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Sample records for characterize early life

  1. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular pathogens represent a serious threat during early life. Importantly, even though the immune system of newborns may be characterized as developmentally immature, with a propensity to develop Th2 immunity, significant CD8+ T-cell responses may still be elicited in the context of optimal...... priming. Replication deficient adenoviral vectors have been demonstrated to induce potent CD8+ T-cell response in mice, primates and humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether replication-deficient adenovectors could overcome the risk of overwhelming antigen stimulation during...... the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...

  2. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and the environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We describe the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell, Ptychobranchus jonesi, and compare methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on conglutinate-producing mussel species. Both the glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on the 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for at least 5 days. Directly feeding conglutinates to fishes allowed us to estimate natural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts using an inoculation bath. Each method for measuring fecundity produced similar estimates but the regression, which estimated fecundity based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment, was most practical. The distribution information, coupled with early life history description and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials, may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi, specifically during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  3. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  4. Characterizing the early life history of an imperiled freshwater mussel (Ptychobranchus jonesi) with host-fish determination and fecundity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, John; Jelks, Howard; Pursifull, Sandra; Johnson, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of imperiled species is frequently challenged by insufficient knowledge of life history and environmental factors that affect various life stages. The larvae (glochidia) of most freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae are obligate ectoparasites of fishes. We described the early life history of the federally endangered Southern Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus jonesi and compared methods for estimating fecundity and conducting host trials on this conglutinate-producing mussel species. Glochidial inoculation baths and direct feeding of conglutinates to Percina nigrofasciata, Etheostoma edwini, and Etheostoma fusiforme resulted in successful metamorphosis to the juvenile life stage. Ptychobranchus jonesi glochidia did not metamorphose on 25 other species of fishes tested representing 11 families. Three juveniles were recovered from Gambusia holbrooki resulting in a metamorphosis rate 90% for ≥5 d. Feeding conglutinates directly to fishes allowed us to estimate seminatural infestation rates and calculate average numbers of juveniles produced per conglutinate, unlike the traditional approach of infesting fish hosts in an inoculation bath. Regressions based on the physical dimensions of each conglutinate or conglutinate segment were the most practical method used to estimate fecundity. Species distribution information, early life-history description, and methods developed for determining fecundity and conducting host trials may assist in the conservation of P. jonesi during recovery options that include captive propagation, augmentation, and reestablishment.

  5. Early life origins of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E; Lye, Stephen J; Rampono, Jonathan; Challis, John R G

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity has its origins in early life. Predisposition is based on interactions between the genome and environmental influences acting through epigenetic modifications. Individuals most at risk are those whose ancestral line has made a rapid transition from a traditional to a Westernized style of life. The process involves not only metabolism, but also behavior. As a result, those people who are most at risk of obesity may be those least likely to respond to educational programs based on lifestyle modification. Understanding the mechanisms and pathways that underpin the early origins of obesity is vital if we are to make progress in addressing this major problem of modern life.

  6. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  7. Seeing Touches Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Addabbo

    Full Text Available The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants' abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand and/or an object (spoon. In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object-i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts.

  8. Early life factors and adult mammographic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokate, M.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Berg, van den S.W.; Peeters, P.H.; Gils, van C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Early life factors have shown to be related to breast cancer risk. The pathophysiological link could be mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Mammary gland development already starts in utero and early life factors might affect the number of mammary cells at risk. In

  9. The Early History of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  10. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf

    2013-01-01

    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  11. Early life and mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schidlowski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The recent breathtaking advances in the field of radio astronomy have made it increasingly clear that the beginnings of organic chemistry are to be found in interstellar space. From there, an impressive array of molecules have been discovered which have been shown to act as intermediates in the prebiotic synthesis of organic matter. These findings certainly tend to blur the arbitrary limit often drawn between the living and the non-living realms. The authors may, therefore, reasonably assume that life arose at a certain stage of either cosmic or planetary evolution as an intrinsically new property of matter. IGCP Project 157, launched in 1977, has been devoted to interdisciplinary research of those blurred areas where evolutionary biology, organic chemistry and economic geology seem to blend or overlap. This article summarizes the project's main findings to date, and shows how a community of 120 scientists from 19 countries have worked together to help unravel the mystery of life's origins on our planet. 6 references, 5 figures.

  12. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  13. Early life obesity and chronic kidney disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased considerably with a parallel rise in the prevalence of obesity. It is now recognized that early life nutrition has life-long effects on the susceptibility of an individual to develop obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and CKD. The kidney can be programmed by a number of intrauterine and neonatal insults. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the most identifiable markers of a suboptimal prenatal environment, and the important intrarenal factors sensitive to programming events include decreased nephron number and altered control of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). LBW complicated by accelerated catch-up growth is associated with an increased risk of obesity, hypertension and CKD in later life. High birth weight and exposure to maternal diabetes or obesity can enhance the risk for developing CKD in later life. Rapid postnatal growth per se may also contribute to the subsequent development of obesity and CKD regardless of birth weight and prenatal nutrition. Although the mechanisms of renal risks due to early life nutritional programming remain largely unknown, experimental and clinical studies suggest the burdening role of early life obesity in longstanding cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  14. Development of Life on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  15. Evolution of Life Cycles in Early Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Rainer R.

