounts for up to 80% of material from production of surimi, 66% from production of fillet and 27% from production of headed and gutted fish. Currently, fish wastes are disposed off in land-based waste disposal systems or at sea generating toxic by-products during the decomposition process. However, fish processing waste can be used to produce commercially valuable by-products, such as chymotrypsin. Approach: A comperehensive review of the literature on the extraction, purification and characeterization of fish chymotrypsin was performed. Results: Chymotrypsin is an endopeptidase secreted by the pancreatic tissues of vertebrates and invertebrates. It has 3 different structures (chymotrypsin A, B and C varying slightly in solubility, electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point and cleavage specificity. Only chymotrypsin A and B are found in fish. Compared with mammal chymotrypsin, fish chymotrypsins have similar amino acid composition and molecular weights. Fish chymotrypsins have higher specific activity, especially those from cold-water fish, and low pH and temperature tolerance. The factors affecting the concentration and activity of chymotrypsin in fish are water temperature, fish species, fish age, fish weight and starvation. Chymotrypsin has application in various industries including the food industry, leather production industry chemical industry and medical industry. Conclusion/Recommendations: Extraction techniques for chymotrypsin include: ultra-filtration, ammonium sulphate fractionation precipitation or water-in-oil microemulsions. Purification can be carried out using re-crystallization and gel-filtration, ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Further studies should focus on the optimization of purifiying chymotrypsin from fish processing wastes.

  20. Fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption and heart rate variability: the VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotenoids) found in fruit and vegetables, and omega-3 fatty acids from fish, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids reduced effects of particles less than 2.5 µm in aerodyn...

  1. Tissue specific metal characterization of selected fish species in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mukhtiar; Ahmad, Taufiq; Liaquat, Muhammad; Abbasi, Kashif Sarfraz; Farid, Ibrahim Bayoumi Abdel; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Concentration of various metals, i.e., zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), and silver (Ag), was evaluated in five indigenous fish species (namely, silver carp, common carp, mahseer, thela fish, and rainbow trout), by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. It is proved from this study that, overall, mahseer and rainbow trout had high amount of zinc, whereas thela fish and silver carp had high concentration of copper, chromium, silver, nickel, and lead, while common carp had highest amount of iron contents. Furthermore, a tissue-specific discrimination among various fish species was observed, where higher metal concentrations were noticed in fish liver, with decreasing concentration in other organs like skin, gills, and finally the least contents in fish muscle. Multivariate data analysis showed not only a variation in heavy metals among the tissues but also discrimination among the selected fish species.

  2. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  3. The Association between the Consumption of Fish/Shellfish and the Risk of Osteoporosis in Men and Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years or Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjin; Park, Youngsoon

    2016-02-25

    Fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to have a favorable effect on bone health, but previous epidemiologic studies have shown inconsistent results. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of fish and shellfish is positively associated with bone mass and negatively associated with the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans and Americans. Men and postmenopausal women ≥ 50 years old from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011 (n = 7154) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (n = 2658) were included. There was a positive correlation between the consumption of fish and shellfish and bone mineral density (BMD) of the total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in Koreans. Consistently, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between intake of fish and shellfish and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans. Consumption of fish and shellfish was 4-5 times higher in Koreans than Americans in the present study. In conclusion, intake of fish and shellfish was associated with BMD and the risk of osteoporosis in Koreans but not in Americans, suggesting that a minimum intake level of fish and shellfish might be recommended to protect against bone loss and osteoporosis.

  4. Do religion and religiosity have anything to do with alcohol consumption patterns? Evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kibira, Simon P S; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Tushemerirwe, Florence; Wagner, Glenn J

    2013-09-01

    Fish landing sites have high levels of harmful use of alcohol. This paper examines the role of religion and religiosity on alcohol consumption at two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected people at the sites. Dependent variables included alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days, whereas the key independent variables were religion and religiosity. Bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques were applied. People reporting low religiosity were five times more likely to have consumed alcohol (95% confidence interval: 2.45-10.04) compared with those reporting low/average religiosity. Religion and religiosity are potential channels for controlling alcohol use.

  5. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  6. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of fish and seafood in Catalonia (Spain): Temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Gemma; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Llobet, Juan M; Castell, Victòria; Vicente, Emilio; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and 18 PCBs (DL- and NDL-) were analyzed in 16 fish and seafood species widely consumed in Catalonia (Spain). The exposure of these pollutants was subsequently estimated according to various groups of population. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed an important decrease in relation to the baseline study (2000) and our last survey (2008). Sardine and red mullet were the species showing the highest pollutant concentrations, while canned tuna and cuttlefish presented the lowest levels. Sardine was the main contributor to the exposure of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In contrast, swordfish was the species with the lowest contribution to the exposure of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs, while clam was the minor contributor for NDL-PCBs and total PCBs. For all groups of population, the current intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were lower than the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day), being children the group with the highest exposure. However, this exposure should not mean a health risk for this group of population. The current intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and seafood consumption was similar or even lower than most values reported in recent studies all over the world.

  7. Effect of meal size on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in fishes with different locomotive and digestive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Li, Xiu-Ming; Pang, Xu; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Wang, Yu-Xiang

    2009-05-01

    Effects of feeding on pre-exercise VO(2) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after exhaustive exercise were investigated in sedentary southern catfish, active herbivorous grass carp, omnivorous crucian carp, and sluggish omnivorous darkbarbel catfish to test whether feeding had different effects on EPOC and to compare EPOC in fishes with different ecological habits. For fasting fish, the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) were higher and recovery rates were faster in crucian carp and grass carp compared to those of darkbarbel catfish and southern catfish. EPOC magnitudes of grass carp and southern catfish were significantly larger than those of crucian carp and darkbarbel catfish. Feeding had no significant effect on peak post-exercise VO(2), recovery rate, and EPOC magnitude in grass carp. Both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, while the EPOC magnitude and duration decreased significantly in the larger meal size groups of crucian carp and southern catfish. In darkbarbel catfish, both the pre-exercise and peak post-exercise VO(2) increased with meal size, but the VO(2) increment elicited by exercise was larger in feeding groups compared with the fasting group. These results suggest that (1) the characteristics of the post-exercise VO(2) profile, such as peak post-exercise VO(2) and recovery rate, were closely related to the activity of fishes, whereas the EPOC magnitude was not and (2) the effects of feeding on EPOC were more closely related to the postprandial increase in VO(2).

  8. Reliability and relative validity of fish consumption data obtained in an exposure assessment study among Montreal-area sportfishers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatenstein, B. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre]|[Univ. de Montreal, Quebec (Canada) Dept. de Nutrition; Kosatsky, T.; Nadon, S. [Sante au Travail et Environnementale, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Regie Regionale de la Sante et des Services Sociaux de Montreal-Centre; Lussier-Cacan, S. [Inst. de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Weber, J.P. [Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec, Ste. Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A two-season exercise was undertaken in 29 high-level sportfish consumers to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of study instruments. Fishers were invited to participate after completing the main study interview (Time 1) in fall 1995 or winter 1996. Over a 4-week period, they provided a nonconsecutive 7-day weighed food record, kept a fish consumption calendar, and responded to a shortened version of the Time 1 instrument at the end of this period (Time 2). A second blood sample (at Time 2) was analyzed for whole blood mercury (Hg) and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and erythrocytes. Identical questions were compared in the Time 1 and Time 2 instruments. Reported sportfish consumption assessed by the different instruments was subjected to nutrient analysis. Three estimates of exposure to the target substances were derived from the dietary intake estimates and correlated with their respective Time 2 plasma (EPA, DHA) or blood (Hg) values, and with a kinetically derived interval-specific plasma/blood uptake value. Remarkable similarities were observed for the data derived from like questions in the Time 1 and 2 questionnaires in both seasons. However, frank discrepancies between some portion size estimates and measured values may signal cause for concern.

  9. Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger Torhild; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-Maria; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, María-José; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Katsoulis, Michael; Oikonomou, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peeters, Petra H M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Key, Tim; Brennan, Paul; Romieu, Isabelle; Slimani, Nadia; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Xun, Wei W; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.

  10. Tissue distribution of HCH and DDT congeners and human health risk associated with consumption of fish collected from Kabul River, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamir, Muhammad; Khan, Sardar; Nawab, Javed; Qamar, Zahir; Khan, Anwarzeb

    2016-03-01

    Distribution of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) congeners in tissues of four different fish species and their associated potential health risks to local consumers are presented in this paper. The average ∑(HCHs+DDTs) concentration in Glyptothorax punjabensis (214ngg(-1) wet weight (ww)) (carnivores) was found higher than Tor putitora (155ngg(-1) ww) (herbivores). The distribution of ∑(HCHs+DDTs) in all fish tissues was found in order of liver>muscle>stomach>gills. The profile of congeners (β-HCH/∑HCH from 0.29-0.47) indicated that all selected fish species were contaminated with HCH because of its recent usage in the study area. Furthermore, DDT profile ((DDE+DDD)/∑DDT from 0.61-0.78) showed that fish contamination with DDT originated from past usage and long-time degradation mechanism. The average estimated daily dietary intake of ∑HCHs (15.0ngkg(-1) day(-1)) was higher than ∑DDTs (12.5ngkg(-1) day(-1)) by the local consumers via fish consumption. On the basis of both 50th and 95th percentile exposure levels, the carcinogenic hazard ratios for DDT and its congeners were exceeded one (safe limit) for all fish species, indicating a great potential cancer risk for local consumers with life time consumption of contaminated fish collected from Kabul River.

  11. A study of trace metals in some edible fishes and food risk assessment of its consumption in the Hormozgan province, Iran of the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser koosej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in marine systems are a global problem, since continuous exposure of marine organisms to their low concentrations may result in bioaccumulation, and subsequent transfer to man through the food web. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe in edible part of three benthic and pelagic fish species Fish (SilagoSihama, Crab (portunussegnis and Shrimp (Metapenaeusaffinis collected from three areas (Qeshm, Khamir port and Laft port in the Persian Gulf. The fish samples were collected during 2015. The analytical determination of Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Fe were performed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion procedure, and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The results showed that metal concentrations in the muscle of all fish species were significantly lower than the proposed limits. Heavy metal concentrations were found to be substantially higher in benthic fish than in pelagic fish. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. In general, the THQ measured in this study was <1, indicating no food risk in present consumption rate (21 g/day of these fish. Food risk assessment of case study species indicates that the consumption of Metapenaeusaffinis, portunussegnis and SilagoSihama with the current consumption rate causes no danger to consumers from the viewpoint of zinc, nickel, lead, copper and iron.

  12. Fish Culture Data - Characterization of Sexual Growth Dimorphism in Sablefish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sexual growth dimorphism (SGD) is a common phenomenon in nature. Numerous marine fishes exhibit SGD, with females often growing faster and attaining larger sizes...

  13. Diet and heart health: moderate wine drinking strengthens the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leiris, J; Besse, S; Boucher, F

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to human health. Many epidemiological and research studies have reported that this diet pattern is able to limit the development and progression of coronary heart disease, one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. There is now a large consensus about recommending Mediterranean diet to reduce atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease and to limit the risk of fatal complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure. This review underlines the role of two of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet, namely marine omega-3 fatty acids and wine, and the link between moderate wine consumption and fatty acid profiles.

  14. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ANISAKID NEMATODES IN FISHES OF NORTHERN SARDINIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tedde

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors report results of analysis carried out during 2008-2010 for identification and molecular characterization of larval Anisakis nematodes isolated from fishes of the northern Sardinian sea.

  15. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: a prospective cohort study (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruine, de A.P.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, van 't P.; Brandt, van den P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods:The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer pati

  16. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: A prospective cohort study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, P. van 't; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer pa

  17. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of fish protein adlayers with bacteria repelling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, R. L.; Arpanaei, A.; Pillai, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Materials coated with aqueous fish protein extracts can reduce bacterial adhesion, but the mechanism behind the observed effect is not fully understood. In this study we explore the physicochemical properties of fish muscle protein adlayers on four substrates: gold, stainless steel, polystyrene...... and silicon dioxide. The aims were (i) to determine if the anti-adhesive effect is independent of the underlying substrate chemistry, (ii) to link the physicochemical properties of the adlayer to its ability to repel bacteria, and (iii) to elucidate the mechanism behind this effect. The main proteins on all...

  19. Physiology-based modelling approaches to characterize fish habitat suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teal, L.R.; Marras, Stefano; Peck, M.A.; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Models are useful tools for predicting the impact of global change on species distribution and abundance. As ectotherms, fish are being challenged to adapt or track changes in their environment, either in time through a phenological shift or in space by a biogeographic shift. Past modelling efforts

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite from fish bone waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marliana, Ana, E-mail: na-cwith22@yahoo.co.id; Fitriani, Eka; Ramadhan, Fauzan; Suhandono, Steven; Yuliani, Keti; Windarti, Tri [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Indonesia, 50 275 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Waste fish bones is a problem stemming from activities in the field of fisheries and it has not been used optimally. Fish bones contain calcium as natural source that used to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HA). In this research, HA synthesized from waste fish bones as local wisdom in Semarang. The goal are to produce HA with cheaper production costs and to reduce the environmental problems caused by waste bones. The novelty of this study was using of local fish bone as a source of calcium and simple method of synthesis. Synthesis process of HA can be done through a maceration process with firing temperatures of 1000°C or followed by a sol-gel method with firing at 550°C. The results are analyzed using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray). FTIR spectra showed absorption of phosphate and OH group belonging to HA as evidenced by the results of XRD. The average grain size by maceration and synthesized results are not significant different, which is about 69 nm. The ratio of Ca/P of HA by maceration result is 0.89, then increase after continued in the sol-gel process to 1.41. Morphology of HA by maceration results are regular and uniform particle growth, while the morphology of HA after the sol-gel process are irregular and agglomerated.

  1. Brominated flame retardants in fish and shellfish - levels and contribution of fish consumption to dietary exposure of Dutch citizens to HBCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Boer, de J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the contamination with brominated flame retardants (BFR) in fish regularly consumed by Dutch citizens, 44 samples of freshwater fish, marine fish, and shellfish were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) and its methylated derivative

  2. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a computer program to optimize the balance between the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana; Martí-Cid, Roser; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-12

    In recent years, and based on the importance of fish as a part of a healthy diet, there has been a notable promotion of fish and seafood consumption. However, a number of recent studies have shown that fish may be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with well known adverse effects on human health. Recently, we determined in 14 edible marine species the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as those of a number of chemical contaminants: Cd, Hg, Pb, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated diphenylethers. To quantitative establish the intake of these pollutants (risks) versus that of EPA+DHA (benefits), we designed a simple computer program, RIBEPEIX. The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and the chemical pollutants were introduced into the program. We here present how RIBEPEIX may be used as an easy tool to optimize fish consumption: most suitable species, frequency of consumption, and size of meals. RIBEPEIX can be useful not only for professionals (cardiologists, general physicians, nutritionists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: .

  3. Spatial variability of mercury and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis) - Implications for risk-benefit analyses of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Ursula; Palviainen, Marjo; Eronen, Aslak; Piirainen, Sirpa; Laurén, Ari; Akkanen, Jarkko; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the spatial variability of risks and benefits of consuming fish from humic and clear lakes. Mercury in fish is a potential risk for human health, but risk assessment may be confounded by selenium, which has been suggested to counterbalance mercury toxicity. In addition to the risks, fish are also rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are known to be beneficial for cardiovascular health and brain cognitive function in humans. We found that the concentrations of EPA + DHA and mercury in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) vary spatially and are connected with lake water chemistry and catchment characteristics. The highest mercury concentrations and the lowest EPA + DHA concentrations were found in perch from humic lakes with high proportion of peatland (30-50%) in the catchment. In addition, the ratio of selenium to mercury in perch muscle was ≥1 suggesting that selenium may counterbalance mercury toxicity. The observed variation in mercury and EPA + DHA content in perch from different lakes indicate that the risks and benefits of fish consumption vary spatially, and are connected with lake water chemistry and catchment characteristics. In general, consumption of perch from humic lakes exposed humans to greater risks (higher concentrations of mercury), but provided less benefits (lower concentrations of EPA + DHA) than consumption of perch from clear lakes.

  4. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury. In the present Opinion, the NDA Panel has reviewed the role of seafood in European diets and evaluated the beneficial effects of seafood consumption in relation to health outcomes and population subgroups that have been identified by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish Consumption and/or the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the context of a risk assessment related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption of about 1‑2 servings of seafood per week and up to 3‑4 servings per week during pregnancy has been associated with better functional outcomes of neurodevelopment in children compared to no consumption of seafood. Such amounts have also been associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease mortality in adults and are compatible with current intakes and recommendations in most of the European countries considered. These associations refer to seafood per se andinclude beneficial and adverse effects of nutrients and non-nutrients (i.e. including contaminants such as methylmercury contained in seafood. No additional benefits on neurodevelopmental outcomes and no benefit on coronary heart disease mortality risk might be expected at higher intakes.

  5. HabitatSpace: Multidimensional Characterization of Pelagic Essential Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    That area should be described in terms of ecological characteristics including biological, physical, and chemical parameters, location, and time... Ecologically , essential habitat includes structure or substrate that focuses distribution (e.g., coral reefs, marshes, or kelp beds) and other...feature. For example, seagrass (Fig. 1) is a typical habitat. It grows on the seafloor and is basically a 2-D substrate. Fish that rely on this

  6. The Characterization of Fish (Tilapia Collagen Sponge as a Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For scaffold manufacturing, the utility of bioactive natural organic materials derived from marine products is useful and indispensable as an alternative to bovine collagen. The weakest feature of fish collagen for scaffold application is its low degeneration temperature (Td, indicating poor stability of fish collagen in mammals in vivo. We have focused on the tropical fish tilapia as a candidate for generating a clinical scaffold. The aim of this study was to confirm the Td of tilapia type I atelocollagen (TAC for biomedical application. Furthermore, the physical and structural properties were investigated and evaluated as a scaffold on a sponge form. Different concentrations {0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% (v/v} of TAC solution were analyzed. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the Td of TAC was 35-36°C. The scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the pore size (90–160 μm of TAC sponges is acceptable for cell proliferation. The tensile strength of porous sponges was in the range of 0.01–0.07 MPa. These findings indicate that the TAC sponge prepared from tilapia is one of candidates as a scaffold. The 1.0% (v/v concentration of TAC solution is especially recommended to be advantageous for preparing and handling the solution and for sponge formation.

  7. Heavy metal and trace element contents in edible muscle of three commercial fish species, and assessment of possible risks associated with their human consumption in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Mohamed El-Bahr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three different highly consumed fish species from Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia namely Spangled emporer (Lethriuns nebulosus, Red striped seabream (Pagrus major and Black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus were evaluated for their muscle contents of heavy metals (e.g., Cd and Pb and trace elements (e.g., Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The possible risks associated with their human consumption were also studied. A total of 60 fresh fish samples comprising of 20 samples from each above mentioned fish were collected, and were subjected for determination of heavy metal and trace element contents by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry after Microwave Wet Digestion. The results showed that, accumulation patterns of the heavy metals and trace elements followed the order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. There were variations among metal contents in the muscles of the three fish species; S. cantharus accumulated the highest levels of Cu, Zn and Mn, while the highest level of Fe could be detected in the muscles of P. major. The concentration of Cd and Pb remained comparable in the muscles of all three fish species. The calculated maximum daily intake (MDI values were found as 0.0003, 0.0009, 0.0035, 0.0001, 0.0000, 0.0000 mg/day/person for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusively, the present study indicated that, fish muscles contain relatively less burden of heavy metals and trace elements, and no health problem can be raised from human consumption of the examined commercial fishes at Al-Ahsa market, Saudi Arabia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 271-278

  8. Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2005-03-31

    This report describes a study conducted by PNNL for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterized the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL used the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish who are pulled through the pumps and turbines at Grand Coulee Dam's pump generation station and transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the pump generating plant's new 9-bladed turbines was also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The highest pressure experienced by the Sensor Fish was estimated at 157 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of kokanne would be carried through the pump without being struck and most likely without injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish would be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without injury.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taweel, Abdulali; Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Ahmad, A K

    2013-07-01

    Concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were determined in the liver, gills and muscles of tilapia fish from the Langat River and Engineering Lake, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. There were differences in the concentrations of the studied heavy metals between different organs and between sites. In the liver samples, Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Cd, and in the gills and muscle, Zn>Ni>Cu>Pb>Cd. Levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in the liver samples from Engineering Lake were higher than in those from the Langat River, whereas the Ni levels in the liver samples from the Langat River were greater than in those from Engineering Lake. Cd levels in the fish muscle from Engineering Lake were lower than in that from the Langat River. Meanwhile, the Cd, Zn and Pb levels in the fish muscle from the Langat River were lower than in that from Engineering Lake, and the Ni levels were almost the same in the fish muscle samples from the two sites. The health risks associated with Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni were assessed based on the target hazard quotients. In the Langat River, the risk from Cu is minimal compared to the other studied elements, and the concentrations of Pb and Ni were determined to pose the greatest risk. The maximum allowable fish consumption rates (kg/d) based on Cu in Engineering Lake and the Langat River were 2.27 and 1.51 in December and 2.53 and 1.75 in February, respectively. The Cu concentrations resulted in the highest maximum allowable fish consumption rates compared with the other studied heavy metals, whereas those based on Pb were the lowest. A health risk analysis of the heavy metals measured in the fish muscle samples indicated that the fish can be classified at one of the safest levels for the general population and that there are no possible risks pertaining to tilapia fish consumption.

  10. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-02-16

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  11. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroma, L; Parpinel, M; Tognin, V; Channoufi, L; Tratnik, J; Horvat, M; Valent, F; Barbone, F

    2013-07-01

    The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during

  12. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial–temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis

    2014-01-01

    , production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and ii) relative...

  13. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  14. A Kinetic Study of Accumulation and Elimination of Microcystin-LR in Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) Tissue and Implications for Human Fish Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Donna R. Kashian; Peter Landrum; Duane Gossiaux; Julianne Dyble; Steven Pothoven

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is a potential route of human exposure to the hepatotoxic microcystins, especially in lakes and reservoirs that routinely experience significant toxic Microcystis blooms. Understanding the rates of uptake and elimination for microcystins as well as the transfer efficiency into tissues of consumers are important for determining the potential for microcystins to be transferred up the food web and for predicting potential human health impacts. The main objective of this work was...

  15. Estimates of population parameters and consumption/biomass ratio for fishes in reservoirs, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder André Gubiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption, natural mortality, and growth are important parameters for the construction for both fisheries and ecosystems models. We estimated k (growth constant of the von Bertalanffy's function, Loo 1(asymptotic length, Woo (asymptotic weight, Ar (caudal fin index, M (natural mortality, and Q/B (consumption/biomass ratio for several fish species inhabiting reservoirs. We explored possible relationships among these parameters for 135 fish species sampled in thirty reservoirs in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Maximum length (Lmax varied from 2.60 to 79.00 cm, Loo from 2.73 to 85.05 cm, Woo from 0.23 to 9,490.26 g, k from 0.01 to 2.38 yr-1, Ar from 0.03 to 3.60, M from 0.16 to 2.82 yr-1, and Q/B from 3.31 to 67.18. Significant correlations were observed between most pairs of parameters, except for Ar and k, Ar and Loo , and for M and Q/B. The estimates presented here may be useful for constructing Ecopath models, both in Brazil and other tropical regions, where the use of ecosystem modeling is growing.O consumo, a mortalidade natural e as estimativas de crescimento são parâmetros importantes para a construção de modelos pesqueiros e ecossistêmicos. Dessa forma, neste trabalho foram calculados os parâmetros k (constante de crescimento da equação de von Bertalanffy, Loo (comprimento assintótico, Woo (peso assintótico, Ar (índice da nadadeira caudal, M (mortalidade natural e Q/B (consumo/biomassa para peixes em reservatórios. Além disso, foram exploradas possíveis relações entre esses parâmetros para 135 espécies de peixes amostradas em 30 reservatórios no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. O comprimento máximo (Lmax variou de 2,60 a 79,00 cm, Loo de 2,73 a 85,05 cm, Woo de 0,23 a 9.490,26 g, k de 0,01 a 2,38 ano-1, Ar de 0,03 a 3,60, M de 0,16 a 2,82 ano-1, e Q/B de 3,31 a 67,18. Correlações significativas foram observadas entre todos os pares de parâmetros, exceto para Ar e k, Ar e Loo e para M e Q/B. As estimativas

  16. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  17. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2011-01-01

    The addition of fish oil to industrial food products is appealing both to the food industry and consumers for reasons such as health benefits and the extra commercial value. Fish oil is rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which contain a large number of double bonds. This feature causes...... such strategy is to add the oil as an emulsion rather than as neat oil. Studies so far have indicated that emulsification of the fish oil changes the oxidative stability of the product but whether emulsification is an advantage seems to be dependent on the food matrix to which the emulsion is added [1, 2...... can be stabilized by food grade emulsifiers such as proteins and phospholipids from milk. The main objective of this study is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, size distribution, and ultimately to view the thickness, structure and morphology of the interface...

  18. Detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria isolated from fish Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Gowhar H; Dar, Shoaib A; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, Mohammad Z; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2016-02-01

    The current study focuses on the detection and characterization of potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sobria from fish silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Assessment of clinical, microbiological, pathological and biochemical characteristics of A. sobria were taken into account in order to understand the epidemiology, frequency and occurrence of this infection. Clinically the infected fish (H. molitrix) was observed for various types of symptoms. A total of 33 colonies of A. sobria strain were isolated from 20 cultured H. molitrix, collected from controlled fish pond. Microscopic examination revealed that the strains were rod-shaped, Gram negative bacteria. The revealed percent probability identification of A. sobria from the biochemical characterization in VITEK system was 93% with gram negative (GN) card. The histopathology of Gills caused by this bacterium, A. sobria indicate haemorrhagic gill epithelia and epithelial hyperplasia. Lamelar epithelial hypertrophy and hyperplasia with degenerative changes of the epithelium and hypertrophic epitheliocystis infected cells on gills of H. molitrix were observed during the present study.

  19. Attitudinal determinants of fish consumption in Spain and Poland Actitudes determinantes del consumo de pescado en España y Polonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. Pérez-Cueto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify attitudinal determinants of fish consumption in Spain and Poland, and to discuss the potential impact of local healthy eating policies in the observed reported frequency of fish consumption. Design: Repeated survey analysis , multivariate linear regression analysis. Data collected through a questionnaire that included socio-demographics, self-reported anthropometrics, as well as validated items of attitudinal and involvement scales, validated items of knowledge about fish, and behaviours (reported fish consumption. Setting: Consumer survey in Poland and Spain, 1800 respondents in 2004 and 1815 respondents in 2008. Results: In Poland, intentions to consume more fish and reported fish consumption increased in the four years period between both surveys, together with objective knowledge regarding fish. In Spain with the exception of subjective knowledge, fish consumption at home and total fish consumption, all attitudinal and involvement scale changes were statistically significant. Multivariate regression revealed that age had a small but significant positive effect in all scales, except for satisfaction with life, fish consumption out of home and subjective health. Satisfaction with life and subjective knowledge were significantly determined by household size. The differences between countries were statistically significant for involvement with health and fish, for intention to eat fish, the general attitudes and objective knowledge regarding fish. Conclusions: In Poland, a more positive attitude towards fish, and increased levels of knowledge about this product were observed and could partially be attributed to national policy efforts. In Spain, an interesting feature was observed: more people reported choosing fish when eating out in 2008 compared with respondents in 2004. Such a trend suggests that people slowly move towards healthier choices even in the out of home eating.Objetivo: Identificar los factores determinantes

  20. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  1. Determinants of the consumption of fish and shellfish in Denmark: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1995-01-01

    of atti-tude towards buying the product, of perceived social pressure to buy or not buy the product, and of perceived lack of capability or control of buying and preparing the product was analysed data from a representative sample of Danish consumers (n=800). The results of multiple regression analysis......Consumers differ considerably in the degree to which they eat fish and shell-fish relative to other meat types. In this study, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) was used to explain intention to buy three specific sea-food categories ­ fish, frozen fish and shelled shrimps. The impact...

