WorldWideScience

Sample records for characterize environmental exposures

  1. Biomarkers of environmental benzene exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisel, C.; Yu, R.; Roy, A.; Georgopoulos, P. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Environmental exposures to benzene result in increases in body burden that are reflected in various biomarkers of exposure, including benzene in exhaled breath, benzene in blood and urinary trans-trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. A review of the literature indicates that these biomarkers can be used to distinguish populations with different levels of exposure (such as smokers from nonsmokers and occupationally exposed from environmentally exposed populations) and to determine differences in metabolism. Biomarkers in humans have shown that the percentage of benzene metabolized by the ring-opening pathway is greater at environmental exposures than that at higher occupational exposures, a trend similar to that found in animal studies. This suggests that the dose-response curve is nonlinear; that potential different metabolic mechanisms exist at high and low doses; and that the validity of a linear extrapolation of adverse effects measured at high doses to a population exposed to lower, environmental levels of benzene is uncertain. Time-series measurements of the biomarker, exhaled breath, were used to evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Biases were identified between the PBPK model predictions and experimental data that were adequately described using an empirical compartmental model. It is suggested that a mapping of the PBPK model to a compartmental model can be done to optimize the parameters in the PBPK model to provide a future framework for developing a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  3. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  4. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  5. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    =33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite...

  6. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  8. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm is one of the most rapidly expanding areas of biomedical research. Environmental stressors that can impact on DOHaD encompass a variety of environmental and occupational hazards as well as deficiency and oversupply of nutrients...... for research and public health action. The conference highlighted vulnerable exposure windows that can occur as early as the preconception period and epigenetics as a major mechanism than can lead to disadvantageous "reprogramming" of the genome, thereby potentially resulting in transgenerational effects. Stem...... cells can also be targets of environmental stressors, thus paving another way for effects that may last a lifetime. Current testing paradigms do not allow proper characterization of risk factors and their interactions. Thus, relevant exposure levels and combinations for testing must be identified from...

  9. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-7B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Moore, Chip; Norwood, Joseph K.; Henrie, Ben; DeGroh, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the 18-month environmental exposure for Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE-7B) ram and wake sides. This includes atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, meteoroid/space debris impacts, and observed contamination. Atomic oxygen fluence was determined by measured mass and thickness loss of polymers of known reactivity. Diodes sensitive to ultraviolet light actively measured solar radiation incident on the experiment. Comparisons to earlier MISSE flights are discussed.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-04-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health.

  11. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  12. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  13. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  14. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  15. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  16. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  17. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  18. Isopropanol exposure : environmental and biological monitoring in a printing works

    OpenAIRE

    Brugnone, F; Perbellini, L; Apostoli, P.; Bellomi, M; Caretta, D.

    1983-01-01

    Occupational exposure to isopropanol was studied in 12 workers by testing environmental air, alveolar air, venous blood, and urine during their work shift. Isopropanol, which ranged in environmental air between 7 and 645 mg/m3, was detected in alveolar air, where it ranged between 4 and 437 mg/m3, but not in blood or in urine. Alveolar isopropanol concentration (Ca) was significantly correlated with environmental isopropanol concentration (Ci) at any time of exposure. The value of the arithme...

  19. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and Metabolic Changes in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Karin; Howard, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other forms of metabolic disease have been rising over the past several decades. Although diet and physical activity play important roles in these trends, other environmental factors also may contribute to this significant public health issue. In this article, we discuss the possibility that widespread exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to the development of metabolic diseases in children. We summarize the epidemiological evidence on exposure to environmental chemicals during early development and metabolic outcomes in infants and children. Prenatal exposure to EDCs, particularly the persistent organic pollutant DDT and its metabolite DDE, may influence growth patterns during infancy and childhood. The altered growth patterns associated with EDCs vary according to exposure level, sex, exposure timing, pubertal status, and age at which growth is measured. Early exposure to air pollutants also is linked to impaired metabolism in infants and children. As a result of these and other studies, professional health provider societies have called for a reduction in environmental chemical exposures. We summarize the resources available to health care providers to counsel patients on how to reduce chemical exposures. We conclude with a discussion of environmental policies that address chemical exposures and ultimately aim to improve public health.

  20. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D

    2010-07-01

    Human exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have received increased attention in recent years due to the documentation of widespread exposure to a number of EDCs among the general population, experimental data demonstrating endocrine-related effects on reproduction, development, metabolism, and cancer, and observations for increasing trends (as well as geographic trends) in endocrine-related disorders among populations. However, human studies of exposure to most environmental EDCs in relation to adverse health outcomes remain limited. This review focuses on the human data generated to date on the relationship between exposures to environmental EDCs and men's health. The agents discussed here, which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were chosen based on their exposure prevalence and the presence of existing human data in studies of male reproductive health, altered reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, and endocrine-related cancers. Taken together, the epidemiologic data on the environmental EDCs suggest that there may be associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes in men. However, the limited human data, and in many instances inconsistent data across studies, highlight the need for further research on these chemicals. Future longitudinal molecular epidemiology studies with appropriately designed exposure assessments are needed to determine potential causal relationships, to identify the most important time windows/life stages of exposure, and to define individual susceptibility factors for adverse effects on men's health in response to exposure.

  1. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  2. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  3. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  4. Linking Early Environmental Exposures to Adult Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arise during fetal development from disruptions in the dynamic but still poorly understood interplay of genes, environment ... of Environmental Health Sciences, please go to our website at : http: / / www. niehs. nih. gov/

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Hormonally active environmental agents recently have been associated with the development of endometriosis. METHODS: We undertook a study to assess the relation between endometriosis, an estrogen dependent gynecologic disease, and 62 individual polychlorinated biphe...

  6. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.;

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...

  7. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  8. Susceptibility of human populations to environmental exposure to organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undeman, Emma; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; McLachlan, Michael S

    2010-08-15

    Environmental exposure to organic contaminants is a complex function of environmental conditions, food chain characteristics, and chemical properties. In this study the susceptibility of various human populations to environmental exposure to neutral organic contaminants was compared. An environmental fate model and a linked bioaccumulation model were parametrized to describe ecosystems in different climatic regions (temperate, arctic, tropical, and steppe). The human body burden resulting from constant emissions of hypothetical chemicals was estimated for each region. An exposure susceptibility index was defined as the body burden in the region of interest normalized to the burden of the same chemical in a reference human from the temperate region eating an average diet. For most persistent chemicals emitted to air, the Arctic had the highest susceptibility index (max 520). Susceptibility to exposure was largely determined by the food web properties. The properties of the physical environment only had a marked effect when air or water, not food, was the dominant source of human exposure. Shifting the mode of emission markedly changed the relative susceptibility of the ecosystems in some cases. The exposure arising from chemical use clearly varies between ecosystems, which makes an understanding of ecosystem susceptibility to exposure important for chemicals management.

  9. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M;

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... microl plasma. Information was obtained on the number of days with ETS exposure during the first year of life, the smoking habits of the parents, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the home. All three parentally reported indices of ETS exposure were significantly associated...

  10. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-17

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Fetal exposure to environmental neurotoxins in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Bin Jiang

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and arsenic (As are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively. Maternal age (≥30 y, maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted.

  12. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-3 and MISSE-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Pippin, Gary; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Describes the estimated environmental exposure for MISSE-2 and MISSE-4. These test beds, attached to the outside of the International Space Station, were planned for 3 years of exposure. This was changed to 1 year after MISSE-1 and -2 were in space for 4 years. MISSE-3 and -4 operate in a low Earth orbit space environment, which exposes them to a variety of assaults including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and meteoroid/space debris impact, as well as contamination associated with proximity to an active space station. Measurements and determinations of atomic oxygen fluences, solar UV exposure levels, molecular contamination levels, and particulate radiation are included.

  13. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine−1. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI (−0.32, −0.02. Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03, percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23, as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  14. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk.

  15. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step f...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  17. Environmental exposure to asbestos and the exposure-response relationship with mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M T; El Bokhary, M S; Awad Allah, H I; Awad, A A; Mahmoud, H F

    2009-01-01

    An epidemiological and environmental study was carried out in Shubra El-Kheima city, greater Cairo, of the exposure-response relationship between asbestos and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Radiological screening was done for 487 people occupationally exposed to asbestos, 2913 environmentally exposed to asbestos and a control group of 979 with no history of exposure. Pleural biopsy was done for suspicious cases. The airborne asbestos fibre concentrations were determined in all areas. There were 88 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed, 87 in the exposed group. The risk of mesothelioma was higher in the environmentally exposed group than other groups, and higher in females than males. The prevalence of mesothelioma increased with increased cumulative exposure to asbestos.

  18. Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Amanpreet S; Tarbutton, G Lester; Levin, Jeffrey L; Plotkin, George M; Lowry, Larry K; Nalbone, J Torey; Shepherd, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products, including organic pesticides such as rotenone with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9; 95% CI = 2.5-48.0) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.9-34.3). Use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.02-3.8), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1; 95% CI = 1.1-23.6), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 1.03-10.3) were also associated with significantly increased risk. A trend of increased PD risk was observed with work history in paper/lumber mill (OR = 6.35; 95% CI = 0.7-51.8), exposure to cadmium (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 0.6-44.9), exposure to paraquat (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 0.4-31.6), and insecticide applications to farm animals/animal areas and agricultural processes (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 0.5-38.1). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.

  19. Characterizing Aerosolized Particulate As Part Of A Nanoprocess Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovic, John Timothy [ORNL; Ogle, Burton R [ORNL; Zontek, Tracy L [ORNL; Hollenbeck, Scott M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to propose important aerosol characterization parameters that should be gathered as part of a nanomaterial hazard assessment and to offer a methodology for applying that data to daily operations. This study documents different ways of characterizing nanoscale materials using an aerosol from a process simulation consisting of a vacuum cleaner motor operating inside an enclosure. The aerosol is composed of insoluble carbon particles plus environmental background constituents. The average air concentration is 2.76E+5 p/cm3. Size measurements of the aerosol indicate > 70% of the particulate is blade-like in shape, 50% of which have a height dimension 100 nm. In terms of an equivalent spherical diameter 0.8% of the particulate is 100 nm in size. The carbon blades are characterized as having a root-mean-square roughness of 75 nm, and average fractal dimension of 2.25. These measures: aerosol chemistry, solubility, shape and size, surface area, number concentration and size distribution are important parameters to collect for current exposure assessment and toxicology and epidemiology studies.

  20. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black

  1. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual......, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time-resolved monitors for exposure to ultrafine PM and PM(2.5,) use of GPS, as well as genomics and proteomics based biomarkers....

  2. Characterization of dioxin exposure in residents of Chapaevsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Revich, Boris; Adibi, Jennifer J; Zeilert, Vladimir; Masten, Scott A; Patterson, Donald G; Needham, Larry L; Toniolo, Paolo

    2002-11-01

    Since 1967, a chemical plant in the town of Chapaevsk (Samara province, Russia) has produced large amounts of chlorinated compounds and is suspected to be a major source of local environmental dioxin contamination. Dioxins have been detected in the local air, soil, drinking water, vegetables, and cow's milk. Human exposure to dioxins is suspected as a factor in the deteriorating local public health. In an effort to characterize nonoccupational dioxin exposure among local residents, during the summer of 1998, 24 volunteers were recruited to donate blood and to provide information about their residence, employment, demographics, medical history, and dietary habits. Selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and coplanar biphenyls were measured in blood serum samples. The mean concentration of total dioxin World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ(98)) based on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was 61.2 (range 16.4-168.1) pg/g lipid. Subjects living in close proximity to the plant (less than 5 km) had significantly higher dioxin levels (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 75.7 pg/g lipid), as compared to subjects living more than 5 km from the plant (mean WHO-TEQ(98), 44.1 pg/g lipid) (P<0.04). Comparisons of the study results with available published data indicate that average blood dioxin levels were substantially higher in Chapaevsk residents than in nonoccupationally exposed populations of other parts of Russia, Europe, and North America. Chronic exposures of such magnitude may have appreciable adverse effects on public health.

  3. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  4. Helicopter noise exposure curves for use in environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Rickley, E. J.; Bland, T. L.

    1982-11-01

    This report establishes the current (1982) FAA helicopter noise data base for use in environmental impact assessment. The report sets out assumptions, methodologies, and techniques used in arriving at noise-exposure-versus-distance relationships. Noise data are provided for 15 helicopters, including five flight regimes each: takeoff, approach, level flyover, hover in-ground-effect (HIGE) and hover out-of-ground effect (HOGE). When possible, level flyover data are presented for a variety of airspeeds. Sound exposure level (SEL) is provided for all operational modes except hover. In the case of hover operations (both HOGE and HIGE), the maximum A-Weighted Sound Level (LAM) is identified as a function of distance. The report also includes a discussion of helicopter performance characteristics required for full computer modeling of helicopter/heliport noise exposure.

  5. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  6. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  7. Is the smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke negligible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the adverse effect of passive smoking exposure among active smokers, probably due to the unproven assumption that the dose of toxic compounds that a smoker inhales by passive smoke is negligible compared to the dose inhaled by active smoke. Methods In a controlled situation of indoor active smoking, we compared daily benzo(apyrene (BaP dose, estimated to be inhaled by smokers due to the mainstream (MS of cigarettes they have smoked, to the measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS they inhaled in an indoor environment. For this aim, we re-examined our previous study on daily personal exposure to BaP of thirty newsagents, according to their smoking habits. Results Daily BaP dose due to indoor environmental contamination measured inside newsstands (traffic emission and ETS produced by smoker newsagents was linearly correlated (p = 0.001 R2 = 0.62 with estimated BaP dose from MS of daily smoked cigarettes. In smoker subjects, the percentage of BaP daily dose due to ETS, in comparison to mainstream dose due to smoked cigarettes, was estimated with 95% confidence interval, between 14.6% and 23% for full flavour cigarettes and between 21% and 34% for full flavour light cigarettes. Conclusions During indoor smoking, ETS contribution to total BaP dose of the same smoker, may be not negligible. Therefore both active and passive smoking exposures should be considered in studies about health of active smokers.

  8. polymorphisms, occupational and environmental exposures and risk of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pavanello, Sofia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Placidi, Donatella; Campagna, Marcello; Pulliero, Alessandra; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Porru, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) is a key enzyme for activation of bladder carcinogens. Polymorphisms in the 5?-noncoding promoter region of CYP1A2 gene [mainly ?2467T/delT(rs35694136) and ?163C/A(rs762551)], are crucial in modifying CYP1A2 activity in smokers. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, we investigated the relationship between CYP1A2 polymorphisms, occupational/environmental exposures and bladder cancer (BC) risk. The study population included...

  9. Disentangling the Exposure Experience: The Roles of Community Context and Report-Back of Environmental Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Crystal; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann; Zota, Ami; Dunagan, Sarah; Tovar, Jessica; Patton, Sharyle

    2011-01-01

    This article examines participants' responses to receiving their results in a study of household exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds and other pollutants. The authors study how the "exposure experience"--the embodied, personal experience and understanding of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants--is shaped by community context and…

  10. Environmental concentrations of fibers with fluoro-edenitic composition and population exposure in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Maria Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The town of Biancavilla (Sicily was included in the National Priorities List of Contaminated Sites due to environmental dispersion of amphibole fibers owing to the extraction of materials from a local quarry. The present report summarizes results from several, hitherto unpublished, environmental surveys carried out in the area, as well as from published analyses of the chemistry and composition of fibers. METHODS. Data included here comprises environmental fiber concentrations by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS analysis in soil, indoor and outdoor air, personal monitoring, as well as a chemical characterization of the fibers. The full chemical structure and spectroscopic characterization of fibers were obtained through a multi-analytical approach: SEM-EDS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, as well as Mössbauer (MS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies. RESULTS. Data analyzed provided a spatial and temporal picture of fiber concentrations in Biancavilla, and a qualitative assessment of population exposure. Results suggest that until 2000, the population had been exposed to high levels of amphibole fibers. Mitigation measures adopted since 2001, gradually reduced exposure levels to about 0.10.4 ff/l. Previous studies on fibrous amphiboles from Biancavilla reported considerable chemical variability. Differences in composition, especially concerning the presence of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na, were found both within and between samples. Compared to the previously investigated prismatic fluoro-edenite, these fibrous fluorine amphiboles consistently showed higher average values of Si and Fe content, whereas Ca was significantly lower, which we consider a distinctive characteristic of the fluorine fibrous variety. CONCLUSIONS. The population of Biancavilla had been highly exposed to a suite of fibrous amphiboles for over 50 years. Dust mitigation measures have gradually reduced exposure, but

  11. Environmental Exposure to Lead as a Risk for Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for prostate pathology in patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCA) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Blood lead (BPb) level was determined in PCA and BPH cases using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with those in a control group living in the similar socioeconomic environment. Results BPb was significantly higher in PCA and BPH cases than in normals (P<0.05). Blood levels of zinc and copper were significantly lower in PCA and BPH cases when compared with controls (P<0.05). In all the three groups, a statistically significant positive correlation between lead and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as malondialdehyde, and negative correlation between blood lead and antioxidant GSH level, indicative of possible generation of reactive oxygen species, were also observed after adjusting for age as a possible confounders. However, positive association between blood lead and TBARS was relatively higher in PCA patients (r=0.77, P<0.05) than in BPH (r=0.32, P<0.05) and normal (r=0.30, P<0.05).Conclusion These results with limited power seem to suggest for the first time that environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.

  12. Environmental exposure scenarios: development, challenges and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Andreas; Traas, Theo P

    2007-12-01

    Under the new REACH system, companies importing, producing and marketing chemical substances will be obliged to register the single substances and to carry out a safety assessment for all identified uses during the life cycle of the substance. This duty will apply to about 10,000 existing substances in the EU market exceeding an annual production or import volume of 10 t per company. If the substance is already known to be dangerous or turns out to be dangerous(1) during the hazard assessment, the registrant is obliged to carry out an exposure assessment and a risk characterisation for all identified uses. The goal of the safety assessment is to define the conditions of use that allow for adequate control of risk with regard to health and safety at the work place, consumer safety and protection of the environment. Once the registrant has established and documented these conditions in the Chemicals Safety Report (CSR), that information is to be communicated down the supply chain by means of the Extended Safety Data Sheet (eSDS). The ultimate aim of the new legislation is to establish duties and mechanisms that systematically prevent or limit exposure to dangerous industrial chemicals. The current paper explains this concept with regard to environmental exposure and highlights the challenges and possible solutions.

  13. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  14. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  15. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  16. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30tha(-1). We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρs) and envelope (ρe) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0-5nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~years) timescales.

  17. Reporting individual results for biomonitoring and environmental exposures: lessons learned from environmental communication case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Dunagan, Sarah C; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Patton, Sharyle; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-05-26

    Measurement methods for chemicals in biological and personal environmental samples have expanded rapidly and become a cornerstone of health studies and public health surveillance. These measurements raise questions about whether and how to report individual results to study participants, particularly when health effects and exposure reduction strategies are uncertain. In an era of greater public participation and open disclosure in science, researchers and institutional review boards (IRBs) need new guidance on changing norms and best practices. Drawing on the experiences of researchers, IRBs, and study participants, we discuss ethical frameworks, effective methods, and outcomes in studies that have reported personal results for a wide range of environmental chemicals. Belmont Report principles and community-based participatory research ethics imply responsibilities to report individual results, and several recent biomonitoring guidance documents call for individual reports. Meaningful report-back includes contextual information about health implications and exposure reduction strategies. Both narrative and graphs are helpful. Graphs comparing an individual's results with other participants in the study and benchmarks, such as the National Exposure Report, are helpful, but must be used carefully to avoid incorrect inferences that higher results are necessarily harmful or lower results are safe. Methods can be tailored for specific settings by involving participants and community members in planning. Participants and researchers who have participated in report-back identified benefits: increasing trust in science, retention in cohort studies, environmental health literacy, individual and community empowerment, and motivation to reduce exposures. Researchers as well as participants gained unexpected insights into the characteristics and sources of environmental contamination. Participants are almost universally eager to receive their results and do not regret getting

  18. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  19. Environmental lead exposure as a risk for childhood aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Akhtar, M J; Verma, S; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2011-01-01

    Concern about environmental lead exposure as a significant public health threat has increased as evidence has accumulated regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels. Aplastic anemia is a hematological disorder of unknown etiology with a high lethality rate. Lead is a known toxicant for the hematopoietic system. Oxidative stress appears to be the possible mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead level on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from aplastic anemia disease. Seventeen children with aplastic anemia disease (15 male and 2 female, age 3-12 y) were recruited in the study group. Fifty one healthy children (45 male and 6 female, age 3-12 y) having normal blood profiles and not suffering from any chronic disease(s) were used as controls. Blood lead level and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (p lead levels with δ-ALAD (r = -0.45; p lead induces oxidative stress in children suffering from aplastic anemia. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for aplastic anemia warrants further research.

  20. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  1. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal

  2. Relationship between lanthanide contents in aquatic turtles and environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P; Randazzo, L A; D'Angelo, S; Saiano, F; Zuddas, P; Mazzola, S; Cuttitta, A

    2013-05-01

    Trace elements released in the environment during agricultural practices can be incorporated and accumulated in biological fluids and tissues of living organisms. The assessment of these exposures were carried out investigating lanthanide distributions in blood and exoskeleton samples collected from Emys trinacris turtle specimens coming from sites with anthropogenic discharge in western and south Sicily, along migration paths of many bird species from Africa to Europe. The data show a significant (Rxy=0.72; Rxy>0.67; α=0.025) linear relationship between the size of turtle specimens and the lanthanide contents in blood lower than 0.4 μg L(-1) whereas this relationship disappears in blood with higher lanthanide contents. Comparative evaluations of normalised concentrations show that lanthanides fractionate between blood and exoskeleton inducing antithetical lanthanide patterns therein. These features are more evident in specimens with high lanthanide contents in blood, suggesting that lanthanide accumulations in the exoskeleton can represent the physiological response of E. trinacris to environmental and the further confirmation of relationship occurring between the environmental and the biological fluids.

  3. [Environmental exposure to silver and its health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-05-01

    Silver (Ag) possesses a well-known antibacterial activity and has been used for medical treatment and cosmetics such as wound dressing and deodorant powders. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed that the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for both metallic and most soluble Ag compounds should be 0.01 mg/m3. Argyria and argyrosis are known to be caused by deposition of insoluble Ag in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag have not been well characterized in mammals. Ag can be absorbed into the systemic circulation from drinking water, and also through parenteral routes such as inhalation and dermal exposure. Experimental studies have demonstrated that Ag+ induces and binds to metallothionein I and II (MTs), which are cysteine-rich proteins, in cells. MTs are major cytoplasmic metal binding proteins and thereby reduce cellular damage caused by toxic heavy metals including Ag. Profiles of Ag distribution in MTs and other Ag-binding proteins can be determined using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). This technique directly provides information on the intracellular behavior of Ag, which is important for elucidating the mechanism underlying Ag toxicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are also commercially used mainly as antimicrobial agents. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, relatively few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the health effects of AgNP exposure. In the present paper, we discuss the absorption, toxicodynamics, and metabolism of both Ag and AgNPs in mammals and their health effects.

  4. How to Determine the Environmental Exposure of PAHs Originating from Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Hilber, Isabel; Gouliarmou, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Biochars are obtained by pyrolyzing biomass materials and are increasingly used within the agricultural sector. Owing to the production process, biochars can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the high mg/kg range, which makes the determination of the environmental exposure of PAHs...... originating from biochars relevant. However, PAH sorption to biochar is characterized by very high (104–106 L/kg) or extreme distribution coefficients (KD) (>106 L/kg), which makes the determination of exposure scientifically and technically challenging. Cyclodextrin extractions, sorptive bioaccessibility...... extractions, Tenax extractions, contaminant traps, and equilibrium sampling were assessed and selected methods used for the determination of bioavailability parameters for PAHs in two model biochars. Results showed that: (1) the KD values of typically 106–109 L/kg made the biochars often act as sinks, rather...

  5. Characterization of carbon nanotube yarn after exposure to hyperthermal atomic oxygen and thermal fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, H. E.; Mall, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-yarn was evaluated for the survivability under hazardous space environmental conditions which were thermal fatigue, atomic oxygen and additive effect of these two exposures. Its tensile strength, tenacity, stiffness, strain to failure and electrical conductivity were characterized at the two extreme space temperatures of -150 and 120 °C before and after exposure to these environmental conditions. Tensile strength, stiffness and electrical conductivity of unexposed CNT yarn increased at the cryogenic temperature relative to at the elevated temperature. There was no change in the tensile properties after exposure to the space environmental conditions when measured at the elevated and cryogenic temperatures. Electrical conductivity decreased after exposure to three hazardous environments involving thermal fatigue, but it had no or small decrease when exposed to atomic oxygen only. No additive effect of thermal fatigue followed by atomic oxygen or by atomic oxygen followed by thermal fatigue environments on the CNTs' tensile properties and electrical conductivity was observed. Considering the low density 0.59 g/cc and good resistant to the extreme hazardous space environment, CNT-yarns have potential for applications in spacecraft and satellites.

  6. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, Zeughausstr. 43, 8004, Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria; Nikita, Konstantina S [Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 157 80 Athens (Greece); Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Achermann, Peter, E-mail: crespo@speag.com [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-21

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  7. Novel methodology to characterize electromagnetic exposure of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Valero, Pedro; Christopoulou, Maria; Zefferer, Marcel; Christ, Andreas; Achermann, Peter; Nikita, Konstantina S.; Kuster, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Due to the greatly non-uniform field distribution induced in brain tissues by radio frequency electromagnetic sources, the exposure of anatomical and functional regions of the brain may be a key issue in interpreting laboratory findings and epidemiological studies concerning endpoints related to the central nervous system. This paper introduces the Talairach atlas in characterization of the electromagnetic exposure of the brain. A hierarchical labeling scheme is mapped onto high-resolution human models. This procedure is fully automatic and allows identification of over a thousand different sites all over the brain. The electromagnetic absorption can then be extracted and interpreted in every region or combination of regions in the brain, depending on the characterization goals. The application examples show how this methodology enhances the dosimetry assessment of the brain based on results obtained by either finite difference time domain simulations or measurements delivered by test compliance dosimetry systems. Applications include, among others, the detailed dosimetric analysis of the exposure of the brain during cell phone use, improved design of exposure setups for human studies or medical diagnostic and therapeutic devices using electromagnetic fields or ultrasound.

  8. The association between environmental exposure to pyrethroids and sperm aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Piskunowicz, Marta; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Hawuła, Wanda; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether the environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with males sperm chromosome disomy. The study population consisted of 195 men who attended the infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 20-300×10(6) mL(-1) or slight oligozoospermia (semen concentration of 15-20×10(6) mL(-1)) (WHO, 1999). Participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA) and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analysed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm aneuploidy was assessed using multicolor FISH (DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y, 18, 13, 21). Our results showed that CDCCA >50th percentile was associated with disomy of chromosome 18 (p=0.05) whereas the level of TDCCA in urine >50th percentile was related to XY disomy (p=0.04) and disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.05). Urinary 3PBA level ⩽50 and >50 percentile was related to disomy of sex chromosomes: XY disomy (p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively), Y disomy (p=0.04 and 0.02 respectively), disomy of chromosome 21 (p=0.04 and p=0.04 respectively) and total disomy (p=0.03 and p=0.04 respectively). Additionally disomy of chromosome 18 was positively associated with urinary level of 3PBA >50 percentile (p=0.03). The results reported here are found that pyrethroids may be a sperm aneugens. These findings may be of concern due to increased pyrethroid use and prevalent human exposure.

  9. Characterization of α-cypermethrin Exposure in Egyptian Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37)...

  10. Environmental risk assessment of GE plants under low-exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew; Devos, Yann; Raybould, Alan; Bigelow, Patrick; Gray, Alan

    2014-12-01

    The requirement for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically engineered (GE) plants prior to large scale or commercial introduction into the environment is well established in national laws and regulations, as well as in international agreements. Since the first introductions of GE plants in commercial agriculture in the 1990s, a nearly universal paradigm has emerged for conducting these assessments based on a few guiding principles. These include the concept of case-by-case assessment, the use of comparative assessments, and a focus of the ERA on characteristics of the plant, the introduced trait, and the receiving environment as well as the intended use. In practice, however, ERAs for GE plants have frequently focused on achieving highly detailed characterizations of potential hazards at the expense of consideration of the relevant levels of exposure. This emphasis on exhaustive hazard characterization can lead to great difficulties when applied to ERA for GE plants under low-exposure conditions. This paper presents some relevant considerations for conducting an ERA for a GE plant in a low-exposure scenario in the context of the generalized ERA paradigm, building on discussions and case studies presented during a session at ISBGMO 12.

  11. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  12. The genome as a record of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Kucab, Jill E; Morganella, Sandro; Glodzik, Dominik; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Arlt, Volker M; Weninger, Annette; Hollstein, Monica; Stratton, Michael R; Phillips, David H

    2015-11-01

    Whole genome sequencing of human tumours has revealed distinct patterns of mutation that hint at the causative origins of cancer. Experimental investigations of the mutations and mutation spectra induced by environmental mutagens have traditionally focused on single genes. With the advent of faster cheaper sequencing platforms, it is now possible to assess mutation spectra in experimental models across the whole genome. As a proof of principle, we have examined the whole genome mutation profiles of mouse embryo fibroblasts immortalised following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), ultraviolet light (UV) and aristolochic acid (AA). The results reveal that each mutagen induces a characteristic mutation signature: predominantly G→T mutations for BaP, C→T and CC→TT for UV and A→T for AA. The data are not only consistent with existing knowledge but also provide additional information at higher levels of genomic organisation. The approach holds promise for identifying agents responsible for mutations in human tumours and for shedding light on the aetiology of human cancer.

  13. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  14. Characterization of α-cypermethrin exposure in Egyptian agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Steven T; Lein, Pamela J; Farahat, Fayssal M; Farahat, Taghreed; Bonner, Matthew R; Knaak, James B; Olson, James R

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides that exert their effects by prolonging the open time of sodium channels, which increases the duration of neuronal excitation. α-cypermethrin (αCM) is derived from the 8-stereoisomers that together make up the pyrethroid cypermethrin, which is one of the most common pyrethroids being used in agriculture throughout the world. The objective of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure to αCM in a cohort of Egyptian agriculture workers (n=37) before, during and after 6-10 consecutive days of application of αCM to cotton fields. Daily spot urine specimens were collected and analyzed by GC-MS NCI for the αCM metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and cis-3-(2',2'-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA). Prior to αCM application, median urinary levels of 3-PBA (4.59nmol/g creatinine) were greater than cis-DCCA (0.33nmole/g creatinine) demonstrating low background exposures to pyrethroids. During the application period for αCM, median urinary levels of both biomarkers increased (13.44nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 7.76nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine) and ranged from 2.3-93.96nmol 3-PBA/g creatinine and 0.09-90.94nmol cis-DCCA/g creatinine, demonstrating that workers had a wide range of exposures to αCM. The data also demonstrate that pesticide applicators had greater exposures to αCM than workers who play a supporting role in the seasonal application of pesticides on the cotton crop. Urinary cis-DCCA and 3-PBA concentrations were elevated at 7-11 days after the cessation of αCM application, compared to baseline levels. This study is the first to use these biomarkers to quantify occupational exposures specifically to αCM. This urinary biomarker data will be useful for estimating daily internal dose, comparing exposures across job categories within the Egyptian pesticide application teams, and for modeling human exposures to αCM.