  2. Characterization of B chromosomes in Lilium hybrids through GISH and FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, S.L.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, A.; Ramanna, M.S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes and small aberrant chromosomes were detected in Lilium hybrids and characterized through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two small, supernumerary or B chromosomes were detected as extra chromosomes in a tetraploid plant

  3. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  4. A Comparative Assessment of Arsenic Risks and the Nutritional Benefits of Fish Consumption in Kuwait: Arsenic Versus Omega 3-Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Adnan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Chan, Hing Man; Laird, Brian; Al-Amiri, Hanan; Dashti, Basma; Sultan, Anwar; Al-Othman, Amani; Mandekar, Bedraya

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic and organic forms of arsenic (As), as well as omega-3 fatty acids were measured in 578 fish/seafood samples that belong to 15 species of commonly consumed seafood in Kuwait. Arsenic speciation data, with the toxicological profile of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fish consumption rates were applied in a probabilistic risk assessment to estimate the risk from exposure to iAs. The nutritional benefits of omega-3-fatty acid levels in various species of fish were taken into consideration. Results showed that the mean daily intake of iAs through fish consumption among the Kuwaiti population was 0.058 µg/kg/day, and the 95th percentile was 0.15 µg/kg/day. Although the mean intake level did not exceed the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) at 1 × 10(-4), the 95th percentile of iAs intake showed an ILCR of 2.7 × 10(-4). Kuwaiti children (aged 6-12 years) were found to have a higher mean intake of iAs at 0.10 µg/kg/day with 68% of children in this category, exceeding the risk specific dose associated with an ILCR of 1 × 10(-4). The fish species, hammor (grouper; Epinephelus coioides), is the top contributor to iAs intake, and tuna is the major source of omega 3-fatty acids for the Kuwaiti population.

  5. RADIATION RISKS ASSESSMENT DUE TO CONSUMPTION OF THE FAR EAST FOOD FISH AFTER THE ACCIDENT ON “FUKUSHIMA-1” NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishсhenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the data on radioactivity releases to thePacific Oceanlevels after the Fukushima NPP accident. It is shown that the potential risk of of the seafood contamination with the long-living radionuclides 134Cs and 137Cs, which continue to be released to the Pacific Ocean up to the present time. Contribution of 90Sr to the total radioactive contamination does not exceed 3%. Review of the literature data on the modeling of radioactivity spot diffusion showed that due to the flows in the Pacific Ocean the radioactivity transfer toKamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and the ingress into theOkhotskSeawas expected in 2014. It is expected a slight increase of the cesium concentration in water and sea biota in the area of Russia fishing zone FAO 61, but not higher than the concentrations in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea after the Chernobyl accident. Data on measurements of the pollution of fish caught in the Pacific Ocean,JapanandOkhotskSeasin 2011–2014 years during the sea expeditions organized by the Russian Geographical Society, yet showed that the total content of cesium isotopes in any fish sample have not eceeded the value of 0.7 Bq/kg. The prognose risk assessment carried out for the conservative scenario of water contamination in fishing zones ofRussiaand seafood consumption characteristic for the region showed that this risk is minimal according to the WHO scale and does not exceed the risk from fish caughed in Black Sea and Baltic Sea, contaminated after theChernobylaccident, consumption

  6. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  7. Characterization of a hydrolyzed oil obtained from fish waste for nutraceutical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish industry generates high volume of waste from fish oil that can have the extraction of its lipids used as nutraceuticals and foods. The objective of this study was to produce unsaturated fatty acids from industrialized fish oil by means of a differentiated hydrolysis process. The samples used were crude fish oil obtained from Campestre industry and characterized through physical-chemical parameters, according to AOCS: acidity, peroxide, saponification, iodine and percentage of free fatty acids and also obtained the fatty acid profile through derivatization method for gas chromatography. The results obtained for the oleochemical indices for refined oil were similar to the data found on the literature. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was found of 32,78%, with 9,12% of docosahexaenoic (DHA and 10,36% of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, regarding monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA content was of 30,59% in the hydrolyzed fish oil in relation to refined (20,06%. Thus, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis process used for oils from fish-waste was satisfactory on the production of absolute yield of lipids in the process and significant preservation on the percentages of EPA and DHA, interesting on the production of nutraceuticals and nutrition of aquatic animals, including shrimp in captivity.

  8. Gender-specific Associations of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption with 10-year Incidence of Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on

  9. Health problems associated with consumption of fish and the role of aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloo, P A

    2000-01-01

    The majority of the numerous fish parasites are harmless to man and many domestic animals because when eaten with their fish hosts, they are digested. However, some of the fish parasites with larval stages in freshwater or marine teleosts have zoonotic potential if eaten raw or partially cooked. These are usually parasites, which have a piscivorous mammalian carnivore as their normal final host and are able to infect man because of the low host specificity of the adult stage. The major groups of fish parasite that are known as potentially dangerous pathogens of man belong to the helminth groups cestoda, trematoda, nematoda and rarely acanthocephala. However, bacterial and viral disease of man transmitted through fish are not uncommon. Toxic substances, metals and insecticides used to control human diseases in aquatic environments may accumulate in fish in po1lluted waters at such levels as to constitute a health risk to the consumer. Other health problems associated with fish arise from its perishable nature for example, in adequate handling, processing and storage, which may lead to the accumulation of microbes enhancing the risk of food poisoning. The aquatic environment in Africa constitutes a breeding habitat to several vectors of human diseases such as mosquitoes, snails and black flies. This paper reviews the role played by fish in transmitting diseases to humans as well as the importance of the aquatic environments in the transmission of human diseases such as Malaria, Schistosomiasis and onchocerciasis.

  10. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Snakehead Fish Cell Line upon Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Tu, Jiagang; Yuan, Junfa; Liu, Xueqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Dawar, Farman Ullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Hegazy, Abeer M; Chen, Nan; Vakharia, Vikram N; Lin, Li

    2016-01-26

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in mediating multiple biological processes in eukaryotes and are being increasingly studied to evaluate their roles associated with cellular changes following viral infection. Snakehead fish Vesiculovirus (SHVV) has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish during the past few years. To identify specific miRNAs involved in SHVV infection, we performed microRNA deep sequencing on a snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1) with or without SHVV infection. A total of 205 known miRNAs were identified when they were aligned with the known zebrafish miRNAs, and nine novel miRNAs were identified using MiRDeep2 software. Eighteen and 143 of the 205 known miRNAs were differentially expressed at three and 24 h post-infection (poi), respectively. From the differentially-expressed miRNAs, five were randomly selected to validate their expression profiles using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and their expression profiles were consistent with the microRNA sequencing results. In addition, the target gene prediction of the SHVV genome was performed for the differentially-expressed host miRNAs, and a total of 10 and 58 differentially-expressed miRNAs were predicted to bind to the SHVV genome at three and 24 h poi, respectively. The effects of three selected miRNAs (miR-130-5p, miR-214 and miR-216b) on SHVV multiplication were evaluated using their mimics and inhibitors via qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that all three miRNAs were able to inhibit the multiplication of SHVV; whereas the mechanisms underlying the SHVV multiplication inhibited by the specific miRNAs need to be further characterized in the future.

  11. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Snakehead Fish Cell Line upon Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in mediating multiple biological processes in eukaryotes and are being increasingly studied to evaluate their roles associated with cellular changes following viral infection. Snakehead fish Vesiculovirus (SHVV has caused mass mortality in snakehead fish during the past few years. To identify specific miRNAs involved in SHVV infection, we performed microRNA deep sequencing on a snakehead fish cell line (SSN-1 with or without SHVV infection. A total of 205 known miRNAs were identified when they were aligned with the known zebrafish miRNAs, and nine novel miRNAs were identified using MiRDeep2 software. Eighteen and 143 of the 205 known miRNAs were differentially expressed at three and 24 h post-infection (poi, respectively. From the differentially-expressed miRNAs, five were randomly selected to validate their expression profiles using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and their expression profiles were consistent with the microRNA sequencing results. In addition, the target gene prediction of the SHVV genome was performed for the differentially-expressed host miRNAs, and a total of 10 and 58 differentially-expressed miRNAs were predicted to bind to the SHVV genome at three and 24 h poi, respectively. The effects of three selected miRNAs (miR-130-5p, miR-214 and miR-216b on SHVV multiplication were evaluated using their mimics and inhibitors via qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that all three miRNAs were able to inhibit the multiplication of SHVV; whereas the mechanisms underlying the SHVV multiplication inhibited by the specific miRNAs need to be further characterized in the future.

  12. Evaluation of Mercury Exposure Reduction through a Fish Consumption Advisory Program for Anishinaabe Tribal Members in Northern Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Foran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission has an extensive program to inform Anishinaabe tribal members from northern Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota who harvest and consume walleye about the health risks of consuming these fish, and to encourage harvest and consumption practices that reduce exposure to MeHg. We report here the results of a probabilistic analysis of exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg among tribal members who consume walleye. The model predicts that the potential for greatest exposures to MeHg occur among women of child-bearing age and children who consume large walleye from lakes that contain heavily contaminated (MeHg concentration >0.5 mg/kg fish. The analysis allows GLIFWC to evaluate, focus, and fine-tune its initiatives to protect the health of tribal members in ways that result in exposure and risk reduction for tribal harvesters, women of child-bearing age, and children, while maintaining important tribal lifeways, which include the harvest and consumption of walleye.

  13. Statistical Survey of Persistent Organic Pollutants: Risk Estimations to Humans and Wildlife through Consumption of Fish from U.S. Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Angela L; Wathen, John B; Lazorchak, James M; Olsen, Anthony R; Kincaid, Thomas M

    2017-02-23

    U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008-2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of contamination for these POPs. PCBs were the most abundant, being measured in 93.5% of samples. Summed concentrations of the 21 PCB congeners had a national weighted mean of 32.7 μg/kg and a maximum concentration of 857 μg/kg, and exceeded the human health cancer screening value of 12 μg/kg in 48% of the national sampled population of river km, and in 70% of the urban sampled population. PBDEs (92.0%), chlordane (88.5%) and DDT (98.7%) were also detected frequently, although at lower concentrations. Results were examined by subpopulations of rivers, including urban or nonurban and three defined ecoregions. PCBs, PBDEs, and DDT occur at significantly higher concentrations in fish from urban rivers versus nonurban; however, the distribution varied more among the ecoregions. Wildlife screening values previously published for bird and mammalian species were converted from whole fish to fillet screening values, and used to estimate risk for wildlife through fish consumption.

  14. Characterizing water resources and trends of sector wise water consumptions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of water resources and trends of water consumptions is important to offer sustainable water resources management strategy. In this research, water resources and trends of water consumptions in Saudi Arabia were investigated. The non-renewable groundwater reserves were estimated to be 259.1–760.6 billion cubic meters (BCM with an effective annual recharge of 886 million cubic meters (MCM. The total internal renewable water was estimated to be 2.4 BCM/year. Approximately 1.4 BCM/year of runoff is collected by 302 dams. The country produces approximately 1.06 BCM desalinated water annually. The wastewater treatment plants treat approximately 0.73 BCM/year of domestic wastewater from which 0.33 BCM is recycled. The water demand in 2009 was 18.51 BCM in which 83.5% were for agriculture. From 2004 to 2009, agricultural water demand was decreased by 2.5%/year, while the domestic and industrial water demands were increased by 2.1%/year and 2.2%/year, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, domestic water subscribers were increased by 22.7%, while the annual domestic water consumption was increased from 1391 (609–2164 to 3818 (1687–7404 m3/subscriber. The industrial water demands were increased from 56 to 713 MCM/year between 1980 and 2009. Following characterization, nonlinear equations were developed to predict the domestic, industrial and agricultural water demands. The predicted water demands were within 1–10% of the historically reported values. The findings might be useful in understanding water sources, water demands and identifying new sources for sustainable water resources management.

  15. Pattern of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and fish consumption and retinal vascular caliber in children and adolescents: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghian, Hanieh; Flood, Victoria M.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Liew, Gerald; Burlutsky, George; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether fish and long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) consumption changed appreciably during adolescence. We also assessed whether these dietary variables are associated with retinal microvascular signs (possible markers of future cardiovascular disease risk). 633 children had dietary data at ages 12 and 17. Fish and LCn-3 PUFA [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Retinal vessel caliber was quantified from digital photographs using computer software. Mean energy-adjusted intakes (mg/day) of total LCn-3 PUFA, EPA, and DHA at age 12 were 297.1±261.1; 102.5±106.9; and 129.7±137.7, respectively; and this increased significantly at age 17 to: 347.0±324.0 (p<0.0001); 122.5±132.7 (p = 0.0001); and 160.3±171.4 (p <0.0001), respectively. Increasing quartiles of LCn-3PUFA intake were associated with widening of mean retinal arteriolar caliber among 17-year old girls ~3.9 μm (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.001). Girls who consumed ≥2 serves of fish/week versus those who did not had ~2.1 μm wider retinal arterioles (p = 0.03). No associations were observed among boys or with retinal venules. Mean dietary intakes of LCn-3 PUFA increased during adolescence, but are still below recommended levels of consumption. These results suggest that LCn-3 PUFA and fish intake might have a beneficial influence. PMID:28192538

  16. Cloning and characterization of zebra fish SPATA4 gene and analysis of its gonad specific expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangfeng; Liu, Bowen; He, Shan; Zhao, Ying; Wang, Zhao

    2005-06-01

    The spermatogenesis associated 4 gene (SPATA4, previously named TSARG2) was first cloned in human tissues and was reported to be a candidate spermatocyte apoptosis-related gene that is expressed specifically in testis. Analysis of SPATA4 expression and regulation in zebra fish may provide insight into the understanding of the complicated process of gonadogenesis. In this study, we cloned and characterized the SPATA4 gene from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is homologous to human and mouse SPATA4. Zebra fish SPATA4 consists of six exons separated by five introns, as all SPATA4 genes in vertebrates. A promoter region was predicted using homologous blast and cloned for further study, and possible transcription factors were analyzed in this region. The putative protein encoded by this gene was analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Multi-tissue RT-PCR results demonstrated that the zebra fish SPATA4 gene is expressed specifically in testis and slightly in ovary. Analysis of the SPATA4 sequence and its spatial expression pattern indicate that this gene is highly conserved and may play an important role in the process of zebra fish gonadogenesis.

  17. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  18. High levels, partitioning and fish consumption based water guidelines of perfluoroalkyl acids downstream of a former firefighting training facility in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fowler, Craig; Day, Sarah; Petro, Steve; Gandhi, Nilima; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Hao, Chunyan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Drouillard, Ken G; Morse, Dave

    2016-09-01

    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), especially perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), have been observed at locations in/around/downstream of the sites where PFOS-based firefighting foam was used repeatedly for a prolonged period. In this study, we conducted a detailed investigation of PFAA contamination in the Lake Niapenco area in Ontario, Canada, where among the highest ever reported levels of PFOS were recently measured in amphipods, fish and snapping turtle plasma. Levels and distribution of PFAAs in water, sediment and fish samples collected from the area varied widely. An upstream pond beside a former firefighting training area (FFTA) was confirmed as the source of PFAAs even 20years after the last use of the foam at the FFTA. Recent PFOS concentration in water (~60ng/L) at Lake Niapenco, about 14km downstream of the pond, was still 3-7× higher than the background levels. For PFOS, Log KD ranged 1.3-2.5 (mean±SE: 1.7±0.1), Log BAFs ranged 2.4-4.7 (3.4±0.05), and Log BSAFs ranged 0.7-2.9 (1.7±0.05). Some fish species-specific differences in BAF and BSAF were observed. At Log BAF of 4.7, fish PFOS levels at Lake Niapenco could reach 15,000ng/g, 100× greater than a "do not eat" advisory benchmark, without exceeding the current drinking water guideline of 300ng/L. A fish consumption based water guideline was estimated at 1-15ng/L, which is likely applicable worldwide given that the Log BAFs observed in this study were comparable to those previously reported in the literature. It appears that PFAA in the downstream waters increased between 2011 and 2015; however, further monitoring is required to confirm this trend.

  19. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Edmiston, C. Scott; Taylor, Michelle L.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer-long tributary to Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Fish Creek is an important water body because it is used for irrigation, fishing, and recreation and adds scenic value to the Jackson Hole properties it runs through. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek has been increasing since the early 2000s. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and biologic communities of Fish Creek during 2007–11. The hydrology of Fish Creek is strongly affected by groundwater contributions from the area known as the Snake River west bank, which lies east of Fish Creek and west of Snake River. Because of this continuous groundwater discharge to the creek, land-use activities in the west bank area can affect the groundwater quality. Evaluation of nitrate isotopes and dissolved-nitrate concentrations in groundwater during the study indicated that nitrate was entering Fish Creek from groundwater, and that the source of nitrate was commonly a septic/sewage effluent or manure source, or multiple sources, potentially including artificial nitrogen fertilizers, natural soil organic matter, and mixtures of sources. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphate, which are key nutrients for growth of aquatic plants, generally were low in Fish Creek and occasionally were less than reporting levels (not detected). One potential reason for the low nutrient concentrations is that nutrients were being consumed by aquatic plant life that increases during the summer growing season, as a result of the seasonal increase in temperature and larger number of daylight hours. Several aspects of Fish Creek’s hydrology contribute to higher productivity and biovolume of aquatic plants in Fish Creek than typically observed in streams of its size in

  20. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (phair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  1. Regular consumption of Nile river fish could ameliorate the low milk DHA of Southern Sudanese women living in Khartoum City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyuar, Kot B; Min, Yoeju; Dawood, M; Abukashawa, S; Daak, A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2013-08-01

    We have reported that milk of Northern Sudanese women contained very low level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was puzzling since the mothers were not malnourished and some had claimed to eat fish from time to time. War-displaced Southern Sudanese live in Khartoum City and its vicinity. They are distinct in genetic background and traditional dietary culture from the Northerners. Milk DHA is influenced by diet and ethnicity. Fatty acid content of Southern Sudanese milk, and six of the popular River Nile fish species were evaluated. Mature milk compared with transition milk had lower arachidonic (AA, 0.6±0.19 vs. 0.75±0.3; p<0.001), adrenic (0.14±0.1 vs. 0.33±0.23), osbond (0.07±0.05 vs. 0.14±0.08; p<0.0001), eicosapentaenoic (0.04±0.02 vs.0.08±0.07; p<0.01) and DHA (0.10±0.07 vs. 0.16±0.1; p=0.003) acids. The milk of the Southerners like their counterparts from the North had low DHA and total n-3 and high AA and total n-6 levels. Regular consumption of the local fish could provide adequate DHA to help enrich their milk.

  2. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  3. Associations between omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids from fish consumption and severity of depressive symptoms: an analysis of the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmire, Claire A; Block, Robert C; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2012-04-01

    Fish is the primary source of dietary omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, which have been reported to reduce depressive symptoms in clinical trials. We assessed the association between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of 10,480 adults from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depressive symptoms were classified by severity using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Fish meal consumption reported in 30-day food frequency questionnaires, and EPA+DHA intake computed from 24-h dietary recalls were evaluated in relation to depressive symptoms using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Consumption of breaded fish showed an increased risk of greater depressive symptom severity, while all fish, non-breaded fish, and shell fish were not associated. Any EPA+DHA intake was significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Exposure-response analyses revealed no clear patterns for any intake measures. Inconsistent patterns of associations in our study may be partially explained by exposure misclassification.

  4. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Liu, Shi V; Geller, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    NHANES subjects self-identified as "Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial" (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine the reasons for elevated blood methylmercury (MeHg) levels, and also extends previous analyses of observed NHANES blood levels. The probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model was applied, using MeHg fish residue data from FDA's Total Diet Study (1990-2002) combined with NHANES/WWEIA (1999-2006) fish consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by race/ethnicity, age group, and fish type. Statistical analyses of blood methylmercury levels in the (6 times larger) 1999-2006 NHANES data were compared against previous published results for 1999-2002 data. The A/P/N/M group has higher fish intake, modeled MeHg exposures, and blood levels than the general population and other racial/ethnic groups. Tuna, other saltwater fish, and other freshwater fish are key food types driving dietary MeHg exposure. The 1-consumption is an important route for methylmercury intake by the general population, and especially for racial/ethnic groups with higher fish consumption. These probabilistic dietary modeling approaches could be applied for local populations (e.g., tribes) and other chemicals and foods, if data are available.

  5. Characterizing the Fish Passage Environment at The Dalles Dam Spillway: 2001-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Serkowski, John A.; Cook, Chris B.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Perkins, William A.

    2007-10-10

    The spill environment at The Dalles Dam in 2001-2004 was characterized using a field-deployed autonomous sensor (the so-called Sensor Fish), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, and Lagrangian particle tracking. The sensor fish has a self-contained capability to digitally the record pressure and triaxial accelerations it was exposed to following its release into the spillway. After recovery downstream of the tailrace, the data stored in the memory of the sensor are downloaded and stored for analysis. The spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace hydrodynamics were simulated using an unsteady, free-surface, three-dimensional CFD code that solved the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. The results from the CFD simulations were then used in a Lagrangian particle tracking model that included the effects of mass, drag, and buoyancy in the particle equation of motion. A random walk method was used to simulate the effects of small-scale turbulence on the particle motion. Several operational and structural conditions were evaluated using the Sensor Fish, CFD, and particle tracking. Quantifying events such as strike and stilling basin retention time characterized exposure conditions in the spill environment.

  6. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.

    1998-01-01

    to a mesophilic fish spoilage bacterium tan Aeromonas sp.). Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was attributed to production of lactic acid. Most strains were identified as Lactobacillus spp., and all grew well at ambient temperatures (25-37 degrees C) and tolerated up to 6.5% NaCl. Glucose was fermented rapidly......Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...... further characterized and 43 strains were inhibitory against Listeria monocytogenes. The strains were inhibitory to other Gram- positive (lactic acid) bacteria probably because of production of bacteriocins. All 44 strains inhibited both Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 37 were inhibitory...

  7. Assessing the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing to characterize fish community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; McIntyre, J.P.; Pollock, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-pass backpack electrofishing data collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess the efficacy of single-pass backpack electrofishing. A two-capture removal model was used to estimate, within 10 river basins across the United States, proportional fish species richness from one-pass electrofishing and probabilities of detection for individual fish species. Mean estimated species richness from first-pass sampling (p??s1) ranged from 80.7% to 100% of estimated total species richness for each river basin, based on at least seven samples per basin. However, p??s1 values for individual sites ranged from 40% to 100% of estimated total species richness. Additional species unique to the second pass were collected in 50.3% of the samples. Of these, cyprinids and centrarchids were collected most frequently. Proportional fish species richness estimated for the first pass increased significantly with decreasing stream width for 1 of the 10 river basins. When used to calculate probabilities of detection of individual fish species, the removal model failed 48% of the time because the number of individuals of a species was greater in the second pass than in the first pass. Single-pass backpack electrofishing data alone may make it difficult to determine whether characterized fish community structure data are real or spurious. The two-pass removal model can be used to assess the effectiveness of sampling species richness with a single electrofishing pass. However, the two-pass removal model may have limited utility to determine probabilities of detection of individual species and, thus, limit the ability to assess the effectiveness of single-pass sampling to characterize species relative abundances. Multiple-pass (at least three passes) backpack electrofishing at a large number of sites may not be cost-effective as part of a standardized sampling protocol for large-geographic-scale studies. However, multiple

  8. Characterization of salt consumption among hypertensives according to socio-demographic and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Sia Perin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.

  9. Two listeria outbreaks caused by smoked fish consumption-using whole-genome sequencing for outbreak investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillesberg Lassen, S.; Ethelberg, S.; Björkman, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    production facilities by use of whole-genome sequencing and subsequent multilocus sequence type and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Outbreak cases shared outbreak strains, defined as Listeria monocytogenes isolates belonging to the same sequence type with fewer than five single nucleotide...... polymorphism differences. We performed routine food consumption interviews of L. monocytogenes patients and compared outbreak cases with sporadic cases. Two outbreaks were defined, each consisting of ten outbreak cases in the period 2013-15. Seven outbreak cases and a fetus in gestational week 38 died...

  10. Sensor Fish Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through John Day Dam Spillbay 20 with a Modified Flow Deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-04-29

    Fish passage conditions over a modified deflector in Spillbay 20 at John Day Dam were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objectives of the study were to describe and compare passage exposure conditions at two spill discharges, 2.4 and 4.0 thousand cubic feet per second (kcfs), identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes, and to evaluate a low-tailwater condition at the 2.4-kcfs discharge. The study was performed in April 2010 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events; 2) differences in passage conditions between treatments; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Nearly all Sensor Fish significant events were classified as collisions; the most severe occurred at the gate, on the spillbay chute, or at the deflector transition. Collisions in the gate region were observed only during the 2.4-kcfs discharge, when the tainter gate was open 1.2 ft. One shear event was observed during the evaluation, occurring at the deflector transition during passage at the 2.4-kcfs discharge at low tailwater. Flow quality, computed using the Sensor Fish turbulence index, was best for passage at the low-flow low-tailwater condition as well. The worst flow quality was observed for the 4.0-kcfs test condition. Contrasting the passage exposure conditions, the 2.4-kcfs low-tailwater treatment would be most deleterious to fish survival and well-being.

  11. Methylmercury and inorganic mercury in serum -- correlation to fish consumption and dental amalgam in a cohort of women born in 1922

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, I.A.; Schuetz, A. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Ahlqwist, M. [Medicinargatan 12, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oral Diagnostic Radiology; Bengtsson, C. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Vasa Hospital; Lissner, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Vasa Hospital]|[Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Lapidus, L.; Hulten, B. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    Methylmercury in serum (S-MeHg) was assessed from serum concentrations of total (S-TotHg) and inorganic mercury (S-InoHg), determined by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected from 135 women on two occasions, in 1968--1969 and 1980--1981. In a subgroup of 29 women, an association was found between S-MeHg and the amount of fish consumed in 1968--1969. The association was stronger when the individuals` mean S-MeHg from 1968--19659 and 1980--1981 were plotted vs fish consumption 1968--1969. In the group, as a whole, there was an association between S-InoHg and number of dental amalgam surfaces, in both 1968--1969 and 1980--1981. The S-InoHg increased by approximately 0.1 nmol/L per amalgam tooth surface, corresponding to an uptake of approximately 0.2 {micro}g/day per amalgam surface, but with considerable interindividual differences. The levels were lower in 1980--1981 than in 1968--1969 for both MeH and InoHg.

  12. Preparation and characterization of the fish reference material; Preparacao e caracterizacao de um material de referencia de peixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Joao Cristiano

    2011-07-01

    The certified reference materials (CRMs) play an important role in obtaining measurement results traceable to the International System of Units, through an unbroken chain of comparisons. Thus, the demand for new certified reference materials (CRMs) increases every day in all areas of knowledge. The availability of reference materials, mainly in Brazil is still incipient, given that the demand far exceeds the available variety of these materials. The amount of certified reference materials available in the country is insufficient to meet the need of the scientific community and demands for development of new methodologies. Among the many areas in need of reference materials, we highlight the importance for the food trade balance for these products within the country. The certification of food products, intended both for export and for domestic consumption, requires analysis methods that provide precise and accurate results to ensure product quality. This paper describes the preparation and certification of a reference material in the fish matrix in mercury and methylmercury. The study brings together since the stage of material selection, preparation, development of homogeneity and stability studies and characterization. The certification was performed by means of measurements using two analytical techniques, flow injection analysis - cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-CV-AAS) and isotope dilution applied to mass spectrometry (IDMS), which is a primary method. In this work the standards of the ISO 30 (ABNT 30-34) and ISO Guide 35 was used as the basis for the preparation and characterization of the material. For the calculation of uncertainties was used the GUM and Eurachem guide. As a result, was produced and certified a lot of material in relation to the concentration of mercury (Hg = 0.271 {+-} 0.057 mg g{sup -1}) and methylmercury (MeHg = 0.245 {+-} 0.038 mg g{sup -1}), and informational values of lead and arsenic. (author)

  13. Characterization of fish assemblages and population structure of freshwater fish in two Tunisian reservoirs: implications for fishery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mili, Sami; Ennouri, Rym; Dhib, Amel; Laouar, Houcine; Missaoui, Hechmi; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    To monitor and assess the state of Tunisian freshwater fisheries, two surveys were undertaken at Ghezala and Lahjar reservoirs. Samples were taken in April and May 2013, a period when the fish catchability is high. The selected reservoirs have different surface areas and bathymetries. Using multi-mesh gill nets (EN 14575 amended) designed for sampling fish in lakes, standard fishing methods were applied to estimate species composition, abundance, biomass, and size distribution. Four species were caught in the two reservoirs: barbel, mullet, pike-perch, and roach. Fish abundance showed significant change according to sampling sites, depth strata, and the different mesh sizes used. From the reservoir to the tributary, it was concluded that fish biomass distribution was governed by depth and was most abundant in the upper water layers. Species size distribution differed significantly between the two reservoirs, exceeding the length at first maturity. Species composition and abundance were greater in Lahjar reservoir than in Ghezala. Both reservoirs require support actions to improve fish productivity.