  15. Environmental lithium exposure in the north of Chile - Tissue exposure indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo T. Figueroa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: northern Chile has the highest levels of lithium in surface waters in the world which is reflected in very high lithium levels in the plants and animals that depend on these water systems and consequently in the indigenous population.Methods: the lithium tissue burdens in populations from two valleys in the extreme north of Chile have been studied. The bulk of this report is based on analyses of lithium levels in urine, hair, and breast milk in the population of several villages. Data on serum levels, some of which had been previously published, are included for the sake of completeness. Since this paper reports studies by several groups of workers samples were analysed by a variety of methods. These include atomic emission, atomic absorption, other photospectroscopic techniques and mass spectroscopy.Results: in all samples studied the average lithium level (5.3 ppm was found to be significantly elevated compared to levels reported in the literature and measured in this study for people not exposed to high levels in water and food (0.009-0.228 ppm.Conclusions: the people studied represent a unique longitudinal cohort. The work should provide important insights into the potential neuroprotective effects of lithium also help us set guidelines to assess the risks from high dose environmental exposure.

  16. Environmental exposures, lung function, and respiratory health in rural Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jaime R; Somsamouth, Khamphithoune; Mounivong, Boualoy; Sinclair, Ryan; Soret, Sam; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2014-01-01

    Although the individual contributions of smoked tobacco and indoor air pollution have been identified, there are very few studies that have characterized and measured the effects of inhaled particles from a wide range of personal, household, and community practices common in rural Asia. The objective of our study was to examine the association between environmental inhaled exposures and lung function among rural males of Lao PDR. In a sample of 92 males from rural Lao PDR, study subjects completed a survey on household exposures, a physical exam, and the following measures of lung function: FEV1, FVC, and the ratio of FEV1/FVC. Our findings were as follows: a) > 80% of the subjects were exposed to indoor cooking fires (wood fuel), animal handling, dust and dirt; b) 57.6% of subjects were in the impaired range (FEV1/FVC dust/dirt, smoke) and a high prevalence of impaired lung function. Findings from this pilot study indicate that associations between exposure to multiple sources of particulate matter common in rural areas and lung function need further investigation.

  17. Utility of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth for Estimating PM2.5 Exposure in Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Rickman, Doug; Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maury; Adeniyi, Kafayat; Qualters, Judith; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(2.5)) HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM(2.5) concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. From 1999-2000 there were over 9,400 hospitalizations per year in Georgia with asthma as the primary diagnosis. The majority of these hospitalizations occurred in medical facilities in the five most populous Metro-Atlanta counties. Hospital charges resulting from asthma in Georgia are approximately $59 million dollars annually. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of asphalt (bitumen) paving exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D; Meeker, John D; Zwack, Leonard; Hanley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the physical and chemical properties of asphalt (bitumen) fume and vapor in hot mix asphalt roadway paving operations. Area and personal air samples were taken using real-time equipment and extractive sampling and analytical methods to determine worker asphalt exposure, as well as to characterize the properties of the particulate and vapor phase components. Analysis of personal inhalation and dermal samples by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy showed that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile is dominated by compounds with molecular weights below 228, and that substituted and heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised approximately 71% of the detectable mass concentration (vapor and particulate combined). Principal components analysis shows that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights greater than 190 are the driving force behind the polycyclic aromatic compound exposures measured for the dermal and particulate phases; there was no clear trend for the vapor phase Most of the aerosol particles are fine (mass median aerodynamic diameter 1.02 microm; count median diameter 0.24 microm).

  19. A Review of the Field on Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child’s body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children’s unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children’s environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children’s environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children’s exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children’s activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children’s exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in

  20. A Review of the Field on Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child’s body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children’s unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children’s environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children’s environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children’s exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children’s activity patterns and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children’s exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and

  1. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  2. A Course on Multimedia Environmental Transport, Exposure, and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yoram; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Included are the general guidelines, outline, a summary of major intermedia transport processes, model features, a discussion of multimedia exposure and health risk, and a list of 50 suggested references for this course. (CW)

  3. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyn@unb.ca [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify proteins with altered abundance in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low-level exposure to17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}), and (2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE{sub 2}/L for 48 h showed decreased plasma E{sub 2} levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE{sub 2} exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE{sub 2} including microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. Mapt showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE{sub 2} exposure{sub ,} suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decreased mRNA transcription with increasing Mapt protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE{sub 2} can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long-term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E{sub 2} feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology.

  4. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  5. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms: The confounding effect of concurrent environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines wind turbines and agricultural odor exposure, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and symptoms and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. Isolated associations reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias.

  6. Characterization of changes in gene expression and biochemical pathways at low levels of benzene exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Thomas

    Full Text Available Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Recently, through transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, we reported dose-dependent effects of benzene exposure on gene expression and biochemical pathways in 83 workers exposed across four airborne concentration ranges (from 10 ppm compared with 42 subjects with non-workplace ambient exposure levels. Here, we further characterize these dose-dependent effects with continuous benzene exposure in all 125 study subjects. We estimated air benzene exposure levels in the 42 environmentally-exposed subjects from their unmetabolized urinary benzene levels. We used a novel non-parametric, data-adaptive model selection method to estimate the change with dose in the expression of each gene. We describe non-parametric approaches to model pathway responses and used these to estimate the dose responses of the AML pathway and 4 other pathways of interest. The response patterns of majority of genes as captured by mean estimates of the first and second principal components of the dose-response for the five pathways and the profiles of 6 AML pathway response-representative genes (identified by clustering exhibited similar apparent supra-linear responses. Responses at or below 0.1 ppm benzene were observed for altered expression of AML pathway genes and CYP2E1. Together, these data show that benzene alters disease-relevant pathways and genes in a dose-dependent manner, with effects apparent at doses as low as 100 ppb in air. Studies with extensive exposure assessment of subjects exposed in the low-dose range between 10 ppb and 1 ppm are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  8. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  9. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Botton, Jérémie; Chévrier, Cecile; Cordier, Sylvaine; Heinrich, Joachim; Hohmann, Cynthia; Keil, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Tischer, Christina G; Toft, Gunnar; Wickman, Magnus; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2013-01-23

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N=33), outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27). Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners for a specific research

  10. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  11. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  12. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  13. Dietary and Environmental Exposure to Cadmium and the Risk of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We estimated potential environmental exposure to Cd at the participants’ geocoded residences in 2000 using a geographic information system ( GIS ) and...Total = 6,970 Keywords: cadmium, biomarkers, diet, exposure science, GIS Abbreviations: AADT = annual average daily traffic Cd = cadmium CTS...California Teachers Study FFQ = food frequency questionnaire GIS = geographic information system GM = geometric mean LOD = limit of detection R2

  14. The Development of Testing Methods for Characterizing Emissions and Sources of Exposures from Polyurethane Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures is not well understood. Currently, no comprehensive standard test methods exist for characterizing and quantifying product emissions. Exposures to diisocyanate compoun...

  15. Quantifying Exposure and Risk Disproportionality in Environmental Justice Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disproportionate risk suggests a predisposition within an individual or population to be either differentially exposed or affected by a given stressor or combination of stressors, which are especially prevalent in Environmental Justice (EJ) communities. Research gaps remain in ac...

  16. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  17. Environmental Fate and Exposure Assessment for Arsenic in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    groundwater. Geology 32 (11):953-956. Lackovic, J. A., N. P. Nikolaidis, and G. M. Dobbs. 2000. Inorganic arsenic removal by zero- valent iron...from Bangladesh tube well water with filter columns containing zerovalent iron filings and sand. Environmental Science & Technology 39 (20):8032...aquifer sands from Araihazar, Bangladesh . Environmental Science & Technology 41 (10):3639-3645. Reisinger, H. J., D. R. Burris, and J. G. Hering. 2005

  18. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  19. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  20. Evaluating environmental modeling and sampling data with biomarker data to identify sources and routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals results from multiple sources, environmental media, and exposure routes. Ideally, modeled exposures should be compared to biomonitoring data. This study compares the magnitude and variation of modeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures resulting from emissions to outdoor and indoor air and estimated exposure inferred from biomarker levels. Outdoor emissions result in both inhalation and food-based exposures. We modeled PAH intake doses using U.S. EPA's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) county-level emissions data for outdoor inhalation, the CalTOX model for food ingestion (based on NATA emissions), and indoor air concentrations from field studies for indoor inhalation. We then compared the modeled intake with the measured urine levels of hydroxy-PAH metabolites from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey as quantifiable human intake of PAH parent-compounds. Lognormal probability plots of modeled intakes and estimated intakes inferred from biomarkers suggest that a primary route of exposure to naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene for the U.S. population is likely inhalation from indoor sources. For benzo(a)pyrene, the predominant exposure route is likely from food ingestion resulting from multi-pathway transport and bioaccumulation due to outdoor emissions. Multiple routes of exposure are important for pyrene. We also considered the sensitivity of the predicted exposure to the proportion of the total naphthalene production volume emitted to the indoor environment. The comparison of PAH biomarkers with exposure variability estimated from models and sample data for various exposure pathways supports that both indoor and outdoor models are needed to capture the sources and routes of exposure to environmental contaminants.

  1. Role of Metabolomics in Environmental Chemical Exposure and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand for the reduction, replacement, and refinement of the use of animal models in exposure assessments has stimulated the pursuit of alternative methods. This has included not only the use of the in vitro systems (e.g., cell cultures) in lieu of in vivo whole an...

  2. Exposure to multiple environmental agents and their effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppe, Janna G.; Bartonova, Alena; Bolte, Gabriele; Bistrup, Marie Louise; Busby, Chris; Butter, Maureen; Dorfman, Paul; Fucic, Aleksandra; Gee, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Howard, Vyvyan; Kohlhuber, Martina; Leijs, Marike; Lundqvist, Christofer; Moshammer, Hanns; Naginiene, Rima; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Ronchetti, Roberto; Salines, Georges; Schoeters, Greet; ten Tusscher, Gavin; Wallis, Max K.; Zuurbier, Moniek

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: All children are exposed to multiple physical, chemical and biological challanges that can result in adverse health effects before and after birth. In this context, the danger of multiple exposures cannot be assessed from a single-chemical approach as used in classical toxicology. Aim:

  3. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  4. Are Healthcare Providers Asking about Environmental Exposures? A Community-Based Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Zierold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People living near environmental hazards may develop symptoms and health conditions that require specialized monitoring and treatment by healthcare providers. One emerging environmental hazard is coal ash. Coal ash is comprised of small particles containing heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive elements. The overall purpose of this study was to explore whether healthcare providers ask patients if they live near an environmental hazard like coal ash storage sites and to assess what health conditions prompt a provider inquiry. Focus groups were conducted in 2012 and a cross-sectional survey was administered in 2013. Overall, 61% of survey respondents reported that their healthcare providers never asked if they lived near an environmental hazard. One focus group member stated “No, they don’t ask that. They just always blame stuff on you….” Respondents with asthma and other lung conditions were significantly more likely to be asked by a healthcare provider if they lived near an environmental hazard. Due to the unique exposures from environmental hazards and the low prevalence of patients being asked about environmental hazards, we recommend that healthcare providers take environmental health histories in order to understand patients’ exposures, to monitor symptoms of exposure, and to assist with education about reducing exposure.

  5. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns : where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, HJAM; Maas, T; Dompeling, E; Pisters, J; Sijbrandij, J; van der Heide, S; van Weel, C; van Schayck, OP

    2003-01-01

    Background: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  6. Environmental exposure reduction in high-risk newborns: where do we start?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönberger, H.J.A.M.; Maas, T.; Dompeling, E.C.; Pisters, J.; Sijbrandij, J.; Heide, S. van der; Knottnerus, J.A.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When analyzing the effect of environmental exposure reduction measures on asthma in high-risk children, one must know how far asthmatic families already have applied such measures, because this would affect the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions aimed at reducing environmental

  7. Medicine students and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szumska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although medicine students express positive attitudes toward providing lifestyle counseling, they require more instruction in many areas of health behavior in order to be helpful to their patients. The presented study included the students' questionnaires analysis regarding their lifestyle and exposure to tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to examine students' exposure to chosen xenobiotics by determination of selected biomarkers in urine samples, which underlay the basis for exposure assessment towards tobacco smoke. Materials and Methods: The investigated group consisted of first- and second-year medicine students from the Silesian Medical University (N = 133. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey was compared with the results of chosen biomarkers determined in urine samples. The analyses of the main nicotine metabolites were carried out firstly with use of ELISA, followed by the TLC technique with densitometry. Results: According to questionnaires, every third student examined was exposed to passive smoking. The mean concentration of the main nicotine metabolites determined by ELISA in urine samples of smoking students was 1293.52±396.70 μg/g creatinine. The results of the TLC analysis in the group of smoking students were as follows: for cotinine - 523.10±68.10 μg/g creatinine and for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine - 653.81±62.30 μg/g creatinine. Conclusions: Medicine students, regardless of their area of study, are a highly-exposed part of the population to tobacco smoke, not only actively but also passively. Tobacco smoke exposure can be assessed by ELISA as a screening method as well as by more specific TLC technique with densitometry.

  8. Adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy: teratology in adolescent medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, Laurie H

    2002-06-01

    A teratogen is any drug, chemical, infectious or physical agent, or maternal disease or altered metabolic state that causes a structural or functional disability by acting on the embryo or fetus. Teratogens are responsible for approximately 10% of all human birth defects. Education of physicians caring for children and adolescents in the basic principles of teratology, the spectrum of human teratogens, and the recognition of associated anomalies is essential, because many maternal exposures and resultant fetal defects are completely preventable.

  9. Identification of a chemical marker of environmental exposure to formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, E.; Gasparini, S.; Gilli, G. [Univ. of Turin, (Italy). Dept. of Public Health and Microbiology

    1999-02-01

    Formaldehyde (F) binds human serum albumin (HSA) covalently, giving rise to a molecular adduct F-HSA having the F as hapten. The humoral immune response to the adduct provides a biological marker of F exposure. In order to titrate serum anti-F-HSA antibodies, a new indirect competitive enzyme immunoassay was developed. Two groups of about 90 heterogeneous healthy subjects were examined using two in vitro conjugated F-HSA. Contingency table analysis showed a greater sensitivity and specificity of the test with the 10:1 F-HSA adduct than with the 5:1. Data examination using multivariate analysis of variance revealed that in both groups the smoking variable significantly explains the values of the F exposure marker. A significant association with immunological response was obtained only in male smokers, using 5:1 F-HSA adduct, while with 10:1 ratio, a good association in male and female smokers was found. Results confirm that the immunological assay developed could be a useful method for evaluating F exposure, especially for public health monitoring on a large scale.

  10. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  11. Listed waste determination report. Environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P & Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application.

  12. Knowledge assistant for robotic environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Rivera, J.; Tucker, S.; Matek, J.

    1996-08-01

    A prototype sensor fusion framework called the {open_quotes}Knowledge Assistant{close_quotes} has been developed and tested on a gantry robot at Sandia National Laboratories. This Knowledge Assistant guides the robot operator during the planning, execution, and post analysis stages of the characterization process. During the planning stage, the Knowledge Assistant suggests robot paths and speeds based on knowledge of sensors available and their physical characteristics. During execution, the Knowledge Assistant coordinates the collection of data through a data acquisition {open_quotes}specialist.{close_quotes} During execution and postanalysis, the Knowledge Assistant sends raw data to other {open_quotes}specialists,{close_quotes} which include statistical pattern recognition software, a neural network, and model-based search software. After the specialists return their results, the Knowledge Assistant consolidates the information and returns a report to the robot control system where the sensed objects and their attributes (e.g., estimated dimensions, weight, material composition, etc.) are displayed in the world model. This report highlights the major components of this system.

  13. Characterization of sublethal microcystin-LR exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R E; Solter, P F

    2002-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a potent hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The histology of acute lethal toxicity has been well characterized, but histology is limited regarding sublethal exposure. Balb/C mice were given a single sublethal dose of MCLR (45 microg/kg) and euthanized at 2, 4, 12, and 24 hours after exposure. Centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular hypertrophy with loss of cytosolic vacuolation consistent with glycogen depletion occurred at 2 hours. At 4 hours, central lobular hepatocytes exhibited eccentric areas of eosinophilic cytoplasmic condensation that were partially aggregated around the outer nuclear membrane. The areas were weakly positive for cytokeratin and somewhat resembled the Mallory bodies of alcoholic human hepatitis. Small numbers of apoptotic hepatocytes were seen at 24 hours. The toxin was detectable by immunohistochemistry (IHC) as early as 2 hours and was colocalized with the areas of hepatocellular hypertrophy. Intense nuclear staining occurred at 4 hours; this was no longer evident after 12 hours. Strong staining of apoptotic bodies occurred at 24 hours. Mice that received two daily doses had a marked increase in apoptotic hepatocytes in the centrilobular areas. Lesions at four and seven doses consisted of marked hepatocytomegaly and karyomegaly with parenchymal disarray and cytosolic vacuolation. IHC revealed diffuse staining throughout the liver parenchyma consistent with toxin accumulation. An anti-MCLR monoclonal antibody detected bands at the 40-kDa mark in nuclear extracts that were identified as protein phosphatases 1 and 2A by western blotting, consistent with a covalent interaction between MCLR and nuclear protein phosphatases.

  14. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the curr

  15. Environmental Hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enrolled...

  16. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  17. Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Duffy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP. Objective. The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS, which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS, which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems. Design. This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined with a two-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test in SAS (n=325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist. Results. The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems. Conclusion. Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional

  18. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN RICKSHAW DRIVERS: Occupational Exposure to Environmental Stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam. Nabi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In urban environment, exposure to the emission of motor vehicles is common. In urban peoples it is a very difficult task to distinguish among peoples with different grades of momentous period exposure to such pollutants. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat on the reproductive health of rickshaw drivers. Methods: Adult married male individuals were recruited randomly in the study from Btkhella, Malakand agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two groups were made, control (n=45 and rickshaw drivers (n=50. A special questionnaire was designed about occupational activities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. From both groups 5 mL of the blood was collected and was analyze for serum total testosterone and cortisol using Biocheck (USA and Antibodies-online GmbH (Germany kits. Results: In control group the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 657.6±16.84 ng/dl and cortisol was 443.8±14.67 mU/L. In rickshaw drivers the Mean±SEM of total serum testosterone was 577.1±11.42 ng/dl and cortisol was 595.1±8.879mU/L. In rickshaw drivers there was a significant reduction in total serum testosterone (P0.0002 but a significant increase in serum cortisol level (P < 0.0001 at 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: Reproductive health problems like decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, absent morning and nocturnal erection, ejaculatory problems, primary infertility and secondary infertility were prevalent in rickshaw drivers but, no such problems were found in control group. Chronic exposure to pollutants such as diesel exhaust, gasoline emission, Particulate Matter (PM noise and heat negatively regulate Hypothalmo-Pituitary Gonadal axis (HPG leading  to reproductive problems.

  19. Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John

    2013-01-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical envir...

  20. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased respiratory disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protects the lung against tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure is associated with changes in airway AAT concentration and whether...... this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic...... arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium...

  1. Malignant mesothelioma after environmental exposure to blue asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; de Klerk, N H; Eccles, J L; Musk, A W; Hobbs, M S

    1993-06-19

    To determine the magnitude of the population at risk from non-occupational exposure to crocidolite at Wittenoom, Western Australia (WA), a cohort of 4,890 residents who never worked for the mining company Australian Blue Asbestos (ABA) has been assembled from all 18,553 available records: the local school register, hospital attendances, the WA electoral roll, birth certificates, workers who answered a mailed questionnaire in 1979, participants in a cancer-prevention programme using vitamin-A dietary supplements, and other sources. The majority of subjects were relatives and friends of ABA employees, and nearly half the cohort were either born at Wittenoom or first went there as children under 10 years of age. As most residents were at Wittenoom when the mine and mill were in operation during the period 1943 to 1966, 82% were first exposed to crocidolite 20 or more years ago. The proportion of other workers (i.e., not employed by ABA) and their families increased once the mining operations ceased. To date, 24 cases of mesothelioma have been reported in this cohort: 9 males and 15 females. Time from first exposure to diagnosis ranged from 23 to 44 years and residence in Wittenoom ranged from 6 weeks to 11 years.

  2. Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Bernd; Brouwer, Connie; Geertsma, Robert E; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Ross, Bryony L; Toufektsian, Marie-Claire; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Aitken, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use.

  3. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  4. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  5. Determining the validity of exposure models for environmental epidemiology : predicting electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in environmental epidemiology is the exposure assessment of large populations. Spatial exposure models have been developed that predict exposure to the pollutant of interest for large study sizes. However, the validity of these exposure models is often unknown. In this thes

  6. Development of Environmental Health Criteria for Insensitive Munitions: Aquatic Ecotoxicological Exposures Using 2,4-Dinitroanisole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Insensitive Munitions: Aquatic Ecotoxicological Exposures Using 2,4-Dinitroanisole E nv ir on m en ta l L ab or at or y Alan J. Kennedy, Christopher... Ecotoxicological Exposures Using 2,4-Dinitroanisole Alan J. Kennedy, Jennifer G. Laird, and Sandra M. Brasfield Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army...nitroguanidine (NQ). While general aquatic ecotoxicological information is available for two of the IMX constituents (NTO and NQ), such data are not

  7. Approaches to handling uncertainty when setting environmental exposure standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has become in recent years an essential tool for the prediction of environmental change and for the development of sustainable policies. Yet, many of the uncertainties associated with modelling efforts appear poorly understood by many, especially by policy makers. This book...... attempts for the first time to cover the full range of issues related to model uncertainties, from the subjectivity of setting up a conceptual model of a given system, all the way to communicating the nature of model uncertainties to non-scientists and accounting for model uncertainties in policy decisions....... Theoretical chapters, providing background information on specific steps in the modelling process and in the adoption of models by end-users, are complemented by illustrative case studies dealing with soils and global climate change. All the chapters are authored by recognized experts in their respective...

  8. Substance flow analysis and assessment of environmental exposure potential for triclosan in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Long; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2014-11-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is a widely-used antimicrobial agent in many consumer products around the world, and China is a major producer and consumer of TCS. In this study substance flow analysis (SFA) was used to construct a static model of anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China in 2008. The systematic SFA results were used to determine possible exposure pathways and trends in environmental exposure potential through different pathways. TCS discharged in wastewater mainly flowed into surface water sediment, ocean, and soil, where it accumulates in aquatic and agricultural products that may pose a higher risk to human health than brief exposure during consumption. Only 22% of TCS discharged was removed in the built environment with the remainder discharged into the natural environment, indicating that anthropogenic TCS metabolism in China is unsustainable. Per capita TCS consumption increased 209% from 2003 to 2012, resulting in increased discharge and accumulation in the environment. If current trends continue, it will increase to 713 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2015 and 957 mg capita(-1) yr(-1) in 2020. Accordingly, annual environmental exposure potential will increase from 388 mg capita(-1) in 2008 to 557 mg capita(-1) in 2015 and 747 mg capita(-1) in 2020, indicating an increasing trend of exposure to environmental TCS. Results of Pearson correlation analysis suggested that feasible countermeasures to reduce environmental exposure potential for triclosan would include encouraging the development of small cities, raising awareness of health risks, nurturing environmentally-friendly consumer values, and improving the environmental performance of TCS-containing products.

  9. Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumpf, Margret; Durrer, Stefan; Faass, Oliver; Ehnes, Colin; Fuetsch, Michaela; Gaille, Catherine; Henseler, Manuel; Hofkamp, Luke; Maerkel, Kirsten; Reolon, Sasha; Timms, Barry; Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2008-04-01

    Several ultraviolet (UV) filters exhibit estrogenic, some also anti-androgenic activity. They are present in waste water treatment plants, surface waters and biosphere including human milk, suggesting potential exposure during development. Developmental toxicity was studied in rats for the UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC, 0.7, 7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC, 0.07, 0.24, 0.7, 2.4, 7 mg/kg/day) administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. Neonates exhibited enhanced prostate growth after 4-MBC and altered uterine gene expression after both chemicals. 4-MBC and 3-BC delayed male puberty and affected reproductive organ weights of adult offspring. Effects on the thyroid axis were also noted. Expression and oestrogen sensitivity of oestrogen-regulated genes and nuclear receptor coregulator levels were altered at mRNA and protein levels in adult uterus, prostate and brain regions involved in gonadal control and sexual behaviour. Female sexual behaviour was impaired by both filters; 3-benzylidene camphor caused irregular cycles. Classical endpoints exhibited lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of 7/0.7 mg/kg for 4-MBC and 0.24/0.07 mg/kg for 3-BC. Molecular endpoints were affected by the lowest doses studied. Our data indicate that the potential risk posed by endocrine active UV filters warrants further investigations.

  10. Environmental health impacts: occurrence, exposure and significance, Lancaster University, UK, 9-10 September 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Francis L; Semple, Kirk T

    2004-09-01

    Speakers: John Ashby (Syngenta CTL, UK), Peter A. Behnisch (Eurofins GfA, Germany), Paul L. Carmichael (Unilever Colworth, UK), Curtis C.Harris (National Cancer Institute, USA), Kevin C. Jones (Lancaster University, UK), Andreas Kortenkamp (School of Pharmacy, London, UK), Caroline J. Langdon (Reading University, UK), Anthony M. Lynch (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), Francis L. Martin (Lancaster University, UK), Trevor J. McMillan (Lancaster University, UK), David H. Phillips (Institute of Cancer Research, UK), Huw J. Ricketts (University of Cardiff, UK), Michael N. Routledge (University of Leeds, UK), J. Thomas Sanderson (Utrecht University, The Netherlands) and Kirk T. Semple (Lancaster University, UK) The effects of many environmental exposures to either single contaminants or to mixtures still remain to be properly assessed in ecotoxicological and human toxicological settings. Such assessments need to be carried out using relevant biological assays. On a mechanistic basis, future studies need to be able to extrapolate exposure to disease risk. It is envisaged that such an approach would lead to the development of appropriate strategies to either reduce exposures or to initiate preventative measures in susceptible individuals or populations. To mark the opening of a new Institute, the Lancaster Environmental Centre, an environmental health workshop was held over 2 days (9-10 September 2003) at Lancaster University, UK. The fate, behaviour and movement of chemicals in the environment, together with environmental exposures and human health, biomarkers of such exposures, hormone-like compounds and appropriate genetic toxicology methodologies, were discussed.

  11. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  12. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Débora P; Souza, Lucas M DE; Andow, David A; Sousa, Alex A T Cortês DE; Pires, Carmen S S; Sujii, Edison R

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  13. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA P. PAULA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  14. Testing a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in military women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Angela M; Agazio, Janice; Flaherty, Norma; Ephraim, Paula M

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in military women and their children. The convenience sample consisted of 238 women, 81 smokers and 157 nonsmokers, with a mean age of 37 years (SD = 9.9). Participants were either on active duty or were reservists and/or military dependents. Model constructs, some of which were adapted from the transtheoretical model of behavior change, measured personal and situational factors, pros and cons of ETS exposure, self-efficacy to resist ETS, mother's expectation for child's ETS exposure, and mother's self-efficacy to reduce child's ETS exposure. The mediating variable was the mother's daily ETS exposure, and the outcome variable was the child's daily ETS exposure. The trimmed model showed that 32% of the variance in mother's daily exposure (mediating variable) was accounted for by living with a smoker, having high ETS "pros" (as opposed to ETS "cons"), having less self-efficacy to resist ETS, and having greater self-efficacy to reduce the child's exposure. There was a significant, positive relationship (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) between the mother's and child's daily ETS exposure (outcome variable).

  15. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  16. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  17. METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION SITUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Frequently environmental pollution results from different hazardous substances released in the environment, meaning that contaminated sites may have many different chemical sources and transport pathways. Problems concerning environmental pollution affect mainly physical, chemical and biological properties of air, water and soil. The relationships between the sources, exposure and effects of contaminants to human and ecological receptors are complex and many times are specific to a particular...

  18. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  19. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  20. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  1. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  2. Characterization of changes in gene expression and biochemical pathways at low levels of benzene exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Reuben; Hubbard, Alan E.; McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Jinot, Jennifer; Sonawane, Babasaheb R.; Smith, Martyn T.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, through transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we reported dose-dependent effects of benzene exposure on gene expression and biochemical pathways in 83 workers exposed across

  3. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and...

  4. IN-VIVO EXPOSURE CHARACTERIZATION AND VISUALIZATION OF SWNH AGGREGATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Rachel M [ORNL; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Zhao, Bin [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL; Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Venmar, Katherine T [ORNL; Tetard, Laurene [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    As the manufacturing and use of nanomaterials and nanoparticle clusters/aggregates become prevalent in the future, it will be necessary to understand the biological interactions with this new class of materials introduced through various routes, intentionally or unintentionally. However, there currently exist a host of technical/methodological issues related to nanotoxicological study. For example, the ability to generate reproducible precision nanomaterial and nanoparticles is critically needed for both toxicological evaluation and pharmaceutical applications. Technology for tracing and visualization of nanomaterials in biological systems are also lacking. Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) is a unique carbon nanostructure belonging to the same family as the famous carbon nanotubes. SWNH aggregates can be produced through laser vaporization of carbon at room temperature; the aggregates are of particular interest to energy application such as hydrogen storage and new-generation of fuel cells. Unlike carbon nanotubes that are made using metal catalysts, SWNHs can be made without the use of a metal catalyst providing an opportunity for nanotoxicological study of purest carbon nanoparticles with no complication of trace metal toxicity that the nanotubes might have. We summarize results from our ongoing biological research on SWNHs. Our results were from in vivo animal aspiration experiments, in contrast to the results of a recent publication that were based on phenotypic observation of cell-line exposure experiments. The characterization results of ORNL-produced SWNHs are presented in Figure 1, which include low- (Figure 1a) and high-resolution (Figure 1b) structural images of SWNHs, the thermal gravimetric analysis (Figure 1c) and characteristic Raman (Figure 1d) results. We coated the SWNH powder with Pluronic F-127, which is a biocompatible polymer, to facilitate the dispersion of SWNHs in suspension during pressure-driven nebulization in mice aspiration and nose

  5. Validity and reliability of self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in work offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MC; Brug, J; Uges, DRA; VosdeWael, ML

    1997-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an occupational carcinogen. Large companies often examine ETS exposure by employee surveys, However, reliable and valid self-report measures have been lacking. This study compared validity and reliability of various self-report measures, One hundred and seven non

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  8. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  9. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  10. Bioassay of Environmental Exposure of Children to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using 1-Hydroxypyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of main air pollutants which are produced by motor vehicles and are known as carcinogens. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the environmental exposure of children to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP measurement. Patients and Methods A total of 260 participants enrolled in the study, aged between 6 - 12 years. Environmental exposure due to urban traffic and tobacco smoke was investigated. Morning and evening urine samples were collected and 1-OHP concentrations were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector, used for sample analysis, and 1-OHP concentrations in urine samples, corrected by urinary creatinine, were determined for PAHs exposure assessment. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and air pollution of the residential area as a measure of heavy traffic and living close to busy highways were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results In general, the results showed that males had higher 1-OHP levels than females (P < 0.05. The total morning levels were 0.47 ± 0.12 µmol/mol crea vs. 0.63 ± 0.15 µmol/mol crea for evening. In the presence of ETS, higher 1-OHP concentrations were observed in morning samples. In addition, living in a polluted area is strongly associated with higher levels of 1-OHP. Conclusions Taking into account that Iran is a developing country with a young population and numerous PAHs sources, environmental exposure to PAHs at these levels can be dangerous for children’s health. Furthermore, PAHs can be declared as national concerning environmental pollutants.

  11. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis James K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics defines an individual's metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers for disease risk that reflect adaptive response to exposure. We investigated changes in metabolism in volunteers living near a point source of environmental pollution: a closed zinc smelter with associated elevated levels of environmental cadmium. Methods High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (metabonomics was used to acquire urinary metabolic profiles from 178 human volunteers. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were correlated with lifestyle or biological factors. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were also measured, using mass spectrometry, as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Results Six urinary metabolites, either associated with mitochondrial metabolism (citrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-deoxy-erythronic acid or one-carbon metabolism (dimethylglycine, creatinine, creatine, were associated with cadmium exposure. In particular, citrate levels retained a significant correlation to urinary cadmium and smoking status after controlling for age and sex. Oxidative stress (as determined by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels was elevated in individuals with high cadmium exposure, supporting the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation was causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions This study shows evidence that an NMR-based metabolic profiling study in an uncontrolled human population is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at true environmental

  12. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation.

  13. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  14. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, L.; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of exposures among cemented tungsten carbide workers. Part I: Size-fractionated exposures to airborne cobalt and tungsten particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2009-07-01

    As many as 30,000 workers in the United States of America are exposed to cemented tungsten carbides (CTC), alloys composed primarily of tungsten carbide and cobalt, which are used in cutting tools. Inhalation of cobalt-containing particles may be sufficient for the development of occupational asthma, whereas tungsten carbide particles in association with cobalt particles are associated with the development of hard metal disease (HMD) and lung cancer. Historical epidemiology and exposure studies of CTC workers often rely only on measures of total airborne cobalt mass concentration. In this study, we characterized cobalt- and tungsten-containing aerosols generated during the production of CTC with emphasis on (1) aerosol "total" mass (n=252 closed-face 37 mm cassette samples) and particle size-selective mass concentrations (n=108 eight-stage cascade impactor samples); (2) particle size distributions; and (3) comparison of exposures obtained using personal cassette and impactor samplers. Total cobalt and tungsten exposures were highest in work areas that handled powders (e.g., powder mixing) and lowest in areas that handled finished product (e.g., grinding). Inhalable, thoracic, and respirable cobalt and tungsten exposures were observed in all work areas, indicating potential for co-exposures to particles capable of getting deposited in the upper airways and alveolar region of the lung. Understanding the risk of CTC-induced adverse health effects may require two exposure regimes: one for asthma and the other for HMD and lung cancer. All sizes of cobalt-containing particles that deposit in the lung and airways have potential to cause asthma, thus a thoracic exposure metric is likely biologically appropriate. Cobalt-tungsten mixtures that deposit in the alveolar region of the lung may potentially cause HMD and lung cancer, thus a respirable exposure metric for both metals is likely biologically appropriate. By characterizing size-selective and co-exposures as well as

  16. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  17. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  18. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures.

  19. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  20. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  1. Urinary BTEX, MTBE and naphthalene as biomarkers to gain environmental exposure profiles of the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Rossella, Federica; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and naphthalene (NAP) as biomarkers of exposure to environmental pollutants. Personal air and urine samples from 108 subjects belonging to the Italian general population were compared. Urinary profiles were obtained by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. BTEX, MTBE, ETBE and NAP median airborne exposures during a 5-h sampling were 4.0, 25.3, 3.8, 9.3, 3.4, 3.4, <0.8, and 3.4 microg/m(3), respectively. Meanwhile, median urinary levels, as geometric means of three determinations were: 122, 397, 74, 127, 43, 49, <15, and 46 ng/L, respectively. Urinary benzene and toluene concentrations were 4.6- and 1.2-fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers. For most chemicals, significant positive correlations between airborne exposure (log-transformed) and the corresponding biological marker (log-transformed) were found, with Pearson's r values for correlation, ranging from 0.228 to 0.396. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the urinary level of these chemicals was influenced by personal airborne exposure, urinary creatinine, and urinary cotinine, with R(2) 0.733 for benzene. Urinary chemicals are useful biomarkers of environmental exposure. Given the ease of rapidly obtaining urine samples, they represent a non-invasive alternative to blood chemical analysis. The possibility of obtaining urinary exposure profiles makes this method an appealing tool for environmental epidemiology.

  2. Geocoding accuracy and the recovery of relationships between environmental exposures and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Dale L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship – statistical power – between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of positional accuracy and completeness of the geocodes from which the measures of environmental exposure are made. This paper summarizes the results of simulation studies conducted to examine the impact of inaccuracies of geocoded addresses generated by three types of geocoding processes: a addresses located on orthophoto maps, b addresses matched to TIGER files (U.S Census or their derivative street files; and, c addresses from E-911 geocodes (developed by local authorities for emergency dispatch purposes. Results The simulated odds of disease using exposures modelled from the highest quality geocodes could be sufficiently recovered using other, more commonly used, geocoding processes such as TIGER and E-911; however, the strength of the odds relationship between disease exposures modelled at geocodes generally declined with decreasing geocoding accuracy. Conclusion Although these specific results cannot be generalized to new situations, the methods used to determine the sensitivity of results can be used in new situations. Estimated measures of positional accuracy must be used in the interpretation of results of analyses that investigate relationships between health outcomes and exposures measured at residential locations. Analyses similar to those employed in this paper can be used to validate interpretation of results from empirical analyses that use geocoded locations with estimated measures of positional accuracy.

  3. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  4. Environmental assessment for the Groundwater Characterization Project, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to conduct a program to characterize groundwater at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, in accordance with a 1987 DOE memorandum stating that all past, present, and future nuclear test sites would be treated as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites (Memorandum from Bruce Green, Weapons Design and Testing Division, June 6, 1987). DOE has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-0532) to evaluate the environmental consequences associated with the proposed action, referred to as the Groundwater Characterization Project (GCP). This proposed action includes constructing access roads and drill pads, drilling and testing wells, and monitoring these wells for the purpose of characterizing groundwater at the NTS. Long-term monitoring and possible use of these wells in support of CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, is also proposed. The GCP includes measures to mitigate potential impacts on sensitive biological, cultural and historical resources, and to protect workers and the environment from exposure to any radioactive or mixed waste materials that may be encountered. DOE considers those mitigation measures related to sensitive biological, cultural and historic resources as essential to render the impacts of the proposed action not significant, and DOE has prepared a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) that explains how such mitigations will be planned and implemented. Based on the analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  5. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  6. In vivo setup characterization for pulsed electromagnetic field exposure at 3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, A.; Perrin, A.; Cretallaz, C.; Pla, S.; Arnaud-Cormos, D.; Debouzy, J. C.; Leveque, P.

    2016-08-01

    An in vivo setup for pulsed electric field exposure at 3 GHz is proposed and characterized in this work. The exposure system allows far field, whole-body exposure of six animals placed in Plexiglas cages with a circular antenna. Chronic exposures under 18 W incident average power (1-4 kW peak power) and acute exposures under 56 W incident average power (4.7 kW peak power) were considered. Numerical and experimental dosimetry of the setup allowed the accurate calculation of specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions under various exposure conditions. From rat model numerical simulations, the whole-body mean SAR values were 1.3 W kg-1 under chronic exposures and 4.1 W kg-1 under acute exposure. The brain-averaged SAR value was 1.8 W kg-1 and 5.7 W kg-1 under chronic and acute exposure, respectively. Under acute exposure conditions, a 10 g specific absorption of 1.8  ±  1.1 mJ · kg-1 value was obtained. With temperature rises below 0.8 °C, as measured or simulated on a gel phantom under typical in vivo exposures, this exposure system provides adequate conditions for in vivo experimental investigations under non-thermal conditions.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  8. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  9. Measuring combined exposure to environmental pressures in urban areas: an air quality and noise pollution assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch; Achillas, Ch; Michailidou, A V; Moussiopoulos, Nu

    2012-02-01

    This study presents a methodological scheme developed to provide a combined air and noise pollution exposure assessment based on measurements from personal portable monitors. Provided that air and noise pollution are considered in a co-exposure approach, they represent a significant environmental hazard to public health. The methodology is demonstrated for the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. The results of an extensive field campaign are presented and the variations in personal exposure between modes of transport, routes, streets and transport microenvironments are evaluated. Air pollution and noise measurements were performed simultaneously along several commuting routes, during the morning and evening rush hours. Combined exposure to environmental pollutants is highlighted based on the Combined Exposure Factor (CEF) and Combined Dose and Exposure Factor (CDEF). The CDEF takes into account the potential relative uptake of each pollutant by considering the physical activities of each citizen. Rather than viewing environmental pollutants separately for planning and environmental sustainability considerations, the possibility of an easy-to-comprehend co-exposure approach based on these two indices is demonstrated. Furthermore, they provide for the first time a combined exposure assessment to these environmental pollutants for Thessaloniki and in this sense they could be of importance for local public authorities and decision makers. A considerable environmental burden for the citizens of Thessaloniki, especially for VOCs and noise pollution levels is observed. The material herein points out the importance of measuring public health stressors and the necessity of considering urban environmental pollution in a holistic way.

  10. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  11. Characterization of Exposure to Byproducts from Firing Lead Free Frangible Ammunition in an Enclosed, Ventilated Firing Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Christin M; Methner, Mark M; Jackson, Jerimiah M; Moore, Alexander L; Flory, Laura E; Tilly, Trevor; Hussain, Saber M; Ott, Darrin K

    2017-02-26

    U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions. The ventilation system was assessed by measuring the range static air pressure differential and the air velocity at the firing line. Air flow patterns were observed near the firing line. Instructor exposure was sampled using a filter-based air sampling method for metals and a wearable, real-time ultrafine particle counter. Area air sampling was simultaneously performed to characterize the particle size distribution, morphology and composition. In the instructor's breathing zone, the airborne mass concentration of copper was low (range = weapons that fire lead free frangible ammunition. Using an ultrafine particle counter appears to be an alternative method of assessing ventilation effectiveness in removing ultrafine particulate produced during firing events.

  12. Characterization of exposure in epidemiological studies on air pollution from biodegradable wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech Cantuaria, Manuella; Suh, Helen; Løfstrøm, Per;

    2016-01-01

    of different approaches for assessing exposure to air pollution from biodegradable wastes by analyzing (1) the misclassification of exposure that is committed by using these surrogates, (2) the existence of differential misclassification (3) the effects that misclassification may have on health effect......The assignment of exposure is one of the main challenges faced by environmental epidemiologists. However, misclassification of exposures has not been explored in population epidemiological studies on air pollution from biodegradable wastes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use......, Metric IV yielded the best results for exposure misclassification analysis and interpretation of health effect estimates, followed by Metric IIIb, IIIa and II. The study showed that modelled NH3 concentrations provide more accurate estimations of true exposure than distances-based surrogates...

  13. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations. Reproductive traits were analyzed at individual, tissue and molecular levels. Reproductive success and cumulative eggs number were disrupted after exposure to all three fractions, albeit to various extents depending on the fraction and concentrations. Histological analyses revealed ovary maturation defects after exposure to all three fractions as well as degeneration after exposure to a pyrolytic fraction. In testis, hypoplasia was observed after exposure to petrogenic fractions. Genes expression analysis in gonads has allowed us to establish common pathways such as endocrine disruption or differentiation/maturation defects. Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects.

  14. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked.

  15. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Jourenkova, N; Gustavsson, P

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cancer is reviewed. High occupational exposure to PAHs occurs in several industries and occupations. Covered here are aluminum production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel foundries, tar distillation, shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing, road paving, carbon black production, carbon electrode production, chimney sweeping, and calcium carbide production. In addition, workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust in the transport industry and in related occupations are exposed to PAHs and nitro-PAHs. Heavy exposure to PAHs entails a substantial risk of lung, skin, and bladder cancer, which is not likely to be due to other carcinogenic exposures present in the same industries. The lung seems to be the major target organ of PAH carcinogenicity and increased risk is present in most of the industries and occupations listed above. An increased risk of skin cancer follows high dermal exposure. An increase in bladder cancer risk is found mainly in industries with high exposure to PAHs from coal tars and pitches. Increased risks have been reported for other organs, namely the larynx and the kidney; the available evidence, however, is inconclusive. The results of studies addressing environmental PAH exposure are consistent with these conclusions.

  16. Characterization and simulation of hourly exposure series of global radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Lopez, L. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Lenguajes y C. Computacion; Sidrach-de-Cardona, M. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Dpto. Fisica Aplicada

    1997-06-01

    A statistical model which captures the main features of hourly exposure series of global radiation is proposed. This model is used to obtain a procedure to generate radiation series without imposing, a priori, any restriction on the form of the probability distribution function of the series. The statistical model was taken from the stationary stochastic processes theory. Data were obtained from ten different Spanish locations. As monthly hourly exposure series of global radiation are not stationary, they are modified in order to remove the observed trends. A multiplicative autoregressive moving average model with regular and seasonal components was used. It is statistically accepted that this is the true model which generates most of the analyzed sequences. However, the underlying parameters of the model vary from one location to another and from one month to another. Therefore, it is necessary to examine further the relationship between the parameters of the model and the available data from most locations. (author)

  17. Texas Barrier Islands Region ecological characterization: environmental synthesis papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shew, D.M.; Baumann, R.H.; Fritts, T.H.; Dunn, L.S.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a synthesis of selected environmental literature for the Texas Barrier Islands Region and is a part of the Texas Barrier Islands Region Ecological Characterization Study. The Texas Barrier Islands Region is defined to include the coastal counties and extends 64 km inland and offshore to the State-Federal demarcation. These papers deal with six drainage basins along the Texas coast: Galveston, Matagorda-Brazos, San Antonio, Copano-Aransas, Corpus Christi and Laguna Madre; as well as the marine system offshore. The papers address the geology, climate, hydrology and hydrography, and the biology of each basin.

  18. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  19. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál;

    2014-01-01

    been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific......Methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental chemicals with known or suspected toxic effects on the nervous system and the immune system. Animal studies have shown that tissue damage can elicit production...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...

  20. A SURVEY OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MERCAPTURIC ACID BIOMARKERS IN OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Patricia I.; B’Hymer, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) is sensitive and specific for targeted quantitative analysis and is readily utilized for small molecules from biological matricies. This brief review describes recent selected HPLC/MS methods for the determination of urinary mercapturic acids (mercapturates) which are useful as biomarkers in characterizing human exposure to electrophilic industrial chemicals in occupational and environmental studies. Electrophilic compounds owing to their reactivity are used in chemical and industrial processes. They are present in industrial emissions, are combustion products of fossil fuels, and are components in tobacco smoke. Their presence in both the industrial and general environment are of concern for human and environmental health. Urinary mercapturates which are the products of metabolic detoxification of reactive chemicals provide a non-invasive tool to investigate human exposure to electrophilic toxicants. Selected recent mercapturate quantification methods are summarized and specific cases are presented. The biological formation of mercapturates is introduced and their use as biomarkers of metabolic processing of electrophilic compounds is discussed. Also, the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in simultaneous determinations of the mercapturates of multiple parent compounds in a single determination is considered, as well as future trends and limitations in this area of research. PMID:24746702

  1. Effects of environmental noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory vascular properties in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Hsieh, Hsiu-Hui; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to environmental noise has been associated with hypertension, but the related mechanism of vascular structural changes is unclear. This repeated-measure study investigated the effects of noise exposure on the 24-h ambulatory vascular structural properties in 66 adults aged 18-32 years. Individual noise exposure and personal vascular parameters were measured simultaneously in all subjects. Linear mixed-effects regressions were used to estimate the effects. A 1-A-weighted decibel (dBA) increase was significantly associated with the transient effects of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.79) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance at nighttime but -1.70 (-2.05, -1.10) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance during the daytime and -2.38 (-3.44, -1.64) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance at nighttime among all subjects. Such effects were observed in arterial distensibility only during the daytime after the 30-min (-1.84 [-2.61, -1.29] %/mmHg) and 60-min (-2.06 [-2.95, -1.44] %/mmHg) time-lagged noise exposures. For 24-h environmental noise, a 1-dBA increment was significantly associated with a sustained increase of 1.25 (1.10, 1.42) %mL/mmHg in arterial compliance but a decrease of 2.12 (-2.51, -1.80) kdynes·s/cm(5) in arterial resistance. Environmental noise exposure may have transient and sustained effects on adult vascular properties.

  2. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in children is associated with kidney injury molecule-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-González, M; Osorio-Yáñez, C; Gaspar-Ramírez, O; Pavković, M; Ochoa-Martínez, A; López-Ventura, D; Medeiros, M; Barbier, O C; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Sabbisetti, V S; Bonventre, J V; Vaidya, V S

    2016-10-01

    Environmental hazards from natural or anthropological sources are widespread, especially in the north-central region of Mexico. Children represent a susceptible population due to their unique routes of exposure and special vulnerabilities. In this study we evaluated the association of exposure to environmental kidney toxicants with kidney injury biomarkers in children living in San Luis Potosi (SLP), Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 83 children (5-12 years of age) residents of Villa de Reyes, SLP. Exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride and lead was assessed in urine, blood and drinking water samples. Almost all tap and well water samples had levels of arsenic (81.5%) and fluoride (100%) above the permissible levels recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean urine arsenic (45.6ppb) and chromium (61.7ppb) were higher than the biological exposure index, a reference value in occupational settings. Using multivariate adjusted models, we found a dose-dependent association between kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) across chromium exposure tertiles [(T1: reference, T2: 467pg/mL; T3: 615pg/mL) (p-trend=0.001)]. Chromium upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary miR-200c (500 copies/μl) and miR-423 (189 copies/μL). Arsenic upper tertile was also associated with higher urinary KIM-1 (372pg/mL). Other kidney injury/functional biomarkers such as serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and miR-21 did not show any association with arsenic, chromium or any of the other toxicants evaluated. We conclude that KIM-1 might serve as a sensitive biomarker to screen children for kidney damage induced by environmental toxic agents.

  3. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  4. Acute exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) triggers the emersion response in the green shore crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2017-02-01

    The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia. Using an experimental arena containing a rock bed onto which crabs could emerse, we established that exposure to HEA (4mmol/l NH4HCO3) for 15min triggers emersion in crabs. In experiments utilizing NaHCO3 controls and NH4HCO3 injections, we further determined that emersion was triggered specifically by external ammonia and was independent of secondary acid-base or respiratory disturbances caused by HEA. We then hypothesized that emersion from HEA provides a physiological benefit, similar to emersion from hypoxia. Exposure to 15min of HEA without emersion (no rock bed present) caused significant increases in arterial haemolymph total ammonia (Tamm), pH, and [HCO3(-)]. When emersion was allowed, arterial haemolymph Tamm and [HCO3(-)] increased, but no alkalosis developed. Moreover, emersion decreased haemolymph partial pressure of NH3 relative to crabs which could not emerse. Overall, we demonstrate a novel behavioural response to HEA exposure in crabs which we propose may share similar mechanistic pathways with the emersion response triggered by hypoxia.

  5. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  6. Epigenetic memory of environmental organisms: a reflection of lifetime stressor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbahai, Leda; Chipman, James K

    2014-04-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic responses of organisms to environmental factors, including chemical exposures, influence adaptation, susceptibility to toxicity and biodiversity. In model organisms, it is established that epigenetic alterations, including changes to the methylome, can create a memory of the received signal. This is partly evidenced through the analysis of epigenetic differences that develop between identical twins throughout their lifetime. The epigenetic marks induce alterations to the gene expression profile, which, in addition to mediating homeostatic responses, have the potential to promote an abnormal physiology either immediately or at a later stage of development, for example leading to an adult onset of disease. Although this has been well established, epigenetic mechanisms are not considered in chemical risk assessment or utilised in the monitoring of the exposure and effects of chemicals and environmental change. In this review, epigenetic factors, specifically DNA methylation, are highlighted as mechanisms of adaptation and response to environmental factors and which, if persistent, have the potential, retrospectively, to reflect previous stress exposures. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetic "foot-printing" of organisms could identify classes of chemical contaminants to which they have been exposed throughout their lifetime. In some cases, the potential for persistent transgenerational modification of the epigenome may also inform on parental germ cell exposures. It is recommended that epigenetic mechanisms, alongside genetic mechanisms, should eventually be considered in environmental toxicity safety assessments and in biomonitoring studies. This will assist in determining the mode of action of toxicants, no observed adverse effect level and identification of biomarkers of toxicity for early detection and risk assessment in toxicology but there are critical areas that remain to be explored before this can be achieved.

  7. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

  8. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  9. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  10. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Shenoy

    Full Text Available Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  11. Ogg1 genetic background determines the genotoxic potential of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Sampayo-Reyes, Adriana; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2014-03-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a well-established human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed worldwide. It is generally accepted that the genotoxic effects of i-As after an acute exposure are partially linked to the i-As-induced production of reactive oxygen species, but it is necessary to better determine whether chronic sub-toxic i-As doses are able to induce biologically significant levels of oxidative DNA damage (ODD). To fill in this gap, we have tested the genotoxic and oxidative effects of environmentally relevant arsenic exposures using mouse embryonic fibroblast MEF mutant Ogg1 cells and their wild-type counterparts. Effects were examined by using the comet assay complemented with the use of FPG enzyme. Our findings indicate that MEF Ogg1-/- cells are more sensitive to arsenite-induced acute toxicity, genotoxicity and ODD. Long-term exposure to sub-toxic doses of arsenite generates a detectable increase in ODD and genotoxic DNA damage only in MEF Ogg1-deficient cells. Altogether, the data presented here point out the relevance of ODD and Ogg1 genetic background on the genotoxic risk of i-As at environmentally plausible doses. The persistent accumulation of DNA 8-OH-dG lesions in Ogg1-/- cells during the complete course of the exposure suggests a relevant role in arsenic-associated carcinogenic risk in turn.

  12. Bisphenol A exposure at an environmentally relevant dose induces meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; Li, Renyan; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Wu, Hongjuan; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Whether environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may induce reproductive disorders is still controversial but certain studies have reported that BPA may cause meiotic abnormalities in C. elegans and female mice. However, little is known about the effect of BPA on meiosis in adult males. To determine whether BPA exposure at an environmentally relevant dose could induce meiotic abnormalities in adult male rats, we exposed 9-week-old male Wistar rats to BPA by gavage at 20 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 60 consecutive days. We found that BPA significantly increased the proportion of stage VII seminiferous epithelium and decreased the proportion of stage VIII. Consequently, spermiation was inhibited and spermatogenesis was disrupted. Further investigation revealed that BPA exposure delayed meiosis initiation in the early meiotic stage and induced the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the late meiotic stage. The latter event subsequently activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (ATM). Our results suggest that long-term exposure to BPA may lead to continuous meiotic abnormalities and ultimately put mammalian reproductive health at risk.

  13. Gender-specific transcriptomic response to environmental exposure in Flemish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Sam; van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Jennen, Danyel G J; Koppen, Gudrun; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    Flanders, Belgium, is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The Flemish Environment and Health Survey (2002-2006) aimed at determining exposure to pollutants of neonates, adolescents, and older adults and to assess associated biological and health effects. This study investigated genome wide gene expression changes associated with a range of environmental pollutants, including cadmium, lead, PCBs, dioxin, hexachlorobenzene, p,p'-DDE, benzene, and PAHs. Gene expression levels were measured in peripheral blood cells of 20 adults with relatively high and 20 adults with relatively low combined internal exposure levels, all non-smokers aged 50-65. Pearson correlation was used to analyze associations between pollutants and gene expression levels, separately for both genders. Pollutant- and gender-specific correlation analysis results were obtained. For organochlorine pollutants, analysis within genders revealed that genes were predominantly regulated in opposite directions in males and females. Significantly modulated pathways were found to be associated with each of the exposure biomarkers measured. Pathways and/or genes related to estrogen and STAT5 signaling were correlated to organochlorine exposures in both genders. Our work demonstrates that gene expression in peripheral blood is influenced by environmental pollutants. In particular, gender-specific changes are associated with organochlorine pollutants, including gender-specific modulation of endocrine related pathways and genes. These pathways and genes have previously been linked to endocrine disruption related disorders, which in turn have been associated with organochlorine exposure. Based on our results, we recommend that males and females be considered separately when analyzing gene expression changes associated with exposures that may include chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties.

  14. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  15. Assessing residential exposure to urban noise using environmental models: does the size of the local living neighborhood matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies rely on the quantification of the exposure level in a surface defined as the subject's exposure area. For residential exposure, this area is often the subject's neighborhood. However, the variability of the size and nature of the neighborhoods makes comparison of the findings across studies difficult. This article examines the impact of the neighborhood's definition on environmental noise exposure levels obtained from four commonly used sampling techniques: address point, façade, buffers, and official zoning. A high-definition noise model, built on a middle-sized French city, has been used to estimate LAeq,24 h exposure in the vicinity of 10,825 residential buildings. Twelve noise exposure indicators have been used to assess inhabitants' exposure. Influence of urban environmental factors was analyzed using multilevel modeling. When the sampled area increases, the average exposure increases (+3.9 dB), whereas the SD decreases (-1.6 dB) (P<0.01). Most of the indicators differ statistically. When comparing indicators from the 50-m and 400-m radius buffers, the assigned LAeq,24 h level varies across buildings from -9.4 to +22.3 dB. This variation is influenced by urban environmental characteristics (P<0.01). On the basis of this study's findings, sampling technique, neighborhood size, and environmental composition should be carefully considered in further exposure studies.

  16. Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R; Schuetze, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances and child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. We investigated whether maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, maternal harshness moderated the association between prenatal cocaine exposure to child internalizing in kindergarten such that prenatal cocaine exposure increased risk for internalizing problems at high levels of maternal harshness from 7 to 36months and decreased risk at low levels of harshness. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and child internalizing in kindergarten was not mediated by maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk. However, cumulative environmental risk (from 1month of child age to kindergarten) was predictive of child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward reducing maternal harshness in high risk samples characterized by maternal substance use in pregnancy.

  17. Characterization of particle exposure in ferrochromium and stainless steel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Merja; Huvinen, Markku; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kanerva, Tomi; Vanhala, Esa; Uitti, Jukka; Koivisto, Antti J; Junttila, Sakari; Luukkonen, Ritva; Tuomi, Timo

    2016-07-01

    This study describes workers' exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in the production chain of ferrochromium and stainless steel during sintering, ferrochromium smelting, stainless steel melting, and hot and cold rolling operations. Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust was assessed using IOM sampler with a cellulose acetate filter (AAWP, diameter 25 mm; Millipore, Bedford, MA). Filter sampling methods were used to measure particle mass concentrations in fixed locations. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were examined using an SMPS+C sequential mobile particle sizer and counter (series 5.400, Grimm Aerosol Technik, Ainring, Germany), and a hand-held condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Incorporated, MN). The structure and elemental composition of particles were analyzed using TEM-EDXA (TEM: JEM-1220, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan; EDXA: Noran System Six, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Madison,WI). Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust averaged 1.87, 1.40, 2.34, 0.30, and 0.17 mg m(-3) in sintering plant, ferrochromium smelter, stainless steel melting shop, hot rolling mill, and the cold rolling mill, respectively. Particle number concentrations measured using SMPS+C varied from 58 × 10(3) to 662 × 10(3) cm(-3) in the production areas, whereas concentrations measured using SMPS+C and CPC3007 in control rooms ranged from 24 × 10(3) to 243 × 10(3) cm(-3) and 5.1 × 10(3) to 97 × 10(3) cm(-3), respectively. The elemental composition and the structure of particles in different production phases varied. In the cold-rolling mill non-process particles were abundant. In other sites, chromium and iron originating from ore and recycled steel scrap were the most common elements in the particles studied. Particle mass concentrations were at the same level as that reported earlier. However, particle number measurements showed a high amount of ultrafine particles, especially in sintering, alloy smelting and melting, and tapping

  18. Environmental contaminant mixtures at ambient concentrations invoke a metabolic stress response in goldfish not predicted from exposure to individual compounds alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julia; Zare, Ava; Jackson, Leland J; Habibi, Hamid R; Weljie, Aalim M

    2012-02-03

    Environmental contaminants from wastewater and industrial or agricultural areas are known to have adverse effects on development, reproduction, and metabolism. However, reliable assessment of environmental contaminant impact at low (i.e., ambient) concentrations using genomics and transcriptomics approaches has proven challenging. A goldfish model was used to investigate the effects of aquatic pollutant exposure in vivo by means of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in multiple organs to elucidate a system-wide response. Animals were exposed to 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol-A, BPA), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), and nonylphenol (NP). Metabolite-specific spectral analysis combined with pathway-driven bioinformatics indicated changes in energy and lipid metabolism in liver following exposure to individual contaminants and a tertiary mixture. A dissimilar response in testis exposed to DEHP and mixture indicates disrupted AMPK and cAMP signaling. Uniquely, our observations (1) suggest that exposure to a contaminant mixture is characterized by a stress response not predicted from exposure to individual contaminants, even in the absence of other phenotypic features and (2) demonstrate the sensitivity of metabolomics in risk-assessment of environmental toxicant mixtures at ambient concentrations by detecting early stage metabolic dysregulation. These findings have general applicability in the assessment of "benign" compound mixtures in environmental and pharmaceutical development.

  19. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  1. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  2. Asbestos related diseases from environmental exposure to crocidolite in Da-yao, China. I. Review of exposure and epidemiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S; Liu, X; Mu, S; Tsai, S; Wen, C; Wong, O.

    2003-01-01

    one of five cancer deaths (22%) was from mesothelioma. The ratio of lung cancer to mesothelioma deaths was low for all three studies (1.3, 3.0, and 1.2, respectively). Conclusions: The observation of numerous mesothelioma cases at Da-yao was a unique finding, due mainly to their lifetime exposure to crocidolite asbestos. The finding of cases dying at a younger age and the relatively high ratio of mesothelioma cases to lung cancer could also be another unique result of lifetime environmental exposure to crocidolite asbestos. Although the commercial use of crocidolite has been officially banned since 1984, the incidence of mesothelioma has continued to show a steady increase, particularly among peasants. Since the latency of mesothelioma is approximately 30–40 years, the ban had little effect in the 1990s. The increased awareness and changes in diagnosis over time may also contribute to the increase. Furthermore, exposure to asbestos stoves and walls continued. The government implemented reduction of these exposures. However, from a public health standpoint, the most important issue is the complete avoidance of further exposure to asbestos. PMID:12499455

  3. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: the interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Lisa R

    2008-11-15

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition.

  4. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  5. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  6. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F.; Ubertini, Lucio; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads' matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers' surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles' use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz).