  14. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerfving, S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury is transferred through the placenta into the fetus. There is also a possibility that exposure occurred through breast milk, as high levels of mercury in breast milk have been reported in mothers from Minamata. Information on the relationship between methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood of mothers and their babies, and levels in breast milk are reported here.

  15. FDA-EPA Public Health Guidance on Fish Consumption: A Case Study on Informal Interagency Cooperation in "Shared Regulatory Space".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study on how administrative agencies interact with each other in cases of shared regulatory jurisdiction. The theoretical literature on the topic of overlapping jurisdiction both (1) makes predictions about how agencies are expected to behave when they share jurisdiction, and (2) in recent iterations argues that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policymaking benefits. Through the lens of that theoretical literature, this article examines the relations between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding the public health risks posed by mercury in fish. It concludes that the FDA-EPA case study (1) corroborates the extant theoretical accounts of how agencies behave in cases of overlapping jurisdiction, (2) supports the conclusion of the recent scholarship that overlapping jurisdiction can confer unique policy benefits, and (3) reveals a few wrinkles not given adequate treatment in the extant literature.

  16. Characterization of water quality and biological communities, Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Peterson, David A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Leemon, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary to the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Public concern about nuisance growths of aquatic plants in Fish Creek have been increasing in recent years. To address this concern, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District to characterize the water quality and biological communities in Fish Creek. Water-quality samples were collected for analyses of physical properties and water chemistry (nutrients, nitrate isotopes, and wastewater chemicals) between March 2007 and October 2008 from seven surface-water sites and three groundwater wells. During this same period, aquatic plant and macroinvertebrate samples were collected and habitat characteristics were measured at the surface-water sites. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate nutrient concentrations (that influence biological indicators of eutrophication) and potential sources of nutrients by using stable isotope analysis and other indicator chemicals (such as caffeine and disinfectants) that could provide evidence of anthropogenic sources, such as wastewater or septic tank contamination in Fish Creek and adjacent groundwater, and (2) characterize the algal, macrophyte, and macroinvertebrate communities and habitat of Fish Creek. Nitrate was the dominant species of dissolved nitrogen present in all samples and was the only bioavailable species detected at concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level in all surface-water samples. Average concentrations of dissolved nitrate in surface water were largest in samples collected from the two sites with seasonal flow near Teton Village and decreased downstream; the smallest concentration was at downstream site A-Wck. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate in groundwater were consistently greater than concentrations in corresponding surface-water sites during the same sampling event

  17. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarski, F. [UNESP; ROSSINI, AJ.; CECCARELLI, PS.

    2008-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish w...

  18. Characterization of street food consumption in palermo: possible effects on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Silvio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street Food (SF consists of out-of-home food consumption and has old, historical roots with complex social-economic and cultural implications. Despite the emergence of modern fast food, traditional SF persists worldwide, but the relationship of SF consumption with overall health, well-being, and obesity is unknown. Methods This is an observational, cross-sectional study. The study was performed in Palermo, the largest town of Sicily, Italy. Two groups were identified: consumers of SF (n = 687 and conventional restaurant food (RES consumers (n = 315. Study subjects answered a questionnaire concerning their health conditions, nutritional preferences, frequency of consumption of SF and a score relative to SF consumption ranging from 0 to 20 was calculated. Results Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was significantly and independently correlated with the score of street food consumption (r = 0,103; p Conclusions This study suggests that SF consumption in Palermo is associated with a higher BMI and higher prevalence of hypertension in milza consumers. Further studies should evaluate whether frequent SF consumers have unfavourable metabolic and cardiovascular profile.

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood (fish and shellfish) consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission to address the risks and benefits as regards fish/seafood consumption related to relevant beneficial substances (e.g. nutrients such as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) and the contaminant methylmercury, the Panel on Dietetic Products, N....... No additional benefits on neurodevelopmental outcomes and no benefit on coronary heart disease mortality risk might be expected at higher intakes......., Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a Scientific Opinion on health benefits of seafood consumption in relation to health risks associated with exposure to methylmercury. In the present Opinion, the NDA Panel has reviewed the role of seafood in European diets and evaluated the beneficial...... of mercury and methylmercury in food as relevant for the assessment. These included the effects of seafood consumption during pregnancy on functional outcomes of children’s neurodevelopment and the effects of seafood consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in adults. The Panel concluded that consumption...

  20. ND - Contaminants and Potential Consumption Advisories for Game Fish Populations in National Wildlife Refuges in North Dakota and Montana, 2006-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service supports recreational fishing in Refuge waters throughout the state of North Dakota. Recent research indicates popular commercial...

  1. A simple method to reduce the risk of cadmium exposure from consumption of Iceland scallops (Chlamys islandica) fished in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Rigét, Frank F; Dietz, Rune; Asmund, Gert

    2014-08-01

    This paper studied the levels and organ distribution of the toxic heavy metal cadmium in scallops from unpolluted Greenlandic waters. The scallops had an average cadmium concentration of 2.93 ± 0.94 μg/g wet weight in the total soft tissues and no concentration dependent effect was found for gender or size (both p>0.05). The kidney was the primary organ for cadmium accumulation with a mean of 226.2 ± 111.7 μg/g wet weight, and despite the small weight of the kidney, it appeared as the principal contributor of cadmium with 92% of the total cadmium body burden. The cadmium concentrations in the total soft tissues far exceeded the EU-limit of 1 μg/g wet weight for cadmium in bivalves. Based on this, selective evisceration of the cadmium-rich kidney and digestive gland during processing can be regarded as a reliable measure to be taken in order to reduce the cadmium content of scallops used for human consumption.

  2. Differences in the responses of three plasma selenium-containing proteins in relation to methylmercury-exposure through consumption of fish/whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Ping Han; Omi, Sanae; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Yasutake, Akira; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Konishi, Shoko; Nakamura, Masaaki; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-02-05

    Putative protective effects of selenium (Se) against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity have been examined but no conclusion has been reached. We recently reported the lack of serious neurological symptoms in a Japanese fish-eating population with high intakes of MeHg and suggested a potential protective role for Se. Here, relationships between levels of Hg and Se in the blood and plasma samples, with a quantitative evaluation of Se-containing proteins, obtained from this population were examined. While levels of the whole-blood Hg (WB-Hg) and plasma Se (P-Se) showed a positive correlation, stratified analysis revealed that they correlated only in samples with higher (greater than the median) levels of MeHg. A food frequency questionnaire showed that consumption of fish/whales correlated with WB-Hg, but not with P-Se, suggesting that the positive correlation between WB-Hg and P-Se might not be the result of co-intake of these elements from seafood. Speciation of plasma Se revealed the differences in the responses of two plasma selenoproteins, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and selenoprotein P (SePP), in relation to Hg exposure. In the high-Hg group, SePP showed a positive correlation with WB-Hg, but GPx did not. In the low-Hg group, neither SePP nor GPx showed any correlation with WB-Hg. These observations suggest that the increase in P-Se in the high-Hg group might be associated with an increase in SePP, which may, in turn, suggest an increased demand for one or more selenoproteins in various organs, for which SePP supplies the element.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i. e., Hounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i. e. , Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns wasrelated to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  4. Preparation and characterization of recombinant dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus) growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduel, A; Chapnik-Cohen, N; Gertler, A; Elizur, A

    1999-08-01

    Dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus) growth hormone (dfGH) cDNA encoding the mature protein was cloned in a pET11a expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells upon induction with isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactopyranoside as an insoluble protein. The expressed protein, contained within the inclusion-body pellet, was solubilized in 4.5 M urea, refolded at pH 11.3 in the presence of catalytic amounts of cysteine, and purified to homogeneity, as evidenced by SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration on a Superdex column under nondenaturing conditions and amino-terminal analysis showed the purified protein to be monomeric methionyl-dfGH. Binding assays of the (125)I-labeled dfGH to dolphin fish liver microsomal fraction resulted in high specific binding characterized by a K(a) of 0.77 nM(-1) and a B(max) of 285 fmol/mg microsomal fraction protein. The purified dfGH was capable of stimulating proliferation of FDC-P1-B9 cells transfected with rabbit growth hormone (GH) receptor. The maximal effect of dfGH was identical to that of human GH but their respective EC(50) values were 28 nM versus 0.095 nM.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOZYME PATTERN AND MORPHOLOGY OF THREE MARINE FISH CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华荣; 张士璀; 李红岩; 童裳亮; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e. , Flounder Gill) from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) fro m sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red se a bream (Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is ozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results sho wed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their cor responding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly di fferent from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and de tection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in compa rison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without mor phological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compa red to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

  6. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of some mazocraeidean monogeneans from carangid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambireddy, Neeraja; Gayatri, Tripathi; Gireesh-Babu, Pathakota; Pavan-Kumar, Annam

    2016-03-01

    Polyopisthocotylean monogenean parasites of fishes are highly host specific and have been used as an appropriate model to study the host-parasite co-evolution. In the present study, eight monogeneans of the order Mazocraeidea were characterized by nuclear 28S rDNA sequences and their phylogenetic relationship with other polyopisthocotylean species was investigated. Neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. The topology sustained by high bootstrap was: (((Hexabothriidae (Mazocraeidae (Discocotylidae (Diplozoidae (Diclidophoridae (Plectanocotylidae (Heteromicrocotylidae (Microcotylidae (Heteraxinidae), (Thoracocotylidae, Gotocotylidae (Gastrocoylidae (Allodiscocotylidae: Protomicrocotylidae))). In addition, we have also developed DNA barcodes (COI sequences) for six species and the barcodes clearly discriminated all the species. The polytomy within Protomicrocotylidae family is resolved in this study for the first time and it appears that within this family, Bilaterocotyloides species are basal compared to Neomicrocotyle and Lethacotyle species while the latter is the more derived.

  7. Assessing potential health risks to fish and humans using mercury concentrations in inland fish from across western Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tate, Michael T.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Wiener, James G.; Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Davis, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Fish represent high quality protein and nutrient sources, but Hg contamination is ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems and can pose health risks to fish and their consumers. Potential health risks posed to fish and humans by Hg contamination in fish were assessed in western Canada and the United States. A large compilation of inland fish Hg concentrations was evaluated in terms of potential health risk to the fish themselves, health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish, and to humans that consume Hg contaminated fish. The probability that a fish collected from a given location would exceed a Hg concentration benchmark relevant to a health risk was calculated. These exceedance probabilities and their associated uncertainties were characterized for fish of multiple size classes at multiple health-relevant benchmarks. The approach was novel and allowed for the assessment of the potential for deleterious health effects in fish and humans associated with Hg contamination in fish across this broad study area. Exceedance probabilities were relatively common at low Hg concentration benchmarks, particularly for fish in larger size classes. Specifically, median exceedances for the largest size classes of fish evaluated at the lowest Hg concentration benchmarks were 0.73 (potential health risks to fish themselves), 0.90 (potential health risk to predatory fish that consume Hg contaminated fish), and 0.97 (potential for restricted fish consumption by humans), but diminished to essentially zero at the highest benchmarks and smallest fish size classes. Exceedances of benchmarks are likely to have deleterious health effects on fish and limit recommended amounts of fish humans consume in western Canada and the United States. Results presented here are not intended to subvert or replace local fish Hg data or consumption advice, but provide a basis for identifying areas of potential health risk and developing more focused future research and monitoring efforts.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  9. Structural characterization of ferric hemoglobins from three antarctic fish species of the suborder notothenioidei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Alessandro; Franzese, Marisa; Merlino, Antonello; Vitagliano, Luigi; Verde, Cinzia; di Prisco, Guido; Lee, H Caroline; Peisach, Jack; Mazzarella, Lelio

    2007-10-15

    Spontaneous autoxidation of tetrameric Hbs leads to the formation of Fe (III) forms, whose physiological role is not fully understood. Here we report structural characterization by EPR of the oxidized states of tetrameric Hbs isolated from the Antarctic fish species Trematomus bernacchii, Trematomus newnesi, and Gymnodraco acuticeps, as well as the x-ray crystal structure of oxidized Trematomus bernacchii Hb, redetermined at high resolution. The oxidation of these Hbs leads to formation of states that were not usually detected in previous analyses of tetrameric Hbs. In addition to the commonly found aquo-met and hydroxy-met species, EPR analyses show that two distinct hemichromes coexist at physiological pH, referred to as hemichromes I and II, respectively. Together with the high-resolution crystal structure (1.5 A) of T. bernacchii and a survey of data available for other heme proteins, hemichrome I was assigned by x-ray crystallography and by EPR as a bis-His complex with a distorted geometry, whereas hemichrome II is a less constrained (cytochrome b5-like) bis-His complex. In four of the five Antartic fish Hbs examined, hemichrome I is the major form. EPR shows that for HbCTn, the amount of hemichrome I is substantially reduced. In addition, the concomitant presence of a penta-coordinated high-spin Fe (III) species, to our knowledge never reported before for a wild-type tetrameric Hb, was detected. A molecular modeling investigation demonstrates that the presence of the bulkier Ile in position 67beta in HbCTn in place of Val as in the other four Hbs impairs the formation of hemichrome I, thus favoring the formation of the ferric penta-coordinated species. Altogether the data show that ferric states commonly associated with monomeric and dimeric Hbs are also found in tetrameric Hbs.

  10. History of fish-eating culture and latest trends in seafood consumption in Japan%日本食鱼文化历史演变和水产品加工消费最新动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于克锋; 袁春红; 木村郁夫

    2011-01-01

    日本的食鱼文化内涵受历史、经济、政治、地理、气候等多方面的影响一直在不断发展变化.近年来,受西方生活方式的影响,畜禽肉和奶制品的消费量逐年增加,相对来说水产品的消费呈现下降趋势,但是动物性蛋白的一半仍然来源于水产品.介绍了日本食鱼文化的历史和发展演变,以及从最新的水产品家庭消费统计数据和具体的水产加工制品的消费变化来介绍日本最近的水产品消费动向.%Japan has a long history of fish-eating culture due to the geographical features, which is comprised of many islands surrounded by sea. Fish-eating culture has been handed down and accumulated from generation to generation in eating life, centering on fish, including the techniques of catching, handling and judging fish, way of processing and preserving fish. It has been changed and developed due to the effect of many factors such as history, economic, politics, geography, and climate. In spite of the decline in the annual catch and the growth of fishery imports, the per capita consumption of seafood is still about 60 kg in Japan. In recent years, livestock meat and dairy consumption increase year by year in Japan and aquatic products consumption has relatively declined because of more westernized lifestyle. However, half of animal protein still comes from the aquatic products. In contrast, with the rapid development of economy, Chinese people are paying more attention to healthy and high nutrition aquatic products. This paper introduces the history of Japanese fish-eating culture by the analysis of the latest aquatic product households consumption statistics data and the processed aquatic products consumption changes, to introduce Japanese recent seafood culture trend. We hope that it provide some reference for aquatic products processing industry and scientific researchers in China.

  11. Long-term consumption of dried bonito dashi (a traditional Japanese fish stock) reduces anxiety and modifies central amino acid levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Shoichiro; Kondoh, Takashi; Kawase, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Dried bonito dashi, a traditional Japanese fish stock, enhances palatability of various dishes because of its specific flavor. Daily intake of dashi has also been shown to improve mood status such as tension-anxiety in humans. This study aimed at investigating beneficial effects of dashi ingestion on anxiety/depression-like behaviors and changes in amino acid levels in the brain and plasma in rats. Male Wistar rats were given either dried bonito dashi or water for long-term (29 days; Experiment 1) or single oral administration (Experiment 2). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were tested using the open field and forced swimming tests, respectively. Concentrations of amino acids were measured in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and jugular vein. During the long-term (29 days) consumption, rats given 2% dashi frequently entered the center zone and spent more time compared with the water controls in the open field test. However, the dashi was ineffective on depression-like behavior. In the hippocampus, concentrations of hydroxyproline, anserine, and valine were increased by dashi while those of asparagine and phenylalanine were decreased. In the hypothalamus, the methionine concentration was decreased. In a single oral administration experiment, the dashi (1%, 2% or 10%) showed no effects on behaviors. Significance was observed only in the concentrations of α-aminoadipic acid, cystathionine, and ornithine in the hippocampus. Dried bonito dashi is a functional food having anxiolytic-like effects. Daily ingestion of the dashi, even at lower concentrations found in the cuisine, reduces anxiety and alters amino acid levels in the brain.

  12. Experimental characterization of thermally-activated artificial muscles based on coiled nylon fishing lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cherubini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of an innovative class of thermally activated actuators based on twisted polymeric fibres has opened new horizons toward the development of effective devices that can be easily manufactured using inexpensive materials such as fishing lines or sewing threads. These new devices show large deformations when heated together with promising performance in terms of energy and power densities. With the aim of providing information and data useful for the future engineering applications, we present the results of a thermo-mechanical characterization conducted on a specific type of twisted polymeric fibre (i.e. nylon-made coiled actuators that is considered particularly promising. A custom experimental test-bench and procedure have been developed and employed to run isothermal and isometric tensile tests on a set of specimens that are fabricated with a simple and repeatable process. The results of the experiments highlight some important issues related to the response of these actuators such as hysteresis, repeatability, predictability and stored elastic energy.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite from Salmon Fish Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nano-Hydroxyapatite (nHA was isolated from salmon bone by alkaline hydrolysis. The resulting nHA was characterized using several analytical tools, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, to determine the purity of the nHA sample. The removal of organic matter from the raw fish was confirmed by TGA. FT-IR confirmed the presence of a carbonated group and the similarities to synthetic Sigma HA. XRD revealed that the isolated nHA was amorphous. Microscopy demonstrated that the isolated nHA possessed a nanostructure with a size range of 6–37 nm. The obtained nHA interacted with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and was non-toxic. Increased mineralization was observed for nHA treated MSCs compared to the control group. These results suggest that nHA derived from salmon is a promising biomaterial in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  14. Characterization of catalytic efficiency parameters of brain cholinesterases in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Marcuschi, Marina; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature.

  15. Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Zebra Fish Ferroportin in Hek 293T Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Memarnejadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ferroportin (Fpn, a regulator of iron homeostasis is a conserved membrane protein that exports iron across the enterocytes, macrophages and hepatocytes into the blood circulation. Fpn has also critical influence on survival of microorganisms whose growth is dependent upon iron, thus preparation of Fpn is needed to study the role of iron in immunity and pathogenesis of micoorganisms.Methods: To prepare and characterize a recombinant ferroportin, total RNA was extracted from Indian zebrafish duodenum, and used to synthesize cDNA by RT-PCR. PCR product was first cloned in Topo TA vector and then subcloned into the GFP expression vector pEGFP-N1. The final resulted plasmid (pEGFP-ZFpn was used for expression of Fpn-EGFP protein in Hek 293T cells.Results: The expression was confirmed by appearance of fluorescence in Hek 293 T cells. Recombinant Fpn was further characterized by submission of its predicted amino acid sequences to the TMHMM V2.0 prediction server (hidden Markov model, NetOGlyc 3.1 and NetNGlyc 3.1 servers. The obtained Fpn from indian zebrafish also contained eight transmembrane domains with N- and C-termini inside the cytoplasm and harboured 78 O-glycosylated amino acids.Conclusion: The recombinant Fpn from Indian zebra fish was successfully expressed in Hek 293 cell line. Although the discrepancy in two amino acids was observed in our produced Fpn and resulted in an additional O-glycosylation site, but had no effect on the topology of the protein compared to other Fpn described by other researchers. Therefore this construct can be used in future iron studies.

  16. Design of Fuel Consumption Monitoring System for Fishing Vessels Based on STM 32%基于 STM32的渔船油耗监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨郑明; 徐轶群

    2016-01-01

    Considering the fuel consumption of fishing vessels is too high as well as the inconvenience for fishery supervision department of a large number of fishing vessels , the function of the Internet of wireless communication technology is used to de-signed the fishing vessels fuel consumption monitoring system based on STM 32.The system consists of a monitoring center com-puter, a fuel consumption data acquisition gateway , a wireless transmission module and an inductive flow meter .Using ZigBee CC2530F256 chip as the core module , it can realize the function of all port network interconnection .By using the ZigBee coordi-nator and distribution on the fishing boat ZigBee router connected to the Internet , the system can realize acquisition and transmis-sion of the fishing vessel fuel consumption data , and data analysis and storage by the STM 32F207Z master control chip .Through the experiment of a certain port in Fuzhou , the real-time data acquisition and supervision department of the fishing vessel oil con -sumption is realized .%针对渔船燃油消耗过高以及渔业监管部门对大量渔船监管不便的问题,利用物联网无线通信技术的功能,设计基于STM32的渔船油耗监测系统,系统由监测中心计算机、油耗数据采集网关、无线传透模块和感应式流量计构成。利用CC2530F256芯片为核心的ZigBee模块,实现全港口网络互联的功能。下行通过ZigBee协调器与分布在渔船上的ZigBee路由器联网,实现渔船油耗数据的采集与传输,经由油耗数据采集网关主控芯片STM32F207Z进行数据的解析与存储,上行通过RS232实现与监测计算机的通讯。在福州某港口试验证明,可实现渔船油耗实时数据采集和监管部门对渔船的远程监测。

  17. Characterization of the quality of water, bed sediment, and fish in Mittry Lake, Arizona, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosillo, Edyth; Coes, Alissa L.

    2017-03-01

    concentration.Sixteen trace elements were detected in at least one of the fish-tissue samples, and trace-element concentrations were relatively consistent between the three fish-tissue samples. Seven halogenated compounds were detected in at least one of the whole-body fish samples; four to five compounds were detected in each fish. One fish-tissue sample exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency human health consumption criteria for methylmercury.

  18. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead...

  19. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  20. Chemical and olfactometric characterization of volatile flavor compounds in a fish oil enriched milk emulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2004-01-01

    Development of objectionable fishy off-flavors is an obstacle in the development of fish oil enriched foods. Only little is known about the sensory impact of specific volatile fish oil oxidation products in food emulsions. This study examined the volatiles profiles of fish oil enriched milk during...... cold storage (2 degreesC) for 14 days by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Different volatiles (n = 60) comprising alkenals, alkadienals, alkatrienals, and vinyl ketones were identified in the fish oil enriched milk. The potent odorants identified......,4,7-decatrienal were identified in fish oil enriched milk emulsions with peroxide values 0.8 and 3.4 meq/kg, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report on appearance of these decatrienals in food emulsions having. a relatively low peroxide value...

  1. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate neurodevelopment delays coexisting with exposure to multiple neurotoxic substances merits further investigation in poor environmental settings of tin-mining areas.

  2. Fuel consumption analysis of diesel-electric hybrid system of fishing boat%渔船柴电混合动力系统油耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建军; 李胜勇

    2016-01-01

    为了探索海洋渔船推进系统的节油减排,以一艘安装有柴电混合动力系统,成功实现节能减排的金枪鱼延绳钓船为例,通过剖析柴电混合动力系统的结构,柴油机理论负荷特性,结合渔船实际使用情况,分析其节能原因。结果显示,渔船柴电混合动力系统在使用过程中,可根据工况需要,随意切换常规动力与电力推进系统;通过选择合理的主机工况,提高柴油机输出效率,降低柴油机油耗率;综合各种工况,能节油15%以上。研究表明,现阶段在金枪鱼延绳钓渔船上使用混合动力技术是可行的,能起到节能减排的作用。在核心技术不变的情况下,运用一些创新技术手段,如采用多机多桨拆分系统,赋予系统更高的智能调配作用,可以把混合动力系统推广到拖网渔船和围网渔船上。%In order to explore the energy conservation performance of ocean fishing boat propulsion systems,in this paper,a tuna longline vessel that has realized energy-saving and emission-reducing was taken as an example to analyze the reasons behind,through probing into the structure of its diesel-electric hybrid system, engine load characteristics and the actual using conditions of the vessel. The results showed that the diesel-electric hybrid system of the vessel in use can easily switch between the conventional power and the electricity propulsion systems in accordance with the actual working conditions; by selecting the reasonable working conditions of the main engine,the output efficiency of the diesel engine could thus be improved and the diesel fuel consumption rate decreased,and considering the various working conditions,the system could save energy by more than 15%.The research showed that,at present,using hybrid power technology in tuna longline vessels is feasible and can play a role in energy conservation. With the core technology remaining the same and by adopting some

  3. Identification and characterization of growth hormone receptors in snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus argus cantor) liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Zhu, S; Chan, S S; Toresson, G; Cheng, C H

    1997-12-01

    The specific binding of 125I-labeled fish growth hormone (GH) to hepatic membranes prepared from several freshwater fish was assessed. A high level of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was detected on the hepatic membranes of the snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus argus Cantor). Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed a single class of high affinity binding site with a binding affinity (Ka) of 1.45 +/- 0.23 x 10(9) M-1 and a binding capacity (Bmax) of 198 +/- 57 fmol/mg protein. The binding was specific for fish GH and was saturable. In addition, the specific binding was temperature- and time-dependent, reaching a steady state after 16 hr of incubation at 25 degrees . The molecular weight of GHR as measured by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography and Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody (Mab263) against GHR was found to be 200-400 and 90-93 kDa, respectively. Two bands at 65 and 89 kDa were identified in ligand crosslinking studies of membrane receptors. A sensitive teleost GH radioreceptor assay (RRA) was developed, using recombinant fish GH and a membrane preparation from snakehead fish liver, capable of measuring bioactive GH in fish sera or other samples.

  4. Polyphasic characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates recovered from salmonid and non-salmonid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanka, A.; Loch, T.P.; Cipriano, R.C.; Faisal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Michigan's fisheries rely primarily upon the hatchery propagation of salmonid fish for release in public waters. One limitation on the success of these efforts is the presence of bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of A. salmonicida in Michigan fish, as well as to determine whether biochemical or gene sequence variability exists among Michigan isolates. A total of 2202 wild, feral and hatchery-propagated fish from Michigan were examined for the presence of A. salmonicida. The examined fish included Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho salmon, O. kisutcha (Walbaum), steelhead trout, O. mykiss (Walbaum), Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill), and yellow perch, Perca flavescens (Mitchill). Among these, 234 fish yielded a brown pigment-producing bacterium that was presumptively identified as A. salmonicida. Further phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses identified representative isolates as Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and revealed some genetic and biochemical variability. Logistic regression analyses showed that infection prevalence varied according to fish species/strain, year and gender, whereby Chinook salmon and females had the highest infection prevalence. Moreover, this pathogen was found in six fish species from eight sites, demonstrating its widespread nature within Michigan.

  5. Molecular characterization and genetic analysis of Gnrh2 and Gthβin different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Long; Huan Zhong; Shaojun Liu; Min Tao; Lin Chen; Jun Xiao; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin hormone (GTH) play crucial roles in regulating the gonadal development of the vertebrate. In this study, the Gnrh2, Fshβ and Lhβ cDNAs were cloned and characterized in red crucian carp, trip-loids and tetraploids, and their phylogenetic relations were comparatively analyzed. All the Gnrh2 cDNAs in different ploidy fishes encoded proteins of 86 amino acids, which consisted of a signal peptide, a GnRH2 decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a proteolytic cleavage site (Giy-Lys-Arg). The GnRH2 decapeptide and proteolytic cleavage site were absolutely con-sistent among the three ploidy fishes, but the differences in signal peptide and GAP between diploids and tetraploids were fewer than those between diploids and triploids. It was presumed that the red crucian carp was the original maternal parent of tetraploids, so they had closer relationship. In addition, the Fshβ and Lhβ cDNAs of these three fishes encoded proteins of 130 and 140 amino acids, respec-tively. Compared with the molecules of other teleosts, the cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites of Lhβ in these three fishes are fully conserved. However, most teleosts of Fshβ had 12 cysteine residues, while those of these three fishes were 13, and 12 of which might form six conserved disulfide bridges by utilizing the cleavage sites between the first and the second cysteine residues. Moreover, the lack of the second glycosylation site in Fshβ of these three fishes might influence the special structure and biological activities. On the other hand, the phylogenic tree analyses revealed that Gnrh2, Fshβ and Lhβ had similar phylogeny relationships among the cyprinids, which indicated that they were conserved in molecular structure and function during the evolution.