  7. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F. [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States); Ubertini, Lucio [Sapienza University of Rome, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio, E-mail: mporfiri@poly.edu [Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads' matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers' surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles' use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  8. Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

    2009-05-21

    Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

  9. Biomarkers of internal dose for the assessment of environmental exposure to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Fustinoni, Silvia; Drago, Ignazio; Barbieri, Anna; Sabatini, Laura; Carrieri, Mariella; Apostoli, Pietro; Soleo, Leonardo

    2011-10-01

    The urinary excretion of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and urinary benzene and the influence of a smoking habit and of exposure to urban traffic on the urinary excretion of these biomarkers were investigated in 137 male adults from the general population. All subjects were not occupationally exposed to benzene and resident in two cities in Puglia (Southern-Italy). Environmental exposure to benzene was measured using passive personal samplers. The biomarkers t,t-MA, SPMA and urinary benzene were determined in urine samples collected from each subject at the end of the environmental sampling. The percentage of cases above the limit of detection was higher for SPMA and urinary benzene in smokers than in non-smokers, and for airborne benzene and urinary benzene in subjects exposed to urban traffic. Airborne benzene was correlated with the time spent in urban traffic during the environmental sampling. Among the biomarkers, urinary benzene was found to be correlated with airborne benzene only in non-smokers, and with the time spent in urban traffic, both in smokers and non-smokers considered together, and in non-smokers only. Finally, multiple regression analysis showed that the urinary excretion of all the biomarkers was dependent on the number of cigarettes smoked per day and, for urinary benzene, also on the time spent in urban traffic. In conclusion, urinary benzene seems to be a more valid biomarker than t,t-MA and SPMA to assess environmental exposure to extremely low concentrations of benzene. Cigarette smoking prevailed over traffic exhaust fumes in determining the internal dose of benzene.

  10. Characterization Techniques for Aggregated Nanomaterials in Biological and Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seongho

    Nanoparticles, which are defined as objects with characteristic lengths in the 10--9 -- 10--7 m (nanoscale) size range, are used with increasing frequency in a wide of applications, leading to increases in nanomaterial interactions with biological and environmental systems. There is therefore considerable interest in studying the influence nanomaterials can have when inside the human body or dispersed in the ambient environment. However, nanoparticles persist as homo aggregates or heterogeneous mixtures with organic matters, such as proteins, in biological and environmental systems. A large and growing body of research confirm that nanomaterial morphology as well as the degree of aggregation between nanomaterials influences nanomaterial interactions with their surroundings. Specifically, the structures/morphologies of nanoparticles determine their overall surface areas and corresponding surface reactivity (e.g. their catalytic activity). Nanoparticle transport properties (e.g. diffusion coefficient and extent of cellular uptake) are also determined by both their structures and surface properties. Unfortunately, techniques to characterize nanomaterial size and shape quantitatively, when nanomaterials have complex geometries or persist as aggregates, are lacking. Hydrodynamic sizes of nanoparticles and their aggregates can be inferred by dynamic light scattering (DLS) or nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, since these techniques are relied on the scattering light intensity properties, sizes of polydisperse sub 30 nm particles cannot be effectively measured in those techniques. For structure inference of aggregated nanomaterials, microscopy images have been used for qualitative visual analysis, but the quantitative morphology analysis technique is yet to be developed. Five studies in this dissertation are hence aimed to develop new techniques to provide improved morphology characterization of aggregated nanomaterials in various biological and environmental

  11. Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly fluorescent particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Tracers are widely used in experimental fluid mechanics and hydrology to investigate complex flows and water cycle processes. Commonly used tracers include dyes, artificial tracers, naturally occurring isotopes and chemicals, microorganisms, and DNA-based systems. Tracers should be characterized by low detection limits and high accuracy in following water paths and flow structures. For natural studies, tracers are also expected to be nontoxic and with low sorption affinity to natural substrates to minimize losses in the environment. In this context, while isotopes are completely natural, their use in field studies is limited by their ubiquity and, therefore, by the high uncertainty in data processing methodologies. Further, the use of dyes and artificial tracers can be hampered by extremely low detection limits due to dilution in natural streams and microorganisms, while DNA-based system may require physical sampling and time-consuming functionalization and detection procedures. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of fluorescent beads incorporating an eco-compatible fluorophore for environmental and laboratory applications. The particles are synthesized from natural beeswax through an inexpensive thermal procedure and can be engineered to present variable densities and diameters. A thorough characterization of their surface morphology at the nanoscale, crystal structure and size, chemical composition, and dye incorporation into the beeswax matrix is described by using a wide array of microscopy techniques. In addition, the particle fluorescence response is studied by performing excitation and emission scans on melted beeswax bead samples. The feasibility of using the synthesized particles in environmental settings is assessed through the design of ad-hoc weathering agent experiments where the beads are exposed to high energy radiation and hot water. Further, a proof of concept test is described to understand the particles' potential as a

  12. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides: assessment of endocrine disruption and hepatotoxicity in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, A; Rovedatti, M G; Sabino, G; Magnarelli, G G

    2012-06-01

    In utero exposure is the first point of contact with environmental xenobiotics that may affect the maternal-placental-fetal balance. Considering that maternal pathophysiological changes affect intrauterine development, this pilot study was conducted to address how environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) during pregnancy may contribute to maternal endocrine disruption and disturbed hepatic function. A prospective study was carried out with pregnant women (n=97) living in a rural area of the Rio Negro province where OPs are intensively applied throughout 6 months of the year. Blood samples were obtained and biomarkers of OPs exposure (cholinesterases and β-glucuronidase), cortisol (CT) and progesterone (PG) levels, as well as glycemia, were determined. Parameters of liver injury were assayed by measuring aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); liver function was assayed by measuring albumin. Biomonitoring carried out during the pre-spraying period (PreS) and spraying period (SP) showed that the population studied was exposed to OPs, proven by the fact that plasma (PCh) and erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) decreased very significantly (pnormal values for the general population, the increase in CT in the maternal compartment may lead to impaired newborn health later in life.

  13. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  14. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  15. Health hazards involved with an environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rusin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds which belong to persistent organic pollutants group; some of which produce mutagenic and cancerogenic effects. These xenobiotics showed proven, negative effects on health preterm births and low infant birth weight. PAHs penetrate into the human body by three exposure pathways: inhalation, ingestion and skin contact, of which the skin contact pathway is the least important in the case of environmental exposure. Transport, and industrial and municipal sections are also an important source of these compounds. The level of benzo(apyrene (BaP has been monitored in all the Polish provinces since 2005 in the air. BaP is a determinant of the level of all PAHs’ compounds. Despite of the permanent lowering of the level of BaP in the air since the 90s, the limit level (1 ng/m3 has been exceeded in most provinces of the country. In 2010 this situation concerned all Polish agglomerations and the biggest excess has been observed in the province of Silesia in the area of rybnicko-jastrzębska agglomeration. Of sixteen Polish provinces only Lublin and Podlasie provinces did not exceed the limit level, of BaP in the air in 2012. These data shows that a serious health risk may occur due to environmental pollution caused by PAHs compounds. It is necessary to take preventative action to limit a human exposure to these compounds.

  16. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A rando

  18. Environmental, dietary, demographic, and activity variables associated with biomarkers of exposure for benzene and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P G; Ouyang, M; Freeman, N; Lioy, P J

    2003-11-01

    Classification and regression tree methods represent a potentially powerful means of identifying patterns in exposure data that may otherwise be overlooked. Here, regression tree models are developed to identify associations between blood concentrations of benzene and lead and over 300 variables of disparate type (numerical and categorical), often with observations that are missing or below the quantitation limit. Benzene and lead are selected from among all the environmental agents measured in the NHEXAS Region V study because they are ubiquitous, and they serve as paradigms for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals, two classes of environmental agents that have very different properties. Two sets of regression models were developed. In the first set, only environmental and dietary measurements were employed as predictor variables, while in the second set these were supplemented with demographic and time-activity data. In both sets of regression models, the predictor variables were regressed on the blood concentrations of the environmental agents. Jack-knife cross-validation was employed to detect overfitting of the models to the data. Blood concentrations of benzene were found to be associated with: (a) indoor air concentrations of benzene; (b) the duration of time spent indoors with someone who was smoking; and (c) the number of cigarettes smoked by the subject. All these associations suggest that tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to benzene. Blood concentrations of lead were found to be associated with: (a) house dust concentrations of lead; (b) the duration of time spent working in a closed workshop; and (c) the year in which the subject moved into the residence. An unexpected finding was that the regression trees identified time-activity data as better predictors of the blood concentrations than the measurements in environmental and dietary media.

  19. Effect of environmental endotoxin exposure on development of pediatric asthma among Egypytian school children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malak Shaheen; Sherin El Sayed; Ahmed Abdel Karim; Alfrid Edward; Magid Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess school indoor exposure to microbial products and prevalence of asthma and allergies in rural and urban children. Methods: This study was carried on a rural and an urban school. Environmental endotoxin level was measured in multiple samples of the ambient indoor air dust collected on special aseptic filter papers from the two schools. For two hundred children history taking, clinical examination, allergen skin prick test and basic pulmonary function test were preformed. Results: Environmental endotoxin levels showed significantly higher mean values (P<0.01) in rural school (3 EU/mg) as compared to the urban school (0.1 EU/mg) with (OR=5.163; 95% CI: 0.95-28). History of allergic symptoms was significantly more in urban than rural students (P=0.01). Mean values of pulmonary function parameters were significantly lower values in urban students compared to rural students. Skin prick test results showed significant reactions to all tested allergens in urban children compared to rural children (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an inverse association between environmental exposure to endotoxins and susceptibility for allergic manifestations in school children.

  20. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K F Unsworth

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010. Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  1. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Rasheed, Michael A; Chartrand, Kathryn M; Roelofs, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010). Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  2. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  3. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Field Procedures for Assessing the Exposure of Fish to Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Blazer, Vicki; Dethloff, Gail M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gross, Timothy S.; Bryant, Wade L.; DeWeese, L. Rod; Smith, Stephen B.; Goede, Ronald W.; Bartish, Timothy M.; Kubiak, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes procedures used to collect information, tissues, and fluids for documenting the exposure of fish to environmental contaminants. For the procedures described here, fish are captured (preferably by electrofishing) and held alive until processing (generally histopathology. The gonads and spleen are weighed, and samples are preserved for histopathology. The kidneys are examined, and histopathology samples collected. A gill sample is also collected and preserved. All remaining tissues are returned to the carcass, which is wrapped in foil, labeled for chemical analysis, and chilled. Individual fish carcasses are composited by station, species, and gender; frozen; and shipped to the analytical laboratory. Procedures are also described for record keeping; processing blood to obtain serum and plasma; flash-freezing samples; cleaning equipment; and preventing the transport of living organisms among waterways. A list of necessary equipment and supplies is also provided.

  4. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  5. Dioxin exposure is an environmental risk factor for ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, T P; Kerzee, J K; Wang, B; Miller, M; Dieter, M Z; Lorenz, J N; Shertzer, H G; Nerbert, D W; Puga, A

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked dioxin exposure to increased mortality caused by ischemic heart disease. To test the hypothesis that dioxin exposure may constitute an environmental risk factor for atherosclerosis, we exposed C57BL/6J mice to 5 microg/kg of dioxin daily for 3 d, and measured various molecular and physiological markers of heart disease. Dioxin treatment led to an increase in the urinary excretion of vasoactive eicosanoids and an elevation in the mean tail-cuff blood pressure. In addition, dioxin exposure led to an increase in triglycerides, but not in high-density lipoproteins, in both Apoe(+/+) mice and in hyperlipidemic Apoe(-/- mice. Dioxin exposure also led to an increase in low-density lipoproteins in Apoe(-/-) mice. After treatment, dioxin was associated with low-density lipoprotein particles, which might serve as a vehicle to deliver the compound to atherosclerotic plaques. Dioxin treatment of vascular smooth-muscle cells taken from C57Bl/6J mice resulted in the deregulation of several genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Subchronic treatment of Apoe(-/-) mice with dioxin (150 ng/kg, three times weekly) for 7 or 26 wk caused a trend toward earlier onset and greater severity of atherosclerotic lesions compared to those of vehicle treated mice. These results suggest that dioxin may increase the incidence of ischemic heart disease by exacerbating its severity.

  6. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  7. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage.

  8. Transcriptome characterization of Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) shows strong environmental acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jieqiong; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Ishige okamurae, with leathery branched narrow fronds consisting of cylindrical hairs, is the typical species of the genus Ishige, which is considered as one of the most basal genera in the phylogeny of the Phaeophy-ceae. Apart from great public interest from the evolutionary respect, more attention has been brought on the abundant bioactive compounds in I. okamurae for therapeutic or economic considerations, such as di-phlorethohydroxycarmalol and ishigoside. Yet little is known about related key genes or metabolic pathways involved in I. okamurae, which calls upon us to carry out global analyses of transcriptome by next generation sequencing. Altogether, we obtained 78 583 assembled scaffolds with N50 of 1 709 nucleotides, and 25 357 unigenes with significant BLAST matches (E-value cutoff of 10-5). In terms of characterization of the tran-scriptome of I. okamurae, we focused on anti-stress metabolic pathways and synthetic routes of bioactive compounds in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the interactive organism-environment regula-tory networks. Pathway-based analysis helped us to deepen our comprehension of the interaction between I. okamurae and its surroundings, with MAPK signal pathway as an example. Furthermore, we discovered a wide range of novel putative functional proteins that could be of wide application, such as Rab family, using sequence-based transcriptome. In conclusion, transcriptome characterization of I. okamurae (Phaeophy-ceae) shows strong environmental acclimation.

  9. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  10. Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found relationships between specific indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Objectives: In this review we provide an updated summary of knowledge from the scientific literature on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2013 on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma were identified through PubMed, from reference lists, and from authors’ files. Articles that focused on modifia...

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  12. Controlled exposures of human volunteers to sulfate aerosols. Health effects and aerosol characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avol, E L; Jones, M P; Bailey, R M; Chang, N M; Kleinman, M T; Linn, W S; Bell, K A; Hackney, J D

    1979-08-01

    Our laboratory has undertaken the study of possible acute adverse health effects of sulfate aerosols through controlled exposures of volunteer human subjects. Both healthy and asthmatic adult men were exposed for 2-hour periods (with intermittent exercise) to ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid of particle size distributions and concentrations intended to simulate "worst case" exposures during Los Angeles smog episodes. Lung function tests were performed by the subjects on entering and before exiting from a carefully controlled environmental chamber. Subject symptoms were evluated in a standardized manner. Aerosol concentrations and size distributions were determined by an on-line computer/aerometric monitoring system; gravimetric and chemical analyses were performed on impactor and total filter samples after test exposures. We found little or no evidence of adverse health effects from 2-hour multiple-day exposures to any of the compounds at "worst case" ambient concentrations.

  13. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Specht, Ina O; Marott, Jacob Louis;

    2013-01-01

    Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529.......024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total...... sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH×testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury...

  14. In vitro exposure of Leydig cells to an environmentally relevant mixture of organochlorines represses early steps of steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enangue Njembele, Annick N; Bailey, Janice L; Tremblay, Jacques J

    2014-06-01

    Leydig cell steroidogenesis is mainly regulated by LH via increased cAMP production leading to STAR protein activation. STAR is essential for cholesterol shuttling inside mitochondria where steroidogenesis is initiated. Accumulating evidence suggest that persistent organochlorine compounds disrupt testicular function, but the mechanism of action remains poorly characterized. Here we report that in vitro exposure of MA-10 and MLTC-1 Leydig cells to an environmentally relevant mixture of 15 organochlorines impairs steroidogenesis. While having no effect on cell viability and basal steroid production, the organochlorine mixture caused a 50% decrease in cAMP-induced progesterone production. The mixture also reduced cAMP-induced 30 kDa STAR protein by 50% while having no effect on basal STAR protein. Basal or cAMP-induced Star mRNA levels and promoter activity were unaffected by the mixture, indicating that the organochlorine mixture acted at the translational/posttranslational level. Further supporting this is the fact that in COS-7 cells overexpressing STAR, the organochlorine mixture caused a decrease in the 30 kDa form of STAR and an accumulation of the 37 kDa forms. In addition to STAR, we found that the organochlorine mixture also decreases the levels of CYP11A1 and ADXR, two proteins essential for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. In conclusion, our data show that organochlorine exposure disrupts Leydig cell function by targeting different components of the steroidogenic pathway.

  15. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  16. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, M.M.; Painter, M.M.; Bartell, S.E.; Logue, A.; Furlong, E.T.; Werner, S.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305. ng/L and 1104. ng/L) and SER (5.2. ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28. ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish-a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Painter, Meghan M.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Logue, Amanda; Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimeplwles promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish—a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.

  18. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein

    Full Text Available Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls.These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation-inducing environmental agents.

  19. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  20. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  1. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  2. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  3. Dioxins and PCBs: environmental levels and human exposure in new EU member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, A.; Potrykus, A. [BiPro GmbH, Munich (Germany); Holoubek, I. [Tocoen s.r.o, Brno (Czech Republic); Umlauf, G. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    In January 2003 the European Commission launched the project ''Dioxins and PCBs: Environmental Levels and Human Exposure in Candidate Countries''. Major objective was the collection of available information on dioxin and PCB related issues in Accession and Candidate Countries (further referred to as AC/CC) in order to develop a overview on the current situation with respect to environmental contamination and related human exposure. Related legislation, enforcement measures, existing capacities and activities in the fields of research and monitoring were included into the evaluation. Aggregation, analysis and comparison of the collected information enabled to identify data and knowledge gaps, to assess the situation in AC/CC in comparison to earlier EU Member States (further referred to as MS) and to contribute to knowledge exchange and capacity building. The collected information shall serve as a decision basis for the European Commission to take appropriate measures for closing of important data gaps and to develop a common strategy to obtain comparable and reliable results on community level, improved information exchange and a consistent community response system.

  4. A Citizen-Science Study Documents Environmental Exposures and Asthma Prevalence in Two Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Eiffert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A citizen-science study was conducted in two low-income, flood-prone communities in Atlanta, Georgia, in order to document environmental exposures and the prevalence of occupant asthma. Teams consisting of a public-health graduate student and a resident from one of the two communities administered a questionnaire, inspected residences for mold growth, and collected a dust sample for quantifying mold contamination. The dust samples were analyzed for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. Most residents (76% were renters. The median duration of residence was 2.5 years. Although only 12% of occupants reported a history of flooding, 46% reported at least one water leak. Homes with visible mold (35% had significantly (P<0.05 higher mean ERMI values compared to homes without (14.0 versus 9.6. The prevalence of self-reported, current asthma among participants was 14%. In logistic regression models controlling for indoor smoking, among participants residing at their current residence for two years or less, a positive association was observed between asthma and the homes’ ERMI values (adjusted odds ratio per unit increase in ERMI = 1.12, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.01–1.25; two-tailed P=0.04. Documentation of the exposures and asthma prevalence has been presented to the communities and public officials. Community-based organizations have taken responsibility for planning and implementing activities in response to the study findings.

  5. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  6. Parental exposure at periconception to environmental adverse factors and early embryo loss in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Hai-yan; Wang Dan; Yang Zhen-hua; Zou Xiao-ping; Chen Ya-qiong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of environmental adverse factors with early embryo loss, and explore the possible risk factors in daily life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 93 new cases of embryo loss (case group) collected in four general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2007 to April 2008 and 93 matched cases of induced abortion (control group) in normal pregnant women who sought the abortion by other reasons. The questionnaire covered information on parental exposure to various environmental factors during and before pregnancy, and the information on daily life. Data were analyzed by single-factor analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis. Possible risk factors were identified and odds ratio calculated.Results: Cooking frequently during pregnancy, more daily traffic hours, and decoration history in early pregnancy and paternal exposure to toxic matters three months before pregnancy were associated with early embryo loss, while maternal education was a protective factor. Conclusion: Women exposed to the harmful substances from traffic emissions, cooking and decoration could be at an increased risk of early embryo loss.

  7. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  8. [Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pre-school children--a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielskai, Dorota Emilia; Gomółka, Ewa; Kurpas, Donata; Chlabicz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work was to compare the socioeconomic situation and the structure of tobacco use in the families of children attending preschools in Bialystok in 2004 and 2012 in terms of 3-year-olds' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The study involved 313 children out of 1,200 3-year-olds attending 51 pre-schools in Bialystok in 2004 (Gr I) and 273 children out of 1,100 attending 49 pre-schools in 2012 (Gr I). Information on environmental conditions and the use of tobacco in the families of the studied 3-year-olds was obtained through anonymous questionnaires filled in by their parents or caregivers. The exposure of children to ETS was evaluated using the questionnaire and by determining the cotinine/creatinine ratio in urine. The children from Gr I had better educated (pgrandparents. The declared number of cigarettes smoked a day by the people living with the children was similar in both Groups The Groups did not differ significantly regarding the rules of tobacco smoke applying to the family members and guests (p=0.639). The mean cotinine/ creatinine concentration [ng/mg] in the urine of children from Gr I (60.78) was significantly higher than in those from Gr II (22.75) (pyoung parents decreased, but despite education activities in the community, only 1/4 of homes with children had the "no smoking" rule.

  9. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  10. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  11. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L

    2016-01-01

    -AMH. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum......BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum......-AMH was 17.3pmol/L. No association between lead and AMH was detected. In the cadmium analysis the adjusted mean AMH level (95% CI) in the highest exposure tertile was 12.4 (6.4;23.8) compared to 5.6 (2.7;11.4) in the lowest exposure tertile (p=0.06). CONCLUSION: The study provides suggestive evidence...

  12. Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; Simonich, Staci M.; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-05-03

    Driven by major scientific advances in analytical methods, biomonitoring, and computational exposure assessment, and a newly articulated vision for a greater impact in public health, the field of exposure science is undergoing a rapid transition from a field of observation to a field of prediction. Deployment of an organizational and predictive framework for exposure science analogous to the computationally enabled “systems approaches” used in the biological sciences is a necessary step in this evolution. Here we propose the aggregate exposure pathway (AEP) concept as the natural and complementary companion in the exposure sciences to the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept in the toxicological sciences. The AEP framework offers an intuitive approach to successful organization of exposure science data within individual units of prediction common to the field, setting the stage for exposure forecasting. Looking farther ahead, we envision direct linkages between aggregate exposure pathway and adverse outcome pathways, completing the source to outcome continuum and setting the stage for more efficient integration of exposure science and toxicity testing information. Together these frameworks form and inform a decision making framework with the flexibility for risk-based, hazard-based or exposure-based decisions.

  13. A review of environmental and occupational exposure to xylene and its health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Xylene is a cyclic hydrocarbon, and an environmental pollutant. It is also used in dyes, paints, polishes, medical technology and different industries as a solvent. Xylene easily vaporizes and divides by sunlight into other harmless chemicals. The aim of the present review is to collect the evidence of the xylene toxicity, related to non-cancerous health hazards, as well as to provide possible effective measurement to minimize its risk ratio. For current study a bibliographic search of more than 250 peer-reviewed papers in scientific data including PubMed, and Google Scholar about xylene was done. But approximately 130 peer-reviewed papers relevant to xylene were included (Figure 1(Fig. 1)). All scientific data was reviewed with key words of "xylene toxicity", "xylene toxic health effects", "environmental volatile organic compounds", "human exposure to xylene", "xylene poisoning in laboratory workers", "effects of xylene along with other hydrocarbons", "neurotoxicity of selected hydrocarbons", and "toxic effects of particular xylene isomers in animals". According to these studies, xylene is released into the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from petrochemical industries, fire, cigarette, from different vehicles. Short term exposure to mixed xylene or their individual isomers result in irritation of the nose, eyes and throat subsequently leading toward neurological, gastrointestinal and reproductive harmful effects. In addition long term exposure to xylene may cause hazardous effects on respiratory system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and renal system. The health concerns of xylene are well documented in animals and human. It is important to improve health policies, launch xylene related health and toxicity awareness campaigns, to get rid of its dangerous outcomes. Chronic diseases have become a threat to human globally, with special prominence in regions, where xylene is used with other chemicals (benzene, toluene etc.) especially in petroleum and

  14. The effect of environmental exposure to pyrethroids and DNA damage in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Sobala, Wojciech; Piskunowicz, Marta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether environmental exposure to pyrethroids was associated with sperm DNA damage. Between January 2008 and April 2011 286 men under 45 years of age with a normal sperm concentration of 15-300 10(6)/ml [WHO 2010] were recruited from an infertility clinic in Lodz, Poland. Participants were interviewed and provided urine, saliva, and semen samples. The pyrethroids metabolites: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (CDCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (TDCCA), and cis-2,2-dibromovinyl-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (DBCA) were analyzed in the urine using a validated gas chromatography ion-tap mass spectrometry method. Sperm DNA damage was assessed using a flow cytometry based on sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). A positive association was observed between CDCCA >50th percentile and the percentage of medium DNA fragmentation index (M DFI) and percentage of immature sperms (HDS) (p = 0.04, p = 0.04 respectively). The level of 3PBA >50th percentile in urine was positively related to the percentage of high DNA fragmentation index (H DFI) (p = 0.03). The TDCCA, DBCA levels, and the sum of pyrethroid metabolites were not associated with any sperm DNA damage measures. Our results suggest that environmental pyrethroid exposure may affect sperm DNA damage measures index indicated the reproductive effects of pyrethroid exposure on adult men. In view of the importance of human reproductive health and the widespread usage of pyrethroids, it is important to further investigate these correlations.

  15. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  16. In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields.

  17. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm³, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations.

  18. REE incorporation and behaviour in aquatic turtles as a consequence of environmental exposure and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P.; Randazzo, L. A.; D'Angelo, S.; Cuttitta, A.; Saiano, F.

    2012-04-01

    features in whole blood samples suggest that behaviour of these elements can be influenced by vital effects, probably related to the phosphate deposition during formation of turtle skeleton. In order to corroborate this suggestion a portion of esoskeleton sample coming from an Emys trinacris individual was analysed and REE concentrations normalised to the environmental water. Observed features of REE pattern from this material strongly agree with above the mentioned hypothesis being MREE enriched, from Nd to Ho, with respect to LREE and HREE. Therefore collected data indicate that REE contents in blood of Emys trinacris is influenced by exposure to environmental conditions but elemental behaviour in whole blood is driven by biological processes, probably associated to formation of esoskeleton that can be subjected to the incorporation of radionuclides.

  19. Heavy metals in human teeth dentine: A bio-indicator of metals exposure and environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Binti Baharudin, Nurul Atiqah; Amin, Yusoff Bin Mohd; Farook, Mohideen Salihu; Bradley, D A; Mahmoud, Okba

    2017-06-01

    With rapid urbanization and large-scale industrial activities, modern human populations are being increasingly subjected to chronic environmental heavy metal exposures. Elemental uptake in tooth dentine is a bioindicator, the uptake occurring during the formation and mineralization processes, stored to large extent over periods of many years. The uptake includes essential elements, most typically geogenic dietary sources, as well as non-essential elements arising through environmental insults. In this study, with the help of the Dental Faculty of the University of Malaya, a total of 50 separate human teeth were collected from dental patients of various ethnicity, age, gender, occupation, dietary habit, residency, etc. Analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), most samples indicating the presence of the following trace elements, placed in order of concentration, from least to greatest: As, Mn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Sb, Al, Sr, Sn. The concentrations have been observed to increase with age. Among the ethnic groups, the teeth of ethnic Chinese showed marginally greater metal concentrations than those of the Indians and Malays, the teeth dentine of females generally showing greater concentrations than that of males. Greater concentrations of Hg, Cu and Sn were found in molars while Pb, Sr, Sb and Zn were present in greater concentrations in incisors. With the elevated concentration levels of heavy metals in tooth dentine reflecting pollution from industrial emissions and urbanization, it is evident that human tooth dentine can provide chronological information on exposure, representing a reliable bio-indicator of environmental pollution.

  20. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  1. Age Induced Effects on ESD Characteristics of Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2012-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons provided by Space Systems/Loral were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined space environment exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is performing electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels [ISO-11221]. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of four cells constructed to form two strings. The ESD tests were performed at the beginning-of-life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point until end-of-life (EOL) at 15 years. The space environmental exposure sequence consisted of ultra-violet radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and Xenon ion thruster plume erosion. This paper describes the ESD test setup and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Arc inception voltage results along with ESD test behavior from the BOL condition through the 15th year age condition are discussed. In addition, results from a Xenon plasma plume exposure test with an EOL coupon under the full ESD test condition will be discussed.

  2. Environmental Lead Exposure among Primary School Children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Gabr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children.Objective: To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ, hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance.Methods: 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL, hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home.Results: The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3 in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly.Conclusion: Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  3. Environmental exposure to mineral fibers in New Caledonia: an ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, F.; Ambrosi, J.

    2013-05-01

    Inhalation of asbestos and other fibrous minerals causes lung cancer and other malignancies, specifically malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM is an aggressive pleural tumor that presents with a median latency period of 30-40 years from initial fiber exposure. Due to occupational exposure, MM incidence is 4-8 times higher in men as compared to women. In New Caledonia (NC), very high incidences of MM and lung cancer were observed in both men and women, suggesting an environmental origin of exposure. Although nickel mining and the traditional use of tremolite-containing whitewash were suspected causes of MM, numerous MM cases have been observed in areas lacking these risk factors. We carried out an ecological study of MM incidence in NC and identified a study area that included those counties having the highest MM incidences as well as counties lacking MM. We conducted epidemiological and environmental investigations for each of the 100 tribes living within this area. Residential history was assessed for each MM case, and samples of each quarry, road, and whitewash were analyzed to determine the nature of any mineral fibers. We analyzed the environmental determinants of MM, including geology, mineralogy, plant cover, land shape and human activities as well as use of whitewash, by using two univariate and multivariate statistical methods: 1) a logistic regression to compare tribes with and without MM cases and calculate the odds ratios, (OR) 2) the Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for each factor. While most MM cases among Caucasians were observed in men with a mean age of 72, indicating occupational exposure, Melanesians exhibited elevated MM incidence in both men and women at a mean age of 60. A sex ratio close to 1 compounded with the relatively young ages of MM cases confirmed environmental causation within the Melanesian population. We found one significant and two secondary spatial clusters of MM in tribal areas. No temporal cluster was

  4. Parental exposure to environmental concentrations of diuron leads to aneuploidy in embryos of the Pacific oyster, as evidenced by fluorescent in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranger, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.barranger@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Benabdelmouna, Abdellah, E-mail: abdellah.benabdelmouna@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Dégremont, Lionel [Ifremer, SG2M, Laboratory of Genetics and Pathology of Marine Molluscs, Avenue de Mus du Loup, 17390 La Tremblade (France); Burgeot, Thierry; Akcha, Farida [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • FISH was realized on oyster embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • rDNA genes were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. • Higher aneuploidy level was observed in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors. • Hypo- and hyperdiploid (triploid) nuclei were detected. - Abstract: Changes in normal chromosome numbers (i.e. aneuploidy) due to abnormal chromosome segregation may arise either spontaneously or as a result of chemical/radiation exposure, particularly during cell division. Coastal ecosystems are continuously subjected to various contaminants originating from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. Genotoxicity is common to several families of major environmental pollutants, including pesticides, which therefore represent a potential important environmental hazard for marine organisms. A previous study demonstrated the vertical transmission of DNA damage by subjecting oyster genitors to short-term exposure to the herbicide diuron at environmental concentrations during gametogenesis. In this paper, Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to further characterize diuron-induced DNA damage at the chromosomal level. rDNA genes (5S and 18-5.8-28S), previously mapped onto Crassostrea gigas chromosomes 4, 5 and 10, were used as probes on the interphase nuclei of embryo preparations. Our results conclusively show higher aneuploidy (hypo- or hyperdiploidy) level in embryos from diuron-exposed genitors, with damage to the three studied chromosomal regions. This study suggests that sexually developing oysters are vulnerable to diuron exposure, incurring a negative impact on reproductive success and oyster recruitment.

  5. Characterization of clinical and environmental Mycobacterium avium spp. isolates and their interaction with human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Guirado

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC are naturally occurring bacteria in the environment. A link has been suggested between M. avium strains in drinking water and clinical isolates from infected individuals. There is a need to develop new screening methodologies that can identify specific virulence properties of M. avium isolates found in water that predict a level of risk to exposed individuals. In this work we have characterized 15 clinical and environmental M. avium spp. isolates provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to improve our understanding of the key processes involved in the binding, uptake and survival of these isolates in primary human macrophages. M. avium serovar 8 was predominant among the isolates studied. Different amounts and exposure of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM and glycopeptidolipids (GPLs, both major mycobacterial virulence factors, were found among the isolates studied. Reference clinical isolate 104 serovar 1 and clinical isolates 11 and 14 serovar 8 showed an increased association with macrophages. Serum opsonization increased the cell association and survival at 2 h post infection for all isolates. However, only the clinical isolates 104 and 3 among those tested showed an increased growth in primary human macrophages. The other isolates varied in their survival in these cells. Thus we conclude that the amounts of cell envelope ManLAM and GPL, as well as GPL serovar specificity are not the only important bacterial factors for dictating the early interactions of M. avium with human macrophages.

  6. CPV Cell Characterization Following One-Year Exposure in Golden, Colorado: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-08-01

    A CPV module containing 30 III-V multijunction cells was operated on?sun for one year in Golden, Colorado. Each cell was characterized prior to and following exposure. A module power degradation of 10% was observed and found to be a result as an overall decrease in cell short circuit current and the presence of at least one shunted cell. A positive correlation between initial shunt current and an increase in shunt current following exposure was also found. Cell exfoliation was also observed and found to be coincident with the presence of water and/or charring of the cell package due to an off-sun event.

  7. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L., E-mail: sarah.burgess@alum.mit.edu [American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009–10 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended.

  8. Evaluation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory in a Danish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Skovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate a Danish translation of the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (QEESI. Methods. The study included two groups: one comprised a random sample of 2000 individuals drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System; the other comprised 315 patients with chemical intolerance. Results. The evaluation suggested good reliability for the four QEESI scales in terms of internal consistency and coefficients between test and retest scores. The discriminatory validity was the largest for the Chemical (inhalant Intolerance and Life Impact Scales. Using combined cut-off scores for these two scales provided a sensitivity of 92.1 and a specificity of 91.8 and yielded a prevalence of 8.2% in the population group. Conclusions. The Danish translation of the QEESI showed overall good reliability and validity. We recommend the use of the combined Chemical (inhalant Intolerance and Life Impact Scales in future studies.

  9. Diet and specific microbial exposure trigger features of environmental enteropathy in a novel murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric M; Wlodarska, Marta; Willing, Benjamin P; Vonaesch, Pascale; Han, Jun; Reynolds, Lisa A; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Uhrig, Marco; Scholz, Roland; Partida, Oswaldo; Borchers, Christoph H; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-08-04

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical chronic inflammatory disease of the small intestine and has a profound impact on the persistence of childhood malnutrition worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease remains unknown and no animal model exists to date, the creation of which would aid in understanding this complex disease. Here we demonstrate that early-life consumption of a moderately malnourished diet, in combination with iterative oral exposure to commensal Bacteroidales species and Escherichia coli, remodels the murine small intestine to resemble features of EE observed in humans. We further report the profound changes that malnutrition imparts on the small intestinal microbiota, metabolite and intraepithelial lymphocyte composition, along with the susceptibility to enteric infection. Our findings provide evidence indicating that both diet and microbes combine to contribute to the aetiology of EE, and describe a novel murine model that can be used to elucidate the mechanisms behind this understudied disease.

  10. Improving disclosure and consent: "is it safe?": new ethics for reporting personal exposures to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Brown, Phil; Rudel, Ruthann A; Altman, Rebecca Gasior; Frye, Margaret; Osimo, Cheryl A; Pérez, Carla; Seryak, Liesel M

    2007-09-01

    The recent flood of research concerning pollutants in personal environmental and biological samples-blood, urine, breastmilk, household dust and air, umbilical cord blood, and other media-raises questions about whether and how to report results to individual study participants. Clinical medicine provides an expert-driven framework, whereas community-based participatory research emphasizes participants' right to know and the potential to inform action even when health effects are uncertain. Activist efforts offer other models. We consider ethical issues involved in the decision to report individual results in exposure studies and what information should be included. Our discussion is informed by our experience with 120 women in a study of 89 pollutants in homes and by interviews with other researchers and institutional review board staff.

  11. Are engineered nano iron oxide particles safe? an environmental risk assessment by probabilistic exposure, effects and risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Deng, Lei; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach. The mean value of the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of nano-FeOX in surface waters in the EU for a worst-case scenario (no particle sedimentation) was estimated to be 28 ng/l. Using a probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined from ecotoxicological data. The risk characterization ratio, calculated by dividing the PEC by PNEC values, was used to characterize the risks. The mean risk characterization ratio was predicted to be several orders of magnitude smaller than 1 (1.4 × 10(-)(4)). Therefore, this modeling effort indicates that only a very limited risk is posed by the current release level of nano-FeOX to organisms in surface waters. However, a better understanding of the hazards of nano-FeOX to the organisms in other ecosystems (such as sediment) needs to be assessed to determine the overall risk of these particles to the environment.

  12. Does mechanistic modeling of filter strip pesticide mass balance and degradation processes affect environmental exposure assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ritter, Amy; Fox, Garey A; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2015-11-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are a widely adopted practice for limiting pesticide transport from adjacent fields to receiving waterbodies. The efficacy of VFS depends on site-specific input factors. To elucidate the complex and non-linear relationships among these factors requires a process-based modeling framework. Previous research proposed linking existing higher-tier environmental exposure models with a well-tested VFS model (VFSMOD). However, the framework assumed pesticide mass stored in the VFS was not available for transport in subsequent storm events. A new pesticide mass balance component was developed to estimate surface pesticide residue trapped in the VFS and its degradation between consecutive runoff events. The influence and necessity of the updated framework on acute and chronic estimated environmental concentrations (EECs) and percent reductions in EECs were investigated across three, 30-year U.S. EPA scenarios: Illinois corn, California tomato, and Oregon wheat. The updated framework with degradation predicted higher EECs than the existing framework without degradation for scenarios with greater sediment transport, longer VFS lengths, and highly sorbing and persistent pesticides. Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) assessed the relative importance of mass balance and degradation processes in the context of other input factors like VFS length (VL), organic-carbon sorption coefficient (Koc), and soil and water half-lives. Considering VFS pesticide residue and degradation was not important if single, large runoff events controlled transport, as is typical for higher percentiles considered in exposure assessments. Degradation processes become more important when considering percent reductions in acute or chronic EECs, especially under scenarios with lower pesticide losses.

  13. Exposure to environmentally-relevant levels of ozone negatively influence pollen and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Colin; Stabler, Daniel; Tallentire, Eva; Goumenaki, Eleni; Barnes, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Triton) revealed that environmentally-relevant levels of ozone (O3) pollution adversely affected pollen germination, germ tube growth and pollen-stigma interactions - pollen originating from plants raised in charcoal-Purafil(®) filtered air (CFA) exhibited reduced germ tube development on the stigma of plants exposed to environmentally-relevant levels of O3. The O3-induced decline in in vivo pollen viability was reflected in increased numbers of non-fertilized and fertilized non-viable ovules in immature fruit. Negative effects of O3 on fertilization occurred regardless of the timing of exposure, with reductions in ovule viability evident in O3 × CFA and CFA × O3 crossed plants. This suggests O3-induced reductions in fertilization were associated with reduced pollen viability and/or ovule development. Fruit born on trusses independently exposed to 100 nmol mol(-1) O3 (10 h d(-1)) from flowering exhibited a decline in seed number and this was reflected in a marked decline in the weight and size of individual fruit - a clear demonstration of the direct consequence of the effects of the pollutant on reproductive processes. Ozone exposure also resulted in shifts in the starch and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of fruit that were consistent with accelerated ripening. The findings of this study draw attention to the need for greater consideration of, and possibly the adoption of weightings for the direct impacts of O3, and potentially other gaseous pollutants, on reproductive biology during 'risk assessment' exercises.

  14. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  15. Determination of cyclohexanol in urine and its use in environmental monitoring of cyclohexanone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C N; Sia, G L; Chia, S E; Phoon, W H; Tan, K T

    1991-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determining urinary cyclohexanol, the main metabolite of cyclohexanone, by hydrolysis and gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector was developed. A 2-mL urine sample was hydrolyzed with 0.4 mL of concentrated HCl and followed by extracting twice with diethylether. Two microL of the filtrate was injected into the GC with a methyl silicone column. The detection limit is estimated to be 0.4 mg/L. The coefficient of variation for the procedure is 8% and 10% for the range of concentration 5 and 50 mg/L, respectively. The within-run variation was 5.4% and between-day variation was 9.67%. The method was verified with urine samples collected from workers exposed to cyclohexanone. An excellent correlation (r = 0.88) was observed between environmental cyclohexanone exposure and cyclohexanol in urine. The procedure is relatively simple and reproducible and it can be applied for occupational health measurement of cyclohexanone exposure.

  16. Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Sam; Croes, Kim; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Sioen, Isabelle; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Baeyens, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies.

  17. Chemical and mechanical consequences of environmental barrier coating exposure to calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, B.; Ramirez-Rico, J.; Almer, J. D.; Kang, L.; Faber, K. (X-Ray Science Division); (NASA Glenn Research Center); (Univ. of Seville); (Rolls-Royce Corp.); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-06-01

    The success of Si-based ceramics as high-temperature structural materials for gas turbine applications relies on the use of environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with low silica activity, such as Ba{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (BSAS), which protect the underlying components from oxidation and corrosion in combustion environments containing water vapor. One of the current challenges concerning EBC lifetime is the effect of sandy deposits of calcium-magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass that melt during engine operation and react with the EBC, changing both its composition and stress state. In this work, we study the effect of CMAS exposure at 1300 C on the residual stress state and composition in BSAS-mullite-Si-SiC multilayers. Residual stresses were measured in BSAS multilayers exposed to CMAS for different times using high-energy X-ray diffraction. Their microstructure was studied using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Our results show that CMAS dissolves the BSAS topcoat preferentially through the grain boundaries, dislodging the grains and changing the residual stress state in the topcoat to a nonuniform and increasingly compressive stress state with increasing exposure time. The presence of CMAS accelerates the hexacelsian-to-celsian phase transformation kinetics in BSAS, which reacts with the glass by a solution-reprecipitation mechanism. Precipitates have crystallographic structures consistent with Ca-doped celsian and Ba-doped anorthite.

  18. Metal dyshomeostasis and inflammation in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: possible impact of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Oddvar; Utkilen, Hans; Duale, Nur; Brunborg, Gunnar; Hofer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A dysregulated metal homeostasis is associated with both Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases; AD patients have decreased cortex and elevated serum copper levels along with extracellular amyloid-beta plaques containing copper, iron, and zinc. For AD, a putative hepcidin-mediated lowering of cortex copper mechanism is suggested. An age-related mild chronic inflammation and/or elevated intracellular iron can trigger hepcidin production followed by its binding to ferroportin which is the only neuronal iron exporter, thereby subjecting it to lysosomal degradation. Subsequently raised neuronal iron levels can induce translation of the ferroportin assisting and copper binding amyloid precursor protein (APP); constitutive APP transmembrane passage lowers the copper pool which is important for many enzymes. Using in silico gene expression analyses, we here show significantly decreased expression of copper-dependent enzymes in AD brain and metallothioneins were upregulated in both diseases. Although few AD exposure risk factors are known, AD-related tauopathies can result from cyanobacterial microcystin and β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) intake. Several environmental exposures may represent risk factors for PD; for this disease neurodegeneration is likely to involve mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. Administration of metal chelators and anti-inflammatory agents could affect disease outcomes.

  19. Low lead environmental exposure alters semen quality and sperm chromatin condensation in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Cebrián, Mariano E; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated environmental-lead (Pb) effects on semen quality and sperm chromatin, considering Pb in seminal fluid (PbSF), spermatozoa (PbSpz), and blood (PbB) as exposure biomarkers in urban men (9.3 microg/dL PbB). Several individuals (44%) showed decreases in sperm quality; sperm concentration, motility, morphology and viability associated negatively with PbSpz, whereas semen volume associated negatively with PbSF. Multiple linear regression estimated PbSF and PbSpz thresholds for alterations in semen quality. Forty-eight percent of samples showed high values of nuclear chromatin condensation (NCD) positively associated with PbSF and zinc in spermatozoa (ZnSpz). ZnSpz values were higher than in fertile men. These results suggest that Pb may affect sperm chromatin by altering sperm Zn availability. PbB was not associated with semen quality or NCD, suggesting that Pb in semen compartments assesses better the amount of Pb in the reproductive tract; therefore, these are better biomarkers to evaluate toxicity at low Pb-exposure levels.

  20. Making the Environmental Justice Grade: The Relative Burden of Air Pollution Exposure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Keating, Martha H.; Paul, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels. PMID:21776200

  1. Evaluation of exposure to PAHs in asphalt workers by environmental and biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Buratti, Marina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Cirla, Piero E; Martinotti, Irene; Longhi, Omar; Cavallo, Domenico; Foà, Vito

    2006-09-01

    In the present article we assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Italian asphalt workers (AW, n = 100), exposed to bitumen fumes and diesel exhausts, and in roadside construction workers (CW, n = 47), exposed to diesel exhausts, by means of environmental and biological monitoring. 1-hydroxypyrene (OH-Py) was determined in urine spot samples collected, respectively, after 2 days of vacation (baseline), before, and at the end of the monitored work shift, in the second part of the workweek. Median airborne levels during the work shift of 15 PAHs (both vapor and particulate phases), from naphthalene (NAP) to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, ranged from below 0.03 to 426 ng/m(3). Median excretion values of OH-Py in baseline, before- and end-shift samples were 228, 402, and 690 ng/L for AW and 260, 304, and 378 ng/L for CW. Lower values were found in nonsmokers compared to smokers (e.g., in AW 565 and 781 versus 252 and 506 ng/L in before-shift and end-shift samples, respectively). In all subjects a weak correlation between personal exposure to the sum of airborne 15 PAHs and OH-Py was observed (r = 0.30). The results of this article show that AW experienced a moderate occupational exposure to airborne PAHs, resulting in a significant increase of urinary OH-Py during the workday and the workweek. The contribution of working activities to internal dose was in the same order of magnitude of the contribution of cigarette smoking.

  2. Risk assessment due to environmental exposures to fibrous particulates associated with taconite ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard; McConnell, Ernest E; Ross, M; Axten, Charles W; Nolan, Robert P

    2008-10-01

    In the early 1970s, it became a concern that exposure to the mineral fibers associated taconite ore processed in Silver Bay, Minnesota would cause asbestos-related disease including gastrointestinal cancer. At that time data gaps existed which have now been significantly reduced by further research. To further our understanding of the types of airborne fibers in Silver Bay we undertook a geological survey of their source the Peter Mitchell Pit, and found that there are no primary asbestos minerals at a detectable level. However we identified two non-asbestos types of fibrous minerals in very limited geological locales. Air sampling useful for risk assessment was done to determine the type, concentrations and size distribution of the population of airborne fibers around Silver Bay. Approximately 80% of the airborne fibers have elemental compositions consistent with cummingtonite-grunerite and the remaining 20% have elemental compositions in the tremolite-actinolite series. The mean airborne concentration of both fiber types is less than 0.00014 fibers per milliliter that is within the background level reported by the World Health Organization. We calculate the risk of asbestos-related mesothelioma and lung cancer using a variety of different pessimistic assumptions. (i) that all the non-asbestos fibers are as potent as asbestos fibers used in the EPA-IRIS listing for asbestos; with a calculated risk of asbestos-related cancer for environmental exposure at Silver Bay of 1 excess cancer in 28,500 lifetimes (or 35 excess cancers per 1,000,000 lifetimes) and secondly that taconite associated fibers are as potent as chrysotile the least potent form of asbestos. The calculated risk is less than 0.77 excess cancer case in 1,000,000 lifetimes. Finally, we briefly review the epidemiology studies of grunerite asbestos (amosite) focusing on the exposure conditions associated with increased risk of human mesothelioma.

  3. Characterization of air manganese exposure estimates for residents in two Ohio towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Michelle A.; Julian, Jaime R.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Roels, Harry A.; Lobdell, Danelle T.; Bowler, Rosemarie M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to derive receptor-specific outdoor exposure concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and respirable (dae ≤ 10 μm) air manganese (air-Mn) for East Liverpool and Marietta (Ohio) in the absence of facility emissions data, but where long-term air measurements were available. Our “site-surface area emissions method” used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) dispersion model and air measurement data to estimate concentrations for residential receptor sites in the two communities. Modeled concentrations were used to create ratios between receptor points and calibrated using measured data from local air monitoring stations. Estimated outdoor air-Mn concentrations were derived for individual study subjects in both towns. The mean estimated long-term air-Mn exposure levels for total suspended particulate were 0.35 μg/m3 (geometric mean [GM]) and 0.88 μg/m3 (arithmetic mean [AM]) in East Liverpool (range: 0.014–6.32 μg/m3) and 0.17 μg/m3 (GM) and 0.21 μg/m3 (AM) in Marietta (range: 0.03–1.61 μg/m3). Modeled results compared well with averaged ambient air measurements from local air monitoring stations. Exposure to respirable Mn particulate matter (PM10; PM <10 μm) was higher in Marietta residents. Implications Few available studies evaluate long-term health outcomes from inhalational manganese (Mn) exposure in residential populations, due in part to challenges in measuring individual exposures. Local long-term air measurements provide the means to calibrate models used in estimating long-term exposures. Furthermore, this combination of modeling and ambient air sampling can be used to derive receptor-specific exposure estimates even in the absence of source emissions data for use in human health outcome studies. PMID:26211636

  4. Analysis of an Environmental Exposure Health Questionnaire in a Metropolitan Minority Population Utilizing Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chau-Kuang; Bruce, Michelle; Tyler, Lauren; Brown, Claudine; Garrett, Angelica; Goggins, Susan; Lewis-Polite, Brandy; Weriwoh, Mirabel L; Juarez, Paul D.; Darryl B. Hood; Skelton, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze a 54-item instrument for assessment of perception of exposure to environmental contaminants within the context of the built environment, or exposome. This exposome was defined in five domains to include 1) home and hobby, 2) school, 3) community, 4) occupation, and 5) exposure history. Interviews were conducted with child-bearing-age minority women at Metro Nashville General Hospital at Meharry Medical College. Data were analyzed utilizing DTReg software ...

  5. The influence of insecticide exposure and environmental stimuli on the movement behaviour and dispersal of a freshwater isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusiak, Jacqueline; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes and can be very sensitive towards environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. As such, behavioural indicators of toxicity are well suited for assessing impacts of pesticides at sublethal concentrations found in the environment. Recent developments in video-tracking technologies offer the possibility of quantifying behavioural patterns, particularly locomotion, which in general has not been studied and understood very well for aquatic macroinvertebrates to date. In this study, we aim to determine the potential effects of exposure to two neurotoxic pesticides with different modes of action at different concentrations (chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) on the locomotion behaviour of the water louse Asellus aquaticus. We compare the effects of the different exposure regimes on the behaviour of Asellus with the effects that the presence of food and shelter exhibit to estimate the ecological relevance of behavioural changes. We found that sublethal pesticide exposure reduced dispersal distances compared to controls, whereby exposure to chlorpyrifos affected not only animal activity but also step lengths while imidacloprid only slightly affected step lengths. The presence of natural cues such as food or shelter induced only minor changes in behaviour, which hardly translated to changes in dispersal potential. These findings illustrate that behaviour can serve as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity assessments. However, under natural conditions, depending on the exposure concentration, the actual impacts might be outweighed by environmental conditions that an organism is subjected to. It is, therefore, of importance that the assessment of toxicity on behaviour is done under relevant environmental conditions.

  6. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Alimi, T O; Beier, J C

    2014-03-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks.

  7. Characterization of Black Sand Mining Activities and Their Environmental Impacts in the Philippines Using Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Chaussard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite is a type of iron ore and a valuable commodity that occurs naturally in black sand beaches in the Philippines. However, black sand mining often takes place illegally and increases the likelihood and magnitude of geohazards, such as land subsidence, which augments the exposure of local communities to sea level rise and to typhoon-related threats. Detection of black sand mining activities traditionally relies on word of mouth, while measurement of their environmental effects requires on-the-ground geological surveys, which are precise, but costly and limited in scope. Here we show that systematic analysis of remote sensing data provides an objective, reliable, safe, and cost-effective way to monitor black sand mining activities and their impacts. First, we show that optical satellite data can be used to identify legal and illegal mining sites and characterize the direct effect of mining on the landscape. Second, we demonstrate that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR can be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of black sand mining despite the small spatial extent of the activities. We detected a total of twenty black sand mining sites on Luzon Island and InSAR ALOS data reveal that out of the thirteen sites with coherence, nine experienced land subsidence at rates ranging from 1.5 to 5.7 cm/year during 2007–2011. The mean ground velocity map also highlights that the spatial extent of the subsiding areas is 10 to 100 times larger than the mining sites, likely associated with groundwater use or sediment redistribution. As a result of this subsidence, several coastal areas will be lowered to sea level elevation in a few decades and exposed to permanent flooding. This work demonstrates that remote sensing data are critical in monitoring the development of such activities and their environmental and societal impacts.

  8. Genetic and environmental exposures constrain epigenetic drift over the human life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; Marioni, Riccardo E; Harris, Sarah E; Gibson, Jude; Henders, Anjali K; Redmond, Paul; Cox, Simon R; Pattie, Alison; Corley, Janie; Murphy, Lee; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Starr, John M; Wray, Naomi R; Deary, Ian J; Visscher, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation (DNAm) are essential for regulation of gene expression. DNAm is dynamic, influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic drift is the divergence of the epigenome as a function of age due to stochastic changes in methylation. Here we show that epigenetic drift may be constrained at many CpGs across the human genome by DNA sequence variation and by lifetime environmental exposures. We estimate repeatability of DNAm at 234,811 autosomal CpGs in whole blood using longitudinal data (2-3 repeated measurements) on 478 older people from two Scottish birth cohorts--the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936. Median age was 79 yr and 70 yr, and the follow-up period was ∼10 yr and ∼6 yr, respectively. We compare this to methylation heritability estimated in the Brisbane Systems Genomics Study, a cross-sectional study of 117 families (offspring median age 13 yr; parent median age 46 yr). CpG repeatability in older people was highly correlated (0.68) with heritability estimated in younger people. Highly heritable sites had strong underlying cis-genetic effects. Thirty-seven and 1687 autosomal CpGs were associated with smoking and sex, respectively. Both sets were strongly enriched for high repeatability. Sex-associated CpGs were also strongly enriched for high heritability. Our results show that a large number of CpGs across the genome, as a result of environmental and/or genetic constraints, have stable DNAm variation over the human lifetime. Moreover, at a number of CpGs, most variation in the population is due to genetic factors, despite some sites being highly modifiable by the environment.

  9. Characterizing worker exposure to bitumen during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Ferrari, Pietro; Wegh, Hillion; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2002-01-01

    A survey of bitumen exposure was carried out during hot mix paving and asphalt mixing. Four methods of characterizing and quantifying bitumen fume in inhalable particles were used: gravimetric, infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and total absorbance (of the particle filter surface). Dermal deposition of bitumen was assessed by determination of cyclohexanesoluble matter in the material collected by paper or cotton pads worn on the inside of a person's wrists. The researchers studied the correlation patterns between results of these methods using pairwise correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (for air concentrations only). For hot mix paving, within- and between-worker variance components were evaluated, adjusting for area paved. Collected fume was dark in color and mainly consisted of aliphatic hydrocarbons of less than 20 carbon atoms. Inconsistent correlation patterns between dermal deposition and air levels were observed. Quantification of organic matter using either infrared spectroscopy or gas chromatography appeared to be good methods for monitoring inhalable bitumen fume. Cotton pads seem to be more promising than paper pads for measuring dermal exposure during paving. Paving workers were uniformly exposed to bitumen fume. Assessment of the uniformity of dermal exposure depended on the type of pad used. Day-to-day variability and intensity of inhalable and dermal bitumen exposures depended on area paved. The small size of the study limits the potential application of the results to the asphalt industry in general. More research is needed to develop a valid and inexpensive method of assessing total bitumen exposure.

  10. Evaluation of the Modeling of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the SHEDS-PM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H Christopher; Liu, Xiaozhen; Deshpande, Bela K

    2009-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to be a major contributor to indoor PM concentration and human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. Because indoor exposures to ETS can be high, especially in indoor residential microenvironments, a critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the cigarette emission rate was found to be the most important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model.

  11. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P intervention group (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  12. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  13. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  14. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the /sup 239/Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant /sup 239/Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total /sup 239/Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the /sup 239/Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the /sup 239/Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the /sup 239/Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables.

  15. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davutoglu Mehmet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  16. Hurricane exposure and county fetal death rates, utilization of a county environmental quality index for confounding control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of natural disasters on public health are a rising concern, with increasing severity of disaster events. Many disaster studies utilize county-level analysis, however most do not control for county level environmental factors. Hurricane exposure during pregnancy could ...

  17. Anxiety affecting parkinsonian outcome and motor efficiency in adults of an Ohio community with environmental airborne manganese exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is a nutrient and neurotoxicant sometimes associated with mood, motor and neurological effects. Reports of health effects from occupational exposure to Mn are well known, but the reported links to environmental airborne Mn (Mn-Air) are less conclusive. Marietta, OH...

  18. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe r...

  19. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  20. Exposure characterization for highway construction. Part I: Cut and cover and tunnel finish stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, N A; Woskie, S R; Greenspan, C A

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize respirable dust, crystalline silica, diesel, and noise exposures to construction workers on a large highway construction project in Boston, Massachusetts. The study primarily focused on operating engineers and laborers, and to a lesser extent on ironworkers and carpenters during the tunnel finish and cut and cover stages. Full and partial shift noise dosimeter measurements were collected. Eighty percent of the 40 noise measurements were at or above 85 dBA, with the operating engineers averaging 91 dBA. Sample collection for respirable dust, crystalline silica, and diesel particulates measured as elemental carbon was done using cyclones and personal cascade impactors. Exposure to respirable dust ranged from 0.06 to 21.77 mg/m3 for the 77 workers sampled, with the laborers having the highest mean concentration of 2.85 mg/m3. The respirable quartz measurements for the 32 samples collected ranged from the detection limit of 0.008 mg/m3 to 1.64 mg/m3, with the highest mean concentration of 0.31 mg/m3 attributed to the laborers. The use of drills, when compared to other machine types, produced the highest exposures to respirable quartz. The levels for elemental carbon ranged from 4 to 178 micrograms/m3 (mean of 41 micrograms/m3) inside enclosed work spaces, compared with 0.5 to 53 micrograms/m3 (mean of 10 micrograms/m3) for samples collected in unenclosed work sites. Statistical modeling of the factors influencing the elemental carbon exposures showed that machine type, worker distance from the diesel source, the number of other diesel sources in the work area, and site enclosure were all significant exposure determinants. The results indicate that high exposures to noise, respirable dust, and crystalline silica are common in the highway construction industry.

  1. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  2. [Methodological aspects in environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to low doses of benzene: problems and possible solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranfo, Giovanna; Paci, Enrico; Fustinoni, Silvia; Barbieri, Anna; Carrieri, Mariella

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some methods to measure human exposure to benzene, both in life and occupational environments, through environmental and biological monitoring, examining the critical issues and optimal conditions of use. The overall performance of environmental monitoring, from the analytical point of view, strongly depend on the choice of an appropriate method of sampling and analysis. Urinary SPMA and t, t-MA are the biomarkers listed by ACGIH to evaluate occupational exposure: most of the recent studies use HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry, but since t, t-MA is present in the urine in larger quantities it is also determinable with UV detectors. The urinary benzene is an index not officially included in the list of the ACGIH BEIs, but it is useful to assess exposure and benzene at low concentrations, that most frequently are found today in the occupational and life environments.

  3. Use of response biomarkers in milk for assessing exposure to environmental contaminants: the case for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl-Jones, W L; Bols, N C

    2000-01-01

    Screening for environmental contaminants in milk is generally conducted by chemical analysis, yet such an approach may be time-consuming and expensive, and is not indicative of the physiological consequences of such exposure. The focus of this review is to summarize those constituents of milk that may be altered by maternal exposure to one of the most biologically active environmental pollutants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and to develop the case for their use as biomarkers of response. Several chemical and/or cellular components of milk are potentially useful as biomarkers, and may be developed as convenient, biologically relevant indicators of maternal exposure to dioxin-like compounds.

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  7. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  8. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  9. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian L Megson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031 and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001 but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI -8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction.

  10. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  11. The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods. Pt. 7. Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Drexler, G. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Petoussi-Henss, N. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Saito, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents a tabulation of organ and tissue equivalent dose as well as effective dose conversion coefficients, normalised to air kerma free in air, for occupational exposures and environmental exposures of the public to external photon radiation. For occupational exposures, whole-body irradiation with idealised geometries, i.e. broad parallel beams and fully isotropic radiation incidence, is considered. The directions of incidence for the parallel beams are anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral and a full 360 rotation around the body`s longitudinal axis. The influence of beam divergence on the body doses is also considered as well as the dependence of effective dose on the angle of radiation incidence. Regarding exposure of the public to environmental sources, three source geometries are considered: exposure from a radioactive cloud, from ground contamination and from the natural radionuclides distributed homogeneously in the ground. The precise angular and energy distributions of the gamma rays incident on the human body were taken into account. The organ dose conversion coefficients given in this catalogue were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the photon transport in mathematical models of an adult male and an adult female, respectively. Conversion coefficients are given for the equivalent dose of 23 organs and tissues as well as for effective dose and the equivalent dose of the so-called `remainder`. The organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given separately for the adult male and female models and - as arithmetic mean of the conversion coefficients of both - for an average adult. Fitted data of the coefficients are presented in tables; the primary raw data as resulting from the Monte Carlo calculation are shown in figures together with the fitted data. (orig.)