  6. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same...... fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same target species. I argue that these differences need......Previous studies based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of certain fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  7. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically...

  8. Differential expression and characterization analysis of a new gene with WD domains in fish oogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Jianjun(

    2001-01-01

    trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Cytokine, 1998. 10:555-563.[12]Shibata, N.. Yoshikuni, M., Nagahama, Y., Vitellogenin incorporation into oocytes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,in vitro: effects of hormones on denuded oocytes, Dev. Growth Diff., 1993, 35: 115-121.[13]Dong. J., Albertini, D. F., Nishimori, K. et al., Growth differentiation factor-9 is required during early ovarian folliculogenesis, Nature, 1996, 383: 531-535.[14]Yang, Z. A., Li, Q. H., Wang, Y. F. et al., Comparative investigation on spindle behavior and MPF activity changes during oocyte maturation between gynogenetic and amphimictic crucian carp, Cell Res., 1999, 9:145-154.[15]Yang. S. T., Gui, J. F., A comparison of sperm proteins between males from gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp,Acta Zoologica Sinica (in Chinese), 2001, 47: 79-84.[16]Gui, J. F., A unique study system: gynogenetic fish Carassias auratus gibelio, Science Foundation in China, 1996, 4: 44-46.[17]Gui. J. F., Retrospects and prospects of studies on the mechanism of natural gynogenesis in silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibellio), Bulletin of Natural National Foundation of China (in Chinese), 1997, 11:11-16.[18]Zhou. L., Wang. Y., Gui, J. F., Analysis of genetic heterogeneity among five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch based on detection of RAPD molecular markers, Cytogenet. Cell Genet., 2000, 88:133-129.[19]Zhou, L., Wang, Y., Gui, J. F., Genetic evidence for gonochoristic reproduction in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) as revealed by RAPD assays, J. Mol. Evol., 2000, 51: 498-506.[20]Datta, P. K., Chytil, A., Gorska, A. E. et al., Identification of STRAP: a novel WD domain protein in transforming growth factor- β signaling. J. Biol. Chem.. 1998, 237:34671-34674.[21]Fan, L. C.. Yang, S. T., Gui, J. F., Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between

  9. Characterization of reef fish populations within St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCCOS' Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA) is working closely with a number of divisions in the USVI DPNR (e.g., Divisions of Fish and Wildlife and...

  10. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  11. Consumo de carne y pescado en población mediterránea española de edad avanzada y alto riesgo cardiovascular Meat and fish consumption in a high cardiovascular risk Spanish Mediterranean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sotos Prieto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El consumo elevado de grasas saturadas procedentes, en gran parte, de la ingesta de carne roja y embutidos se ha asociado con mayor riesgo cardiovascular (RCV a diferencia de lo que ocurre con el consumo de pescado. Objetivo: Conocer el patrón de consumo de carne y pescado en pacientes de edad avanzada y alto RCV, sus correlaciones con la adherencia a la Dieta Mediterránea (DM y su asociación con factores de RCV. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en 945 personas (media de edad 67,4 ± 6,2 años, de alto RCV participantes en el estudio PREDIMED-Valencia. La frecuencia del consumo de carne y pescado se determinó a través de un cuestionario validado. Se han analizado variables clínicas, bioquímicas por métodos estándar. Resultados: El consumo de carne roja en la muestra estudiada fue elevado (7,4 ± 4,7 veces/semana y superior en hombres que en mujeres (P = 0,031 y se asoció con mayor peso (P = 0,001 y prevalencia de obesidad (P = 0,025. El consumo de pescado también fue alto (4,5 ± 2,6 veces/semana y se correlacionó con menor glucemia en ayunas (P = 0,016 así como con menor prevalencia de diabetes (P = 0,017. Conclusiones: El consumo de carne roja en población de alto RCV es muy elevado y se aleja de las recomendaciones de la DM, por lo que habría que disminuirlo. El consumo de pescado se ajusta más a las recomendaciones y habría que mantenerlo.Background: High saturated fat consumption, mostly from red meat and sausage meat has been associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk (CVR in contrast to the effect of high fish consumption. Objective: To get to know the frequency of meat and fish consumption in an elderly high Mediterranean population, their correlations with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD and their association with intermediate CVR phenotypes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 945 people (67.4 ± 6.2 years old with high CVR recruited in primary care centres of

  12. St. Croix, USVI Land-sea characterization of East End Marine Park to evaluate zones and support management plan review: 2011 fish community assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  13. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix, US Virgin Islands 2010-10-18 to 2011-11-10 (NODC Accession 0125270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize and monitor the distribution, abundance, and size of both reef fishes and macro-invertebrates...

  14. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2010-08-10 to 2012-09-21 (NODC Accession 0125201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  15. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands 2012-06-12 to 2012-06-22 (NODC Accession 0125418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  16. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, St Croix and St John, US Virgin Islands 2001-02-06 to 2010-10-29 (NODC Accession 0125236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish database is the result of a mutlifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize and monitor the...

  17. Biogeographic characterization of fish and benthic communities, Parguera, Puerto Rico 2000-08-21 to 2009-08-21 (NODC Accession 0125202)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  18. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal tract of Labeo rohita--towards to identify novel probiotics against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Bency; Ramesh, Dharmaraj; Ramkumar, Srinivasagan; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy; Anbarasu, Kumarasamy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to screen and characterize endogenous microbiota Bacillus spp. from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Labeo rohita in order to evaluate their probiotic attributes. A total of 74 isolates from the GI of L. rohita were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties by agar well-diffusion method against fish pathogens. Based on the better antibacterial features, three isolates (KADR1, KADR3, and KADR4) were selected for further delineation. The three selected isolates exhibited higher tolerance to bile salt, moderate tolerance to low pH, high surface hydrophobicity to solvents, and capable to autoaggregate. All three isolates demonstrated notable proteolytic, catalase activity and susceptibility to various antibiotics. Partial 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the isolates exhibited 99 % sequence homology with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aerophilus, and Bacillus firmus of the database substantiating morphological and physiological characterization. Survivability in low pH and bile salt ensures their adaptability in the fish intestinal microenvironment. The ability to autoaggregate reveals colonization potential in the GI of the fish. Absence of hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility to certain antibiotics, presence of protease and catalase activity, and non-pathogenic caliber of the above-mentioned isolates could be feasible characteristics when considering them as probiotics in the aquaculture industry.

  19. In vitro characterization of 6-Coumarin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and their uptake by immunocompetent fish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Adriana; Mandracchia, Delia; Di Franco, Cinzia; Cordero, Héctor; Morcillo, Patricia; Comparelli, Roberto; Cuesta, Alberto; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2015-03-01

    The primary aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro uptake of 6-Coumarin (6COUM) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by two gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) cell types: an established cell line (SAF-1 cells) and the primary cultures of head-kidney (HK)-the main haemopoietic organ in fish, equivalent to mammalian bone marrow-leucocytes. For this purpose, after the physicochemical characterization of SLN, the uptake by those immunocompetent fish cells was evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Concomitantly, the uptake of 6-COUM loaded SLN was compared with that achieved with 6-COUM loaded pectin microparticles (MPs), which were selected as a competitor of the delivery carriers. After SLN and MP physicochemical characterization, the results demonstrated that SAF-1 cells were able to internalize high percentages of 6-COUM SLNs when incubated for 4, 8 and 24h, with the highest SLN concentration tested (10 μg/ml). The ability of HK leucocytes to internalize SLN was also found to vary depending on both incubation time and SLN concentration. The highest values of HK leucocytes internalizing SLN particles (around 16%) were detected at the maximum SLN concentration (20 μg/ml) at incubation times of 4 or 8h. Conversely, HK leucocytes were unable to internalize MPs at any tested concentration and incubation time. A possible mechanism explaining the uptake into cells is proposed. The present work constitutes the first approximation to consider SLN as nanocarriers for delivering biologically active substances to fish.

  20. Using Vessel Monitoring System Data to Identify and Characterize Trips Made by Fishing Vessels in the United States North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent fishing is the effort metric often studied in fisheries but it may under-represent the effort actually expended by fishers. Entire fishing trips, from the time vessels leave port until they return, may prove more useful for examining trends in fleet dynamics, fisher behavior, and fishing costs. However, such trip information is often difficult to resolve. We identified ~30,000 trips made by vessels that targeted walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the Eastern Bering Sea from 2008–2014 by using vessel monitoring system (VMS) and landings data. We compared estimated trip durations to observer data, which were available for approximately half of trips. Total days at sea were estimated with 5 million VMS records (timestamps and vessel locations), this study was as much about understanding and managing data errors as it was about characterizing trips. Missing VMS records were pervasive and they strongly influenced our approach. To understand implications of missing data on inference, we simulated removal of VMS records from trips. Removal of records straightened (i.e., shortened) vessel trajectories, and travel distances were underestimated, on average, by 1.5–13.4% per trip. Despite this bias, VMS proved robust for trip characterization and for improved quality control of human-recorded data. Our scrutiny of human-reported and VMS data advanced our understanding of the potential utility and challenges facing VMS users globally. PMID:27788174

  1. Characterization of derived natural hydroxyapatite (HAp) obtained from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, A. N. K. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite, (HAp), Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is recognised as a biomaterial that is widely used for bone implant due to its chemical and structural similarity to the mineral components in human bone and enamel. The elements of HAp are primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus molar ratio of calcium to phosphorous is 1.67 capable to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implant. Enormous amounts of by-product waste produced from fish factories generated an undesirable environmental impact. Thus, this study was conducted to obtain natural biological HAp from different types of tilapia fish bones and scales from fishery waste. Therefore, fish bones and scales can be as cheap source to produce biological HAp for medical applications. For this purpose, fish bones and scales of tilapia fish were boiled at 100°C to remove adhering meat and other impurities. Later, fish bones and scales were separated into several groups and subjected to different calcination temperatures of 800° C and 900° C for 3h respectively. Afterward, all calcined samples were crushed to form a fine powder. The XRD result revealed the presence of derived Hapfrom the samples powder and were identical with standard Hap. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was carried out to show the thermal stability of the HAp powder from different types of fish bones and scales. SEM results show porous structure appeared in calcined samples compared to raw samples. The findings are the promising alternative to produce calcium and phosphorus from fishery wastes that beneficial to medical applications.

  2. Characterization of comparative genome-derived simple sequence repeats for acanthopterygian fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Tamate, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Jun; Tamate, Hidetoshi B; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-05-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become one of the most popular molecular markers for population genetic studies. The application of SSR markers has often been limited to source species because SSR loci are too labile to be maintained in even closely related species. However, a few extremely conserved SSR loci have been reported. Here, we tested for the presence of conserved SSR loci in acanthopterygian fishes, which include over 14 000 species, by comparing the genome sequences of four acanthopterygian fishes. We also examined the comparative genome-derived SSRs (CG-SSRs) for their transferability across acanthopterygian fishes and their applicability to population genetic analysis. Forty-six SSR loci with conserved flanking regions were detected and examined for their transferability among seven nonacanthopterygian and 27 acanthopterygian fishes. The PCR amplification success rate in nonacanthopterygian fishes was low, ranging from 2.2% to 21.7%, except for Lophius litulon (Lophiiformes; 80.4%). Conversely, the rate in most acanthopterygian fishes exceeded 70.0%. Sequencing of these 46 loci revealed the presence of SSRs suitable for scoring while fragment analysis of 20 loci revealed polymorphisms in most of the acanthopterygian fishes. Population genetic analysis of Cottus pollux (Scorpaeniformes) and Sphaeramia orbicularis (Perciformes) using CG-SSRs showed that these populations did not deviate from linkage equilibrium or Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Furthermore, almost no loci showed evidence of null alleles, suggesting that CG-SSRs have strong resolving power for population genetic analysis. Our findings will facilitate the use of these markers in species in which markers remain to be identified.

  3. Characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish and their involvement in notochord development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ricardo G; Tergaonkar, Vinay; Ng, Jennifer K; Dubova, Ilir; Izpisua-Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Verma, Inder M

    2004-06-01

    Although largely involved in innate and adaptive immunity, NF-kappa B plays an important role in vertebrate development. In chicks, the inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway induces functional alterations of the apical ectodermal ridge, which mediates limb outgrowth. In mice, the complete absence of NF-kappa B activity leads to prenatal death and neural tube defects. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins in zebra fish. Despite being ubiquitously expressed among the embryonic tissues, NF-kappa B/I kappa B members present distinct patterns of gene expression during the early zebra fish development. Biochemical assays indicate that zebra fish NF-kappa B proteins are able to bind consensus DNA-binding (kappa B) sites and inhibitory I kappa B alpha proteins from mammals. We show that zebra fish I kappa B alphas are degraded in a time-dependent manner after induction of transduced murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and that these proteins are able to rescue NF-kappa B activity in I kappa B alpha(-/-) MEFs. Expression of a dominant-negative form of the murine I kappa B alpha (mI kappa B alpha M), which is able to block NF-kappa B in zebra fish cells, interferes with the notochord differentiation, generating no tail (ntl)-like embryos. This phenotype can be rescued by coinjection of the T-box gene ntl (Brachyury homologue), which is typically required for the formation of posterior mesoderm and axial development, suggesting that ntl lies downstream of NF-kappa B . We further show that ntl and Brachyury promoter regions contain functional kappa B sites and NF-kappa B can directly modulate ntl expression. Our study illustrates the conservation and compatibility of NF-kappa B/I kappa B proteins among vertebrates and the importance of NF-kappa B pathway in mesoderm formation during early embryogenesis.

  4. Purification, Peptide Mapping and Spectroscopic Characterization of Myoglobin from Striped Snake-Head Fish (Ophicephalusstriatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattrachatchaya Chotichayapong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin (Mb was isolated from ordinary muscle of striped snake-head fish. The crude extract was fractionated by salting out and separated using both Sephadex G-75 and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and molecular filtration, giving at least two protein bands on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass of 15 kDaas major band and trace of 20 k Dacompared with those of MALDI-TOF-MS: 15,597.68 Da (major peak and 23,509.42 Da (trace. Thus, this 15 kDa protein would be the fish Mb which was strongly coupled with other proteins of 23.50 kDa. Spectral characteristics of these purified proteins still exhibited maximum absorption at 280 and 410 nm (the Soret peak. Their tryptophan fluorescence appeared at 330 nm also corresponding with horse heart Mb. The partial peptide sequences of 15 kDa protein obtained from LC-MS/MS with in-gel trypsin digestion were homologous with those of some fish species. In addition, the purified Mb was also determined for its partial peptide sequence by digestion with Lys-C endoproteinase and analysis of amino acid sequence using Edman degradation, resulted in only some amino acid residues are identical to Mb from other fish species. It is noted that differences in their amino acid sequences are attributed among fish Mb species of which playing distinct roles of both structural rigidity and functional property.

  5. Allergenicity of bony and cartilaginous fish - molecular and immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J N; Sharp, M F; Ruethers, T; Taki, A; Campbell, D E; Lopata, A L

    2017-03-01

    Allergy to bony fish is common and probably increasing world-wide. The major heat-stable pan-fish allergen, parvalbumin (PV), has been identified and characterized for numerous fish species. In contrast, there are very few reports of allergic reactions to cartilaginous fish despite widespread consumption. The molecular basis for this seemingly low clinical cross-reactivity between these two fish groups has not been elucidated. PV consists of two distinct protein lineages, α and β. The α-lineage of this protein is predominant in muscle tissue of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), while β-PV is abundant in muscle tissue of bony fish (Osteichthyes). The low incidence of allergic reactions to ingested rays and sharks is likely due to the lack of molecular similarity, resulting in reduced immunological cross-reactivity between the two PV lineages. Structurally and physiologically, both protein lineages are very similar; however, the amino acid homology is very low with 47-54%. Furthermore, PV from ancient fish species such as the coelacanth demonstrates 62% sequence homology to leopard shark α-PV and 70% to carp β-PV. This indicates the extent of conservation of the PV isoforms lineages across millennia. This review highlights prevalence data on fish allergy and sensitization to fish, and details the molecular diversity of the two protein lineages of the major fish allergen PV among different fish groups, emphasizing the immunological and clinical differences in allergenicity.

  6. Forecast Method of City Water Consumption Per Hour Based on Artificial Fish-Swarm Neural Network%基于人工鱼群神经网络的城市时用水量预测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 郑博一; 蒋博龄

    2015-01-01

    The forecast precision of city water consumption per hour has great effect on the city water supply system. The traditional forecast method of back-propagation(BP)neural network tends to offer local values and requires a lot of data training. The artificial fish-swarm algorithm(AFSA)has better global convergence ability and higher optimiza-tion speed. AFSA was adopted to optimize the initial setting weights and thresholds of BP neural network. Then anew forecast model of water consumption per hour was built and was applied to forecast the water consumption per hour of a city in North China. Results show that the mean square error of the artificial fish-swarm neural network algorithm is lower than that of BP neural network algorithm by 5%. It has been verified by instances that the artificial fish-swarm neural network has better forecast precision and higher convergence speed than BP neural network. Artificial fish-swarm neural network algorithm can be used to forecast the short-term water consumption.%城市供水时用水量预测精度对城市供水系统具有重要影响。传统的反向传播(back-propaganda,BP)神经网络预测方法容易陷入局部解,并且需要大量的训练数据。人工鱼群算法具有较优的全局收敛能力及较快的寻优速度。为此,利用人工鱼群算法对 BP 神经网络的初始权值和阈值进行优化,建立了一种新的时用水量预测模型。将该模型应用到华北某市时用水量的预测中,预测结果表明人工鱼群神经网络算法的均方差比 BP 神经网络算法的均方差小5%。实例证明,人工鱼群神经网络比 BP 神经网络的预测精度更高,收敛速度更快。人工鱼群神经网络算法可用于短期水量预测。

  7. Encapsulation of fish oil in nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning: Physical characterization and oxidative stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; van derKruijs, Jules;

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of fish oil in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers by emulsion electrospinning was investigated. Independently of the emulsifier used, whey protein isolate (WPI) or fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), PVA concentration had a high influence on fiber morphology. Fibers without bead...... presented a higher content of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products (e.g. 1-penten-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and nonanal) compared to emulsified and unprotected fish oil....... defects were only produced for solutions with 10.5% (w/w) PVA, which presented sufficient number of polymer chain entanglements. On the other hand, increasing oil load from 1.5 to 3% (w/w) resulted in fibers with larger diameters containing spindle-like enlargements interspersed. High omega-3...

  8. Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Peng; Fen He; Mengyue Wang; Chunfu Wu; Jingyu Yang; Yuxiao Nie; Xiaobo Li

    2011-01-01

    Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnath...

  9. Characterization and expression levels of protease enzymes at different developmental stages of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

    OpenAIRE

    Thongprajukaew, Karun; Kovitvadhi, Uthaiwan; Engkagul, Arunee; Torrissen, Krisna Rungruangsak

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of total proteases, trypsin and chymotrypsin were performed at pH 2 12 and temperatures 20-80°C in three life stages of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910). At least fourteen protease activities were detected, including seven acidic (pH levels 2, 4 and 5-6), one neutral (pH 7), and six alkaline (pH levels 8-12) activities in the optimal temperature range of 30-60°C. The neutral and alkaline pH profiles were different between sexes during the on-gro...

  10. QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE WATER AFTER HYDRAULIC UNLOADING FISH AT PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Janiszewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study characterization of sensory and physical-chemical properties of representative samples of technological waste water after hydraulic unloading fish from fishing vessels, including fishing boats equipped with RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water System or CSW (Chilling Sea Water System system was described. Sensory quality and analytical determinations in technological waste water samples was analyzed. They demonstrated that their sensory quality attributes and physical-chemical properties were different and depending on the destination of fish caught (consumption or industrial fishing, contact time-caught fish with seawater and water temperature (winter or summer season. Because technological waste water has a lot of substance content of protein, fat, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine compounds it is a threat to the natural environment. In connection with such a broad problem of utilization of technological waste water from fishing boats for Baltic fish is one of the most important issues to solve for fishermen and environmentalists.

  11. Characterization of ISR region and development of a PCR assay for rapid detection of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jose R; Hamman-Khalifa, Abdel M; Navas, José I; de la Herran, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the 16S-23S internal spacer region of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae and to develop a PCR assay for its identification and detection. All T. soleae strains tested displayed a single internal spacer region class, containing tRNA(I) (le) and tRNA(A) (la) genes; nevertheless, a considerable intraspecific heterogeneity was observed. However, this region proved to be useful for differentiation of T. soleae from related and non-related species. Species-specific primers were designed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the internal spacer region region, yielding a 1555-bp fragment. Detection limit was of 1 pg DNA per reaction (< 30 bacterial cells) when using pure cultures. The detection level in the presence of DNA from fish or other bacteria was lower; however, 10 pg were detected at a target/background ratio of 1 : 10(5) . The PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than agar cultivation for the detection of T. soleae from naturally diseased fish, offering a useful tool for diagnosis and for understanding the epidemiology of this pathogen.

  12. Spatial and temporal characterization of fish assemblages in a tropical coastal system influenced by freshwater inputs: northwestern Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Carranza, Daniel; Vega-Cendejas, Ma Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are important systems for freshwater, estuarine and marine organisms; they are considered important zones of reproduction, nursery and feeding for many fish species. The present study investigates the fish assemblages of the natural reserve of Dzilam and their relationship with the hydrologic variables. A total of 6 474 individuals (81 species) were collected, contributing with more than 50% considering the Importance Value Index (IVI), Sphoeroides testudineus, Fundulus persimilis, Anchoa mitchilli, Eucinostomus gula, Eucinostomus argenteus and Mugil trichodon. Differences in species composition were found between seasons the highest during the cold fronts. Spatially, differences were related with the presence of freshwater seeps, the highest in the ecological characterized eastern part and the lowest with higher difference in specific composition located in the western part of the internal zone, due to a higher abundance and dominance of L. rhomboides. Salinity and temperature were the variables that presented a higher influence in the distribution of some pelagic species such as A. mitchilli and A. hepsetus. Because of the abundant freshwater seeps characteristic of the coastal lagoons of Yucatan Peninsula their community structure and fish assemblage display spatial and temporal differences in specific composition.

  13. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistant genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are still widely applied in animal husbandry to prevent diseases and used as feed additives to promote animal growth. This could result in antibiotic resistance to bacteria and antibiotic residues in animals. In this paper, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from four integrated fish farms in Zhongshan, South China were tested for antibiotic resistance, tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and class 1 integrons. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were carried out to test antibiotic susceptibility and resistance genes, respectively. Relatively high antibiotic resistance frequencies were found, especially for ampicillin (80%), tetracycline (52%), and trimethoprim (50%). Out of 203 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 98.5% were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was found highest in animal manures with a MAR index of 0.56. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(C)) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul2) were detected in more than 50% of the isolates. The intI1 gene was found in 170 isolates (83.7%). Both classic and non-classic class 1 integrons were found. Four genes, aadA5, aadA22, dfr2, and dfrA17, were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in China and the first time that gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 has been detected in such fish farms. Results of this study indicated that fish farms may be a reservoir of highly diverse and abundant antibiotic resistant genes and gene cassettes. Integrons may play a key role in multiple antibiotic resistances posing potential health risks to the general public and aquaculture.

  14. Oldest isotopically characterized fish otoliths provide insight to Jurassic continental climate of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, William P.

    1999-03-01

    Large, shallow, epeiric seas and adjacent lagoons such as those described herein likely played a significant role in moderating Jurassic coastal and continental climate. Jurassic (Bathonian) ocean surface temperatures in Scotland have been calculated from δ18O(CaCO3) values of a suite of the oldest well-preserved fish otoliths analyzed to date. Otolith δ18O values range from -4.7‰ to -1.9‰ (Vienna Peedee belemnite, VPDB), while δ13C(CaCO3) values vary from -5.4‰ to +1.5‰ (VPDB), representing the oldest stable isotopic record of paleodiet, paleoecology, and fish migration to date. Using a global ocean δ18O(H2O) value of -1.0‰ (Vienna standard mean ocean water, VSMOW) for an ice-free Jurassic, fish species that migrated from estuarine to open marine water record time-averaged temperatures of 23 °C. Estuarine fish, assuming a similar temperature, record variation in δ18O(H2O) values from -3.7‰ to -2.0‰ (VSMOW). That significant mixing of fresh water and seawater occurred in the Jurassic in Scotland is in general agreement with data presented by others (molluscan fauna, lithostratigraphy, paleogeography, and paleocirculation models). The δ18O values and temperatures derived in this study correspond to the meteorologic and hydrologic parameters of a mid-latitude maritime climate with low seasonality, a mean temperature of 23 °C, and abundant precipitation and humidity. The δ18O(H2O) values calculated from estuarine fish indicate that rainfall must have a δ18O(H2O) value lower than -3.7‰ (VSMOW). Values of δ18O and δ13C suggest an environment hydrologically similar to that observed in the Everglades of south Florida or the estuaries of south Texas, both notable fish nurseries today. However, sea-surface temperatures were lower than those of modern Florida or Texas as evidenced by reduced evaporative enrichment of δ18O(H2O) values.

  15. Prevalence and Characterization of High Histamine-Producing Bacteria in Gulf of Mexico Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bowers, John C; Benner, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in detection and enumeration of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) have created powerful molecular-based tools to better understand the presence of spoilage bacteria and conditions, resulting in increased risk of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. We examined 235 scombrotoxin-forming fish from the Gulf of Mexico for the presence of high HPB. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was the most prevalent HPB (49%), followed by Morganella morganii (14%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), and Raoultella planticola (3%). The growth characteristics and histamine production capabilities of the two most prevalent HPB were further examined. M. morganii and P. damselae had optimum growth at 35°C and 30 to 35°C and 0 to 2% and 1 to 3% NaCl, respectively. P. damselae produced significantly (P enumeration of HPB.

  16. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Endo

    Full Text Available We analyzed the Hg concentration, and δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher δ¹⁵N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and δ¹⁵N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the δ¹⁵N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with δ¹⁵N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a δ¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the δ¹³C value of the marine food web.

  17. Estimation of Seasonal Risk Caused by the Intake of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium through Freshwater Fish Consumption from Urban Water Reservoirs in Arid Areas of Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Nevárez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg, mercury (0.744 mg/kg and lead (4.298 mg/kg exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week. This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  18. Estimation of seasonal risk caused by the intake of lead, mercury and cadmium through freshwater fish consumption from urban water reservoirs in arid areas of northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevárez, Myrna; Leal, Luz O; Moreno, Myriam

    2015-02-04

    Bioavailability and hence bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species depends on seasonal conditions causing different risks levels to human health during the lifetime. Mercury, cadmium and lead contents in fish from Chihuahua (Mexico) water reservoirs have been investigated to assess contamination levels and safety for consumers. Muscle samples of fish were collected across the seasons. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, and mercury by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentrations of cadmium (0.235 mg/kg), mercury (0.744 mg/kg) and lead (4.298 mg/kg) exceeded the maximum levels set by European regulations and Codex Alimentarius. Lead concentrations found in fish from three water reservoirs also surpassed the limit of 1 mg/kg established by Mexican regulations. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) suggested by the World Health Organization for methyl mercury (1.6 µg/kg bw per week) was exceeded in the spring season (1.94 µg/kg bw per week). This might put consumers at risk of mercury poisoning.