  12. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  13. Predictors of environmental lead exposure among pregnant women – a prospective cohort study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLL in women of child-bearing age have been decreasing in recent decades, but still remains a concern for long-term effects of child psychomotor development. The aim of the study was to characterize lead exposure among Polish pregnant women and assess the relationship between BLL and selected socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 594 pregnant women who had been the subjects of the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL. The women were interviewed three times during pregnancy (once in each trimester. Lead concentration in the blood collected during the second trimester of pregnancy was analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS, or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Active and passive smoking was analyzed by the cotinine level in saliva using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The lead level in the blood ranged from 0.3 – 5.7 μg/dL, with a geometric mean (GM of 1.1 μg/dL (GSD }0.2 μg/dL. Statistically significant associations were found between BLL and factors such as maternal age (β=0.01; p=0.02, education (β=0.08; p=0.04 and prepregnancy BMI (β=0.1; p=0.001. Additionally, BLL increased with increasing cotinine level in saliva (β=0.02; p=0.06 and decreased with the increasing distance from the copper smelter (β=-0.1; p=0.009. Public health interventions, especially in regions with a higher level of exposure to lead, among women with lower SES and among smokers, are still reasonable.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  15. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  16. Hair as a biological indicator of drug use, drug abuse or chronic exposure to environmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Ziavrou, Kallirroe S; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    In recent years hair has become a fundamental biological specimen, alternative to the usual samples blood and urine, for drug testing in the fields of forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology and clinical chemistry. Moreover, hair-testing is now extensively used in workplace testing, as well as, on legal cases, historical research etc. This article reviews methodological and practical issues related to the application of hair as a biological indicator of drug use/abuse or of chronic exposure to environmental toxicants. Hair structure and the mechanisms of drug incorporation into it are commented. The usual preparation and extraction methods as well as the analytical techniques of hair samples are presented and commented on. The outcomes of hair analysis have been reviewed for the following categories: drugs of abuse (opiates, cocaine and related, amphetamines, cannabinoids), benzodiazepines, prescribed drugs, pesticides and organic pollutants, doping agents and other drugs or substances. Finally, the specific purpose of the hair testing is discussed along with the interpretation of hair analysis results regarding the limitations of the applied procedures.

  17. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-05-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8-41µm in length and 0.4-1.39µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance.

  18. Characterizing dose-responses of catalase to nitrofurazone exposure in model ciliated protozoan Euplotes vannus for ecotoxicity assessment: enzyme activity and mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqiu; Zhou, Liang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-02-01

    In environmental studies, some biological responses, known as biomarkers, have been used as a powerful bioassay tool for more than four decades. Disparity between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance leads to correlation equivocality, which makes the application of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment more complicated. This study investigates this disparity in the case of catalase when used as a biomarker for detecting ecotoxicity induced by antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, dose-responses for catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance were investigated in Euplotes vannus which were exposed to graded doses of nitrofurazone for several discrete durations, and dose-response models were developed to characterize the dose-response dynamics. Significant differences were found in both catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance among the E. vannus treated with nitrofurazone. Catalase activity showed a hormetic-like effect in terms of dose-response, characterized by a biphasic relationship which was more clearly evident after a longer exposure period, while mRNA expression abundance increased linearly with the exposure duration. Additionally, the correlation between catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance reversed along with the duration of exposure to nitrofurazone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that catalase mRNA expression offers a more straightforward dose-response model than enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that both catalase enzyme activity and mRNA expression abundance can be used jointly as bioassay tools for detecting ecotoxicity induced by nitrofurazone in aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Characterization of Pesticide Exposure in a Sample of Pregnant Women in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 nonagricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphatedialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites [ethylene thiourea (ETU) and propylene thiourea (PTU)], 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclo propanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, although the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region.

  20. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  1. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in nonsmoking men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, W Ryan; Teras, Lauren R; Gaudet, Mia M; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-04-15

    Little is known about the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in nonsmokers who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Previous research on NHL and ETS has not included men or examined doses of ETS exposure during childhood. The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort collected information on smoking habits and exposure to ETS during childhood and adulthood. Among 61,326 never-smoking men and women, 884 incident cases of NHL were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to identify associations between ETS and NHL risk. Compared with no exposure to ETS as a child or an adult, childhood and/or adult ETS exposure was not associated with NHL overall. There was a positive association between the number of smokers in the house as a child (P for trend = 0.05) and exposure to 6 or more hours per week of ETS as an adult (relative risk = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 5.04) with follicular lymphoma risk. Adult ETS exposure was associated with a lower risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.97). This study suggests that adult and childhood ETS exposure may affect the risk of NHL, and that the associations differ by histological subtype.

  3. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  4. Environmental monitoring and assessment of short-term exposures to hazardous chemicals of a sterilization process in hospital working environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koda S

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess short-term exposures to ethylene oxide, formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in a sterilization process, the authors conducted continuous environmental monitoring of these chemicals in the breathing zone of workers in 2 hospitals. The arithmetic mean of ethylene oxide was 1.2 ppm near unventilated cabinets housing sterilizing materials, and environmental concentrations of ethylene oxide could not be reduced under threshold limit values time weighted average by only managing general ventilation. Environmental concentration of formaldehyde was lower in a properly ventilated pathology division in which no large specimens were stored (0.3 ppm than in the pathology division where large specimens were stored (2.3 ppm. Although environmental concentrations of glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit with proper general ventilation were not detectable, environmental concentration levels in an endoscopy unit without general ventilation system were 0.2 and 0.5 ppm. According to the results of environmental monitoring in the breathing zone of workers, extremely high concentrations were observed in some work practices (ethylene oxide, 300 ppm; formaldehyde, 8.6 ppm; glutaraldehyde, 2.6 ppm. In order to avoid occupational exposures to these chemicals and prevent potential chronic and acute health hazards, good communications with these chemicals, good work practices, appropriate personal protective equipment, and engineering controls should be required.

  5. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  6. Effects of environmental contaminant exposure on visual brain development: a prospective electrophysiological study in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Audrey-Anne; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Arfken, Cynthia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Saint-Amour, Dave

    2012-10-01

    The Inuit from Nunavik (Northern Québec) are one of the most highly exposed populations to environmental contaminants in North America mainly due to the bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and marine mammals that constitute an important part of their diet. This follow-up study aimed to assess the impact of exposure to contaminants on visual brain development in school-age Inuit children (mean age=10.9 years). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in umbilical cord blood and again in blood samples at the time of testing, reflecting pre- and current exposure, respectively. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were scalp-recorded at the occipital cortex. Visual stimulation consisted of achromatic gratings presented at four visual contrast levels: 95%, 30%, 12% and 4%. The relation between environmental contaminant body burdens and VEPs was examined by regression analysis controlling for confounding variables, including fish nutrients and other toxicants. No significant association was found for PCB exposure after statistical adjustments. Cord blood mercury level was associated with a reduction of the N75 amplitude at the highest contrast level and with a delay of the N75 latency at the 12% contrast level. Prenatal exposure to lead was associated with a delay of the N150 latency at most contrast levels. This study suggests that heavy metal exposure, in particular during the gestational period, can impair the development of visual processing.

  7. The association between environmental exposures during childhood and the subsequent development of Crohn’s disease: A score analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Esme; Mazinu, Mikateko

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiology of Crohn’s Disease (CD). In South Africa, recently published work based on an investigation of 14 childhood environmental exposures during 3 age intervals (0–5, 6–10 and 11–18 years) has provided insight into the role of timing of exposure in the future development of CD. The ‘overlapping’ contribution of the investigated variables however, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to perform a post hoc analysis using this data and investigate the extent to which each variable contributes to the subsequent development of CD relative to each aforementioned age interval, based on a score analysis approach. Methods Three methods were used for the score analysis. Two methods employed the subgrouping of one or more (similar) variables (methods A and B), with each subgroup assigned a score value weighting equal to one. For comparison, the third approach (method 0) involved no grouping of the 14 variables. Thus, each variable held a score value of one. Results Results of the score analysis (Method 0) for the environmental exposures during 3 age intervals (0–5, 6–10 and 11–18 years) revealed no significant difference between the case and control groups. By contrast, results from Method A and Method B revealed a significant difference during all 3 age intervals between the case and control groups, with cases having significantly lower exposure scores (approximately 30% and 40% lower, respectively). Conclusion Results from the score analysis provide insight into the ‘compound’ effects from multiple environmental exposures in the aetiology of CD. PMID:28170439

  8. CT characteristics of pleural plaques related to occupational or environmental asbestos exposure from South Korean asbestos mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Myong, Jun Pyo [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Kyong [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soon Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluated the CT characteristics of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals and compared occupational versus environmental exposure groups. This study enrolled 181 subjects with occupational exposure and 98 with environmental exposure from chrysotile asbestos mines, who had pleural plaques confirmed by a chest CT. The CT scans were analyzed for morphological characteristics, the number and distribution of pleural plaques and combined pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, the CT findings were compared between the occupational and environmental exposure groups. Concerning the 279 subjects, the pleural plaques were single in 2.2% and unilateral in 3.6%, and showed variable widths (range, 1-20 mm; mean, 5.4 ± 2.7 mm) and lengths (5-310 mm; 72.6 ± 54.8 mm). The chest wall was the most commonly involved (98.6%), with an upper predominance on the ventral side (upper, 77.8% vs. lower, 55.9%, p < 0.001) and a lower predominance on the dorsal side (upper, 74.9% vs. lower, 91.8%, p = 0.02). Diaphragmatic involvement (78.1%) showed a right-side predominance (right, 73.8% vs. left, 55.6%, p < 0.001), whereas mediastinal plaques (42.7%) were more frequent on the left (right, 17.6% vs. left, 39.4%, p < 0.001). The extent and maximum length of plaques, and presence and severity of combined asbestosis, were significantly higher in the occupational exposure group (p < 0.05). Pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed individuals are variable in number and size; and show a predominant distribution in the upper ventral and lower dorsal chest walls, right diaphragm, and left mediastinum. Asbestos mine workers have a higher extent of plaques and pulmonary fibrosis versus environmentally exposed individuals.

  9. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  10. Impact of environmental exposures on ovarian function and role of xenobiotic metabolism during ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Poulomi; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2012-06-15

    The mammalian ovary is a heterogeneous organ and contains oocyte-containing follicles at varying stages of development. The most immature follicular stage, the primordial follicle, comprises the ovarian reserve and is a finite number, defined at the time of birth. Depletion of all follicles within the ovary leads to reproductive senescence, known as menopause. A number of chemical classes can destroy follicles, thus hastening entry into the menopausal state. The ovarian response to chemical exposure can determine the extent of ovotoxicity that occurs. Enzymes capable of bioactivating as well as detoxifying xenobiotics are expressed in the ovary and their impact on ovotoxicity has been partially characterized for trichloroethylene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. This review will discuss those studies, as well as illustrate where knowledge gaps remain for chemicals that have also been established as ovotoxicants. -- Highlights: ► Summary of ovotoxicant action during ovotoxicity. ► Discussion of impact of biotransformation on chemical toxicity. ► Identification of knowledge gaps in chemical metabolism.

  11. Molecular toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles to the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is associated with supra-environmental exposure concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nadine S; Merrifield, Ruth; Williams, Tim D; Chipman, J Kevin; Lead, Jamie R; Viant, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used as fuel catalysts and consequently are likely to enter the environment. Their potential impacts on. biota at environmentally relevant concentrations, including uptake and toxicity, remain to be elucidated and quantitative data on which to assess risk are sparse. Therefore, a definitive assessment of the molecular and phenotypic effects of ceria NPs was undertaken, using well-characterised mono-dispersed NPs as their toxicity is likely to be higher, enabling a conservative hazard assessment. Unbiased transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to investigate the potential toxicity of tightly constrained 4-5 nm ceria NPs to the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a sentinel freshwater species. A wide range of exposure concentrations were investigated from predicted environmental levels, to support hazard assessment, to supra-environmental levels to provide insight into molecular toxicity pathways. Ceria NPs were internalised into intracellular vesicles within C. reinhardtii, yet caused no significant effect on algal growth at any exposure concentration. Molecular perturbations were only detected at supra-environmental ceria NP-concentrations, primarily down-regulation of photosynthesis and carbon fixation with associated effects on energy metabolism. For acute exposures to small mono-dispersed particles, it can be concluded there should be little concern regarding their dispersal into the environment for this trophic level.

  12. Quantitative approaches for health risk assessment of environmental pollutants : estimation of differences in sensitivity, relative potencies, and margins of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantari, Fereshteh

    2012-01-01

    Historically, quantitative health risk assessment of chemical substances is based on deterministic approaches. For a more realistic and informative health risk assessment, however, the variability and uncertainty inherent in measurements should be taken into consideration. The variability and uncertainty may be assessed by applying probabilistic methods when performing dose-response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization. The benchmark dose (BMD) method has b...

  13. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  14. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Ghezzi; A. D. Karathanasis; C. J. Matocha; Unrine, J.; Thompson, Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using sca...

  15. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  16. Sources, concentrations, and exposure effects of environmental gestagens on fish and other aquatic wildlife, with an emphasis on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Edward F; Ellestad, Laura E

    2014-07-01

    Fish and other aquatic wildlife, including frogs, turtles, and alligators, have been used as vertebrate sentinels for the effects of endocrine disrupting and other emerging chemicals of concern found in aquatic ecosystems. Research has focused on the effects of estrogenic, androgenic, and thyroidogenic compounds, but there is a growing body of literature on the reproductive health exposure effects of environmental gestagens on aquatic wildlife. Gestagens include native progestogens, such as progesterone, and synthetic progestins, such as gestodene and levonorgestrel, which bind progesterone receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology, especially reproduction. Roles for progestogen include regulating gamete maturation and orchestrating reproductive behavior, both as circulating hormones and as secreted pheromones. Gestagens enter the aquatic environment through paper mill effluent, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and agricultural runoff. A number of gestagens have been shown to negatively affect reproduction, development, and behavior of exposed fish and other aquatic wildlife at ng/L concentrations, and these compounds have been measured in the environment at single to 375 ng/L. Given the importance of endogenous progestogens in the regulation of gametogenesis, secondary sex characteristics, and reproductive behavior in vertebrates and the documented exposure effects of pharmaceutical progestins and progesterone, environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that deserve increased attention from researchers and regulators alike. The potential for environmental gestagens to affect the reproductive health of aquatic vertebrates seems evident, but there are a number of important questions for researchers to address in this nascent field. These include identifying biomarkers of gestagen exposure; testing the effects of environmentally relevant mixtures; and determining what other physiological endpoints and taxa might be

  17. Differences in associations between active transportation and built environmental exposures when expressed using different components of individual activity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeswijck, Torbjorn; Paquet, Catherine; Kestens, Yan; Thierry, Benoit; Morency, Catherine; Daniel, Mark

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed relationships between built environmental exposures measured within components of individual activity spaces (i.e., travel origins, destinations and paths in-between), and use of active transportation in a metropolitan setting. Individuals (n=37,165) were categorised as using active or sedentary transportation based on travel survey data. Generalised Estimating Equations analysis was used to test relationships with active transportation. Strength and significance of relationships between exposures and active transportation varied for different components of the activity space. Associations were strongest when including travel paths in expression of the built environment. Land use mix and greenness were negatively related to active transportation.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in radiation exposure of amphibians - Implications for environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Although amphibians are threatened world-wide, many amphibian species are protected in national legislation. Thus, amphibians need special attention in many environmental risk assessments for releases of contaminants such as radionuclides. In fact, amphibians' ecology and physiology (including, for example, a complex life-cycle with both aquatic and terrestrial life stages, and a thin skin) makes them sensitive to radiation exposure. In current dose models for wildlife, homogenous distribution of radionuclides in soil is assumed. However, soils are heterogeneous environments and radionuclide contamination can be very unevenly distributed. As a consequence, bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota may vary on a local scale. Specifically, organisms' spatial location and movement within habitats may affect both their external and internal exposure pattern to radionuclides. Therefore, measuring the spatial location of individual amphibians within ecosystems and understanding why they use these different locations is essential for predicting potential effects of released radionuclides on these populations. The aim of this study was to investigate amphibians' spatial distribution in a {sup 137}Cs contaminated wetland area and their body content of {sup 137}Cs at the beginning and end of the summer period. The study site was a wetland nature reserve called Bladmyra near Gaevle in the central-eastern part of Sweden. This area received fallout of {sup 137}Cs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study measured the spatial distributions of two amphibian species (Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo) with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags in a mark-and-recapture study during 2012-2014. In addition, {sup 137}Cs body content in the two species was measured by whole body counting in spring and autumn of 2013. The results showed differences between years in how marked animals used the study area: More individuals stayed in a small area during 2012 than in 2013

  19. Dietary exposure to cadmium and health effects: impact of environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1985-11-01

    Cadmium exposure, metabolism, and effects are described especially in relation to dietary intakes. Data on dietary intakes in several countries have been complied from studies using the duplicate diet method or fecal analysis. These two methods seem to give more accurate data than estimates based on cadmium concentrations in food classes and food consumption (composite method). The present data on absorption and retention of ingested cadmium indicate that normally less than 5% is ingested, but absorption may increase in women who have iron deficiency. Earlier estimates of the critical concentration in renal cortex being about 200 mg/kg wet weight still seem to be valid. New information is available on present renal levels and their distribution in the general population. The present margin of safety with regard to risk for renal effects is small. To predict future health risks from increases in dietary cadmium due to environmental changes such as acid deposition, it is necessary that the models used are based on correct assumptions. Of interest are the distributions of dietary intake, gastrointestinal absorption, and renal cadmium concentrations. These distributions are normal or lognormal, and since standard deviations are used when estimating risks, it is of paramount importance that the standard deviations are estimated as accurately as possible. At present it is not possible to quantify the effects attributed to acid rain only; account must be also be taken of cadmium added to, e.g., soil by use of sewage sludge and other fertilizers. In addition to risks to human health, cadmium also poses a threat to horses, which generally have renal cadmium concentrations several times higher than adult humans. It is recommended that horses should be monitored in areas when acid deposition is high. Such monitoring might provide valuable information about impact of acid rain.

  20. Environmental exposure and breast cancer among young women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Jacome, Guillermo Patricio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Rego Monteiro, Gina Torres; Koifman, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Increasing breast cancer rates among young women (series study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro aiming to obtain epidemiological information allowing the generation of hypotheses to be further evaluated in analytical studies. One hundred and ten women 20-35 years old diagnosed with breast cancer were interviewed to determine the role environment plays in patients cased upon residential location. A comprehensive questionnaire including personal information (medical and lifestyle antecedents, reproductive history, family history of cancer, chemical and radiation exposure) was employed, and the obtained data were further compared with data provided by controls (women without cancer). An unconditional logistic regression was further employed to ascertain the respective odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-one percent of cancer cases were sporadic breast cancer, and familial aggregation (first degree relatives) was observed in just 3.5% (5.5% including second-degree relatives). Forty (51.3%) of the cancer cases were reported to have resided at a distance of less than 20 m from an electrical power transformer. Bivariate analysis revealed OR = 5.62 (95% CI 2.63-12) for residential use of pesticides during adulthood, OR = 2.15 (95% CI 1.22-3.77) for dental diagnostic x-rays, and OR= 1.53 (95% 0.77-3.04) for living nearby an electrical power transformer. Further multivariate analysis showed an adjusted OR = 3.5 (95% CI 1.11-11.0) for residential use of pesticides, and an adjusted OR = 2 (95% CI 1.24-3.23) for dental diagnostic x-rays during adulthood. The observed results highlight the importance of exploring the contribution of selected environmental agents possibly involved in breast carcinogenesis among young women.

  1. Features of Microglia and Neuroinflammation Relevant to Environmental Exposure and Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Jean Harry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese

  2. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  3. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  4. Chronic ZnO-NPs exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations results in metabolic and locomotive toxicities in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Li, Shang-Wei; Hsiu-Chuan Liao, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are emerging contaminants that raise the concerns of potential risk in the aquatic environment. It has been estimated that the environmental ZnO-NPs concentration is 76 μg/l in the aquatic environment. Our aim was to determine the aquatic toxicity of ZnO-NPs with chronic exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Two simulated environmentally relevant mediums-moderately hard reconstituted water (EPA water) and simulated soil pore water (SSPW)-were used to represent surface water and pore water in sediment, respectively. The results showed that the ZnO-NPs in EPA water has a much smaller hydrodynamic diameter than that in SSPW. Although the ionic release of Zn ions increased time-dependently in both mediums, the Zn ions concentrations in EPA water increased two-fold more than that in SSPW at 48 h and 72 h. The ZnO-NPs did not induce growth defects or decrease head thrashes in C. elegans in either media. However, chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs caused a significant reduction in C. elegans body bends in EPA water even with a relatively low concentration (0.05 μg/l); similar results were not observed in SSPW. Moreover, at the same concentrations (50 and 500 μg/l), body bends in C. elegans were reduced more severely in ZnO-NPs than in ZnCl2 in EPA water. The ATP levels were consistently and significantly decreased, and ROS was induced after ZnO-NPs exposure (50 and 500 μg/l) in EPA water. Our results provide evidences that chronic exposure to ZnO-NPs under environmentally relevant concentrations causes metabolic and locomotive toxicities implicating the potential ecotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at low concentrations in aquatic environments.

  5. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh; Le Vu-Anh; Nguyen Ngoc-Bich; Thomas Tenkate

    2010-01-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used ...

  6. Advancing the science of environmental exposures during pregnancy and the gene-environment through the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Victoria; Souders, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide nurses with information on the importance of studying environmental exposures during fetal, infant, and childhood development in the National Children's Study. Nurses should be aware of this study to aid in mitigating the complex health problems that arise from environment-health interactions. Nurses may help to educate the public, patients, and caregivers and are in an ideal position to be strong advocates for policy change and regulatory monitoring and enforcement.

  7. Characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption capacities of N2 and various organic vapors (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, and cyclohexane) on select electric-arc and HiPco produced single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were measured at 77 and 298 K, respectively. The amount of N2 adsorbed on a SWNT sample depended on the sample purity, methodology, and on the sample age. Adsorption capacities of organic vapors (100-1000 ppm vol) on SWNT in humid conditions were much higher than those for microporous activated carbons. These results established a foundation for additional studies related to potential environmental applications of SWNT. The MEK adsorption capacities of samples EA95 and CVD80 and mesoporous tire-derived activated carbon in humid conditions were lower than in dry conditions. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting (Austin, TX 11/7-12/2004).

  8. Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

    2004-08-01

    Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing.

  9. Using Microfluidics for Droplet and Particle Characterization of Environmental Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Andrew; Hogan, Chris; Dutcher, Cari

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase flows in microfluidic platforms enable high-throughput experiments for measurement of rheological, thermodynamic, and kinetic interfacial properties. In this talk, I will highlight biphasic microfluidic studies with environmental applications, including atmospheric aerosol properties and water contamination. For example, the fate of atmospheric aerosol particles can be profoundly affected by the presence of surface-active species within the aerosol liquid. In this work, the presence of these species is detected with microfluidic interfacial tensiometry, in which the behavior of the droplet interface under extensional shear is measured. Both secondary organic aerosol chemical mimics and aerosol filter extracts are used in droplet generation. In addition, preliminary work for use of the platform for water treatment applications will be highlighted. Particulate contamination in water can be detected by freezing contaminated droplets at different temperatures to study the perturbed thermodynamic state.

  10. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Impact of an asbestos cement factory on mesothelioma incidence: global assessment of effects of occupational, familial, and environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Carolina; Riboldi, Luciano; De Matteis, Sara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) associated with distinct sources of asbestos exposure (occupational, familial, or environmental). We assessed the impact of asbestos exposure-global and by source-on the incidence of MM in Broni, an Italian town in which an asbestos cement factory once operated (1932-1993). Based on data collected by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we calculated the number of observed and expected MM cases among workers, their cohabitants, and people living in the area in 2000-2011. We identified 147 MM cases (17.45 expected), 138 pleural and nine peritoneal, attributable to exposure to asbestos from the factory. Thirty-eight cases had past occupational exposure at the factory (2.33 expected), numbering 32 men (26 pleural, six peritoneal) and six women (four pleural, two peritoneal). In the families of the workers, there were 37 MM cases (4.23 expected), numbering five men (all pleural) and 32 women (31 pleural, one peritoneal). Among residents in Broni or in the adjacent/surrounding towns, there were 72 cases of pleural MM (10.89 expected), numbering 23 men and 49 women. The largest MM excess was found in the towns of Broni (48 observed, 3.68 expected) and Stradella (16 observed, 1.85 expected). This study documents the large impact of the asbestos cement factory, with about 130 excess MM cases in a 12-year period. The largest MM burden was among women, from non-occupational exposure. Almost half of the MM cases were attributable to environmental exposure.

  12. Consequences of exposure measurement error for confounder identification in environmental epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    exposure given the other independent variables. In addition, confounder effects may also be affected by the exposure measurement error. These difficulties in statistical model development are illustrated by examples from a epidemiological study performed in the Faroe Islands to investigate the adverse...

  13. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentr

  14. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arse...

  15. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  16. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) on preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this ...

  17. Identification and characterization of transcription networks in environmentally significant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Charles E.; McCue, Lee Ann

    2005-11-30

    Understanding the regulation of gene expression, transcription regulation in particular, is one of the grand challenges of molecular biology. Transcription regulation is arguably the most important foundation of cellular function, since it exerts the most fundamental control of the abundance of virtually all of a cell's functional macromolecules. Nevertheless, this process, perhaps because of its difficulty, has been the subject of only a limited number of genomic level analyses. We have undertaken bioinformatics projects to address this issue by developing (1) a cross-species comparison method (i.e. phylogenetic footprinting) for the identification of transcription factor binding sites, (2) a Bayesian clustering method to identify regulons, (3) an improved scanning algorithm that uses a position weight matrix and several related species sequence data to locate transcription factor binding sites, and (4) a method to predict cognate binding sites for transcription factors of unknown specificity. These bioinformatics methods were developed using the model proteobacterium Escherichia coli, with further applications to the genomes of environmentally significant microbes (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Shewanella oneidensis) in later years of the grant.

  18. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  19. Characterization of glycidol-hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure and in vivo dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda.hiroshi@kao.co.jp [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Törnqvist, Margareta [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Unit, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Nishiyama, Naohiro [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Kasamatsu, Toshio, E-mail: kasamatsu.toshio@kao.co.jp [R and D Safety Science Research, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Hemoglobin adducts have been used as biomarkers of exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol, an animal carcinogen, has been reported to form N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine adducts to hemoglobin (diHOPrVal). To support the use of these adducts as markers of glycidol exposure, we investigated the kinetics of diHOPrVal formation and its elimination in vitro and in vivo. Five groups of rats were orally administered a single dose of glycidol ranging from 0 to 75 mg/kg bw, and diHOPrVal levels were measured 24 h after administration. A dose-dependent increase in diHOPrVal levels was observed with high linearity (R{sup 2} = 0.943). Blood sampling at different time points (1, 10, 20, or 40 days) from four groups administered glycidol at 12 mg/kg bw suggested a linear decrease in diHOPrVal levels compatible with the normal turnover of rat erythrocytes (life span, 61 days), with the calculated first-order elimination rate constant (k{sub el}) indicating that the diHOPrVal adduct was chemically stable. Then, we measured the second-order rate constant (k{sub val}) for the reaction of glycidol with N-terminal valine in rat and human hemoglobin in in vitro experiments with whole blood. The k{sub val} was 6.7 ± 1.1 and 5.6 ± 1.3 (pmol/g globin per μMh) in rat and human blood, respectively, indicating no species differences. In vivo doses estimated from k{sub val} and diHOPrVal levels were in agreement with the area under the (concentration–time) curve values determined in our earlier toxicokinetic study in rats. Our results indicate that diHOPrVal is a useful biomarker for quantification of glycidol exposure and for risk assessment. - Highlight: • Glycidol-hemoglobin adduct (diHOPrVal) was characterized for exposure evaluation. • We studied the kinetics of diHOPrVal formation and elimination in vitro and in vivo. • Dose dependent formation and chemical stability were confirmed in the rat study. • In vivo dose (AUC) of glycidol could be estimated from diHOPrVal levels

  20. Development of ICP-MS based nanometrology techniques for characterization of silver nanoparticles in environmental systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, Denise Marie

    The ubiquitous use of goods containing nanoparticles (NPs) will lead inevitably to environmental release and interaction with biota. Methods to detect, quantify, and characterize NPs in environmental matrices are highlighted as one of the areas of highest priority research in understanding potential environmental and health risks. Specifically, techniques are needed to determine the size and concentration of NPs in complex matrices. Particular analytical challenges include distinguishing NPs from other constituents of the matrix (i.e. natural particles, humic substances, and debris), method detection limits are often higher than exposure concentrations, and differentiating dissolved metal and NPs. This work focuses on the development and optimization of two methods that address a number of challenges for nanometrology: single particle (sp)ICP-MS and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4)-ICP-MS. Advancements in the spICP-MS method included systematic studies on distinction between ionic and NP fractions, resolution of polydisperse NP samples, and defining the techniques' dynamic range (in terms of both particle size and concentration). Upon application of the technique, silver (Ag) NPs were discovered in raw wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent. Furthermore, methodical Ag NP stability studies determined the influence of particle capping agents and water chemistry parameters in a variety of synthetic, natural and processed waters. Method development for AF4-ICP-MS revolved around optimizing run conditions (i.e. operational flows, carrier fluid, membrane choice) to study detection limits, sample recovery, and resolution of polydisperse samples. Practical studies included sizing Ag NP in a sediment-dwelling, freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) and the kinetics of accumulation of protein bound Ag+. In direct comparison, spICP-MS was found to be more versatile with less sample preparation and lower total analyte detection limit (ng/L vs

  1. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    publishing articles and forward-looking Perspectives and Reviews that determine and establish ENM physicochemical properties, structure-activity relationships, catalytic effects at the nano/bio interface, mechanistic injury responses, in vitro to in vivo prediction making, safer-by design strategies, actionable screening and detection methods, hazard and risk ranking, fate and transport, ENM categorization, theory and modeling, societal implications, and regulatory/governance decisions.3 Context is important in the immediate and longer-range impact of this research, as we are interested in realistic nanoEHS exposure scenarios conducted with systematic variation of ENM physicochemical properties rather than investigations of a single or a limited number of materials in isolated in vitro studies that only address cytotoxicity at unrealistic doses. In order to make these data useful for researchers, government and regulatory agencies, and other interested parties, these studies, where possible, should include either appropriate positive and negative controls or benchmark materials to answer the important question, “as compared to what?” Dosimetry should be explained in terms of appropriate dose metrics relative to the type of materials, their mechanisms of injury, and exposure conditions, using in vitro to in vivo extrapolations where possible. Another important component of these studies includes appropriate physicochemical characterization of the nanomaterials.

  2. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Robert Rockwell,

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  3. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence.

  4. Monitoring exposure of northern cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis, to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: enzyme activity, reactivations, and indicators of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Jonathan D; Farris, Jerry L

    2005-07-01

    Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) frequently use agricultural field edges in northeast Arkansas, USA, and may be at risk of exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides. We monitored northern cardinal exposure to ChE-inhibiting pesticides by comparing plasma total ChE (TChE) activity to reference-derived benchmarks and TChE reactivations. Total ChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured for 128 plasma samples from 104 northern cardinals from nine study sites. Of birds sampled from sites treated with ChE-inhibiting pesticides, 4.3% of the samples had TChE activities below the diagnostic threshold (2 standard deviations [SD] below the reference mean) and 8.7% of the samples had TChE reactivations. No difference was found in TChE (p = 0.553) and AChE (p = 0.288) activity between treated and reference sites; however, activity varied among treated sites (p = 0.003). These data do not suggest uniform exposure to individuals, but rather exposure was variable and likely influenced by mitigating factors at individual and site scales. Furthermore, monitoring of TChE reactivation appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than the diagnostic threshold. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was greater at agricultural sites than reference sites (p = 0.016), supporting the hypothesis that FA may be useful for assessing a combination of habitat- and contaminant-related environmental stress.

  5. Using problem-based learning for occupational and environmental health nursing education: pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivicek, Kristy; de Castro, A B; Salazar, Mary K; Murphy, Helen H; Keifer, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Problem-based learning, which emphasizes group collaboration to solve real-world case scenarios, is an instructional approach that is well suited to occupational and environmental health nursing education. Learners actively work through case studies rather than passively receive information presented through lectures. Problem-based learning methods promote critical thinking skills and motivate learning, preparing learners for professional practice in complex, ever-changing environments. Despite these advantages, problem-based learning is under-utilized in nursing education compared to more traditional lecture methods. This article presents key concepts of problem-based learning, discusses problem-based learning in educating occupational and environmental health nurses, and describes the development of a problem-based learning case aimed at increasing occupational and environmental health nurses capacity to address pesticide exposure among migrant and seasonal agricultural workers.

  6. A review of environmental and human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wei, Yan-Li; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-01

    Rapid economic growth in South China (including Guangdong Province, Hong Kong, and Macau), particularly within the Pearl River Delta region, has resulted in severe pollution of the natural eco-environment in the last three decades. Large amounts of monitoring data on organic pollution in the Pearl River Delta have been accumulated, which allows us to conduct a fairly comprehensive assessment of the state of the Pearl River Delta and elucidate spatial and temporal patterns of pollution on a regional scale. Of various causes for environmental deterioration, negative impact from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a global concern. This review examines the current levels and distribution patterns of several POPs, namely DDT (and its metabolites DDD and DDE), hexachlorocyclohexanes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in various environmental compartments of South China. The general information on environmental occurrence, regional behaviors, ecological effects, and human exposure of these POPs in this region are reviewed.

  7. Knowledge assistant: A sensor fusion framework for robotic environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Rivera, J.J.; Tucker, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    A prototype sensor fusion framework called the {open_quotes}Knowledge Assistant{close_quotes} has been developed and tested on a gantry robot at Sandia National Laboratories. This Knowledge Assistant guides the robot operator during the planning, execution, and post analysis stages of the characterization process. During the planning stage, the Knowledge Assistant suggests robot paths and speeds based on knowledge of sensors available and their physical characteristics. During execution, the Knowledge Assistant coordinates the collection of data through a data acquisition {open_quotes}specialist.{close_quotes} During execution and post analysis, the Knowledge Assistant sends raw data to other {open_quotes}specialists,{close_quotes} which include statistical pattern recognition software, a neural network, and model-based search software. After the specialists return their results, the Knowledge Assistant consolidates the information and returns a report to the robot control system where the sensed objects and their attributes (e.g. estimated dimensions, weight, material composition, etc.) are displayed in the world model. This paper highlights the major components of this system.

  8. Developmental effects of exposure to ultraviolet B radiation on the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi: Mitochondria as a target of environmental UVB radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Thaline; Schramm, Heloísa; Zeni, Eliane C; Simioni, Carmen; Allodi, Silvana; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2016-10-01

    In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates. Embryos were irradiated with a UVB 6W lamp for 30min and examined after 1h, 12h, 24h and 48h of exposure. The irradiance of the UVB used simulates the UV radiation that embryos receive in the natural environment. The subcellular compartment most affected by the UVB radiation was the mitochondria, which exhibited a circular shape, a decrease in mitochondrial cristae, rupture of membranes and a morphology compatible with fission. These impairments were observed simultaneously with increased ROS production, just after 1h of UVB exposure. Thus, we investigated proteins related to mitochondrial fission (Drp-1) and fusion (Mfn-1), which are essential to cell maintenance. We found a significant increase in Drp-1 expression at all analyzed time-points and a significant decrease in Mfn-1 expression only after 24h of UVB exposure. Additionally, a decrease in embryonic cell viability was verified via the mitochondrial integrity assay. To conclude, we observed important mitochondrial dysfunctions against the environmental stress caused by UVB radiation. Moreover, the cellular responses found are critical and should not be disregarded, because they impact embryos that can potentially compromise the aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and body composition at age 7–9 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, Immle; Van Cauwenberghe, Jolijn [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Govarts, Eva [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Nelen, Vera [Department of Health, Provincial Institute for Hygiene, Kronenburgstraat 45, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeyens, Willy [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene (Belgium); Van Larebeke, Nicolas [Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sioen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.sioen@ugent.be [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, UZ 2 Blok A, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); FWO Research Foundation, Egmontstraat 5, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-07-15

    The study aim was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the body composition of 7 to 9 year old Flemish children. The subjects were 114 Flemish children (50% boys) that took part in the first Flemish Environment and Health Study (2002–2006). Cadmium, PCBs, dioxins, p,p′-DDE and HCB were analysed in cord blood/plasma. When the child reached 7–9 years, height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds were measured. Significant associations between prenatal exposure to EDCs and indicators of body composition were only found in girls. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, a significant negative association was found in girls between prenatal cadmium exposure and weight, BMI and waist circumference (indicator of abdominal fat) and the sum of four skinfolds (indicator of subcutaneous fat). In contrast, a significant positive association (after adjustment for confounders/covariates) was found between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and waist circumference as well as waist/height ratio in girls (indicators of abdominal fat). No significant associations were found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure after adjustment for confounders/covariates. This study suggests a positive association between prenatal p,p′-DDE exposure and indicators of abdominal fat and a negative association between prenatal cadmium exposure and indicators of both abdominal as well as subcutaneous fat in girls between 7 and 9 years old. - Highlights: • Associations between prenatal contaminant exposure and anthropometrics in children. • Significant association only found in girls. • No significant associations found for prenatal PCBs, dioxins and HCB exposure. • Girls: negative association between cadmium and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. • Girls: positive association between p,p′-DDE and indicators of abdominal fat.

  10. Quality control and statistical modeling for environmental epigenetics: a study on in utero lead exposure and DNA methylation at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Sánchez, Brisa N; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Peterson, Karen E; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation data assayed using pyrosequencing techniques are increasingly being used in human cohort studies to investigate associations between epigenetic modifications at candidate genes and exposures to environmental toxicants and to examine environmentally-induced epigenetic alterations as a mechanism underlying observed toxicant-health outcome associations. For instance, in utero lead (Pb) exposure is a neurodevelopmental toxicant of global concern that has also been linked to altered growth in human epidemiological cohorts; a potential mechanism of this association is through alteration of DNA methylation (e.g., at growth-related genes). However, because the associations between toxicants and DNA methylation might be weak, using appropriate quality control and statistical methods is important to increase reliability and power of such studies. Using a simulation study, we compared potential approaches to estimate toxicant-DNA methylation associations that varied by how methylation data were analyzed (repeated measures vs. averaging all CpG sites) and by method to adjust for batch effects (batch controls vs. random effects). We demonstrate that correcting for batch effects using plate controls yields unbiased associations, and that explicitly modeling the CpG site-specific variances and correlations among CpG sites increases statistical power. Using the recommended approaches, we examined the association between DNA methylation (in LINE-1 and growth related genes IGF2, H19 and HSD11B2) and 3 biomarkers of Pb exposure (Pb concentrations in umbilical cord blood, maternal tibia, and maternal patella), among mother-infant pairs of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort (n = 247). Those with 10 μg/g higher patella Pb had, on average, 0.61% higher IGF2 methylation (P = 0.05). Sex-specific trends between Pb and DNA methylation (P < 0.1) were observed among girls including a 0.23% increase in HSD11B2 methylation with 10

  11. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Cai, Yong

    2003-12-15

    Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern) is the first reported arsenic hyperaccumulator. To investigate the arsenic tolerance mechanism in this plant, reversed-phase HPLC with postcolumn derivatization was used to analyze the thiols induced under arsenic exposure. A major thiol in the plant leaflets was found to be responsive to arsenic exposure. The arsenic-induced compound was purified on a large scale by combining covalent chromatography and preparative reversed-phase HPLC. About 2 mg of this compound was isolated from 1 kg of fresh leaflets. The purified arsenic-induced compound was characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. A molecular ion (M + 1) of 540 and fragments were obtained, which indicated that the arsenic-induced thiol was a phytochelatin with two subunits (PC(2)). Compared to the classical methods for purification of phytochelatins, this new method is more specific, simple, and rapid and is suitable for purification of PCs in a large scale as well as sample preparation for mass spectrometry analysis.

  12. Characterization of exposures to airborne nanoscale particles during friction stir welding of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; McCarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 microm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 microm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM(2.5) concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 microm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at approximately 30 and approximately 550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at approximately 4.0 x 10(5) particles cm(-3), whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm(-3), depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10-100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) microg m(-3); the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may

  13. Characterization of Exposures to Airborne Nanoscale Particles During Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Frank E.; Bello, Dhimiter; Haddad, Gilbert; Park, Ji-Young; Powell, Maria; Mccarthy, Jon; Bunker, Kristin Lee; Fehrenbacher, Axel; Jeon, Yongho; Virji, M. Abbas; Gruetzmacher, George; Hoover, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered one of the most significant developments in joining technology over the last half century. Its industrial applications are growing steadily and so are the number of workers using this technology. To date, there are no reports on airborne exposures during FSW. The objective of this study was to investigate possible emissions of nanoscale (<100 nm) and fine (<1 μm) aerosols during FSW of two aluminum alloys in a laboratory setting and characterize their physicochemical composition. Several instruments measured size distributions (5 nm to 20 μm) with 1-s resolution, lung deposited surface areas, and PM2.5 concentrations at the source and at the breathing zone (BZ). A wide range aerosol sampling system positioned at the BZ collected integrated samples in 12 stages (2 nm to 20 μm) that were analyzed for several metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Airborne aerosol was directly collected onto several transmission electron microscope grids and the morphology and chemical composition of collected particles were characterized extensively. FSW generates high concentrations of ultrafine and submicrometer particles. The size distribution was bimodal, with maxima at ∼30 and ∼550 nm. The mean total particle number concentration at the 30 nm peak was relatively stable at ∼4.0 × 105 particles cm−3, whereas the arithmetic mean counts at the 550 nm peak varied between 1500 and 7200 particles cm−3, depending on the test conditions. The BZ concentrations were lower than the source concentrations by 10–100 times at their respective peak maxima and showed higher variability. The daylong average metal-specific concentrations were 2.0 (Zn), 1.4 (Al), and 0.24 (Fe) μg m−3; the estimated average peak concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. Potential for significant exposures to fine and ultrafine aerosols, particularly of Al, Fe, and Zn, during FSW may exist, especially in larger scale industrial

  14. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  15. Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, Irene; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Núñez, María-Isabel; Ramos, Rosa; Guxens, Mònica; Villalba, Juan; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children. A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9-11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S(RMS) and maximum power density (S(MAX)) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of childreńs dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders. All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S(RMS) and S(MAX) values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m(2), respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median S(RMS) levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when S(MAX) values were considered. Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.

  16. Exposure levels of environmental endocrine disruptors in mother-newborn pairs in China and their placental transfer characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Xi Li

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the potential health effects of exposure to various environmental chemicals during pregnancy and infancy. The placenta is expected to be an effective barrier protecting the developing embryo against some endocrine disruptors (EDs circulating in maternal blood. The current study was designed to assess in utero exposure levels of non-persistent organic pollutants (non-POPs and persistent organic pollutants (POPs in Chinese newborns and potential role of placenta barrier against fetal exposure to these commonly-used environmental endocrine disruptors. A total of 230 newborn-mother pairs were enrolled during 2010-2011, 201 pairs of which were recruited from Shanghai, and the other 29 pairs came from Wenzhou. Maternal blood, cord blood, and meconium specimens were collected in the subject population from Shanghai and analyzed for non-POPs, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, octylphenol (OP and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP. A total of 19 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs congeners, which belong to POPs, were detected in maternal and cord blood specimens from the other 29 pairs. Fetal-maternal ratios (F-M ratios and regression coefficients were presented to assess potential function of placenta on barricading the mother/fetal transfer of these EDs. Concentrations of the detected non-POPs in cord blood samples were approximately 20% lower than those in maternal blood, and regression coefficients of which were all over 0.80. In contrast, PBDEs levels in cord blood samples were significantly higher than those in maternal blood. MEHP levels in meconium were much higher than those in cord blood samples, and highly correlated. Therefore, observations demonstrated that the placental barrier slightly decreased the fetal exposure to most non-POPs, while PBDEs seemed to be totally transferred across the placenta and finally reached the fetus. For in utero exposure assessment of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, MEHP level in

  17. Integration of biogenic emissions in environmental fate, transport, and exposure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Christos I.

    Biogenic emissions make a significant contribution to the levels of aeroallergens and secondary air pollutants such as ozone. Understanding major factors contributing to allergic airway diseases requires accurate characterization of emissions and transport/transformation of biogenic emissions. However, biogenic emission estimates are laden with large uncertainties. Furthermore, the current biogenic emission estimation models use low-resolution data for estimating land use, vegetation biomass and VOC emissions. Furthermore, there are currently no established methods for estimating bioaerosol emissions over continental or regional scale, which can impact the ambient levels of pollent that have synergestic effects with other gaseous pollutants. In the first part of the thesis, an detailed review of different approaches and available databases for estimating biogenic emissions was conducted, and multiple geodatabases and satellite imagery were used in a consistent manner to improve the estimates of biogenic emissions over the continental United States. These emissions represent more realistic, higher resolution estimates of biogenic emissions (including those of highly reactive species such as isoprene). The impact of these emissions on tropospheric ozone levels was studied at a regional scale through the application of the USEPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Minor, but significant differences in the levels of ambient ozone were observed. In the second part of the thesis, an algorithm for estimating emissions of pollen particles from major allergenic tree and plant families in the United States was developed, extending the approach for modeling biogenic gas emissions in the Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS). A spatio-temporal vegetation map was constructed from different remote sensing sources and local surveys, and was coupled with a meteorological model to develop pollen emissions rates. This model overcomes limitations posed by the lack of

  18. Procedures for addressing uncertainty and variability in exposure to characterize potential health risk from trichloroethylene contaminated ground water at Beale Air Force Base in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J I; Bogen, K T; Hall, L C

    1999-10-05

    Conservative deterministic, screening-level calculations of exposure and risk commonly are used in quantitative assessments of potential human-health consequences from contaminants in environmental media. However, these calculations generally are based on multiple upper-bound point estimates of input parameters, particularly for exposure attributes, and can therefore produce results for decision makers that actually overstate the need for costly remediation. Alternatively, a more informative and quantitative characterization of health risk can be obtained by quantifying uncertainty and variability in exposure. This process is illustrated in this report for a hypothetical population at a specific site at Beale Air Force Base in California, where there is trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated ground water and a potential for future residential use. When uncertainty and variability in exposure were addressed jointly for this case, the 95th-percentile upper-bound value of individual excess lifetime cancer risk was a factor approaching 10 lower than the most conservative deterministic estimate. Additionally, the probability of more than zero additional cases of cancer can be estimated, and in this case it is less than 0.5 for a hypothetical future residential population of up to 26,900 individuals present for any 7.6-y interval of a 70-y time period. Clearly, the results from application of this probabilistic approach can provide reasonable and equitable risk-acceptability criteria for a contaminated site.

  19. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  20. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  1. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  2. Environmental and dietary exposure of young children to inorganic trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorennec, Philippe; Lucas, Jean-Paul; Mercat, Anne-Camille; Roudot, Alain-Claude; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home. Indoor air concentrations were assumed to be equal to outdoor air concentrations, which were retrieved from regulatory measurements networks. Human exposure factors were retrieved from literature. Data were combined with Monte Carlo simulations. Median exposures were 1.7, 0.3, 10.2, 34.1, 60.3, 0.7, 0.1, 44.3, 1.5 and 95th percentiles were 4.4, 0.5, 15.8, 61.3, 98.3, 2.5, 0.1, 111.1, 2.9μg/kgbw/d for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V respectively. Dietary exposures dominate aggregate exposures, with the notable exception of Pb - for which soils and indoor floor dust ingestion contribute most at the 95th percentile. The strengths of this study are that it aggregates exposures that are often estimated separately, and uses a large amount of representative data. This assessment is limited to main diet and residential exposure, and does not take into account the relative bioavailability of compounds. These results could be used to help target prevention strategies.

  3. Defense Infrastructure: DOD Can Improve Its Response to Environmental Exposures on Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    to anemia . Also, it can damage the immune system by changing blood levels of antibodies and causing the loss of white blood cells. The Department of...conducted to evaluate the risks of childhood cancer related to volatile organic compound exposure at Camp Lejeune and noted that adverse pregnancy outcomes...exposure and some adverse pregnancy outcomes. 1999 – 2012 – An Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry case-control study of specific birth

  4. Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christine T; Wais, Joshua; Crawford, Dorota A

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been on the rise over recent years. The presence of diverse subsets of candidate genes in each individual with an ASD and the vast variability of phenotypical differences suggest that the interference of an exogenous environmental component may greatly contribute to the development of ASDs. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is released from phospholipids of cell membranes, and is important in brain development and function; PGE2 is involved in differentiation, synaptic plasticity and calcium regulation. The previous review already described extrinsic factors, including deficient dietary supplementation, and exposure to oxidative stress, infections and inflammation that can disrupt signaling of the PGE2 pathway and contribute to ASDs. In this review, the structure and establishment of two key protective barriers for the brain during early development are described: the blood-brain barrier; and the placental barrier. Then, the first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during critical developmental periods when barrier components are still being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable periods in development.

  5. A relevant exposure to a food matrix contaminated environmentally by polychlorinated biphenyls induces liver and brain disruption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Lamarche, Fréderic; Salen, Patricia; Favier-Hininger, Isabelle; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Venisseau, Anais; Batandier, Cécile; Fontaine, Eric; de Lorgeril, Michel; Demeilliers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in dietary fats. Most studies evaluating PCB effects have been conducted with a single compound or a mixture of PCBs given as a single acute dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo PCB toxicity in a realistic model of exposure: a low daily dose of PCBs (twice the tolerable daily intake (TDI)), chronically administered (8 weeks) to rats in contaminated goat milk. Liver and brain PCB toxicities were investigated by evaluating oxidative stress status and mitochondrial function. PCB toxicity in the liver was also estimated by transaminase enzymatic activity. This study shows that even at low doses, chronic PCB exposure resulted in a statistically significant reduction of mitochondrial function in liver and brain. In the liver, oxygen consumption in the condition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (state 3) decreased by 22-29% (p < 0.01), according to the respiratory substrates. In the brain, respiratory chain complexes II and III were reduced by 24% and 39%, respectively (p < 0.005). The exposed rats presented higher lipid peroxidation status (+20%, p < 0.05) and transaminase activity (+30%, p < 0.05) in the blood. Thus, our study showed that exposure of rats to a daily realistic dose of PCBs (twice the TDI in a food complex mixture of environmental origin) resulted in multiple disruptions in the liver and brain.

  6. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  7. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  8. Surrogate testing suggests that chlorine dioxide gas exposure would not inactivate Ebola virus contained in environmental blood contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John J; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-08

    The ability to decontaminate a room potentially containing the Ebola virus is important to healthcare facilities in the United States. Ebola virus remains viable in body fluids, a room that has housed a patient with Ebola virus disease must have all surfaces manually wiped with an approved disinfectant, which increases occupational exposure risk. This study evaluated the efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide inactivation of bacterial organisms in blood as Ebola virus surrogates and as the organisms used by the Nebraska Biocontainment Unit to provide the margin of safety for decontamination. Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis blood suspensions that were exposed to ClO2 gas concentrations and exposure limits. The log reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) was determined for each bacterial blood suspension. Exposure parameters approximating industry practices for ClO2 environmental decontamination (360ppm concentration to 780 ppm-hrs exposure, 65% relative humidity) as well as parameters exceeding current practice (1116 ppm concentration to 1400 ppm-hrs exposure; 1342ppm concentration to 1487 ppm-hrs exposure) were evaluated. Complete inactivation was not achieved for any of the bacterial blood suspensions tested. Reductions were observed in concentrations of B. anthracis spores (1.3 -3.76 log) and E. faecalis vegetative cells (1.3 log) whereas significant reductions in vegetative cell concentrations for E. coli and M. smegmatis blood suspensions were not achieved. Our results showed that bacteria in the presence of blood were not inactivated using gaseous ClO2 decontamination. ClO2 decontamination alone should not be used for Ebola virus, but decontamination processes should first include manual wiping of potentially contaminated blood; especially for microorganisms as infectious as the Ebola virus.

  9. Evaluation and characterization of fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by laptop computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Andreuccetti, Daniele; Bellieni, Carlo; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole

    2011-12-01

    Portable - or "laptop" - computers (LCs) are widely and increasingly used all over the world. Since LCs are often used in tight contact with the body even by pregnant women, fetal exposures to low frequency magnetic fields generated by these units can occur. LC emissions are usually characterized by complex waveforms and are often generated by the main AC power supply (when connected) and by the display power supply sub-system. In the present study, low frequency magnetic field emissions were measured for a set of five models of portable computers. For each of them, the magnetic flux density was characterized in terms not just of field amplitude, but also of the so called "weighted peak" (WP) index, introduced in the 2003 ICNIRP Statement on complex waveforms and confirmed in the 2010 ICNIRP Guidelines for low frequency fields. For the model of LC presenting the higher emission, a deeper analysis was also carried out, using numerical dosimetry techniques to calculate internal quantities (current density and in-situ electric field) with reference to a digital body model of a pregnant woman. Since internal quantities have complex waveforms too, the concept of WP index was extended to them, considering the ICNIRP basic restrictions defined in the 1998 Guidelines for the current density and in the 2010 Guidelines for the in-situ electric field. Induced quantities and WP indexes were computed using an appropriate original formulation of the well known Scalar Potential Finite Difference (SPFD) numerical method for electromagnetic dosimetry in quasi-static conditions.

  10. Characterization of the cognitive impairments induced by prenatal exposure to stress in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Markham

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that male rats exposed to gestational stress exhibit phenotypes resembling what is observed in schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to amphetamine, blunted sensory gating, disrupted social behavior, impaired stress axis regulation, and aberrant prefrontal expression of genes involved in synaptic plasticity. Maternal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse cognitive outcomes among children, as well as an increased risk for developing schizophrenia, which is characterized by significant cognitive deficits. We sought to characterize the long-term cognitive outcome of prenatal stress using a preclinical paradigm, which is readily amenable to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Rats exposed to repeated variable prenatal stress during the third week of gestation were evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests, including the novel object recognition task, cued and contextual fear conditioning, the Morris water maze, and iterative versions of a paradigm in which working and reference memory for both objects and spatial locations can be assessed (the ‘Can Test’. Prenatally stressed males were impaired relative to controls on each of these tasks, confirming the face validity of this preclinical paradigm and extending the cognitive implications of prenatal stress exposure beyond the hippocampus. Interestingly, in experiments where both sexes were included, the performance of females was found to be less affected by prenatal stress compared to that of males. This could be related to the finding that women are less vulnerable than men to schizophrenia, and merits further investigation.

  11. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  12. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Jones, Daniel K.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration of these environmental health stressors in coastal regions can result from sea level rise and storm-derived disturbances. The combination of existing environmental health stressors and those mobilized by natural or anthropogenic disasters could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems. This dataset displays the exposure potential to environmental health stressors in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Exposure potential is calculated with the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) ranking system (Reilly and others, 2015) designed to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health stressors. Facilities obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Facility Registry Service (FRS) databases were ranked based on their potential contaminant hazard. Ranks were based in part on previous work by Olsen and others (2013), literature reviews, and an expert review panel. A 2000 meter search radius was used to identify nearby ranked facility locations. As part of the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started a Wetland Synthesis Project to expand National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study area.

  13. Clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological effects of xylazine in goats after acute exposure to different environmental temperature and humidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.M. Mogoa

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the influence of xylazine administration on clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables after acute exposure to different environmental conditions. Xylazine hydrochloride was administered intravenously at 0.1 mg/kg body mass to 6 clinically healthy, castrated male goats. All animals were exposed for 60 min to 3 sets of climatic conditions: 14 °C, 33% relative humidity; 24 °C, 55% RH, and 34 °C, 65% RH. The variables that were measured for a period of 60 min after xylazine administration were sedation, analgesia, salivation, urination, ventilation rate, heart-rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oesophageal temperature, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Xylazine induced sedation, analgesia, salivation and urination independently of the 3 environmental conditions. Environment had no influence on the onset, duration and recovery from sedation. In the 14 °C environment, xylazine resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and heart-rate from baseline values. Significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit and red cell count were observed in the 3 environments. Total plasma protein was significantly altered at 24 °C and 34 °C. Acute exposure of goats to different environmental conditions had no significant influence on the clinical, cardiopulmonary and haemocytological variables. Physiological changes induced by xylazine were therefore independent of the environment.

  14. Environmental characterization of a coffee processing workplace with obliterative bronchiolitis in former workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duling, Matthew G; LeBouf, Ryan F; Cox-Ganser, Jean M; Kreiss, Kathleen; Martin, Stephen B; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-10-02

    Obliterative bronchiolitis in five former coffee processing employees at a single workplace prompted an exposure study of current workers. Exposure characterization was performed by observing processes, assessing the ventilation system and pressure relationships, analyzing headspace of flavoring samples, and collecting and analyzing personal breathing zone and area air samples for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione vapors and total inhalable dust by work area and job title. Mean airborne concentrations were calculated using the minimum variance unbiased estimator of the arithmetic mean. Workers in the grinding/packaging area for unflavored coffee had the highest mean diacetyl exposures, with personal concentrations averaging 93 parts per billion (ppb). This area was under positive pressure with respect to flavored coffee production (mean personal diacetyl levels of 80 ppb). The 2,3-pentanedione exposures were highest in the flavoring room with mean personal exposures of 122 ppb, followed by exposures in the unflavored coffee grinding/packaging area (53 ppb). Peak 15-min airborne concentrations of 14,300 ppb diacetyl and 13,800 ppb 2,3-pentanedione were measured at a small open hatch in the lid of a hopper containing ground unflavored coffee on the mezzanine over the grinding/packaging area. Three out of the four bulk coffee flavorings tested had at least a factor of two higher 2,3-pentanedione than diacetyl headspace measurements. At a coffee processing facility producing both unflavored and flavored coffee, we found the grinding and packaging of unflavored coffee generate simultaneous exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione that were well in excess of the NIOSH proposed RELs and similar in magnitude to those in the areas using a flavoring substitute for diacetyl. These findings require physicians to be alert for obliterative bronchiolitis and employers, government, and public health consultants to assess the similarities and differences across the industry to

  15. Product-to-parent reversion increases ecosystem exposure to and environmental persistence of 17α-trenbolone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Adam; Cwiertny, David; Kolodziej, Edward; Brehm, Colleen

    2016-04-01

    The product-to-parent reversion of metabolites of trenbolone acetate (TBA), a steroidal growth promoter used widely in beef cattle production, was recently observed to occur in environmental waters. The rapid forward reaction is by direct photolysis (i.e., photohydration), with the much slower reversion reaction occurring via dehydration in the dark. The objective of this study is to quantify the potential effect of this newly discovered reversible process on TBA metabolite concentrations and total bioactivity exposure in fluvial systems. Here, we demonstrate increased persistence of TBA metabolites in the stream and hyporheic zone due to the reversion process, increasing chronic and acute exposure to these endocrine-active compounds along a stream. The perpetually dark hyporheic zone is a key location for reversion in the system, ultimately providing a source of the parent compound to the stream and increasing mean in-stream concentration of 17α-trenbolone (17α-TBOH) by 40% of the input concentration under representative fluvial conditions. We demonstrate generalized cases for prediction of exposure for species with product-to-parent reversion in stream-hyporheic systems. Recognizing this risk, regulatory frameworks for compounds undergoing product-to-parent reversion will require new approaches for assessing total exposure to bioactive compounds. We discuss the role of regulating "joint" or "mixture" bioactivity as an emerging paradigm for more meaningful management of micropollutants.

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, I B; Grummer-Strawn, L; Scanlon, K S

    1997-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the association between self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy and birth weight, prematurity, and small-for-gestational age infants and to determine whether these associations differ by maternal age. Data from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System from two states that collected data on both passive and active smoking for the period 1989-1994 were analyzed. ETS exposure was defined as reported exposure to the cigarette smoke of a household member. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between ETS and birth outcomes. The mean adjusted birth weight among infants of nonsmoking mothers age 30 years or older was 90 g less among infants exposed to ETS than among infants not exposed. No significant association was found among infants of younger nonsmoking mothers. Similarly, the risks for low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.51-3.87) and preterm delivery (adjusted OR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.88) were elevated among older nonsmokers exposed to ETS, but not among younger nonsmokers exposed to ETS (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.23; adjusted OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.13, for low birth weight and preterm delivery, respectively). These findings indicate that the association between ETS exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes appears to be modified by maternal age.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; Plead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; Plead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  18. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens.

  19. Effect of sorption on exposures to organic gases from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sorption processes on dynamic ETS organic gas concentrations and potential exposures were studied in a carpeted and furnished 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at 0.6 h{sup -1}. Ten cigarettes were machine-smoked on six of every seven days over four weeks. Concentrations of ETS-specific tracers and regulated toxic compounds were quantified during daily smoking, post-smoking and background periods. Potential exposures were calculated by period and day. Large sorption effects were observed for the widely used tracers 3-ethenylpyridine and nicotine, and for several toxic compounds including naphthalene and cresol isomers. Short-term adsorption to indoor surfaces reduced concentrations and potential exposures during smoking, while later reemission increased concentrations and exposures hours after smoking ended. Concentrations during nonsmoking periods rose from day to day over the first few weeks, presumably from increased reemission associated with increased sorbed mass concentrations. For sorbing compounds, more than half of daily potential exposures occurred during nonsmoking periods.

  20. Environmental health outcomes and exposure risks among at-risk communities living in the Upper Olifants River Catchment, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Juanette; Wright, Caradee Yael; Oosthuizen, Maria Aletta; Steyn, Maronel; Genthe, Bettina; le Roux, Wouter; Albers, Patricia; Oberholster, Paul; Pauw, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Potential exposure to water and air pollution and associated health impacts of three low-income communities in the Upper Olifants River Catchment, South Africa, was investigated through a cross-sectional epidemiological study comprising a household survey. Water samples were collected and analysed for microbial indicators and pathogens. Ambient air-monitoring included some of the criteria pollutants, as well as mercury and manganese. Associations between environmental exposure and health outcomes were analysed by means of logistic regression. Despite poor water and air quality episodes, the communities' self-perceived health was good with relatively low prevalence of reported health outcomes. Hygiene practices with respect to water collection and storage were often poor, and most likely contributed to the regularly contaminated water storage containers. Community proximity to the polluted stream was associated with increased prevalence in adverse health outcomes. This paper reports on preliminary results and additional multivariate analyses are necessary to further understand study results.