  19. Characterization of microbiota composition and presence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in carriage water of ornamental fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Gerzova

    Full Text Available International trade with ornamental fish is gradually recognized as an important source of a wide range of different antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study we therefore characterized the prevalence of selected antibiotic resistance genes in the microbiota found in the carriage water of ornamental fish originating from 3 different continents. Real-time PCR quantification showed that the sul1 gene was present in 11 out of 100 bacteria. tet(A was present in 6 out of 100 bacteria and strA, tet(G, sul2 and aadA were present in 1-2 copies per 100 bacteria. Class I integrons were quite common in carriage water microbiota, however, pyrosequencing showed that only 12 different antibiotic gene cassettes were present in class I integrons. The microbiota characterized by pyrosequencing of the V3/V4 variable region of 16S rRNA genes consisted of Proteobacteria (48%, Bacteroidetes (29.5%, Firmicutes (17.8%, Actinobacteria (2.1% and Fusobacteria (1.6%. Correlation analysis between antibiotic resistance gene prevalence and microbiota composition verified by bacterial culture showed that major reservoirs of sul1 sul2, tet(A, tet(B tet(G, cat, cml, bla, strA, aacA, aph and aadA could be found among Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria with representatives of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae being those most positively associated with the tested antibiotic resistance genes.

  20. Characterization of Acid Soluble Collagen from Redbelly Yellowtail Fusilier Fish Skin (Caesio cuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Astiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin can be used as raw material for producing collagen. The collagen can be extracted by chemical or combination of chemical and enzymatic processes. Extraction of collagen chemically can do with the acid process that produces acid soluble collagen (ASC. This study aimed to determine the optimum concentration and time of pretreatment and extraction, also to determine the characteristics of the acid soluble collagen from the skin of yellow tail fish. Extraction of collagen done by pretreatment using NaOH at the concentration of 0.05; 0.1; and 0.15 M and extraction using acetic acid at the concentration of 0.3; 0.5; and 0.7 M. Pretreatment NaOH with concentration 0.05 M and soaking time of 8 hours is the best combination for eliminating non collagen protein. Combination treatment of acetic acid at the concentration of 0.3 M for 3 days obtained the best solubility. The yield of collagen ASC was 18.4±1.49% (db and 5.79±0.47% (wb. Amino acid composition that is dominant in the ASC collagen was glycine (25.09±0.003%, alanine (13.71±0.075%, and proline (12.15±0.132%. Collagen from yellow tail fish skin has α1, α2, β and γ protein structure with the molecular weight of 125, 113, 170-181, and 208 KDa. The transition and melting temperatures of collagen were 67.69oC and 144.4oC. The surface structure of collagen by analysis of SEM has fibers on the surface.

  1. Characterization of Acid Soluble Collagen from Redbelly Yellowtail Fusilier Fish Skin (Caesio cuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Astiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin can be used as raw material for producing collagen. The collagen can be extracted by chemicalor combination of chemical and enzymatic processes. Extraction of collagen chemically can do with theacid process that produces acid soluble collagen (ASC. This study aimed to determine the optimumconcentration and time of pretreatment and extraction, also to determine the characteristics of the acidsoluble collagen from the skin of yellow tail fish. Extraction of collagen done by pretreatment using NaOH atthe concentration of 0.05; 0.1; and 0.15 M and extraction using acetic acid at the concentration of 0.3; 0.5; and0.7 M. Pretreatment NaOH with concentration 0.05 M and soaking time of 8 hours is the best combinationfor eliminating non collagen protein. Combination treatment of acetic acid at the concentration of 0.3 Mfor 3 days obtained the best solubility. The yield of collagen ASC was 18.4±1.49% (db and 5.79±0.47%(wb. Amino acid composition that is dominant in the ASC collagen was glycine (25.09±0.003%, alanine(13.71±0.075%, and proline (12.15±0.132%. Collagen from yellow tail fish skin has α1, α2, β and γprotein structure with the molecular weight of 125, 113, 170-181, and 208 KDa. The transition and meltingtemperatures of collagen were 67.69oC and 144.4oC. The surface structure of collagen by analysis of SEM hasfibers on the surface.Keywords: cholesterol, fatty acids, meat tissue, proximate, red snapper (L. argentimaculatus

  2. Design and characterization of self-assembled fish sarcoplasmic protein-alginate nanocomplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm; Wattjes, Jasper;

    2015-01-01

    Macrostructures based on natural polymers are subject to large attention, as the application range is wide within the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study we present nanocomplexes (NCXs) made from electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged alginate and positively charged...... fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP), prepared by bulk mixing. A concentration screening revealed that there was a range of alginate and FSP concentrations where stable NCXs with similar properties were formed, rather than two exact concentrations. The size of the NCXs was 293 +/- 3 nm, and the zeta...

  3. Associations of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption With Endometrial Cancer Risk in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasky, Theodore M; Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Wise, Lauren A

    2016-02-01

    Dietary long-chain (LC) ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which derive primarily from intakes of fatty fish, are thought to inhibit inflammation and de novo estrogen synthesis. This study prospectively examined the associations of dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs and fish with endometrial cancer risk in 47,602 African-American women living in the United States, aged 21-69 years at baseline in 1995, and followed them until 2013 (n = 282 cases). Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of LC ω-3 PUFA (quintiled) and fish (quartiled) intake with endometrial cancer risk, overall and by body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The hazard ratio for quintile 5 of total dietary LC ω-3 PUFAs versus quintile 1 was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 1.24); there was no linear trend. Hazard ratios for the association were smaller among normal-weight women (BMI <25: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.18, 1.58) than among overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 25: HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.43), but these differences were not statistically significant. Fish intake was also not associated with risk (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.31). Again hazard ratios were smaller among normal-weight women (HR = 0.65) than among overweight/obese women (HR = 0.94). While compatible with no association, the hazard ratios observed among leaner African-American women are similar to those from recent prospective studies conducted in predominantly white populations.

  4. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.

    2011-05-23

    Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  5. Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2011-05-06

    Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

  6. Characterization of triacylglycerol composition of fish oils by using chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaesa, Ángela García; Bucio, Silvia Liliana; Sanz, María Teresa; Beltrán, Sagrario; Rebolleda, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of two different refined fish oils from sardine and a mixture of tuna and sardine oil were separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a binary solvent gradient of acetone/acetonitrile. Different fractions were observed in the chromatogram and TAG species were tentatively identified by subsequent analysis of the fatty acid (FA) profile in each fraction by capillary Gas Chromatography (GC). Peak identities were assigned on the basis of a multiple linear regression analysis by using factors such as carbon number, number of double bonds, number of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and number of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the molecule as predictors for TAG retention time. A successful correlation was obtained between retention times and the equivalent carbon number (ECN) of triacylglycerols. Regiospecific analysis of fatty acids in the TAG has been conducted by ethanolysis of the fish oil by using an immobilized lipase. The subsequent separation of 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) by TLC (thin layer chromatography) analysis showed that ethanolysis system is effective for analysis of FA composition at the 2-position in oils containing PUFA. Principal components analysis (PCA) has been also applied to establish correlations between the different fatty acids in the TAG.

  7. Purification, Characterization and Antitumor Activities of a New Protein from Syngnathus acus, an Officinal Marine Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Peng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent.

  8. Purification, characterization and antitumor activities of a new protein from Syngnathus acus, an officinal marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyue; Nie, Yuxiao; Peng, Ying; He, Fen; Yang, Jingyu; Wu, Chunfu; Li, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Discovery and development of new antitumor agents from abundant marine fish are attracting an increasing interest. In the present study, we extracted and purified a novel antitumor protein Syngnathusin from the whole body of Syngnathus acus L., a precious marine fish traditionally used for tumors. Syngnathusin was comprised of 16 kinds of amino acids, mainly acidic amino acids. Its molecular weight was 67.3 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.57. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Syngnathusin was determined to be Lys-Arg-Asp-Leu-Gly-Phe-Val-Asp-Glu-Ile-Ser-Ala-His-Tyr and showed no significant homology with the known proteins. Syngnathusin could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 and CCRF-CEM cells. However, the obvious proliferation inhibition against human non-tumor cell lines was not observed. Flow cytometry, morphologic assessment and comet assay revealed that Syngnathusin could induce apoptosis in A549 and CCRF-CEM cells and strongly cooperated with MTX. Syngnathusin could inhibit the growth of S180 tumor transplanted in mice. Syngnathusin may be developed as a novel, selective and effective antineoplastic agent.

  9. Dynamic headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of volatiles produced in fish oil enriched mayonnaise during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, K; Lund, P; Hansen, L F; Holmer, G

    2000-10-01

    Protection against lipid oxidation and formation of unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors in oil-in-water food emulsions, such as fish oil enriched mayonnaise, is difficult to achieve. Volatile profiles from stored mayonnaises with different oil phase compositions were collected using a developed dynamic headspace sampling technique, in which interfering acetic acid was removed in situ with potassium hydroxide, and subsequently 148 volatiles were characterized and monitored by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistics showed correlation between the concentration of 62 volatiles and the fish oil and storage parameters, indicating the formation of lipid oxidation products, which impose fishy off-flavors. Further verification was obtained by gas chromatography/olfactometry, by which, among 78 odors, cis-4-heptenal and trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal were detected as distinct fishy notes. In total, 27 volatiles, including 1-penten-3-one, cis-2-penten-1-ol, cis-3-hexenal, cis-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, 1,cis-5-octadien-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, trans,cis-2, 4-heptadienal, and trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, were suggested to contribute to the developed unpleasant fishy and rancid off-flavors.

  10. Cryo-FIB SEM for Characterization of the Structure of Fish Oil Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    this is a barrier for their access to the market and it is necessary to develop techniques to protect the oil against oxidation. Emulsification of the oil has been put forward as a strategy for protection against oxidation, but whether that is beneficial seems to depend on the food matrix to which the oil is added......Addition of fish oil to food products to improve nutritional quality by the addition of omega-3 fatty acids is attractive both to the consumers and the food industry for reasons such as health benefits and added product value. The long chain omega-3 fatty acids contain a large number of double...... [1,2]; see figure 1. It is thus interesting to investigate the pure emulsions to gain knowledge about the oxidation without the effects of an external food matrix. It has been seen that some factors that influence the oxidation in pure emulsions are the type of emulsifier, the oil droplet size...

  11. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the endangered fish (Bahaba taipingensis): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Lu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    To understand the systematic status of Bahaba taipingensis within Sciaenidae, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Chinese bahaba has recently been determined by long PCR and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16500 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) as well as a control region (CR) as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the extended termination associated sequence domain (ETAS), the central conserved sequence block domain (CSB-D, SCB-E and CSB-F) and the conserved sequence block domain (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bahaba taipingensis is more closely related to Pseudosciaeniae than Argyrosominae and Sciaeninae. Additionally, Bahaba taipingensis is the sister taxon of Miichthys miiuy, and those two are sister to Collichthys plus Larimichthys.

  12. [Citogenetic characterization of the tropical freshwater fish Parachromis managuensis (Pisces: Cichlidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Rodríguez, Lenin; Páramo-Delgadillo, Salomón; Durán-González, Alicia de la Luz

    2006-03-01

    To describe the cytogenetics of the jaguar cichlid fish Parachromis managuensis, we collected eight males and 13 females in Villahermosa, Tabasco, México. The specimens were processed with standard cytogenetic techniques (slightly modified), and high quality fields of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis were obtained; 14 of these fields were analyzed by meristics and statistics methods. The specimens presented a diploid modal number of 2n = 48 chromosomes, which is similar to the number reported for others Central American cichlids; five pairs were submetacentric-metacentrics (biarmed) and 19 were subtelocentric-telocentric (uni-armed), giving a fundamental number (NF) of 58. The haploid number was confirmed by counting meiotic fields in metaphase I. There was not evidence of heteromorphism: sexual chromosomes were not identifiable.

  13. Caracterización bioquímica del consumo de reservas vitelinas en peces teleósteos de ontogenia indirecta (Cemical caracterization of vitelline reserves consumption in teleost fish of indirect ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavala, Iram

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo es un ejercicio de revisión bibliográfica en el cual se describen los principales componentes bioquímicos del vitelo y glóbulo de aceite, su importancia, metabolismo, patrón de consumo y la influencia del contenido de las reservas vitelinas (saco de vitelo y glóbulo de aceite sobre el desarrollo embrionario y la supervivencia larval de peces teleósteos de ontogenia indirecta.SummaryThis work is a bibliography review exercise in which are described the major biochemical’s compounds of yolk sac and oil droplet, his importance, metabolism, consumption pattern and the influence of the vitelline reserves content (yolk sac and oil droplet on embryonic development and larval survival in teleost fishes of indirect ontogeny.

  14. Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Davis, Perry; Reinick, Christina; Mizusawa, Kanta; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Dores, Robert M

    2016-06-01

    Melanocortin (MC) systems are composed of MC peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), several molecular forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) and MC receptors (MCRs). Here we demonstrated that the cartilaginous fish, Dasyatis akajei (stingray) expresses five subtypes of MCR genes-mc1r to mc5r-as in the case of teleost and tetrapod species. This is the first evidence showing the presence of the full repertoire of melanocortin receptors in a single of cartilaginous fish. Expression of respective stingray mcr cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed that Des-acetyl-α-MSH exhibited cAMP-producing activity indistinguishable to ACTH(1-24) on MC1R and MC2R, while the activity of Des-acetyl-α-MSH on MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were similar to or slightly greater than that of ACTH(1-24). Notably, in contrast to the other vertebrates, MC2R did not require coexpression with a melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein 1 (mrap1) cDNA for functional expression. One of the roles of MC system resides in regulation of the pituitary-interrenal (PI) axis-a homologue of tetrapod pituitary-adrenal axis. In stingray, interrenal tissues were shown to express mc2r and mc5r as major MCR genes. These results established the presence of functional PI axis in stingray at the level of receptor molecule. While MC2R participates in adrenal functions together with MRAP1 in tetrapod species, the fact that sensitivity of MC5R to Des-acetyl-α-MSH and ACTH(1-24) were two order of magnitude higher than MC2R without coexpression with MRAP1 suggested that MC5R could play a more important role than MC2R to transmit signals conveyed by ACTH and MSHs if MRAP1 is really absent in the stingray.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of neuromedin S in the teleost fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huapu; Huang, Hongxin; Chen, Xinggui; Deng, Siping; Zhu, Chunhua; Huang, Hai; Li, Guangli

    2016-01-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS) has been demonstrated to have important roles in many vertebrate physiological processes. However, the function of NMS in teleost fishes remains unclear. We explored the physiological roles of the NMS gene in the zebrafish model. An NMS cDNA was cloned from zebrafish brain tissue, and the full-length cDNA sequence was 521 bp in length and encoded a precursor of 110 amino acid residues. Interestingly, fish prepro-NMS is predicted to generate a short 34-residue peptide, designated as NMS-related peptide (NMSRP). Zebrafish prepro-NMS does not contain the NMS peptide which is found in the NMS precursors of mammals, and just retains the MNSRP peptide. A multiple-species sequence alignment showed that NMSRPs are conserved among the other sampled vertebrates. Zebrafish NMS mRNA was detected by RT-PCR revealing a tissue-specific distribution with high levels of expression in the brain, spleen, ovary, pituitary, and muscle. Furthermore, the locations of NMS-expressing cells in the zebrafish brain were detected by in situ hybridization in the parvocellular preoptic nucleus (PPa), the ventral zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (Hv), and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (LH). The levels of NMS mRNA in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after three days of food deprivation. Administration of zebrafish NMSRP by intraperitoneal injection significantly promoted the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin, suggesting an orexigenic role for NMSRP in zebrafish. The present study offers a new understanding of the NMS gene in vertebrates and increases our knowledge of the neuroendocrine regulation of feeding.

  16. Serologic and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from seawater and fish products of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-García, María Eugenia; Vázquez-Salinas, Carlos; Quiñones-Ramírez, Elsa Irma

    2004-11-01

    The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are the main virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We isolated V. parahaemolyticus from seawater, fish, and oysters obtained from the Pueblo Viejo Lagoon in Veracruz, determined the serogroups, phenotypically and genotypically characterized TDH and TRH, and investigated the presence of the toxR gene. A total of 46 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated, and all of them amplified the 368-bp toxR gene fragment. The trh gene was not identified in any of the strains; 4 of the 46 strains were Kanagawa phenomenon (KP) positive and amplified the 251-bp tdh gene fragment. The most frequent serogroup was serogroup O3. This is the first report of the presence of KP-positive tdh-positive environmental V. parahaemolyticus strains in Mexico.

  17. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Taillebois

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification.

  18. Methyl mercury in nail clippings in relation to fish consumption analysis with gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a first orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Favaro, Paulo; Bode, Peter; Ritsema, Rob

    2012-08-15

    For the identification of human exposure to one of the most toxic compounds, which is methyl mercury (MeHg(+)), fingernail clippings were selected as the matrix of interest. Within this pilot study, six samples from different origins and from people with different food consumption patterns were chosen. Species-analysis of MeHg(+) was performed according to the following procedure: dissolution of the sample material in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), derivatisation of MeHg(+) with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)), extraction into iso-octane and measurement with gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) for the quantification MeHg(+).

  19. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M; Ortega-Villaizán, María Del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1(-/-)) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1(+/+) ), rag1(-/-) acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1(-/-) zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1(-/-) fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1(-/-) zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1(-/-) zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies, it might

  20. Effect of consumption of the nutrient-dense, freshwater small fish Amblypharyngodon mola on biochemical indicators of vitamin A status in Bangladeshi children: a randomised, controlled study of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsbak, Katja; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Wahed, Mohammed A

    2008-03-01

    In Bangladesh, some commonly consumed, indigenous, freshwater small fish species (eaten whole with bone, head and eyes) such as mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) are nutrient-dense, containing preformed vitamin A as retinol and especially 3,4-dehydroretinol. The objective of the present randomised, controlled efficacy study was to evaluate the effects of mola on biochemical indicators of vitamin A status. Children (n 196), aged 3-7 years, with serum retinol 0.36-0.75 micromol/l, were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups to receive a daily test meal (6 d/week for 9 weeks) of rice and vegetable curry (no vitamin A) ad libitum and 50 g fish curry consisting of: (1) mola, 600 retinol activity equivalents (RAE) (using 40 % biological activity of 3,4-dehydroretinol isomers) (experimental group, n 66); (2) rui (Labeo rohita), a large fish (no vitamin A), with added retinyl palmitate, 600 RAE (positive control group, n 65); or (3) rui, 0 RAE (negative control group, n 65). The nutrient compositions of the dishes were analysed. After 9 weeks, no significant treatment effects were observed for serum retinol (P = 0.52) and retinol-binding protein (P = 0.81) in the experimental group compared with the negative control, whereas the positive control improved significantly (P curry to retinol. Further research on the functional effect of mola in humans is needed. Mola is a nutrient-dense animal-source food, rich in haem Fe, Zn and especially Ca, thus consumption of mola in Bangladesh should continue to be encouraged.

  1. Cytogenetic, FISH and molecular characterization of 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangements in NHL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiodarska, I.; Styl, M.; Mecucci, C. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Reciprocal translocations involving the chromosomal region 3q27 and one of the immunoglobulin loci at 14q32, 2p12 or 22q11 have been identified as the third most common type of chromosomal abnormality in Non Hodgkin`s lymphomas (NHLs), in addition to t(14;18) and t(8;14). These abnormalities appeared to be strongly associated with a diffuse, large cell subtype of B-cell NHL. Recently, a t(3;14) and t(3;22) have been cloned and a new transcriptional unit at 3q27, designated BCL-5, BCL-6 or LAZ3, has been identified. The gene appears to encode a new zinc finger protein with the putative function of a transcription factor. Rearrangements of the BCL-6 gene have been detected not only in cases with a typical t(3;14), t(2;3) and t(3;22), but also in a few NHL cases carrying 3q27 translocations not involving Ig genes. We report on nine B-NHL cases with a 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangement demonstrated by cytogenetic, FISH, and Southern analysis. Cytogenetic analysis complemented by FISH studies showed the presence of a classical t(3;14) or a t(3;22) in three cases and a variety of chromosomal aberrations involving the 3q27 locus in the remaining cases. Some of these translocations were not previously identified by conventional banding analysis. In three patients chromosome painting demonstrated involvement of both chromosome at the 3q24 band. We conclude: 3q27/BCL-6 rearrangements seem not to be restricted to diffuse large cell lymphoma. We here documented 3q27/BCL-6 abnormalities in Richter syndrome and follicular lymphomas. The variety of 3q27 aberrations at cytogenetic level suggests that, in addition to immunoglobulin genes, a number of other genes spreading over the human genome may deregulate BCL-6 in lymphomas. Chromosome painting is a powerful tool to demonstrate 3q27 abnormalities, not identified by conventional banding analysis.

  2. Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989–2005: implications for prey fish sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Brent A.; Connerton, Michael J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Donald J.; Ringlerd, Neil H.

    2010-01-01

    Stocking levels of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for Lake Ontario have been highly controversial since the early 1990s, largely because of uncertainties about lakewide abundance and rates of prey consumption. Previous estimates have focused on years before 1995; since then, however, the Lake Ontario ecosystem has undergone substantial changes, and there is new evidence of extensive natural recruitment. Presented here are new abundance estimates of Chinook salmon and alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in Lake Ontario and a reevaluation of the potential risk of alewife population collapse. We found that Lake Ontario has been supporting, on average (1989–2005), 1.83 × 106 (range, 1.08 × 106 to 3.24 × 106) Chinook salmon of ages 1–4, amounting to a mean annual biomass of 11.33 × 103 metric tons (range, 5.83 × 103 to 23.04 × 103 metric tons). During the same period (1989–2005), the lake supported an alewife biomass of 173.66 × 103 metric tons (range, 62.37 × 103 to 345.49 × 103 metric tons); Chinook salmon of ages 1–4 consumed, on average, 22% (range, 11–44%) of the alewife biomass annually. Because our estimates probably underestimate total consumption and because Chinook salmon are only one of several salmonine species that depend on alewives, predation pressure on the Lake Ontario alewife population may be high enough to raise concerns about long-term stability of this predator–prey system.

  3. Perceptions about mercury and lead in fish consumed in Lake Albert fishing communities Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Naigaga, Irene; Jesca, Nakavuma; Micheal, Ocaido; Anne, Katuhoire; Deborah, Amulen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish consumption is a lifestyle in fishing communities influenced by individual and communal perceptions. However, information about individual perceptions about fish consumption in the vulnerable fishing community in a developing country is lacking. Without this study, the benefits of fish consumption in a vulnerable community may not be realized. Data collection was executed using key informant interviews and survey structured questionnaires. The key informants include fisheries, community development, veterinary, community and environmental officers. The household heads were the respondents. The Qualitative data was organized and queried using QSR Nvivo 10 and quantitative data analyzed with SPSS version 22. The perceived benefits of eating fish are health, income, nutrition and manhood. The perceived risks are Stigma and ill health. The factors increasing fish consumption are heedless of fish consumption benefits (p = 0.041) and household size i.e. number of adults more than seven (p = 0.020). Those decreasing are methods of preparation of fish i.e. boiling and frying (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010) and oblivious about organizations dealing with fishing activities (p = 0.029). An awareness campaign is needed to demystify the health benefits and fallacies of fish consumption. The knowledge on individual perceptions associated with fish consumption will increase fish consumption but with fewer risks.

  4. Genotype-Phenotype Characterization of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Confirmed by FISH: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sheth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS is a multiple malformation and contiguous gene syndrome resulting from the deletion encompassing a 4p16.3 region. A microscopically visible terminal deletion on chromosome 4p (4p16→pter was detected in Case 1 with full blown features of WHS. The second case which had an interstitial microdeletion encompassing WHSC 1 and WHSC 2 genes at 4p16.3 presented with less striking clinical features of WHS and had an apparently “normal” karyotype. The severity of the clinical presentation was as a result of haploinsufficiency and interaction with surrounding genes as well as mutations in modifier genes located outside the WHSCR regions. The study emphasized that an individual with a strong clinical suspicion of chromosomal abnormality and a normal conventional cytogenetic study should be further investigated using molecular cytogenetic techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH.

  5. Characterization of fish gelatin-gum arabic complex coacervates as influenced by phase separation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Mohammad; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Yoon, Won-Byong; Chung, Donghwa

    2015-08-01

    The rheological and structural characteristics of fish gelatin (FG)-gum arabic (GA) complex coacervate phase, separated from an aqueous mixture of 1% FG and 1% GA at pH 3.5, were investigated as influenced by phase separation temperature. Decreasing the phase separation temperature from 40 to 10 °C lead to: (1) the formation of a coacervate phase with a larger volume fraction and higher biopolymer concentrations, which is more viscous, more structural resistant at low shear rates, more shear-thinning at high shear rates, and more condensed in microstructure, (2) a solid-like elastic behavior of the phase separated at 10 °C at a high oscillatory frequency, (3) the increase in gelling and melting temperatures of the coacervate phase (3.7-3.9 °C and 6.2-6.9 °C, respectively), (4) the formation of a more rigid and thermo-stable coacervate gel. The coacervate phase is regarded as a homogeneously networked biopolymer matrix dispersed with water vacuoles and its gel as a weak physical gel reinforced by FG-GA attractive electrostatic interactions.

  6. Molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the Flemish Cap (Newfoundland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Brey, I.; Batts, W.N.; Bandin, I.; Winton, J.R.; Dopazo, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    Several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the Flemish Cap, a Newfoundland fishery close to the Atlantic coast of Canada. The nucleotide sequence of a region of the NS gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the Dry Mills and West Buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the VP2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely aligned with the American strains of IPNV serotype Al. Electron microscopy of virus structures clarified and concentrated from cultures of infected chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cells revealed a majority of typical IPNV-like icosahedral particles, as well as a low proportion of type I tubules having a diameter of approximately 55 nm and a variable length of up to 2 ??m. The tubules could be propagated in cell cultures, but always in the presence of low proportions of icosahedral particles. Cloning of selected isolates by serial dilution yielded preparations with a high proportion of the tubular structures with a density in CsCl gradients of approximately 1.30 g cm-3. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the material in the band was composed of the IPNV pVP2 and VP2 proteins.

  7. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders (Jo); S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) co

  8. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  9. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  10. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  11. A study on Zinc, Nickel, and Vanadium in fish muscle of Alosa caspia and Sander lucioperca and food risk assessment of its consumption in the southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sadeghi Bajgiran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In recent years, anthropogenic and natural activities have caused high levels of metal contamination into the aquatic ecosystem. These pollutants can accumulate in the food chain. The present study examined the amount of metals such as nickel, zinc, and vanadium in the muscle tissue of Sander and Alosa because of their importance in the southeast of the Caspian Sea.             Method and materials:  After bioassay, the samples of Sander and Alosa were prepared through acid digestion method and the amount of metals was measured using atomic absorption device (Scientific Equipment GBS. Results:  Statistical tests showed that there was no significant difference between the amount of zinc in two species of the Sander and Alosa (p>0.05 while the amount of nickel and vanadium in Alosa was significantly higher than Sander (P> 0.05. Statistical analysis of differences in the accumulation of metals in Sander was: Zn>Ni ~ V and of Alosa was Zn>Ni ~ V. There was a correlation between nickel and vanadium of Sander and between zinc and vanadium of Alosa (p>0.05. The amount of nickel metal in both species and vanadium in Alosa were higher than the WHO guideline. The maximum and minimum THQ for Alosa were vanadium (0.059 and zinc (0.017 respectively. Whereas, for Sander, these values were zinc (0.016 and vanadium (0.004 respectively.  In general, the TQM measured in this study was <1, indicating no food risk in present consumption rate (21 g/day of these fish. Conclusion:  Food risk assessment of case study species indicates that the consumption of Sander and Alosa with the current consumption rate causes no danger to consumers from the viewpoint of zinc, nickle, and vanadium.