  1. Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the performance characteristics of laser imaging systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...5 IMPACT/APPLICATIONS This work is an important aspect of the transition of laser imaging systems to the fleet for mine countermeasure...Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics David A. Phinney Bigelow Laboratory for

  2. Effect on Hyalella azteca after pulse exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of permethrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E.

    realistic pulse exposure and concentration of a pyrethroid pesticide, permethrin, on the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. Permethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used in mosquito control and to control a wide range of insect pests on various crops and is known to be highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates....... H. azteca is widely distributed through North America where it is common as a food source for birds, fish and large invertebrates and is therefore considered as an ecologically important organism. In addition H. azteca has been extensively used as a test organism and is generally sensitive...... to contaminants. The toxicity of permethrin to H. azteca was first estimated in a 96 hour test with constant exposure. Then the toxicity and delayed effects after 10 days were tested with different concentrations and pulse lengths. The exposure pulses lasted for 1, 3 or 24 hours simulating a realistic run...

  3. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  4. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Ying Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK, ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE, a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93% and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%. For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx, the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%. At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%. For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%, STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40% and individual level (error below 25%. The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  5. A Novel Alternative to Environmental Monitoring to Detect Workers at Risk for Beryllium Exposure-Related Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donne...

  6. The Use of ICP-MS and IC-ICP-MS in Environmental and Exposure Assesssment

    Science.gov (United States)

    OVERVIEW: Application of collision/reaction cell interference reduction technology for the minimization of polyatomic interferences in environmental matrices. Improved risk assessments through the use of arsenic speciation approaches that estimate the bio-accessibility asso...

  7. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Lifecourse Exposures & Diet: Epigenetics, Maturation & Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  8. Assessing the exposure and toxicological implications of environmental transformations of graphene oxide using in vitro methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphene oxide (GO) and graphene-based nanoparticles are increasingly being used in biomedical, environmental, and industrial applications due to their distinct chemical and physical properties. Their widespread use and application can potentially result in mass release of GO to...

  9. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  10. Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. We reviewed empirical evidence...

  11. Characterizing exposure to chemicals from soil vapor intrusion using a two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Though several different models have been developed for sub-surface migration, little attention has been given to the effect of subsurface transport on the indoor environment. Existing methods generally assume that a house is one well-mixed compartment. A two-compartment model was developed to better characterize this exposure pathway; the model treats the house as two well-mixed compartments, one for the basement and one for the remainder of the house. A field study was completed to quantify parameters associated with the two-compartment model, such as soil gas intrusion rates and basement to ground floor air exchange rates. Two residential test houses in Paulsboro, New Jersey were selected for this study. All experiments were completed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as a tracer gas. Soil gas intrusion rates were found to be highly dependent on the soil gas to basement pressure difference, varying from 0.001 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -0.2 Pa to 0.011 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -6.0 Pa. Basement ventilation rates ranged from 0.17 to 0.75 air changes per hour (ACH) for basement to ambient pressure differences ranging from -1.1 to -7.6 Pa (relative to ambient). Application of experimental results in conjunction with the two-compartment model indicate that exposures are highly dependent on gas intrusion rates, basement ventilation rate, and fraction of time spent in the basement. These results can also be significantly different when compared with the simple well-mixed house assumption.

  12. The Be-WetSpa-Pest modeling approach to simulate human and environmental exposure from pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Claudia; Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Andreoli, Romano; Diaz, Jaime; Feola, Giuseppe; Wittensoeldner, Moritz; Yang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an integrative and spatially explicit modeling approach for analyzing human and environmental exposure from pesticide application of smallholders in the potato producing Andean region in Colombia. The modeling approach fulfills the following criteria: (i) it includes environmental and human compartments; (ii) it contains a behavioral decision-making model for estimating the effect of policies on pesticide flows to humans and the environment; (iii) it is spatially explicit; and (iv) it is modular and easily expandable to include additional modules, crops or technologies. The model was calibrated and validated for the Vereda La Hoya and was used to explore the effect of different policy measures in the region. The model has moderate data requirements and can be adapted relatively easy to other regions in developing countries with similar conditions.

  13. Press or pulse exposures determine the environmental fate of cerium nanoparticles in stream mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; King, Ryan S; Unrine, Jason M; Castellon, Benjamin T; Lowry, Gregory V; Matson, Cole W

    2016-05-01

    Risk-assessment models indicate that stream ecosystems receiving municipal wastewater effluent may have the greatest potential for exposure to manufactured nanoparticles. The authors determined the fate of cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticles in outdoor stream mesocosms using 1) 1-time pulse addition of CeO2 nanoparticles, representative of accidental release, and 2) continuous, low-level press addition of CeO2 nanoparticles, representative of exposure via wastewater effluent. The pulse addition led to rapid nanoparticle floc formation, which appeared to preferentially deposit on periphyton in low-energy areas downstream from the location of the input, likely as a result of gravitational sedimentation. Floc formation limited the concentration of suspended nanoparticles in stream water to press addition of nanoparticles led to higher suspended nanoparticle concentrations (77% of target) in stream water, possibly as a result of stabilization of suspended nanoparticles through interaction with dissolved organic carbon. Smaller nanoparticle aggregates appeared to preferentially adsorb to stream surfaces in turbulent sections, where Ce concentrations were highest in the press, likely a result of stochastic encounter with the surface. Streams receiving wastewater effluent containing nanoparticles may lead to exposure of aquatic organisms over a greater spatial extent than a similar amount of nanoparticles from an accidental release. Exposure models must take into account these mechanisms controlling transport and depositional processes.

  14. Does diversity of environmental microbial exposure matter for the occurrence of allergy and asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.; von Mutius, E.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the recent literature on microbial exposures and protective effects for asthma and atopy. Certain microorganism-associated molecular patterns have been identified as agents that might influence the development of the immune system, which in turn leads to protective effects for

  15. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutat...

  16. ANTS AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS IN NORTH AMERICAN DESERT GRASSLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance of ant species was measured by pit-fall trapping at 44 sites in southern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona, U.S.A..Sites were selected for study based on documentation of a history of disturbance or protection from disturbance, exposure to varying intens...

  17. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Urinary 8-OHdG in Arizona and Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Meza, María M; Josyula, Arun B; Poplin, Gerald S; Kopplin, Michael J; McClellen, Hannah E; Stürup, Stefan; Lantz, R Clark

    2007-01-01

    Although at high levels arsenic exposure is associated with increased cancer incidence, information on the health effects of lower exposure levels is limited. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic at concentrations below 40 microg/L in drinking water is associated with increased urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage and repair. Urine samples were collected from 73 nonsmoking adults residing in two communities in Arizona (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) 4.0 +/- 2.3 and 20.3 +/- 3.7), and 51 subjects in four communities in Sonora, Mexico (mean tap water arsenic (microg/L) ranging from 4.8 +/- 0.1 to 33.3 +/- 0.6). Although urinary arsenic concentration increased with higher exposure in tap water, urinary 8-OHdG concentration did not differ by community within Arizona or Sonora, and was not associated with urinary arsenic concentration. At the exposure levels evaluated in this study, drinking water arsenic was not associated with increased DNA oxidation as measured by urinary 8-OHdG.

  18. Environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and cytochromes P450 in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip N; Bandiera, Stelvio M; Skipper, Sherry L; Johnson, Kevin A; McMurry, Scott T

    2003-02-01

    An investigation involving raccoons as a sentinel species at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and Ballard Wildlife Management Area in western Kentucky (USA) delineated the extent of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three separate measures of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction were used to evaluate raccoon physiological responses to PCB exposure. Hepatic CYP induction was estimated via determination of total CYP, dealkylase activities, and immunoreactive proteins. There were no differences in raccoon biomarker responses between study sites. Significant relationships between and among PCB residues and biomarkers indicated that hepatic CYP induction had occurred in response to PCB exposure. Pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 were biomarkers most closely associated with PCB exposure. The rank order of responses was CYP1A1 > CYP1A2 > PROD > ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) as related to raccoon liver PCB concentrations, whereas the order was CYP1A1 > PROD > EROD > CYP1A2 when regressed with total PCB concentrations in abdominal fat.

  19. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  20. Neurodevelopmental effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins v

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.I. Vreugdenhil (Hestien)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes results of a follow-up study in the Dutch PCB/dioxin cohort at school age. Associations between perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins and several neurodevelopmental outcomes, assessed at 6/7 and 9 years of age, are evaluated in these studies. This

  1. A novel alternative to environmental monitoring to detect workers at risk for beryllium exposure-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Elizabeth; Lerman, Yehuda; Stark, Moshe; Pardo, Asher; Schwarz, Yehuda; Van Dyke, Michael V; Elliot, Jill; Barkes, Briana; Newman, Lee; Maier, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a methodology for surveillance and monitoring of beryllium exposure using biological monitoring to complement environmental monitoring. Eighty-three Israeli dental technicians (mean age 41.6 ± 1.36 years) and 80 American nuclear machining workers (54.9 ± 1.21 years) were enrolled. Biological monitoring was carried out by analyzing particle size (laser technique) and shape (image analysis) in 131/163 (80.3%) induced sputum samples (Dipa Analyser, Donner Tech, Or Aquiva, Israel). Environmental monitoring was carried out only in the United States (Sioutas impactor, SKC, Inc., Eighty Four, Pa.). Pulmonary function testing performance and induced sputum retrieval were done by conventional methods. Sixty-three Israeli workers and 37 American workers were followed up for at least 2 years. Biological monitoring by induced sputum indicated that a >92% accumulation of beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test result (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.4, p = 0.015) among all participants. Environmental monitoring showed that beryllium particles were machining workers compared to dental technicians. The small fractions positively correlated with induced sputum macrophages (r = 0.21 p = 0.01) and negatively correlated with diffusion lung carbon monoxide single breath (DLCO-SB r = 0.180 p = 0.04) in all subjects. Years of exposure were positively correlated to the number of accumulated particles 2-3 μ in diameter (r = 0.2, p = 0.02) and negatively correlated to forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity findings (r = -0.18, p = 0.02). DLCO was decreased in both groups after two years of monitoring. Biological monitoring is more informative than environmental monitoring in the surveillance and monitoring of workers in beryllium industries. Induced sputum is a feasible and promising biomonitoring method that should be included in the surveillance of exposed workers.

  2. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  3. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes,Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end ]user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users f need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  4. Association between Environmental Dioxin-Related Toxicants Exposure and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjuan Pan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dioxin-related compounds are associated with teratogenic and mutagenic risks in laboratory animals, and result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there were inconsistent results in epidemiology studies. In view of this difference, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this association and to assess the heterogeneity among studies. Comprehensive literature searches were performed to search for relevant articles published in English up to 15 May 2012. In total, we identified 15 studies which included 9 cohort and 6 case control studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I 2 were used to evaluate heterogeneity. In either cohort studies (I2 =0.89, p<0.0001 or case control studies (I 2 =0.69, p=0.02, significant heterogeneity of risk estimates were observed. Subgroup analyses found no significant increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome with air dioxin-related compounds exposure (RR=0.99, 95% CI:0.85–1.16, no significant increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.05, 95% CI:0.80–1.37, higher significant risks of low birth weight (LBW with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.55, 95% CI:1.24–1.94, and higher significant risks of birth defects with maternal solid contaminants dioxin exposure (OR=1.24, 95% CI:1.19–1.29. In conclusion, more evidences are needed to confirm the association between environmental dioxin-related compounds exposure and pregnancy outcome.

  5. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  6. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  7. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunling Fan; Mengqi Zhang; Lei Shang; Ngobe Akume Cynthia; Zhi Li; Zhenyu Yang; Dan Chen; Jufang Huang; Kun Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist pre-dominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunolfuorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was signiifcantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell prolifera-tion), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental ifndings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs.

  8. Mapping the Racial Inequality in Place: Using Youth Perceptions to Identify Unequal Exposure to Neighborhood Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Black youth are more likely than white youth to grow up in poor, segregated neighborhoods. This racial inequality in the neighborhood environments of black youth increases their contact with hazardous neighborhood environmental features including violence and toxic exposures that contribute to racial inequality in youth health and well-being. While the concept of neighborhood effects has been studied at length by social scientists, this work has not been as frequently situated within an environmental justice (EJ paradigm. The present study used youth perceptions gained from in-depth interviews with youth from one Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania neighborhood to identify neighborhood environmental health hazards. We then mapped these youth-identified features to examine how they are spatially and racially distributed across the city. Our results suggest that the intersection of race and poverty, neighborhood disorder, housing abandonment, and crime were salient issues for youth. The maps show support for the youths’ assertions that the environments of black and white individuals across the city of Pittsburgh differ in noteworthy ways. This multi-lens, mixed-method analysis was designed to challenge some of the assumptions we make about addressing environmental inequality using youths’ own opinions on the issue to drive our inquiry.

  9. Study of genetic damage in the Japanese oyster induced by an environmentally-relevant exposure to diuron: evidence of vertical transmission of DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranger, A; Akcha, F; Rouxel, J; Brizard, R; Maurouard, E; Pallud, M; Menard, D; Tapie, N; Budzinski, H; Burgeot, T; Benabdelmouna, A

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides represent a major proportion of the chemical pollutants detected in French coastal waters and hence a significant environmental risk with regards to marine organisms. Commercially-raised bivalves are particularly exposed to pollutants, among them pesticides, as shellfish farming zones are subject to considerable pressure from agricultural activities on the mainland. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the genotoxic effects of diuron exposure on oyster genitors and (2) the possible transmission of damaged DNA to offspring and its repercussions on oyster fitness. To investigate these points, oysters were exposed to concentrations of diuron close to those detected in the Marennes-Oleron Basin (two 7-day exposure pulses at 0.4 and 0.6 μg L(-1)) during the gametogenesis period. Genomic abnormalities were characterized using two complementary approaches. The Comet assay was applied for the measurement of early and reversible primary DNA damage, whereas flow cytometry was used to assess the clastogenic and aneugenic effect of diuron exposure. Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) were used in exposed and assay tanks to confirm the waterborne concentration of diuron reached during the experiment. The results obtained by the Comet assay clearly showed a higher level of DNA strand breaks in both the hemocytes and spermatozoa of diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of damaged genetic material to gamete cells could be responsible for the genetic damage measured in offspring. Indeed, flow cytometry analyses showed the presence of DNA breakage and a significant decrease in DNA content in spat from diuron-exposed genitors. The transmission of DNA damage to the offspring could be involved in the negative effects observed on offspring development (decrease in hatching rate, higher level of larval abnormalities, delay in metamorphosis) and growth. In this study, the vertical transmission of DNA damage was so highlighted by subjecting oyster

  10. Larval exposure to environmentally relevant mixtures of alkylphenolethoxylates reduces reproductive competence in male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistodeau, T.J.; Barber, L.B.; Bartell, S.E.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Klaustermeier, J.; Woodard, J.C.; Lee, K.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models the NPE/OPE composition of a major metropolitan WWTP effluent. Target exposure concentrations included a total NPE/OPE mixture load of 200% of the WWTP effluent concentration (148 ??g/L), 100% of the WWTP effluent concentration (74 ??g/L) and 50% of the WWTP effluent concentration (38 ??g/L). The NPE/OPE mixture contained 0.2% 4-t-octylphenol, 2.8% 4-nonylphenol, 5.1% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate, 9.3% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate, 0.9% 4-t-octylphenolmonoethoxylate, 3.1% 4-t-octylphenoldiethoxylate, 33.8% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate, and 44.8% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxycarboxylate. An additional exposure of 5 ??g/L 4-nonylphenol (nominal) was conducted. The exposure utilized a flow-through system supplied by ground water and designed to deliver consistent concentrations of applied chemicals. Following exposure, larvae were raised to maturity. Upon sexual maturation, exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males in a competitive spawning assay. Nest holding ability of control and exposed fish was carefully monitored for 7 days. All male fish were then sacrificed and analyzed for plasma vitellogenin, developmental changes in gonadal tissues, alterations in the development of secondary sexual characters, morphometric changes, and changes to reproductive behavior. When exposed to the 200% NPE/OPE treatment most larvae died within the first 4 weeks of exposure. Both the 100% and 50% NPE/OPE exposures caused a significant decrease in reproductive behavior, as indicated by an inability of many of the previously exposed males to acquire and hold a nest site required for reproduction

  11. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  12. Assessment of the environmental exposure of honeybees to particulate matter containing neonicotinoid insecticides coming from corn coated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapparo, Andrea; Marton, Daniele; Giorio, Chiara; Zanella, Alessandro; Soldà, Lidia; Marzaro, Matteo; Vivan, Linda; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-03-06

    Since seed coating with neonicotinoid insecticides was introduced in the late 1990s, European beekeepers have reported severe colony losses in the period of corn sowing (spring). As a consequence, seed-coating neonicotinoid insecticides that are used worldwide on corn crops have been blamed for honeybee decline. In view of the currently increasing crop production, and also of corn as a renewable energy source, the correct use of these insecticides within sustainable agriculture is a cause of concern. In this paper, a probable--but so far underestimated--route of environmental exposure of honeybees to and intoxication with neonicotinoid insecticides, namely, the atmospheric emission of particulate matter containing the insecticide by drilling machines, has been quantitatively studied. Using optimized analytical procedures, quantitative measurements of both the emitted particulate and the consequent direct contamination of single bees approaching the drilling machine during the foraging activity have been determined. Experimental results show that the environmental release of particles containing neonicotinoids can produce high exposure levels for bees, with lethal effects compatible with colony losses phenomena observed by beekeepers.

  13. An assessment of environmental and toxicological risk to pesticide exposure based on a case-based approach to computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cristina; Vicente, Henrique; Rosário Martins, M.; Lima, Nelson; Neves, Mariana; Neves, José

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide environmental fate and toxicity depends on its physical and chemical features, the soil composition, soil adsorption, as well as residues that may be found in different soil slots. Indeed, pesticide degradation in soil may be influenced by either biotic or abiotic factors. In addition, the toxicity of pesticides for living organisms depends on their adsorption, distribution, biotransformation, dissemination of metabolites together with interaction with cellular macromolecules and excretion. Biotransformation may result in the formation of less toxic and/or more toxic metabolites, while other processes determine the balance between toxic and a nontoxic upcoming. Aggregate exposure and risk assessment involve multiple pathways and routes, including the potential for pesticide residues in food and drinking water, in addition to residues from pesticide use in residential and non-occupational environments. Therefore, this work will focus on the development of a decision support system to assess the environmental and toxicological risk to pesticide exposure, built on top of a Logic Programming approach to Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, complemented with a Case Based attitude to computing. The proposed solution is unique in itself, once it caters for the explicit treatment of incomplete, unknown, or even self-contradictory information, either in terms of a qualitative or quantitative setting.

  14. Behavior toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans transferred to the progeny after exposure to sulfamethoxazole at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenyang Yu; Lei Jiang; Daqiang Yin

    2011-01-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most common detected antibiotics in the environment. In order to study whether SMX can affect behavior and growth and whether these effects could be transferred to the progeny, Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed at environmentally relevant concentrations for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr, respectively. After exposure, the exposed parent generation (Po) was measured for behavior and growth indicators, which were presented as percentage of controls (POC). Then their corresponding unexposed progeny (F1) was separated and measured for the same indicators. The lowest POC for Po after 96 hr-exposure at 100 mg/L were 37.8%, 12.7%, 45.8% and 70.1% for body bending frequency (BBF), reversal movement (RM), Omega turns (OT) and body length (BL), respectively. And F1 suffered defects with the lowest POC as 55.8%, 24.1%, 48.5% and 60.7% for BBF, RM, OT and BL, respectively. Defects in both Po and F1 showed a time- and concentration-dependent fashion and behavior indicators showed better sensitivity than growth indicator. The observed effects on F1 demonstrated the transferable properties of SMX. Defects of SMX at environmental concentrations suggested that it is necessary to perform further systematical studies on its ecological risk in actual conditions.

  15. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children--the current concepts of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Marek

    2011-03-01

    Lead is an environmental contaminant. The majority of epidemiological research on the health effects of lead has been focused on children, because they are more vulnerable to lead than adults. In children, an elevated blood lead (B-Pb) is associated with reduced Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score. This paper summarizes the current opinions on the assessment of the health risk connected with the children's environmental exposure to lead. The B-Pb level of concern of 100 μg/l proposed by the US Centers of Disease Control in 1991 was for a long time accepted as the guideline value. In the meantime there has been a significant worldwide decrease of B-Pb levels in children and present geometric mean values in the European countries range from 20 to 30 μg/l. The recent analyses of the association of intelligence test scores and B-Pb levels have revealed that the steepest declines in IQ occur at blood levels Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded in 2010, on the basis of results of Benchmark Dose (BMD) analysis, that an increase in B-Pb of 12 μg/l (BMDL₀₁) could decrease the IQ score by one point. It seems that this value can be used as a "unit risk" to calculate the possible decrease of IQ and, consequently, influence of the low-level exposure to lead (< 100 μg/l) on the health and socioeconomic status of the exposed population.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of P38 MAPK Gene and Protein in Aquatic Midge, Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae), Exposed to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-04-01

    P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an important signaling protein involved in various cellular processes, including stress responses, has been well characterized in model organisms. P38 has been identified in a number of insects, including the genus Drosophila; however, its homologue in Chironomus riparius has not yet been identified. In this study, we identified and characterized p38 MAPK (Crp38) gene in C. riparius using a transcriptome database that was previously generated 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the p38 homologue of other species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, Caenorhabditis elegans, Homo sapiens, etc. Furthermore, to test its potential as a biomarker of environmental contamination, Crp38 gene expression was analyzed upon exposure to nonylphenol (NP), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and cadmium (Cd). Crp38 gene expression was up- or down-regulated depending on the concentration and exposure duration of chemicals. These results show the role of Crp38 gene in defense against environmental stresses, as well as its potential use as a biomarker for various environmental pollutants. We further synthesized p38 antibody based on the predicted amino acid sequence deduced from Crp38 cDNA and, using this customized antibody, examined p38 protein expression in Cd exposed C. riparius. Although transcriptional alteration was not translated to the protein level, this result showed the possible application of a protein level functional study using cDNA sequence information from next-generation sequencing database in nonmodel organisms.

  17. Characterization of acoustic shockwaves generated by exposure to nanosecond electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Maswadi, Saher; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2014-03-01

    Despite 30 years of research, the mechanism behind the induced breakdown of plasma membranes by electrical pulses, termed electroporation, remains unknown. Current theories treat the interaction between the electrical field and the membrane as an entirely electrical event pointing to multiple plausible mechanisms. By investigating the biophysical interaction between plasma membranes and nanosecond electrical pulses (nsEP), we may have identified a non-electric field driven mechanism, previously unstudied in nsEP, which could be responsible for nanoporation of plasma membranes. In this investigation, we use a non-contact optical technique, termed probe beam deflection technique (PBDT), to characterize acoustic shockwaves generated by nsEP traveling through tungsten wire electrodes. We conclude these acoustic shockwaves are the result of the nsEP exposure imparting electrohydraulic forces on the buffer solution. When these acoustic shockwaves occur in close proximity to lipid bilayer membranes, it is possible that they impart a sufficient amount of mechanical stress to cause poration of that membrane. This research establishes for the first time that nsEP discharged in an aqueous medium generate measureable pressure waves of a magnitude capable of mechanical deformation and possibly damage to plasma membranes. These findings provide a new insight into the longunanswered question of how electric fields cause the breakdown of plasma membranes.

  18. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  19. Environmental exposure to trace elements and prostate cancer in three New Zealand ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Marion A; Centeno, Jose A; Slaney, David P; Ejnik, John W; Todorov, Todor; Nacey, John N

    2005-12-01

    A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA); a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  20. Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Nacey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA; a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  1. The Prevalence of Chronic Diseases by Exposure to Nitrates from Environmental Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice Severin; Floarea Damaschin; Ileana Ion; Cecilia Adumitresi; Victoria Oancea; Broasca V.; Mocanu Elena; Chirila S.

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the health effects caused by chronic exposure to elevated levels of nitrates in the water in order to improve prevention of some diseases. We analyze water quality from two villages of Constanta County in the period 2006-2012 and we take data about chronic diseases from family doctors of these localities. Analyzes on water samples were made in the laboratory of the Public Health Department. We found a significant increase of prevalence for chronic diseases in localit...

  2. Environmental Pesticide Exposure and Neurobehavioral Effects among Children of Nicaraguan Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children exposed to pesticides are susceptible for neurodevelopmental disruption. Data from developing countries are scarce. Aim: Assessing long-term and recent pesticide exposure in Nicaraguan children in relation to parental pesticide use and examining potential associated neurobehavioral effects. Methods: In the first study, pre- and post-spraying urinary residues of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPY and diazinon metabolite IMPY were measured among 7 subsistence farmers and 10 p...

  3. Drinking water, diet, indoor air: Comparison of the contribution to environmental micropollutants exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enault, Jérôme; Robert, Samuel; Schlosser, Olivier; de Thé, Catherine; Loret, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    This study collated 254,441 analytical results from drinking water quality monitoring in order to compare levels of exposure of the French adult population from drinking water with that from total diet for 37 pesticides, 11 mineral elements, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 6 non dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL PCB), 5 ether polybromodiphenyl ethers (BDE), 2 perfluorinated compounds. It also compares levels of exposure from drinking water with that from inhalation of indoor air for 9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 3 phthalates. The vast majority of the water analysis results showed values below the limits of quantification and this comparison was primarily made on the basis of a highly pessimistic scenario consisting in considering the data below the limits of quantification as being equal to the limits of quantification. With this conservative scenario, it can be seen that tap water makes a minor but potentially non-negligible contribution for a few micropollutants, by comparison with diet and air. It also shows that exposure through drinking water remains below the toxicity reference values for these substances. Apart from a few extreme values reflecting exceptional local situations, the concentrations measured for the minority of positive samples (below the 95th percentile value) suggest a very low risk for human health. Lower limits of quantification would however be of use in better estimating the safety margin with regard to the toxicity reference values, in particular for BDE, PAH and NDL PCB.

  4. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects.

  5. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  6. Exposure of Female Rats to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants Targets the Ovary, Affecting Folliculogenesis and Steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Pavine L C; Berger, Robert G; Ernest, Sheila R; Gaertner, Dean W; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Wade, Michael G; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2016-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into various consumer products to prevent flame propagation. These compounds leach into the domestic environment, resulting in chronic exposure and contamination. Pregnancy failure is associated with high levels of BFRs in human follicular fluid, raising serious questions regarding their impact on female reproductive health. The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of an environmentally relevant BFR mixture on female rat ovarian functions (i.e., folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis). A BFR dietary mixture formulated to mimic the relative BFR congener levels in North American house dust was administered to adult female Sprague-Dawley rats from 2 to 3 wk before mating until Gestational Day 20; these diets were designed to deliver nominal doses of 0, 0.06, 20, or 60 mg/kg/day of the BFR mixture. Exposure to BFRs triggered an approximately 50% increase in the numbers of preantral and antral follicles and an enlargement of the antral follicles in the ovaries of the dams. A significant reduction in the expression of catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, and downregulation of the expression of insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) and 17alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp17a1) were observed in the ovary. In addition, BFR exposure affected steroidogenesis; we observed a significant decrease in circulating 17-hydroxypregnenolone and an increase in testosterone concentrations in BFR-exposed dams. Thus, BFRs target ovarian function in the rat, adversely affecting both folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis.

  7. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin exposure through foods in a dioxin hot spot-Bien Hoa City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Vu-Anh, Le; Ngoc-Bich, Nguyen; Tenkate, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  8. Environmental Health Risk Assessment of Dioxin Exposure through Foods in a Dioxin Hot Spot—Bien Hoa City, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the human health risk of dioxin exposure through foods for local residents in two wards of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam. These wards are known hot-spots for dioxin and a range of stakeholders from central government to local levels were involved in this process. Publications on dioxin characteristics and toxicity were reviewed and dioxin concentrations in local soil, mud, foods, milk and blood samples were used as data for this risk assessment. A food frequency survey of 400 randomly selected households in these wards was conducted to provide data for exposure assessment. Results showed that local residents who had consumed locally cultivated foods, especially fresh water fish and bottom-feeding fish, free-ranging chicken, duck, and beef were at a very high risk, with their daily dioxin intake far exceeding the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. Based on the results of this assessment, a multifaceted risk management program was developed and has been recognized as the first public health program ever to have been implemented in Vietnam to reduce the risks of dioxin exposure at dioxin hot-spots.

  9. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls among raccoons (Procyon lotor) at the paducah gaseous diffusion plant, Western Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip N; Johnson, Kevin A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2003-02-01

    An investigation involving raccoons (Procyon lotor) as a sentinel species at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Western Kentucky (USA) delineated the extent of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB spatial distribution. Raccoon exposure to PCBs was demonstrated through analysis of subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, liver, and brain tissues from raccoons collected at the PGDP but also was clearly evident in raccoons from a reference area situated along the Ohio River (USA). Raccoons with the highest tissue PCB concentrations appeared to be those inhabiting areas nearest the plant itself and most likely those that ventured into the plants interior. Male raccoons at the PGDP had similar concentrations of total PCBs in subcutaneous fat (1.86 +/- 0.64 microg/g) as males from the reference site (1.41 +/- 0.35 microg/g), but females had higher PCB body burdens than those at the reference site (9.90 +/- 6.13 microg/g vs 0.75 +/- 0.40 microg/g). Gross measurements of exposure to radiation-producing materials revealed that counts per minute exceeded background in 61% of PGDP raccoons compared with 27% at the reference site and five raccoons at the PGDP had beta counts that were more than twice the background. Differences among trapping success, growth rates, and serum chemistry parameters were noted but may have been related to habitat and other environmental and population density factors.

  10. Instrumental nuclear activation analysis (INAA) characterization of environmental air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemón, Ernesto; Herrera, Luis; Ortiz, Elba; Longoria, L C Luis C

    2004-06-01

    Nuclear techniques have been used in quantitations of environmental pollutants, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has turned out to be particularly useful in the analysis of airborne suspended particles. This work describes the INAA characterization of the particulate material in the environmental samples obtained in a monitoring campaign in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area. As the types of the irradiation facilities and gamma-ray detection system impose some limitations on the possibilities of INAA analysis, the actual experimental conditions at Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory, where the analysis was performed, had been assessed. The facilities had been found suitable for the analysis of samples from this campaign, in which 22 elements were determined.

  11. In utero exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 118 disrupts fetal testis development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogenæs, Anette K; Ropstad, Erik; Gutleb, Arno C; Hårdnes, Nina; Berg, Vidar; Dahl, Ellen; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production.

  12. Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Wang, Christina; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of environmental chemicals, may interfere with typical reproductive hormone production both in utero and in adulthood. Although they are best known as anti-androgens, increasingly, evidence suggests that phthalates, particularly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), may also suppress estrogen production. Given that both androgens and estrogens are essential for sexual function, particularly sexual interest, it is plausible that adult exposure to phthalates alters sexual function. To this end, we used data from 360 women participating in a pregnancy cohort study (the Study for Future Families) to examine whether urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with two dimensions of self-reported sexual dysfunction in the months prior to conception: lack of sexual interest and vaginal dryness. Women in the highest quartile of urinary concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, a DEHP metabolite, had 2.58 (95% CI 1.33, 5.00) times the adjusted odds of reporting that they almost always or often lacked interest in sexual activity, and results were similar for mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.32, 4.95), another DEHP metabolite. Self-reported vaginal dryness was not associated with any phthalate metabolite concentration. This study is novel in its focus on sexual function in relation to environmentally relevant (rather than occupational) exposure to phthalates in adult women and these preliminary findings merit replication in a large, prospective study. Better understanding how adult exposure to phthalates may affect repro