  12. Rat-atouille: A Mixed Method Study to Characterize Rodent Hunting and Consumption in the Context of Lassa Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonwitt, Jesse; Kelly, Ann H; Ansumana, Rashid; Agbla, Schadrac; Sahr, Foday; Saez, Almudena Mari; Borchert, Matthias; Kock, Richard; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic hemorrhagic illness predominant in areas across Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and southern Mali. The reservoir of Lassa virus is the multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), a highly commensal species in West Africa. Primary transmission to humans occurs through direct or indirect contact with rodent body fluids such as urine, feces, saliva, or blood. Our research draws together qualitative and quantitative methods to provide a fuller and more nuanced perspective on these varied points of human-animal contact. In this article, we focus on the hunting, preparation, and consumption of rodents as possible routes of exposure in Bo, Sierra Leone. We found that the consumption of rodents, including the reservoir species, is widespread and does not neatly tally against generational or gender lines. Further, we found that the reasons for rodent consumption are multifactorial, including taste preferences, food security, and opportunistic behavior. We argue that on certain topics, such as rodent consumption, establishing trust with communities, and using qualitative research methods, is key to investigate sensitive issues and situate them in their wider context. To conclude, we recommend ways to refine sensitization campaigns to account for these socio-cultural contexts.

  13. Potential human health risks from toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides via canned fish consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Morsy, Fadia A M; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Ahdy, Hoda H H; Abdel-Fattah, Laila M; El-Sikaily, Amany M; Khaled, Azza; Tayel, Fathi M T

    2013-01-01

    Canned fish (tuna and sardine) of different geographical regions were collected randomly from supermarkets and were analyzed for heavy metal contents (Hg, Cd and Pb) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides. Canned fish samples (two brands of sardines, six brands of tuna) that were purchased from Egyptian cities between 2009 and 2010, represent four countries (Morocco, Republic of Yemen, Indonesia and Thailand). Health risks on humans via dietary intake of seafood were assessed by the target hazard quotients (THQs), potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic effects. The contents of trace metals in canned tuna and canned sardines were found as: 0.149-0.218 μg/g for Cd; 0.312-0.937 μg/g for Pb and 0.053-0.022 μg/g for Hg. Canned sardines fluctuated between 0.55 and 1.82, 1.08 and 1.64, 11.91 and 26.24 ng/g for total HCHs, Total cyclodienes and DDTs respectively while the corresponding concentrations in canned tuna were 0.24-1.85, 0.24-1‥85 and 6.56-49.73 ng/g, respectively. Total PCBs fluctuated between 21.75 and 55.10 for canned sardines and 8.56-208.11 ng/g for canned tuna. On the other hand the total PAHs fluctuated between 0.006-9.775 and 1.556-2.686 ng/g for tuna and sardines. From the human health point of view, there is no adverse health effect for both PAHs and heavy metals content on consumers.

  14. A risk-based sampling plan for monitoring of histamine in fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, L; Thébault, A; Gauchard, F; Pommepuy, M; Guignard, A; Malle, P

    2011-02-01

    In 2008, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance reported an increase in the number of histamine food poisoning outbreaks and cases in France. The aim of this study was to propose a new monitoring plan for characterizing consumers' exposure to histamine through fishery products. As fish products of concern are numerous, we proposed that the number of samples allocated for a fish category be chosen based on the risk associated with the category. Point risk estimates of histamine poisoning were assessed with the Risk Ranger tool. Fresh fish with high histidine content was found to contribute most to the number of cases. The (estimated) risks associated with the consumption of canned and deep-frozen fish appear marginal as compared with the risk associated with fresh fish with high histidine concentrations. Accordingly, we recommend excluding canned and deep-frozen fish from the monitoring plan, although these risk estimates can be biased. Within a category, samples were proportional to the relative food consumption of the different fishes. The spatial and seasonal consumption patterns were also taken into account for the design of the new monitoring plan. By testing appropriate numbers of samples from categories of fish products of concern, this plan will permit investigation of trends or comparison of product categories presenting risks of histamine poisoning.

  15. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  16. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: Influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.T. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liao, P.C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Su, H.J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic Substances, Medical College, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.L. [Department of Industrial Safety and Health, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 34 Chung Chie Rd. Sha Lu, Taichung 433, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: hsiulin@sunrise.hk.edu.tw

    2006-05-15

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P < 0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. - Inhabitants living near a deserted PCP factory are exposed to high PCDD/F levels.

  17. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  18. Food Characterization of the Spotted Pimelodid Fish Pimelodus maculatus from a Polluted Urban River in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kuczynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the present study, the nourishment and the digestive system of a population of the spotted pimelodid Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 from a polluted urban river in Argentina were analyzed (Reconquista River, Buenos Aires province. The specimens are characterized by having benthic habits and an omnivore diet. In their intestinal content, a diversity of components was identified. Such components were grouped into ten alimentary items, with dietary variations according to body size while the longitude of the intestine remained proportional to standard length. Microbiological analysis in the gills, stomach and intestine showed the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. Fungi and yeast were also detected. Bacterial accounts were very high both in the analyzed organs as well in water samples. The ecological and sanitary significance of the identified bacteria is discussed.

  19. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  20. Characterization of the cDNAs encoding three GnRH forms in the pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes) and the evolution of GnRH precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilgur, Leonardo G; Ortí, Guillermo; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; Fernandino, Juan I; Miranda, Leandro A; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2007-06-01

    Most vertebrates express two gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in brain tissue but there is an increasing number of fish species for which a third GnRH form has been detected. We characterized the precursors (cDNAs) of all three forms expressed in the brain of the pejerrey (silverside) fish, Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes): type I (GnRH-I; 440 bp), type II (GnRH-II; 529 bp), and type III (GnRH-III; 515 bp). The expression of these GnRHs precursors was also observed in peripheral tissues related to reproduction (gonads), visual and chemical senses (eye and olfactory epithelium), and osmoregulation (gill), suggesting that in teleost fish and possibly other vertebrates GnRH mediates directly or indirectly many other functions besides reproduction. We also present a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis including representatives of all chordate GnRH precursors characterized to date that supports the idea of two main paralogous GnRH lineages with different function. A "forebrain lineage" separates evolutionarily from the "midbrain lineage" as a result of an ancient duplication (ca. 600 million years ago). A third, fish-only clade of GnRH genes seems to have originated before the divergence of fish and tetrapods but retained only in fish. Phylogenetic analyses of GnRH precursors (DNA and protein sequences) under different optimality criteria converge on this result. Although alternative scenarios could not be statistically rejected in this study due to the relatively short size of the analyzed molecules, this hypothesis also receives support from chromosomal studies of synteny around the GnRH genes in vertebrates.

  1. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Ching-Chang; Lin Wu-Ting; Liao Po-Chi; Su Huey-Jen [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health/Research Center of Environmental Trace Toxic substances, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan); Chen Hsiu-Lin [Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Many reports have suggested that PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) contribute to immune deficiency, liver damage, human carcinogenesis, and neuromotor maturation in children. Therefore, beginning in 1999, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a survey to determine serum levels of PCDD/Fs in the general populations living around 19 incinerators in Taiwan. Relatively high average serum PCDD/F levels were unexpectedly found in Tainan city, a less industrialized area in southwestern Taiwan, than in other urban areas. We therefore reviewed the usage history of the land and found that a factory situated between Hsien-Gong Li and Lu-Erh Li, two administrative units of Tainan city, had been manufacturing pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1967 and 1982. PCDD/Fs are formed as byproducts in the PCP manufacturing process. Exposure to PCP and its derivatives via the food chain is the most significant intake route of PCDD/Fs in consumers in the European Union (EU). In Japan, in addition to combustion processes, PCP and chlornitrofen (CNP) have also been identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs in Tokyo Bay7. A preliminary investigation showed that the soil in the PCP factory and sediments in the sea reservoir (13 hectares) near the deserted factory were seriously contaminated with PCDD/Fs (260-184,000 and 20-6220 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively), levels higher than those in other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the PCDD/F levels of fish meat in the sea reservoir and the serum in inhabitants living in the vicinity of the closed PCP plant and other nearby areas. The data from human and other biota samples might clarify the transmission pathway of the PCDD/F contaminants from the PCP factory to local residents, provide information about the exposure status of those living in the vicinity of the deserted PCP factory, and also lead to useful suggestions for controlling PCDD/F accumulation in those living near such

  2. Molecular cytogenetic identification and characterization of Robertsonian chromosomes in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Manabu; Matsubara, Kazumi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2012-10-01

    Robertsonian (Rb) karyotypic polymorphism in Apodemus speciosus has interested many researchers with particular referece to the genetic divergence between Rb and non-Rb populations. Failure to find morphologic, biochemical, or genetic differences in previous studies reveals the necessity of focusing on loci on Rb chromosomes, which can be characterized by FISH mapping with DNA probes. In an Rb heterozygote, DNA probes from laboratory mouse chromosomes (MMUs) 1 and 10 were simultaneously hybridized to the long arm of a metacentric and a medium-sized acrocentric chromosome and to the short arm of the metacentric and a small acrocentric chromosome, respectively. Four additional probes derived from each of MMUs 1 and 10 were mapped to the long and short arms, respectively, of the Rb chromosome identified by the above markers. Homologies between the long arm of the Rb chromosome and MMU 1 and between the short arm and MMU 10 were supported by all ten markers, which were dispersed along nearly the entire lengths of the Rb chromosomes. These results indicate that the long and short arms of the Rb chromosomes are homologous to Apodemus speciosus chromosomes 12 and 19 (defined in a previous study), respectively. This ten-marker series can be useful for detecting chromosome-specific divergence between the two karyotypic populations at the gene level.

  3. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  4. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  5. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota.

  6. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  7. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brèthes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw basis were hair (733 ng/g and kidney (511 ng/g, followed by the liver (77 ng/g. Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex. The metallothionein (MT protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2/ mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes

  8. Zebra Fish Lacking Adaptive Immunity Acquire an Antiviral Alert State Characterized by Upregulated Gene Expression of Apoptosis, Multigene Families, and Interferon-Related Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valtanen, Pablo; Martínez-López, Alicia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Bello-Perez, Melissa; Medina-Gali, Regla M.; Ortega-Villaizán, María del Mar; Varela, Monica; Figueras, Antonio; Mulero, Víctoriano; Novoa, Beatriz; Estepa, Amparo; Coll, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To investigate fish innate immunity, we have conducted organ and cell immune-related transcriptomic as well as immunohistologic analysis in mutant zebra fish (Danio rerio) lacking adaptive immunity (rag1−/−) at different developmental stages (egg, larvae, and adult), before and after infection with spring viremia carp virus (SVCV). The results revealed that, compared to immunocompetent zebra fish (rag1+/+), rag1−/− acquired increased resistance to SVCV with age, correlating with elevated transcript levels of immune genes in skin/fins and lymphoid organs (head kidney and spleen). Gene sets corresponding to apoptotic functions, immune-related multigene families, and interferon-related genes were constitutively upregulated in uninfected adult rag1−/− zebra fish. Overexpression of activated CASPASE-3 in different tissues before and after infection with SVCV further confirmed increased apoptotic function in rag1−/− zebra fish. Concurrently, staining of different tissue samples with a pan-leukocyte antibody marker showed abundant leukocyte infiltrations in SVCV-infected rag1−/− fish, coinciding with increased transcript expression of genes related to NK-cells and macrophages, suggesting that these genes played a key role in the enhanced immune response of rag1−/− zebra fish to SVCV lethal infection. Overall, we present evidence that indicates that rag1−/− zebra fish acquire an antiviral alert state while they reach adulthood in the absence of adaptive immunity. This antiviral state was characterized by (i) a more rapid response to viral infection, which resulted in increased survival, (ii) the involvement of NK-cell- and macrophage-mediated transcript responses rather than B- and/or T-cell dependent cells, and (iii) enhanced apoptosis, described here for the first time, as well as the similar modulation of multigene family/interferon-related genes previously associated to fish that survived lethal viral infections. From this and other studies

  9. Diversity, molecular characterization and expression of T cell receptor γ in a teleost fish, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Buonocore

    Full Text Available Two lineages of T cells, expressing either the αβ T cell receptor (TR or the γδ TR, exist in Gnathostomes. The latter type of T cells account for 1-10 % of T cells in blood and up to 30 % in the small intestine. They may recognize unconventional antigens (phosphorylated microbial metabolites, lipid antigens without the need of major histocompatibility class I (MH1 or class II (MH2 presentation. In this work we have described cloning and structural characterization of TR -chain (TRG from the teleost Dicentrarchus labrax. Further, by means of quantitative PCR analysis, we analyzed TRG expression levels both in poly I:C stimulated leukocytes in vitro, and following infection with betanodavirus in vivo. Two full length cDNAs relative to TRG, with the highest peptide and nucleotide identity with Japanese flounder, were identified. A multiple alignment analysis showed the conservation of peptides fundamental for TRG biological functions, and of the FGXG motif in the FR4 region, typical of most TR and immunoglobulin light chains. A 3D structure consisting of two domains mainly folded as beta strands with a sandwich architecture for each domain was also reported. TRG CDR3 of 8-18 AA in length and diversity in the TRG rearrangements expressed in thymus and intestine for a given V/C combination were evidenced by junction length spectratyping. TRG mRNA expression levels were high in basal conditions both in thymus and intestine, while in kidney and gut leukocytes they were up-regulated after in vitro stimulation by poly I:C. Finally, in juveniles the TRG expression levels were up-regulated in the head kidney and down-regulated in intestine after in vivo infection with betanodavirus. Overall, in this study the involvement of TRG-bearing T cells during viral stimulation was described for the first time, leading to new insights for the identification of T cell subsets in fish.

  10. Kinetic modeling, production and characterization of an acidic lipase produced by Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized condit...

  11. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  12. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  13. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  14. International Fisheries Agreements and Non-consumptive Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Laukkanen, Marita; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    The management of internationally shared fish stocks is a major economic, environmental and political issue. According to international law, these resources should be managed cooperatively under international fisheries agreements (IFAs). This paper studies the formation and stability of IFAs...... through a coalition game that accounts for both direct consumptive values (harvesting profits) and non-consumptive values of the fish stock per se. The results show that accounting for non-consumptive values helps conserve the fish stock in that equilibrium fishing efforts are smaller and fish stock...... larger than without non- consumptive values under all possible coalition scenarios (full, partial and no cooperation). However, considering non-consumptive values does not affect the outcome of the game in terms of the prospects for cooperation: even with substantial non-consumptive benefits, the outcome...

  15. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish to maximize returns on processing investment. Fish canning, mince fish, fish silage, acid silage, fermented silage, composition of silage, nutritional value of fish silage, fish meal, raw materials for fish meal production, general processes in fish meal production: wet process, dry process, composition and quality, problems in fish processing, production of fish meal locally, local alternatives, comparison between fish silage and fish meal, product evaluation, quality control assessment methods, fish storage, fish anatomy and physiology, chemical composition of fish, fish spoilage types, fish off-flavor management and control, off-flavor mechanism, offflavor in live fish, other causes of off-flavor in fish, natural chemicals in fish, culture system and fish off-flavor control are reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products.

  16. Characterization of the duplicate L-SIGN and DC-SIGN genes in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis of L-SIGN in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Wang, Shanchen; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and liver/lymph node-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (L-SIGN/CD299) which are homologues of DC-SIGN are important members in C-type lectin receptors family as key molecules to recognize and eliminate pathogens in the innate immune system. DC-SIGN and L-SIGN have become hot topics in recent studies which both served as cell adhesion and phagocytic pathogen recognition receptors in mammals. However, there have been almost no studies of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN structure and characters in fish, only DC-SIGN in the zebrafish had been studied. In our study, we identified and characterized the full-length miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) DC-SIGN (mmDC-SIGN) and L-SIGN (mmL-SIGN) genes. The sequence analysis results showed that mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN have the same domains with other vertebrates except primates, and share some conserved motifs in CRD among all the vertebrates which play a crucial role in interacting with Ca(2+) and for recognizing mannose-containing motifs. Gene synteny of DC-SIGN and L-SIGN were analyzed for the first time and gene synteny of L-SIGN was conserved among the five fishes. Interestingly, one gene next to L-SIGN from gene synteny had high similarity with L-SIGN gene that was described as L-SIGN-like in fish species. While only one L-SIGN gene existed in other vertebrates, two L-SIGN in fish may be in consequence of the fish-specific genome duplication to adapt the specific environment. The evolutionary analysis showed that the ancestral lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes experienced purifying selection and the current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestral lineages and current lineages of L-SIGN gene in fishes underwent different evolutionary patterns. Both mmDC-SIGN and mmL-SIGN were expressed in all tested tissues and ubiquitously up-regulated in infected liver, spleen and kidney at different sampling time points

  17. St. Croix, USVI Land-sea characterization of East End Marine Park to evaluate zones and support management plan review: 2011 fish community assessment (NODC Accession 0125270 and 0125236)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This fish and benthic composition database is the result of a multifaceted effort described below. The intent of this work is five fold: 1) To spatially characterize...

  18. Shoreline Units with Results from the 2014 Study Entitled "Characterizing Participation in Non-Commercial Fishing and other Shore-based Recreational Activities on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands"

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project "Characterizing participation in non-commercial fishing and other shore-based recreational activities on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands" was conducted in...

  19. Wireless Fish Finder System Based on Bluetooth 4.0 with Low Power Consumption%基于蓝牙4.0低功耗的无线探鱼器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 李浩

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of ultrasonic ranging and principle of obj ective j udgment,a fish finder system was designed,using Bluetooth 4.0 low power consumption technology and combining mobile APP with hardware. An integrated chip CC2540 was used to control the receiving and sending signal of the ultrasonic transducers,and to obtain the target echo signal.After A/D sampling,the signal data was packaged in a custom format then sent to cell-phone with Bluetooth 4.0 function.Algorithm processing was completed in the mobile terminal to distinguish useful target signal(fish or underwater);and to calculate underwater depth of the target,which could present visu-ally through APP interface of the phone.Finally the feasibility of the system was verified through practical test.%在对超声波测距和目标判定原理分析的基础上,利用蓝牙4.0低功耗技术和手机应用程序与硬件相结合的方法设计出一探鱼系统。此系统利用集成芯片 CC2540实现对超声换能器的信号收发控制,获得目标回波信号,A/D采样后将数据按自定义格式打包,再通过蓝牙4.0发送到具有蓝牙4.0功能的手机上。在手机端进行算法处理,分辨回波是鱼还是水底及目标深度,并直观地呈现在手机应用程序界面中。最终通过实际测试,验证了系统的可行性。

  20. Identification and characterization of microorganisms from earthworm viscera for the conversion of fish wastes into liquid fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong Kyun; Dao, Van Thingoc; Kong, In Soo; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2010-07-01

    Five bacteria isolated from earthworm viscera and identified as Brevibacillus agri, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Brevibacillus parabrevis by 16S rRNA sequencing were employed in the conversion of fish wastes generated from a restaurant specializing in sliced raw fish into fertilizer. Within 120h after inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.15 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1) mixed isolates, the amount of dry sludge decreased from 29.4 to 0.2g, the pH changed from 7.05 to 5.70, and the cell number reached 6.45 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Analyses of an 84-h culture of inoculated fish waste indicated low phytotoxicity in a seed germination test, an amino acid content of 5.71 g 100 g(-1), a low concentration of heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), and a N/P/K level of 2.33%. Therefore the converted fish waste has the potential for use as liquid fertilizer, although the low NPK level is a concern. This is the first demonstration of the reutilization of fish wastes as a liquid fertilizer.

  1. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive...

  2. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio during Infection with Aeromonas sobria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mannose receptor (MR is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio, which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs, a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  4. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of Mannose Receptor in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) during Infection with Aeromonas sobria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feifei; Asim, Muhammad; Lan, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Lijuan; Wei, Shun; Chen, Nan; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhou, Yang; Lin, Li

    2015-05-15

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a member of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which plays a significant role in immunity responses. Much work on MR has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this report, a MR gene (designated as zfMR) was cloned from zebra fish (Danio rerio), which is an attractive model for the studies of animal diseases. The full-length cDNA of zfMR contains 6248 bp encoding a putative protein of 1428 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that zfMR contained a cysteine-rich domain, a single fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain, sharing highly conserved structures with MRs from the other species. The MR mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with highest level in kidney. The temporal expression patterns of MR, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs were analyzed in the liver, spleen, kidney and intestine post of infection with Aeromonas sobria. By immunohistochemistry assay, slight enhancement of MR protein was also observed in the spleen and intestine of the infected zebra fish. The established zebra fish-A. sobria infection model will be valuable for elucidating the role of MR in fish immune responses to infection.

  5. Characterization and virulence potential of phenotypically diverse Aeromonas veronii isolates recovered from moribund freshwater ornamental fishes of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Krishnan; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, Isaac Sarojani Bright

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Aeromonas spp. in eliciting disease outbreaks in freshwater ornamental fishes across the state of Kerala, India. We investigated three incidences of disease, in which the moribund fishes exhibited clinical signs such as haemorrhagic septicemia (in gouramy, Trichogaster sp.), dropsy (in Oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) and tail rot/fin rot (in gold fish, Carassius carassius). Pure cultures (n = 20 from each fish; 60 in total) of Aeromonas spp. were recovered from the abdominal fluid as well as from internal organs of affected fishes, although they could not be identified to species level because of the variations in their phenotypic characters. The molecular fingerprinting of the isolates using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR proved the genetic diversity of the isolates from the three sites. The phylogenetic trees constructed using concatenated sequences (using 16S rRNA, gyrA, gyrB and rpoD genes) indicated that they were related to Aeromonas veronii. They exhibited marked cytotoxic and haemolytic activity, which were responsible for the pathogenic potential of the isolates. The isolates possessed multiple virulence genes such as enterotoxins (act and alt), haemolytic toxins (aerA and hlyA), genes involved in type III secretion system (ascV, aexT and ascF-ascG), glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (gcat) and a type IV pilus (tapA) gene, as determined by PCR. Virulence of representative isolates to goldfish was also tested, and we found LD(50) values of 10(4.07)-10(5.35) cfu/fish. Furthermore, the organisms could be recovered as pure cultures from the lesions as well as from the internal organs.

  6. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article......, research on the root causes of environmentally harmful human behavior is reviewed. Why is there no satiation of consumption in sight, even in the most affluent countries, and why do people continue to make choices that are known to be environmentally harmful? While potentially catastrophic, the harms from...... unsustainable consumption are mostly unintentional, which means that informational and educational means are not sufficient to produce the needed changes. They need to be implemented in concert with pervasive structural changes to make the right choice the easy choice....

  7. Lean consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, James P; Jones, Daniel T

    2005-03-01

    During the past 20 years, the real price of most consumer goods has fallen worldwide, the variety of goods and the range of sales channels offering them have continued to grow, and product quality has steadily improved. So why is consumption often so frustrating? It doesn't have to be--and shouldn't be--the authors say. They argue that it's time to apply lean thinking to the processes of consumption--to give consumers the full value they want from goods and services with the greatest efficiency and the least pain. Companies may think they save time and money by off-loading work to the consumer but, in fact, the opposite is true. By streamlining their systems for providing goods and services, and by making it easier for customers to buy and use those products and services, a growing number of companies are actually lowering costs while saving everyone time. In the process, these businesses are learning more about their customers, strengthening consumer loyalty, and attracting new customers who are defecting from less user-friendly competitors. The challenge lies with the retailers, service providers, manufacturers, and suppliers that are not used to looking at total cost from the standpoint of the consumer and even less accustomed to working with customers to optimize the consumption process. Lean consumption requires a fundamental shift in the way companies think about the relationship between provision and consumption, and the role their customers play in these processes. It also requires consumers to change the nature of their relationships with the companies they patronize. Lean production has clearly triumphed over similar obstacles in recent years to become the dominant global manufacturing model. Lean consumption, its logical companion, can't be far behind.

  8. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  9. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  10. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  11. Development and in-vitro characterization of fish oil oleogels containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid as keratolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, K; Tan, C M; Zulfakar, M H

    2014-03-01

    Topical keratolytic agents such as benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) are one of the common treatments for inflammatory skin diseases. However, the amount of drug delivery through the skin is limited due to the stratum corneum. The purposes of this study were to investigate the ability of fish oil to act as penetration enhancer for topical keratolytic agents and to determine the suitable gelator for formulating stable fish oil oleogels. 2 types of gelling agents, beeswax and sorbitan monostearate (Span 60), were used to formulate oleogels. To investigate the efficacy of fish oil oleogel permeation, commercial hydrogels of benzoyl peroxide (BP) and salicylic acid (SA) were used as control, and comparative analysis was performed using Franz diffusion cell. Stability of oleogels was determined by physical assessments at 20°C and 40°C storage. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) fish oil oleogels containing beeswax were considered as better formulations in terms of drug permeation and cumulative drug release. All the results were found to be statistically significant (pskin and stability.

  12. Integrative Characterization of Toxic Response of Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) to Deltamethrin Based on AChE Activity and Behavior Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Yang, Meiyi; Pan, Hongwei; Xu, Shiguo; Qi, Li; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In order to characterize the toxic response of zebra fish (Danio rerio) to Deltamethrin (DM), behavior strength (BS) and muscle AChE activity of zebra fish were investigated. The results showed that the average values of both BS and AChE activity showed a similarly decreased tendency as DM concentration increased, which confirmed the dose-effect relationship, and high and low levels of AChE and BS partly matched low and high levels of exposure concentrations in self-organizing map. These indicated that AChE and BS had slight different aspects of toxicity although overall trend was similar. Behavior activity suggested a possibility of reviving circadian rhythm in test organisms after exposure to the chemical in lower concentration (0.1 TU). This type of rhythm disappeared in higher concentrations (1.0 TU and 2.0 TU). Time series trend analysis of BS and AChE showed an evident time delayed effect of AChE, and a 2 h AChE inhibition delay with higher correlation coefficients (r) in different treatments was observed. It was confirmed that muscle AChE inhibition of zebra fish is a factor for swimming behavior change, though there was a 2 h delay, and other factors should be investigated to illustrate the detailed behavior response mechanism.

  13. Integrative Characterization of Toxic Response of Zebra Fish (Danio rerio to Deltamethrin Based on AChE Activity and Behavior Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the toxic response of zebra fish (Danio rerio to Deltamethrin (DM, behavior strength (BS and muscle AChE activity of zebra fish were investigated. The results showed that the average values of both BS and AChE activity showed a similarly decreased tendency as DM concentration increased, which confirmed the dose-effect relationship, and high and low levels of AChE and BS partly matched low and high levels of exposure concentrations in self-organizing map. These indicated that AChE and BS had slight different aspects of toxicity although overall trend was similar. Behavior activity suggested a possibility of reviving circadian rhythm in test organisms after exposure to the chemical in lower concentration (0.1 TU. This type of rhythm disappeared in higher concentrations (1.0 TU and 2.0 TU. Time series trend analysis of BS and AChE showed an evident time delayed effect of AChE, and a 2 h AChE inhibition delay with higher correlation coefficients (r in different treatments was observed. It was confirmed that muscle AChE inhibition of zebra fish is a factor for swimming behavior change, though there was a 2 h delay, and other factors should be investigated to illustrate the detailed behavior response mechanism.

  14. Caracterização de hidrolisados enzimáticos de pescado Characterization of enzymatic fish hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.M. Neves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidrolisados enzimáticos são utilizados no tratamento clínico de pacientes com dificuldade em digerir e absorver proteínas, sendo preferidos em relação às misturas de aminoácidos livres. Neste trabalho foram caracterizados quimicamente seis hidrolisados de minced de pescado, obtidos pelo emprego de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos, quanto à extensão da hidrólise, distribuição de peso molecular dos peptídios, composição química e perfil de aminoácidos. A hidrólise resultou na solubilização de 63,4 a 94,2% das proteínas, sendo esta diretamente proporcional ao grau de hidrólise e dependente do sistema enzimático e das variáveis do processo (relação enzima/substrato e atividade enzimática. A composição dos hidrolisados atendeu à recomendação de ingestão dietética para aminoácidos essenciais, tanto para crianças como para adultos. A relação entre a concentração de aminoácidos ramificados e aromáticos (Relação de Fischer resultou em valores superiores a 3,5 indicando que os hidrolisados obtidos podem ser úteis para a manutenção dietética de pacientes com doenças hepáticas crônicas. Os hidrolisados forneceram peptídios com pesos moleculares bem definidos, destacando-se o obtido com pepsina e protease de Streptomyces griseus, que apresentou 57% de peptídios menores do que 3 kDa, adequado para o uso em formulações hipoalergênicas.Enzymatic hydrolysates have been used in the clinical treatment of patients with protein digestion and absorption impairment and have been preferred to mixtures of free amino acids. In this present work, six protein hydrolysates of minced fish, obtained by distinct enzymatic systems were characterized regarding the extent of hydrolysis, distribution of molecular size of peptides, chemical composition and amino acids profiles. The hydrolysis resulted in solubilization of 63,4% to 94,2% of proteins according to the enzymes used and process variables (enzyme substrate ratio

  15. Consumer evaluation of fish quality as basis for fish market segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vermeir, Iris; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer evaluation of fish quality and its association with fish consumption, risk and benefit beliefs and information processing variables. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 429 consumers in March 2003 in Belgium. Two dimensions shape fish quality...... evaluation: personal relevance attached to fish quality and self-confidence in fish quality evaluation, which allow segmenting the market in four fish consumer segments. The segments are typified as Uninvolved, Uncertain, Self-confident and Connoisseurs, and have distinctive behavioural, attitudinal...... and socio-demographic profiles. The Uninvolved are mainly young males, have the lowest fish consumption level, weakest belief in health benefits from eating fish, and lowest interest in both search and credence information cues. Uncertain fish consumers are mainly females, with a tendency of lower education...

  16. National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (NLFA) includes all available information describing state-, tribal-, and federally-issued fish consumption...

  17. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is an

  18. Structural and oxidative stabilization of spray dried fish oil microencapsulates with gum arabic and sage polyphenols: Characterization and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsi, P K; Nayak, Natasha; Sarkar, P C; Jeyakumari, A; Muhamed Ashraf, P; Ninan, George; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-03-15

    The synergistic efficacy of gum arabic and sage polyphenols in stabilising capsule wall and protecting fish oil encapsulates from heat induced disruption and oxidative deterioration during spray drying was assessed. The emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate as wall polymer, gum arabic as wall co-polymer and sage extract as wall stabiliser was spray dried using a single fluid nozzle. Fish oil encapsulates stabilised with gum arabic and sage extract (SOE) exhibited significantly higher encapsulation efficiency compared to encapsulates containing gum arabic alone (FOE). Scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images revealed uniform encapsulates with good sphericity and smooth surface for SOE, compared to FOE powder. In vitro oil release of microencapsulates indicated negligible oil release in buffered saline whereas more than 80% of the oil loaded in encapsulates were released in simulated GI fluids. The encapsulates containing sage extract showed a lower rate of lipid oxidation during storage.

  19. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in neotropical fish of the genus Apistogramma (Perciformes : Labroidei : Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The South American genus of Cichlid fish Apistogramma comprises over 100 species, most of which are difficult to identify. There is a need to clarify species limits and evolutionary relationships, conduct fine-scale phylogeographic revision of some species complexes, and collect information on population conservation status. In addition, recent studies suggest that female mate choice may lead to reproductive isolation and potentially to sympatric speciation in some species. Highly variable bi...

  20. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sludge, sediment and fish from municipal dumpsite at Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Sudaryanto, Agus; Setiawan, Iwan E; Riyadi, Adi S; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs contamination in sludge, sediments and fish from various locations including raw leachate pond, leachate treatment plans (LTPs), control wells and reference site at open landfill of municipal dumpsite, Surabaya City, Indonesia. 62 PCBs and 14 PBDEs congeners, and 3 HBCDs isomers were identified and quantified using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Concentration ranges and median (value in parentheses) of PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs were from not detected (ND) to 60 (3.9) ng g(-1) dw, 0.0075 to 45 (4.5) ng g(-1) dw and ND to 2.8 (0.052) ng g(-1) dw in sludge and sediments, respectively. While in two polled of fish samples were 30-55 ng g(-1) lw, 6.6-11 ng g(-1) lw and 1.6-3.3 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. Among the sampling sites, the highest level of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in sludge from raw leachate pond. However, PCBs and PBDEs levels were showing decreased in LTP-1 that could be due to the bacterial degradation but not in LTP-2, HBCDs were more stable in both LTPs. Levels of PCBs and BFRs in sludge at the present study were lower than those reported in sewage sludge reported from some other countries. PCBs profiles were mainly composed in that order by CB-138, -153, -180, -101, -118 and -28, while by BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -28 for PBDEs in sludge, sediments and fish. Profiles of HBCDs were predominantly composed by γ- and α-isomers in sludge and fish, respectively. Debromination, dechlorination, commercial formulations used and congener-specific accumulation of those contaminants are the factors influenced the profiles.

  1. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  2. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on a multiple-case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings – It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited...

  3. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new......, clothes-­‐‑sharing concept that has emerged as a fashion niche within the last decade. Findings: It is concluded that fashion libraries offers interesting perspectives, e.g. by allowing people to experiment with styles without having to pay the full cost and becoming a meeting place for young designers...... and end consumers. However, at present fashion libraries remain a small-­‐‑scale phenomenon with difficulties reaching the mainstream market, not least due to limited financial and human resources as well as conventional fashion consumption patterns. Research limitations/implications: The study is limited...

  4. Transdisciplinary Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue L.T. McGregor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 100 years, research about consumption has stemmed from two main disciplines: (a consumer studies/consumer sciences (including consumer policy and education (a spin off from home economics and (b consumer behaviour research (a spin off from marketing. This paper focuses on these two disciplines because the results of their respective research are used to shape consumer policy and consumer protection legislation and regulations, marketplace competition policy and regulations, consumer product and service information, media coverage of consumer issues, consumer education curricula and pedagogy, and insights into an evolving consumer culture. This paper asks consumer studies/sciences and consumer behaviour scholars to embrace the transdisciplinary methodology in addition to the traditional empirical, interpretive and critical methodologies. It provides an overview of the four axioms of transdisciplinary methodology with examples to illustrate how consumer-related research would change to address the complex reality of 21st century consumption.

  5. Characterization and anions inhibition studies of an α-carbonic anhydrase from the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Ceyhun, Saltuk Buğrahan; Sentürk, Murat; Erdem, Deryanur; Küfrevioğlu, Omer İrfan; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-01-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) was purified from the gill of the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass). The purification procedure consisted of a single step affinity chromatography on Sepharose 4B-tyrosine-sulfanilamide. The enzyme was purified 84.9-fold with a yield of 58%, and a specific activity of 838.9 U/mg proteins. It has an optimum pH at 8.0; an optimum temperature at 10°C. The kinetic parameters of this enzyme were determined for its esterase activity, with 4-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA) as substrate. The following anions, H₂NSO₃⁻, I⁻, SCN⁻, NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻, N₃⁻, Br⁻, Cl⁻, SO₄²⁻, and F⁻ showed inhibitory effects on the enzyme. Sulfamic acid, iodide, and thiocyanate exhibited the strongest inhibitory action, in the micromolar range (K(i)s of 87-187 μM). NO₃⁻, NO₂⁻ and N₃⁻ were moderate inhibitors, whereas other anions showed only weak actions. All tested anions inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner. Our findings indicate that these anions inhibit the fish enzyme in a similar manner to other α-CAs from mammals investigated earlier, but the susceptibility to various anions differs significantly between the fish and mammalian CAs.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Clinical Impact of TMPRSS2-ERG Rearrangement on Prostate Cancer: Comparison between FISH and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Serra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a very heterogeneous disease, and there are constraints in its current diagnosis. Serum PSA levels, digital rectal examination (DRE, and histopathologic analysis often drive to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Since 2005, the presence of the genetic rearrangement between transmembrane-serine protease gene (TMPRSS2 and the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS member ERG (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog avian has been demonstrated in almost half of PCa cases. Both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools for detecting these rearrangements, but very few comparatives between both techniques have been published. In this study, we included FFPE tumors from 294 PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy with more than 5 years of followup. We constructed a total of 20 tissue microarrays in order to perform break-apart and tricolor probe FISH approaches that were compared with RT-PCR, showing a concordance of 80.6% (P<0.001. The presence of TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangement was observed in 56.6% of cases. No association between TMPRSS2-ERG status and clinicopathological parameters nor biochemical progression and clinical progression free survival was found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both FISH and RT-PCR are useful tools in the assessment of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene status in PCa patients and that this genetic feature per se lacks prognostic value.

  7. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  8. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  9. Kinetic modeling, production and characterization of an acidic lipase produced by Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 from fish waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized conditions. Cell growth and lipase production was modeled using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret model, respectively; and lipase production by ED-27 was found to be growth-associated. Lipase produced by ED-27 showed stability at low pH ranges from 2 to 5 with its optimal activity at 30 °C , pH 4.6; showed metal ion dependent activity wherein its catalytic activity was activated by barium, sodium, lithium and potassium (10 mM); reduced by calcium and magnesium (10 mM). However, iron and mercury (5 mM) completely inactivated the enzyme. In addition, modifying agents like SDS, DTT, β-ME (1%v/v) increased activity of lipase of ED-27; while, PMSF, DEPC and ascorbic acid resulted in a marked decrease. ED-27 had maximum cell growth of 9.90309 log CFU/ml under optimized conditions as compared to 13 log CFU/ml in MRS. The lipase produced has potential application in poultry and slaughterhouse waste management.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    showed higher antioxidant activity both in in vitro assays and in 5 % oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In spite of the higher phenolic content and very good antioxidant activity in some of the in vitro assays, the absolute ethanol extracts of both the species showed a pro......-oxidative tendency in 5 % fish oil-in-water emulsion in the presence or absence of iron. In order to investigate the reason for the higher antioxidant activity of 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides, these extracts were further fractionated into polyphenol-rich, protein-rich, polysaccharide-rich and low...

  11. Characterization and ontogenetic expression analysis of the myosin light chains from the fast white muscle of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, W Y; Chen, J; Zhou, R X; Zhao, F L; Meng, T; Chen, D X; Nong, X X; Liu, Z; Lu, S Q; Zhang, J S

    2011-04-01

    Three full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated encoding the skeletal myosin light chain 1 (MLC1; 1237 bp), myosin light chain 2 (MLC2; 1206 bp) and myosin light chain 3 (MLC3; 1079 bp) from the fast white muscle cDNA library of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi. The sequence analysis indicated that MLC1 and MLC3 were not produced from differentially spliced messenger RNAs (mRNA) as reported in birds and rodents but were encoded by different genes. The MLC2 encodes 170 amino acids, which include four EF-hand (helix-loop-helix) structures. The primary structures of the Ca(2+)-binding domain were well conserved among the MLC2s of seven other fish species. The ontogenetic expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that the three light-chain mRNAs were first detected in the gastrula stage, and their expression increased from the tail bud stage to the larval stage. All three MLC mRNAs showed longitudinal expression variation in the fast white muscle of S. chuatsi, especially MLC1 which was highly expressed at the posterior area. Taken together, the study provides a better understanding about the MLC gene structure and their expression pattern in muscle development of S. chuatsi.

  12. Skin, bone and muscle collagen extraction from the trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Nagarajan; Jeya Shakila, Robinson; Sukumar, Durairaj; Jeyasekaran, G

    2013-12-01

    Acid soluble (ASC) and pepsin soluble (PSC) collagens were extracted from the skin, bone and muscle of a trash fish, leather jacket (Odonus niger) by three different extraction methods. Method I gave 46-50% yield for ASC, Method II gave 49-58% yield for both ASC and PSC and Method III gave 64-71% yield for PSC. The addition of pepsin had increased the yield by 30-45%. The yields of collagen from skin and bone were higher than muscle. SDS-PAGE pattern revealed that skin and bone collagen as Type I collagen with a typical (α1)2α2 chains and muscle collagen as Type V collagen with a typical α1α3α2 chains. Td values of bone and muscle collagen were high (30-32 °C) compared to skin collagen (27-28 °C). The higher imino acids (190 residues/1,000 residues) were found responsible for the higher Td values. The trash fish, leather jacket can therefore be exploited effectively for collagen as it has got good thermal properties for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications.

  13. Identification and characterization of marker chromosomes, de novo rearrangements and microdeletions in 100 cases with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.M.; Liu, Y.; Papenhausen, P.R. [Roche Biomedical Labs., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Results of molecular cytogenetic analysis are presented for 100 cases in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used as an adjunct to standard cytogenetics. Commercially available centromeric, telomeric, chromosome painting and unique sequence probes were used. Cases were from a 12-month period (June 1993-May 1994) and included examples of sex chromosome abnormalities (8), duplications (5), de novo translocations (6), satellited (12) and non-satellited (7) markers, and microdeletion syndromes (62). Satellited marker chromosomes were evaluated using a combination of DAPI/Distamycin A staining, hybridization with a classical satellite probe for chromosome 15 and hybridization with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 13, 14, 21 and 22. Markers positive for the chromosome 15 probe were further evaluated using unique sequence probes for the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Microdeletion analysis was performed for Prader-Willi/Angelman (49) and DiGeorge/VCF (13) syndromes. Seven cases evaluated for Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome demonstrated evidence of a deletion within this region. Uniparental disomy analysis was available in cases where a deletion was not detected by FISH, yet follow-up was clinically indicated. Two cases evaluated for DiGeorge/VCF syndrome demonstrated molecular evidence of a deletion. Included in our analysis is an example of familial DiGeorge syndrome.

  14. Molecular characterization and new geographical record of Lecithochirium priacanthi (Digenea: Hemiuridae) infecting the moontail bullseye fish Priacanthus hamrur (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-12-01

    Sixty specimens of the moontail bullseye Priacanthus hamrur were collected at Coasts of Suez Gulf, Red Sea (Egypt) during the four different seasons of the whole year 2014 and necropsied to study the infection with metazoan parasites. Twenty-one out of 60 examined fish specimens (infection rate of 33.33 %) were found to be naturally infected by the hemiurid digenean parasite Lecithochirium priacanthi. The large-sized fish reaching 15-30 (23.5 ± 4.8) cm were more intensively infected than the smaller ones. A definite seasonal effect was observed as winter was found to be the season of severe parasitic infections, while midsummer was the lowest one. The morphological and morphometric characterization of this parasite were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had an elongated body measuring 1.93-2.54 (2.11 ± 0.20) mm in length and 0.61-0.72 (0.67 ± 0.02) mm in width. The body was characterized by the presence of a sub-terminal oral sucker with diameters reaching 0.12-0.16 (0.14 ± 0.02) mm. The ventral sucker measured 0.32-0.45 (0.38 ± 0.02) mm in diameter. The body was supplied by a short retracted portion with a blunt end that measured 0.48-0.61 (0.56 ± 0.02) mm in length and 0.28-0.35 (0.32 ± 0.02) mm in width. Morphological results of the present parasite were compared with other related species described previously from Perciformes. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of this parasite and other species of Hemiuridae places the present specimen as a putative sister taxon to Lecithochirium grandiporum and Lecithochirium caesionis. The finding of L. priacanthi in Egyptian marine water fish represents a new geographical record for this parasite.

  15. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals that th...... that there are great differences in the fuel consumption between fisheries targeting ground or shellfish and those targeting pelagic or industrial fish.......Previous studies based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Denmark and Sweden have shown that the fishery is the environmental "hot spot" in the life cycle of fish products. Within the fishery, fuel consumption is one of the most important factors addressed by LCA. The present study reveals...

  16. Meat consumption in Sao Paulo-Brazil: trend in the last decade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize trends in meat consumption, and verify the percentage of excessive red and processed meat consumption in the last decade in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN: Cross-sectional weighted data from the Health Survey for São Paulo, conducted in São Paulo, Brazil among people aged 12 years and older. SETTING: Diet was assessed by two 24-hour recalls in each survey. Usual meat consumption was estimated by Multiple Source Method. Wald tests were used to compare means across survey years. Data were collected from adolescents, adults, and elderly using a representative, complex, multistage probability-based survey in 2003 and in 2008 in São Paulo, southeast of Brazil. SUBJECTS: 2631 Brazilians were studied in 2003 and 1662 in 2008. RESULTS: Daily mean of red and processed meat consumption was 100 g/day in 2003, and 113 g/day in 2008. Excessive red and processed meat consumption was observed in almost 75% of the subjects, especially among adolescents in both surveys. Beef represented the largest proportion of meat consumed, followed by poultry, pork and fish in both surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Daily red and processed meat consumption was higher in 2008 than in 2003, and almost the entire population consumed more than what is recommended by World Cancer Research Fund. Public health strategies are needed, in order to reduce red and processed meat consumption to the recommended amounts, for a healthy diet.

  17. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis of bacterial communities associated with Dialeurolonga malleswaramensis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) adults using 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Neeti; Rajagopal, Raman

    2016-10-01

    Dialeurolonga malleswaramensis Sundararaj (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a phytophagous sap sucking insect. It infests Polyalthia longifolia, an important avenue tree of India, effective in alleviating noise pollution and having immense medicinal importance. Samples of this insect were collected from Polyalthia longifolia. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mtCO1) helped in the molecular characterization of the insect. This study reports the bacterial diversity in D. malleswaramensis adults by high throughput 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing. The major genera identified were Portiera and Arsenophonus. Other bacterial genera detected were uncultured alpha proteobacterium, Sphingopyxis and Methylobacterium. We also employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in whole mount samples to confirm the presence of dominant endosymbionts Portiera and Arsenophonus to the bacteriocyte of D. malleswaramensis. This study concludes that combining techniques like 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing and FISH reveal both dominant and rare bacteria. The data also predict the evolutionary position of this pest with respect to other whitefly species using a mitochondrial marker.

  18. Cytogenetic Characterization of the TM4 Mouse Sertoli Cell Line. II. Chromosome Microdissection, FISH, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Guttenbach, Martina; Steinlein, Claus; Wanner, Gerhard; Houben, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomes and interphase cell nuclei of the permanent mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 were examined by chromosome microdissection, FISH, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The already known marker chromosomes m1-m5 were confirmed, and 2 new large marker chromosomes m6 and m7 were characterized. The minute heterochromatic marker chromosomes m4 and m5 were microdissected and their DNA amplified by DOP-PCR. FISH of this DNA probe on TM4 metaphase chromosomes demonstrated that the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes have derived from the centromeric regions of normal telocentric mouse chromosomes. Ectopic pairing of the m4 and m5 marker chromosomes with the centromeric region of any of the other chromosomes (centromeric associations) was apparent in ∼60% of the metaphases. Scanning electron microscopy revealed DNA-protein bridges connecting the centromeric regions of normal chromosomes and the associated m4 and m5 marker chromosomes. Interphase cell nuclei of TM4 Sertoli cells did not exhibit the characteristic morphology of Sertoli cells in the testes of adult mice as shown by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  19. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  20. Characterization of multi-layered fish scales (Atractosteus spatula) using nanoindentation, X-ray CT, FTIR, and SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Paul G; Rodriguez, Rogie I; Moser, Robert D; Williams, Brett A; Poda, Aimee R; Seiter, Jennifer M; Lafferty, Brandon J; Kennedy, Alan J; Chandler, Mei Q

    2014-07-10

    The hierarchical architecture of protective biological materials such as mineralized fish scales, gastropod shells, ram's horn, antlers, and turtle shells provides unique design principles with potentials for guiding the design of protective materials and systems in the future. Understanding the structure-property relationships for these material systems at the microscale and nanoscale where failure initiates is essential. Currently, experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, X-ray CT, and SEM provide researchers with a way to correlate the mechanical behavior with hierarchical microstructures of these material systems1-6. However, a well-defined standard procedure for specimen preparation of mineralized biomaterials is not currently available. In this study, the methods for probing spatially correlated chemical, structural, and mechanical properties of the multilayered scale of A. spatula using nanoindentation, FTIR, SEM, with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and X-ray CT are presented.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Enrichment of Ofloxacin Enantiomers in Fish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fei Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the isolation and enrichment of ofloxacin enantiomers from fish samples was developed using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs. These polymers can be easily collected and rapidly separated using an external magnetic field, and also exhibit a high specific recognition for ofloxacin enantiomers. The preparation of amino-functionalized MMIPs was carried out via suspension polymerization and a ring-opening reaction using rac-ofloxacin as a template, ethylenediamine as an active group, glycidyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate as functional monomers, divinylbenzene as a cross-linker, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles as magnetic cores. The characteristics of the MMIPs were assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM measurements. Furthermore, the adsorption properties were determined using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The conditions for use of these MMIPs as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE sorbents, including pH, adsorption time, desorption time, and eluent, were investigated in detail. An extraction method using MMIPs coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed for the determination of ofloxacin enantiomers in fish samples. The limits of quantitation (LOQ for the developed method were 0.059 and 0.067 μg∙mL−1 for levofloxacin and dextrofloxacin, respectively. The recovery of ofloxacin enantiomers ranged from 79.2% ± 5.6% to 84.4% ± 4.6% and ofloxacin enantiomers had good linear relationships within the concentration range of 0.25–5.0 μg∙mL−1 (R2 > 0.999. The obtained results demonstrate that MSPE-HPLC is a promising approach for preconcentration, purification, and simultaneous separation of ofloxacin enantiomers in biomatrix samples.

  2. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  3. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  4. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castellani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  5. Morphological and molecular genetic characterization of two Kudoa spp., K. musculoliquefaciens, and K. pleurogrammi n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), causing myoliquefaction of commercial marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Chun; Mafie, Eliakunda; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Genetic characterization of myxosporean species, including members of the genus Kudoa, has advanced dramatically throughout the last decade. This is in stark contrast to those species described further back in time. Kudoa musculoliquefaciens described from the jellied muscle of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in the western Pacific Ocean off the Sanriku Coast, northern Japan, is one such species. In the present study, multiple pseudocysts (0.66-1.35 mm average length and 0.06-0.10 mm average width) containing K. musculoliquefaciens spores were collected from three host groups: muscle blocks of swordfish caught in the western Pacific Ocean off the Sanriku Coast, or the northern Indian Ocean, and Indo-Pacific sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, in the western Pacific Ocean off Kochi, western Japan. Subspherical K. musculoliquefaciens spores, 8.0-10.3 μm in width, 7.3-10.0 μm in thickness, 6.4-7.9 μm in sutural thickness, and 5.5-8.1 μm in length, had four subspherical polar capsules, 2.8-4.0 μm in length by 2.2-3.2 μm in width. The kudoid spores found in the different host groups showed morphometric variations to some extent but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), closest to those of Kudoa hemiscylli or Kudoa carcharhini recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Another kudoid species, Kudoa pleurogrammi n. sp., was recorded from the jellied and normal muscles of Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius and Pleurogrammus azonus, fished in the northern Pacific Ocean or northern Sea of Japan. Subquadrate spores found in round-ended pseudocysts (1.15-3.85 mm in length and 0.11-0.26 mm in width) in myofibers were 8.2-9.1 μm in width, 7.1-8.2 μm in thickness, 5.4-7.7 μm in sutural thickness, and 5.6-6.8 μm in length, with four ovoid polar capsules, 2.7-2.9 μm in length by 1.4-2.0 μm in width. Kudoid spores from both jellied and normal muscles or different host fish species had identical 18S

  6. Socio-demographic factors and fish eating trends in eastern community, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Chandravathany Devadawson; Chamilla Jayasinghe; Ramaiah Sivakanesan

    2015-01-01

    Fish are considered as a unique source of protein and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In Sri Lankan population, fish consumption habits and attitudes are determined by the availability of fish and socio-demography of fish consumers. An extensive survey was carried out among fish consumers (N=1777) in stratified random manner. Among the total studied respondents, 73.3% of the respondents had eaten all type of fish while10% had only sea fishes, 19.5 % brackish water a...

  7. Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Modeling of Pancreatic Lipase from a Cartilaginous Fish, the Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaâla, Emna; BouAli, Madiha; Ben Ali, Yassine; Miled, Nabil; Gargouri, Youssef; Fendri, Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify fish enzymes displaying novel biochemical properties, we have chosen the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), one of the most primitive living jawed aquatic vertebrates as a starting biological material to purify a lipase. A stingray pancreatic lipase (SPL) was purified from delipidated pancreatic powder. The SPL molecular weight was around 55 kDa which is slightly higher than that of known classical pancreatic lipases (50 kDa). This increase in the molecular weight was due to glycosylation. Like classic pancreatic lipases, SPL was found to be much more active on short-chain triacylglycerols than on long-chain ones. Natural detergents act as inhibitors of the SPL activity. This inhibition can be reversed by the addition of stingray colipase. Starting from total pancreatic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), partial stingray pancreatic lipase complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the PGEM-T vector. Partial amino acid sequence of the SPL was homologous to that of Japanese eel, porcine, and human pancreatic lipases. A 3D structure model of the sequenced part of SPL was built using the 3D structure of porcine pancreatic lipase as template, since both lipases shared an amino acid sequence identity of 60%.

  8. Informing a Tidal Turbine Strike Probability Model through Characterization of Fish Behavioral Response using Multibeam Sonar Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Tomichek, Christine [Kleinschmidt Associates, Pittsfield, ME (United States); Scherelis, Constantin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-07-31

    One of the most important biological questions facing the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry is whether fish and marine mammals that encounter MHK devices are likely to be struck by moving components. For hydrokinetic (HK) devices, i.e., those that generate energy from flowing water, this concern is greatest for large organisms because their increased length increases the probability that they will be struck as they pass through the area of blade sweep and because their increased mass means that the force absorbed if struck is greater and potentially more damaging (Amaral et al. 2015). Key to answering this question is understanding whether aquatic organisms change their swimming behavior as they encounter a device in a way that decreases their likelihood of being struck and possibly injured by the device. Whether near-field or far-field behavior results in general avoidance of or attraction to HK devices is a significant factor in the possible risk of physical contact with rotating turbine blades (Cada and Bevelhimer 2011).

  9. Establishment and characterization of a new marine fish cell line from ovary of barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Fan, Tingjun; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia

    2015-12-01

    A novel continuous ovary cell line from barfin flounder ( Verasper moseri) (BFO cell line) was established with its primitive application in transgenic expression demonstrated in this study. Primarily cultured cells grew well at 22°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium/F12 medium (DMEM/F12, 1:1; pH 7.2) supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl chitooligosaccharide, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The primary BFO cells in fibroblastic morphology proliferated into a confluent monolayer about 2 weeks later, and were able to be subcultured. Impacts of medium and temperature on the growth of the cells were examined. The optimum growth was found in DMEM/F12 with 20% FBS and at 22°C. The BFO cells can be continuously subcultured to Passage 120 steadily with a population doubling time of 32.7 h at Passage 60. Chromosome analysis revealed that 72% of BFO cells at Passage 60 maintained the normal diploid chromosome number (46) with a normal karyotype of 2st+44t. The results of gene transformation indicated that green fluorescence protein (GFP) positively expressed in these cells after being transformed with pcDNA3.1-GFP. Therefore, a continuous and transformable BFO cell line was successfully established, which may serve as a useful tool for cytotechnological manipulation and transgenic modification of this fish.

  10. Characterization and pathogenic role of outer membrane vesicles produced by the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Cristian; Valenzuela, Karla; Hernández, Mauricio; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Haro, Ronie E; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben; Cárcamo, Juan G; Villar, Maite T; Artigues, Antonio; Garduño, Rafael; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-02-29

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the major fish pathogens affecting Chilean aquaculture. This Gram-negative bacterium is highly infectious and is the etiological agent of Piscirickettsiosis. Little is currently known about how the virulence factors expressed by P. salmonis are delivered to host cells. However, it is known that several Gram-negative microorganisms constitutively release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which have been implicated in the delivery of virulence factors to host cells. In this study, OMVs production by P. salmonis was observed during infection in CHSE-214 cells and during normal growth in liquid media. The OMVs were spherical vesicles ranging in size between 25 and 145 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the protein profile of the OMVs was similar to the outer membrane protein profile of P. salmonis. Importantly, the bacterial chaperonin Hsp60 was found in the OMVs of P. salmonis by Western-blot and LC-MS/MS analyses. Finally, in vitro infection assays showed that purified OMVs generated a cytopathic effect on CHSE-214 cells, suggesting a role in pathogenesis. Therefore, OMVs might be an important vehicle for delivering effector molecules to host cells during P. salmonis infection.

  11. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil;

    2007-01-01

    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized. The complete 16S rDNA, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, 23S rDNA, 23S-5S intergenic spacer, 5S rDNA, FopA, lipoprotein TUL4 (LpnA), malate dehydrogenase and a hypothetical...

  12. Sustainable Fishing Fleet; a Systems Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2007-01-01

    Many fisheries have significant challenges related to sustainable development, such as overexploitation and overcapacity in the fishing fleet. Overcapacity leads to increased pressure on fish resources, reduced profitability, and environmental problems such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and acidification fromfuel consumption. Sustainable management of the fish resources is an important objective in Norway, but overcapacity is a problem in several Norwegian fleet segments. Important issues...

  13. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and localization of an annexin from a fish gill fluke Microcotyle sebastis (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kwon, Se Ryun; Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-01-01

    The full cDNA of an annexin gene from Microcotyle sebastis (MsANX) was cloned for the first time in monogeneans. The cDNA of MsANX comprises 1199bp with a 29bp 5' untranslated region, an open reading frame of 1062bp, and a 108bp 3' untranslated region. The recombinantly produced MsANX bound phosphatidylserine vesicles in the presence of Ca2+, whereas no MsANX was precipitated in the absence of free Ca2+. Phylogenetically, MsANX formed a cluster with human annexin A13, known as the earliest annexin in vertebrates and expressed mainly in the intestine. The localization of MsANX in M. sebastis was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry using the antiserum raised against the recombinant MsANX. In Western blot analysis, rat antiserum bound to a protein corresponding to the MsANX in size when worm crude extracts were used as antigens, but no bands were detected by the antiserum when the excretory/secretory proteins of worms were used as antigens. In immunohistochemistry analysis, significant antibody binding annexin was found in the ovarian region, the pharynx and the intestinal caecum of the worm. Interestingly, the alimentary canal location of MsANX was similar to the location of human annexin A13, and further research is needed to trace evolutionary relationship among helminthic annexins and human annexin A13. Also it remains to be investigated whether immunization of naïve fish with the recombinant MsANX can induce protective immune responses against M. sebastis infection.

  14. Mercury in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Brandon M.; Willacker, James J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) concentrations were examined in fishes from Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, the largest and one of the most remote units in the national park system. The goals of the study were to (1) examine the distribution of Hg in select lakes of Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve; (2) evaluate the differences in Hg concentrations among fish species and with fish age and size; and (3) assess the potential ecological risks of Hg to park fishes, wildlife, and human consumers by comparing Hg concentrations to a series of risk benchmarks. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 17.9 to 616.4 nanograms per gram wet weight (ng/g ww), with a mean (± standard error) of 180.0 ±17.9 across the 83 individuals sampled. Without accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations varied by a factor of 10.9 across sites and species. After accounting for the effects of size, Hg concentrations were even more variable, differing by a factor of as much as 13.2 within a single species sampled from two lakes. Such inter-site variation suggests that site characteristics play an important role in determining fish Hg concentrations and that more intensive sampling may be necessary to adequately characterize Hg contamination in the park. Size-normalized Hg concentrations also differed among three species sampled from Tanada Lake, and Hg concentrations were strongly correlated with age. Furthermore, potential risks to park fish, wildlife, and human users were variable across lakes and species. Although no fish from two of the lakes studied (Grizzly Lake and Summit Lake) had Hg concentrations exceeding any of the benchmarks used, concentrations in Copper Lake and Tanada Lake exceeded conservative benchmarks for bird (90 ng/g ww in whole-body) and human (150 ng/g ww in muscle) consumption. In Tanada Lake, concentrations in most fishes also exceeded benchmarks for risk to moderate- and low-sensitivity avian consumers (180 and 270 ng/g ww in

  15. Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae from distinct Brazilian river basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Antonio Andreata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of four Hisonotus species (two provisionally-named species A and D, H. nigricauda, and H. leucofrenatus were found to have the same diploid number of 2n = 54 and interstitial silver-staining nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs located on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The C-banding pattern appeared to be species-specific, with one group (H. nigricauda and the unnamed species A and D being characterized by small amounts of positive C-banded segments and containing a sub-group (species A and D identified by a large positive C-banded segment on a small metacentric chromosome pair. The second group contained different samples of H. leucofrenatus, characterized by a larger amount of C-band positive segments spread over several chromosome arms. Heterochromatin appears to play an important evolutionary role in chromosome differentiation in Hisonotus species, especially in H. leucofrenatus. The geographic isolation of several H. leucofrenatus populations seems to have favored chromosome evolution of each sample analyzed.

  16. Characterization of a new fish-derived bioactive neuropeptide involved in bone remodelling. Its physiological function and therapeutic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Suarez-Bregua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A complex network of autocrine and paracrine signals, hormones and neuronal factors preserve the structural integrity of the skeleton and regulate mineral metabolism in vertebrates. We have characterized a new neuropeptide belonging to parathyroid hormone (PTH family. PTH family members are known to play a key role in maintaining mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling and in regulating embryonic development of skeleton and other tissues. This new neuropeptide is synthesized by two clusters of neurons located in lateral hypothalamus as showed in whole mount in situ hybridization. The functional characterization of the gene using a stable transgenic line revealed its key role in the regulation of bone mineral density. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics results of conserved synteny reveal that this new neuropeptide is a new ohnolog of the PTH family present in teleosts and some tetrapods like chicken, but absent in mammals . Our findings suggest a new brain to bone pathway, where neuronal factors from hypothalamus signal to receptors on bone cells promoting bone remodeling. Further investigations about this new neuropeptide system would be relevant for developing therapies for bone mineral disorders in humans, since this neuropeptide has a conserved domain similar to other PTH-related peptides which have anabolic effects on bone.

  17. Characterization of human gene encoding SLA/LP autoantigen and its conserved homologs in mouse,fish,fly,and worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Xia Wang; Andreas Teufel; Uta Cheruti; Joachim Gr(o)tzinger; Peter R Galle; Ansgar W Lohse; Johannes Herkel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To approach the elusive function of the SLA/LP molecule, we have characterized genomic organization and conservation of the major antigenic and functional properties of the SLA/LP molecule in various species.METHODS: By means of computational biology, we have characterized the complete SLA/LP gene, mRNA and deduced protein sequences in man, mouse,zebrafish, fly, and worm.RESULTS: The human SLA/LP gene sequence of approximately 39 kb, which maps to chromosome 4p15.2, is organized in 11 exons, of which 10 or 11 are translated, depending on the splice variant. Homologous molecules were identified in several biological model organisms. The various homologous protein sequences showed a high degree of similarity or homology, notably at those residues that are of functional importance. The only domain of the human protein sequence that lacks significant homology with homologous sequences is the major antigenic epitope recognized by autoantibodies from autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients.CONCLUSION: The SLA/LP molecule and its functionally relevant residues have been highly conserved throughout the evoluti n, suggesting an indispensable function of the molecule. The finding that the only non-conserved domain is the dominant antigenic epitope of the human SLA/LP sequence, suggests that SLA/LP autoimmunity is autoantigen-driven rather than being driven by molecular mimicry.

  18. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  19. Characterization of Interactions between Surface Water and Near-Stream Groundwater along Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, by Using Heat as a Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; Essaid, Hedeff I.

    2009-01-01

    Fish Creek, a tributary of the Snake River, is about 25 river kilometers long and is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. Local residents began observing an increase in the growth of algae and aquatic plants in the stream during the last decade. Due to the known importance of groundwater to surface water in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to characterize the interactions between surface water and near-stream groundwater along Fish Creek. The study has two main objectives: (1) develop an improved spatial and temporal understanding of water flow (fluxes) between surface water and groundwater, and (2) use a two-dimensional groundwater-flow and heat-transport model to interpret observed temperature and hydraulic-head distributions and to describe groundwater flow near Fish Creek. The study is intended to augment hydrologic information derived from previously published results of a seepage investigation on Fish Creek. Seepage measurements provide spatially averaged gains and losses over an entire reach for one point in time, whereas continuous temperature and water-level measurements provide continuous estimates of gain and loss at a specific location. Stage, water-level, and temperature data were collected from surface water and from piezometers completed in an alluvial aquifer at three cross sections on Fish Creek at Teton Village, Resor's Bridge, and Wilson from October 2004 to October 2006. The flow and energy (heat) transport model VS2DH was used to simulate flow through the streambed of Fish Creek at the Teton Village cross section from April 15 to October 14, 2006, (183 recharge periods) and at the Resor's Bridge and Wilson cross sections from June 6, 2005, to October 14, 2006 (496 recharge periods). A trial-and-error technique was used to determine the best match between simulated and measured data. These results were then used to calibrate the

  20. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  1. Consumer's food motives and seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2016-01-01

    consumption frequencies of three typical seafood products (i.e., fish, shrimp and mussels) by estimating ordered probit models. Convenience and weight control are the most important motives driving the seafood consumptions, suggesting that convenience oriented-people choose seafood as meals less regularly......, while weight control oriented-people eat seafood more regularly. People who live alone are less likely to eat any type of the seafood; elderly and high income people are more likely to eat fish. Large size families avoid buying fish and shrimp probably due to the economic reason. The implications......The role of personal factors in driving seafood choice behavior was investigated. The individual psychological factors (i.e., food motives) and socio-demographic variables were measured on a national representative sample (n=996) of French adults. The personal factors were used to predict...

  2. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey pop...

  3. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  4. Promoting seafood consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to the attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish, an...

  5. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N.

    2016-01-01

    product types. Fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence...... simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready‐to‐eat sausage, respectively, and a dose‐response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose...... of lack of information for different variables was assessed by rerunning the model with alternative, more extreme, values. Out of the large number of uncertain variables, only a few of them have a strong influence on the probability of illness, in particular those describing the preparation at home...

  6. Development of DNA vaccines for fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heppell, Joël; Lorenzen, Niels; Armstrong, Neil K.;

    1998-01-01

    with traditional methods of immunization, but little is known on its efficacy in fish. The luciferase and lacZ reporter genes were used to characterize expression of plasmid-encoded genes in rainbow trout and zebra fish injected intramuscularly. For a given dose of DNA, the luciferase activity was higher in fish...

  7. Fish Protein Concentrate Fortification Siam Patin on Amplang Snack Products and Mi Sago Instant Product as a Leading Regional Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewita Buchari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To enhance fish consumption in the community especially children, fortification on processed fish product is conducted. The processed fish products are developed to fill the requirements as the fish based food products that own characterizations such as ready to eat, easy to carry, and less time to cook. Amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles are defined as the products that fills the requirements. The research was aimed to process catfish into fish protein concentrate to become amplang snack and instant sagoo noodles. These products were designed as the effort to develop the local priority products in Riau by using diversification and fortification methods. Experimental method with fortification treatments on Fish Protein Concentrate (FPC extract from Catfish that generate products of amplang snacks and instant sagoo noodles and fish tofu were carried out. The fortified products were examined by organoleptics test that involved panelists. The results showed that the proximate analysis on fortified Catfish Protein Concentrate products were presented as following :1. water contents of 3,13 %, ash of 2,85 %, protein content of 16,13 % and fat content of 18, 66 % for ampang snacks; and 2. water contents of 11,77 %, ash of 1,30 %, protein content of 12,35 % and fat content of 1,86 % for instant sagoo nodles. All fortified FPC products filled the Indonesian Nasional Standard (SNI.Keywords: Fortification, Catfish, and Fish Protein Concentrate

  8. Characterization of the Human Risk of Salmonellosis Related to Consumption of Pork Products in Different E.U. Countries Based on a QMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigre, Håkan; Barfoed, Kristen; Swart, Arno N; Simons, Robin R L; Hill, Andrew A; Snary, Emma L; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    In response to the European Food Safety Authority's wish to assess the reduction of human cases of salmonellosis by implementing control measures at different points in the farm-to-consumption chain for pork products, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was developed. The model simulated the occurrence of Salmonella from the farm to consumption of pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausage, respectively, and a dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of illness at consumption. The QMRA has a generic structure with a defined set of variables, whose values are changed according to the E.U. member state (MS) of interest. In this article we demonstrate the use of the QMRA in four MSs, representing different types of countries. The predicted probability of illness from the QMRA was between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million per serving across all three product types. Fermented ready-to-eat sausage imposed the highest probability of illness per serving in all countries, whereas the risks per serving of minced meat and pork chops were similar within each MS. For each of the products, the risk varied by a factor of 100 between the four MSs. The influence of lack of information for different variables was assessed by rerunning the model with alternative, more extreme, values. Out of the large number of uncertain variables, only a few of them have a strong influence on the probability of illness, in particular those describing the preparation at home and consumption.

  9. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Halldorsdottir, Sveinbjorg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2004-09-01

    This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p fish. Infants of women in the highest quartile of fish oil intake (> or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.

  10. Characterization of gonadotropic cells during continuous and seasonal spermatogenesis of two freshwater fish species: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês

    2017-02-01

    This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.

  11. Characterization of a multiresistant mosaic plasmid from a fish farm Sediment Exiguobacterium sp. isolate reveals aggregation of functional clinic-associated antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jinyu; Liu, Li; Zhang, Gang; Feng, Jie

    2014-02-01

    The genus Exiguobacterium can adapt readily to, and survive in, diverse environments. Our study demonstrated that Exiguobacterium sp. strain S3-2, isolated from marine sediment, is resistant to five antibiotics. The plasmid pMC1 in this strain carries seven putative resistance genes. We functionally characterized these resistance genes in Escherichia coli, and genes encoding dihydrofolate reductase and macrolide phosphotransferase were considered novel resistance genes based on their low similarities to known resistance genes. The plasmid G+C content distribution was highly heterogeneous. Only the G+C content of one block, which shared significant similarity with a plasmid from Exiguobacterium arabatum, fit well with the mean G+C content of the host. The remainder of the plasmid was composed of mobile elements with a markedly lower G+C ratio than the host. Interestingly, five mobile elements located on pMC1 showed significant similarities to sequences found in pathogens. Our data provided an example of the link between resistance genes in strains from the environment and the clinic and revealed the aggregation of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria isolated from fish farms.

  12. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers from Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens, Osphronemidae, Anabantoidei) and their transferability to related species, B. smaragdina and B. imbellis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailertrit, V; Swatdipong, A; Peyachoknagul, S; Salaenoi, J; Srikulnath, K

    2014-09-05

    Ten novel microsatellite markers were developed and characterized from Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Nine of ten markers were polymorphic, exhibiting an allelic number (NA) from 2 to 6 alleles per locus. The effective number of alleles (NE) ranged from 1.60 to 3.08 (average of 2.30). The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.13 to 0.67 (average of 0.39) and 0.29 to 0.63 (average of 0.50), respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was not significantly detected for any pair of loci, and only two loci (BettaMS23 and BettaMS28) showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Of these, six loci could be amplified in genomic DNA of the closely related species B. imbellis and three loci in B. smaragdina. These microsatellite markers could be used as a tool to investigate genetic diversity and population structure, as well as breeding programs in hatcheries.

  13. Contaminants in fish: risk-benefit considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G

    2007-09-01

    Fish provide a healthful source of dietary protein and are high in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption in coronary heart disease, stroke, age-related macular degeneration, and growth and development. Yet, benefits may be offset by the presence of contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several other halogenated persistent organic pollutants. MeHg is a known developmental neurotoxicant, as evidenced by several animal studies and episodes of human intoxication in Japan and Iraq. Fish represent the main source of exposure to MeHg for the general population, and large predatory fish (swordfish, tuna) have the highest levels of MeHg contamination. Provisional tolerable weekly intakes of 0.7 microg kg(-1) to 1.6 microg kg(-1) have been set by regulatory agencies. Concern for contamination of fish with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs stems from their reported carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicities. Farmed and wild-caught fish appear to have similar levels of contaminants. Advisories are in place that recommend limited consumption of certain fish in children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Careful risk-benefit considerations should foster fish consumption while minimizing exposure to toxic contaminants.

  14. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency distribu......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Potential human health risk by metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to consumption of fish from the "Luis L. Leon" Reservoir (Northern México).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E

    2014-06-25

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007-0.014 and 0.01-0.02 Bq∙kg-1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16-3.26, 0.70-1.13 and 0.93-1.37 Bq∙kg-1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13-0.39, 0.005-0.126 and 0.009-0.08 mg∙kg-1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11-0.43, 0.002-0.039 and 0.02-0.26 mg∙kg-1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg-1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg-1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  16. Construction and characterization of a tissue-engineered oral mucosa equivalent based on a chitosan-fish scale collagen composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Michiko; Izumi, Kenji; Ohnuki, Hisashi; Saito, Taro; Kato, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Marie; Kawano, Yoshiro; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to (1) assess the in vitro biocompatibility of a chitosan-collagen composite scaffold (C3) constructed by blending commercial chitosan and tilapia scale collagen with oral mucosa keratinocytes, (2) histologically and immunohistochemically characterize an ex vivo-produced oral mucosa equivalent constructed using the C3 (EVPOME-C), and (3) compare EVPOME-C with oral mucosa constructs utilizing AlloDerm® (EVPOME-A), BioMend® Extend™ (EVPOME-B), and native oral mucosa. C3 scaffold had a well-developed fibril network and a sufficiently small porosity to prevent keratinocytes from growing inside the scaffold after cell-seeding. The EVPOME oral mucosa constructs were fabricated in a chemically defined culture system. After culture at an air-liquid interface, EVPOME-C and EVPOME-B had multilayered epithelium with keratinization, while EVPOME-A had a more organized stratified epithelium. Ki-67 and p63 immunolabeled cells in the basal layer of all EVPOMEs suggested a regenerative ability. Compared with native oral mucosa, the keratin 15 and 10/13 expression patterns in all EVPOMEs showed a less-organized differentiation pattern. In contrast to the β1-integrin and laminin distribution in EVPOME-A and native oral mucosa, the subcellular deposition in EVPOME-C and EVPOME-B indicated that complete basement membrane formation failed. These findings demonstrated that C3 has a potential application for epithelial tissue engineering and provides a new potential therapeutic device for oral mucosa regenerative medicine.

  17. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  18. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  19. Characterization of cassava clones produced in Roraima for in natura consumption. = Caracterização e identificação de clones de mandioca produzidos em Roraima para o consumo in natura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Trajano de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and identify cassava clones produced in Roraima State, Brazil, for human consumption. There was the planting of six clones of cassava (Aciolina, Pão, Pão-do-Chile, Água Morna, Enxuta and Amazonas, in double rows, following the spacing of 2.0 m x 0.8 m x 0.8 m, total of 8,928 plants ha-1 . It was used randomized blocks experimental design with four replications. At eight months after planting was carried out to harvest the roots, being evaluated for hydrocyanic acid, starch content by the method of hydrostatic balance and artisanal mining, ability to release the film and bark, bark color and flesh color raw. The cassava clones were classified according to HCN content in: Mansi (Enxuta and Pão-do-Chile, intermediate (Aciolina and Água Morna and Brava (Pão and Amazonas. The starch obtained by the method of hydrostatic balance overestimates the starch content by the method artisanal mining. The Aciolina clone stood out among the clones for human consumption, it is also recommended for industrial use. The Pão and Amazonas clones have restrictions for both human consumption and for industrial used.

  20. Alternative Sources of Omega-3 Fats: Can We Find a Sustainable Substitute for Fish?

    OpenAIRE

    Karen S. Bishop; Georgia Lenihan-Geels; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) containing fish oils is putting pressure on fish species and numbers. Fisheries provide fish for human consumption, supplement production and fish feeds and are currently supplying fish at a maximum historical rate, suggesting mass-scale fishing is no longer sustainable. However, the health properties of EPA and DHA long-chain (LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) demonstrate the necessity for these oil...

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...

  2. Contents of lead and cadmium in selected fish species consumed in Finland in 1993-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvonen, R; Kumpulainen, J

    1996-01-01

    The lead and cadmium contents of the main fish species consumed in Finland were determined by ETAAS after wet digestion with HNO3. Analytical quality was controlled with blanks, reference materials and blind replicates. Mean and median lead contents of domestic fish species were fish and imported canned or salted fish ranged from fish species were fish contained canned or salted fish 9-42 micrograms Cd per kg. Higher fish consumption would not increase lead or cadmium intake significantly in Finland. At present fish contributes about 4% of the average lead intake and 3% of cadmium intake.

  3. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  4. Epidemiological characterization of VNNV in hatchery-reared and wild marine fish on Hainan Island, China, and experimental infection of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongling; Wen, Weigeng; Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Xu, Liwen; Peng, Chao; Guo, Zhixun

    2015-12-01

    The current epidemiological situation of viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV) on Hainan Island was investigated. A total of 490 hatchery-reared fish and 652 wild fish were sampled for VNNV detection from March 2013 to May 2014. Positive detection rates of 84.53% (153/181) and 0.97 % (3/309) were obtained in diseased and healthy hatchery-reared samples, respectively, by conventional RT-PCR. However, using more-sensitive nested RT-PCR, the positive detection rates in healthy hatchery-reared fish reached up to 64.08% (198/309), suggesting that asymptomatic VNNV carriers commonly exist among larvae and juveniles breeding on Hainan Island. In wild-fish samples, 2.6% (17/652) and 34.2% (223/652) positive detection rates were observed using RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR, respectively, indicating that wild fish may be a potential reservoir for VNNV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 VNNV isolates from cultured fish belong to the RGNNV genotype, but 2 out of 48 VNNV isolates from wild fish samples were found to be of the SJNNV genotype. This study is the first to confirm the existence of SJNNV-genotype VNNV in China. Golden pompano, an important fish species for culture, was selected as a fish model to investigate the optimal conditions for RGNNV disease progression in artificial infection experiments. The effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size were evaluated. Results showed that 28 °C and 20 ‰ are the optimal infection temperature and salinity, respectively, and golden pompano juveniles with small body sizes are more susceptible to RGNNV. These findings are highly consistent with those conditions involved in the natural outbreak of RGNNV.

  5. Chemical analysis of sediments and fish from the Mahoning River, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July, 1988, the Ohio Department of Health issued a swimming, wading and fish consumption advisory for the Mahoning River between Warren, Ohio and the Pennsylvania...

  6. Site-specific fish tissue mercury at four eastern North Carolina National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mercury concentrations above levels of concerns in fish tissue have prompted the North Carolina Division of Public Heath to issue a consumption advisory for several...

  7. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loid)s, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Porres, Mayra Y.; Rodríguez-Villa, Marco A.; Herrera-Peraza, Eduardo F.; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia; Montero-Cabrera, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC) in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww), respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF) for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid) concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loid)s in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat. PMID:24968208

  8. Potential Human Health Risk by Metal(loids, 234,238U and 210Po due to Consumption of Fish from the “Luis L. Leon” Reservoir (Northern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Y. Luna-Porres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn and activity concentrations from 234,238U and 210Po in water, fillet, liver and gills were determined in three stocked fish species from the Luis L. Leon reservoir, located in Northern Mexico. The considered species were Lepomis cyanellus, Cyprinus carpio and Ictalurus furcatus. 238U and 234U activity concentration (AC in fillet samples showed values of 0.007–0.014 and 0.01–0.02 Bq∙kg−1 wet weight (ww, respectively. Liver samples for L. cyanellus, C. carpio and I. furcatus present 210Po AC of 1.16–3.26, 0.70–1.13 and 0.93–1.37 Bq∙kg−1 ww. Arsenic, mercury and lead concentration intervals in fillet samples were 0.13–0.39, 0.005–0.126 and 0.009–0.08 mg∙kg−1 ww, respectively, while in gill samples they were 0.11–0.43, 0.002–0.039 and 0.02–0.26 mg∙kg−1 ww. The elemental Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF for fish tissues with respect to their concentrations in water was determined. L. cyanellus showed the highest BAF values for As and total U, being BAFAs = 37 and 40 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively, and BAFU total = 1.5 L∙kg−1 in fillet. I. furcatus showed the highest BAF values for Hg and Pb, being BAFHg = 40 and 13 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, and BAFPb = 6.5 and 22 L∙kg−1 in fillet and gills, respectively. Some metal(loid concentrations are slightly higher than European regulations for fish fillets. The difference in concentrations of metal(loids in fillet among the studied species is probably due to their differences in diet and habitat.

  9. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  10. Purification and Characterization of Aporphine Alkaloids from Leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn and Their Effects on Glucose Consumption in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjun Ma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn are substances of great interest because of their important pharmacological activities, particularly anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidant, and anti-HIV’s activities. In order to produce large amounts of pure alkaloid for research purposes, a novel method using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was developed. Without any initial cleanup steps, four main aporphine alkaloids, including 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine, pronuciferine, nuciferine and roemerine were successfully purified from the crude extract by HSCCC in one step. The separation was performed with a simple two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-acetonitrile-water (5:3:3:2.5:5, v/v/v/v/v. In each operation, 100 mg crude extracts was separated and yielded 6.3 mg of 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine (95.1% purity, 1.1 mg of pronuciferine (96.8% purity, 8.5 mg of nuciferine (98.9% purity, and 2.7 mg of roemerine (97.4% respectively. The chemical structure of four aporphine alkaloids are identified by means of electrospray ionization MS (ESI-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. Moreover, the effects of four separated aporphine alkaloids on insulin-stimulated glucose consumption were examined in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results showed that 2-hydroxy-1-methoxyaporphine and pronuciferine increased the glucose consumption significantly as rosiglitazone did.

  11. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  12. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  15. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  16. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  17. Effectiveness of annealing blocking primers versus restriction enzymes for characterization of generalist diets: unexpected prey revealed in the gut contents of two coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Matthieu; Agudelo, Natalia; Mills, Suzanne C; Meyer, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of predator-prey interactions is challenging as researchers have to rely on indirect methods that can be costly, biased and too imprecise to elucidate the complexity of food webs. DNA amplification and sequencing techniques of gut and fecal contents are promising approaches, but their success largely depends on the ability to amplify the taxonomic array of prey consumed and then match prey amplicons with reference sequences. When little a priori information on diet is available or a generalist predator is targeted, versatile primer sets (also referred to as universal or general primers) as opposed to group- or species-specific primer sets are the most powerful to unveil the full range of prey consumed. However, versatile primers are likely to preferentially amplify the predominant, less degraded predator DNA if no manipulation is performed to exclude this confounding DNA template. In this study we compare two approaches that eliminate the confounding predator template: restriction digestion and the use of annealing blocking primers. First, we use a preliminary DNA barcode library provided by the Moorea BIOCODE project to 1) evaluate the cutting frequency of commercially available restriction enzymes and 2) design predator specific annealing blocking primers. We then compare the performance of the two predator removal strategies for the detection of prey templates using two versatile primer sets from the gut contents of two generalist coral reef fish species sampled in Moorea. Our study demonstrates that blocking primers should be preferentially used over restriction digestion for predator DNA removal as they recover greater prey diversity. We also emphasize that a combination of versatile primers may be required to best represent the breadth of a generalist's diet.

  18. Characterization of three Bacillus cereus strains involved in a major outbreak of food poisoning after consumption of fermented black beans (Douchi) in Yunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoping; Bester, Kai; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zushun; Jiang, Rongrong; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    2014-10-01

    Three Bacillus cereus strains isolated from an outbreak of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fermented black beans (douchi) containing B. cereus is described. The outbreak involved 139 persons who had nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The strains were isolated from vomit and the unprepared douchi. Two of the strains produced the emetic toxin cereulide, as evidenced by polymerase chain reaction analysis for the presence of the nonribosomal synthetase cluster responsible for the synthesis of cereulide and by chemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These two strains belong to genetic group III of B. cereus, and multiple locus sequence typing revealed that the type was ST26, as a major part of B. cereus emetic strains. One of these strains produced significantly more cereulide at 37°C than the type cereulide producer (F4810/72), and it was also able to produce the toxin at 40°C and 42°C. The third strain belongs to genetic group IV, and it is a new multiple locus sequence type closely related to strains that are cytotoxic and enterotoxigenic. It possesses genes for hemolysin BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, and cytotoxin K2; however, it varies from the majority of strains possessing genes for hemolysin BL by not being hemolytic. Thus, two B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin cereulide and a strain producing enterotoxins might have been involved in this food-poisoning incident caused by the consumption of a natural fermented food. The ability of one of the strains to produce cereulide at ≥37°C makes it possible that it is produced in the human gut in addition to occurring in the food.

  19. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were a