    2009-05-01

    Many modern amphibians have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults. The central questions are how and when this complicated ontogeny was established, and what is known about the lives of amphibians in the Paleozoic. Fossil evidence has accumulated that sheds light on the life histories of early amphibians, the origin of metamorphosis, and the transition to a fully terrestrial existence. The majority of early amphibians were aquatic or amphibious and underwent only gradual ontogenetic changes. Developmental plasticity played a major role in some taxa but was restricted to minor modification of ontogeny. In the Permo-Carboniferous dissorophoids, a condensation of crucial ontogenetic steps into a short phase (metamorphosis) is observed. It is likely that the origin of both metamorphosis and neoteny falls within these taxa. Fossil evidence also reveals the sequence of evolutionary changes: apparently, the ontogenetic change in feeding, not the transition to a terrestrial existence per se, made a drastic metamorphosis necessary.

  16. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  17. Early Life Environments and Long Term Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2015-01-01

    A large literature has linked “in utero” environment to health and socio-economic outcomes in adulthood. We consider the effect of early life environments on health and skill formation outcomes. We first evaluate the impact of perinatal-neonatal level of technology at birth, which varies across delivery institutions, on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with Cerebral Palsy. The level of technology at delivery determines the type of therapy newborns receive immediately afte...

  18. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Vickers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how

  19. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establi......BACKGROUND: The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand...... the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. RESULTS: Our analysis shows...... that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we...

  20. Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160885.html Early Palliative Care Improves Patients' Quality of Life Also increases chances of having end-of-life ... incurable cancer helps patients cope and improves their quality of life, a new study shows. It also leads to ...

  1. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  2. Early-life origin of adult insomnia: does prenatal-early-life stress play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Drake, Christopher L; Gehrman, Philip; Meerlo, Peter; Riemann, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Insomnia is very common in the adult population and it includes a wide spectrum of sequelae, that is, neuroendocrine and cardiovascular alterations as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. According to the conceptualization of insomnia in the context of the 3-P model, the importance of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors has been stressed. Predisposing factors are present before insomnia is manifested and they are hypothesized to interact with precipitating factors, such as environmental stressful events, contributing to the onset of insomnia. Understanding the early-life origins of insomnia may be particularly useful in order to prevent and treat this costly phenomenon. Based on recent evidence, prenatal-early-life stress exposure results in a series of responses that involve the stress system in the child and could persist into adulthood. This may encompass an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompanied by long-lasting modifications in stress reactivity. Furthermore, early-life stress exposure might play an important role in predisposing to a vulnerability to hyperarousal reactions to negative life events in the adult contributing to the development of chronic insomnia. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be involved in the development of maladaptive stress responses in the newborn, ultimately predisposing to develop a variety of (psycho-) pathological states in adult life.

  3. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...... of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. RESULTS: Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer...

  4. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  5. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  6. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  7. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  8. Life Structure of Early Adulthood Period in Levinson's Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Aktu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early adulthood is one of the important defining periods considered within life-long development in the relevant literature. Early adulthood period consists of psychologically the most satisfying as well as turbulent years of ones life. Universality of theories explaining early adulthood has long been discussed. One of these theories is the Levinsons theory of individual life structure that emphasis on early adult years. In this study life structures of individuals in the early adulthood period was examined in terms of structure-building and structure-changing development tasks, regarding Levinsons theory of individual life structure. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 162-177

  9. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Lotta; Satokari, Reetta; Salminen, Seppo; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-11-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the impact of some of these factors on the consecutive microbiota development and later health. An overview is presented of the microbial colonisation steps and the role of the host in that process. Moreover, new early biomarkers are discussed with examples that include the association of microbiota and atopic diseases, the correlation of colic and early development and the impact of the use of antibiotics in early life. Our understanding of the development and function of the intestinal microbiota is constantly improving but the long-term influence of early-life microbiota on later life health deserves careful clinical studies.

  10. Early life adversity: Lasting consequences for emotional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J. Krugers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions – mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life. Exposure to early life stress may thus on the one hand promote behavioral adaptation to potentially threatening conditions later in life –at the cost of contextual memory formation in less threatening situations- but may on the other hand also increase the sensitivity to develop stress-related and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals.

  11. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  12. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  13. Exoplanet Characterization and the Search for Life

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, J; Roberge, A; Leger, A; Schwartz, A; Wooten, A; Vosteen, A; Lo, A; Brack, A; Tanner, A; Coustenis, A; Lane, B; Oppenheimer, B; Mennesson, B; Lopez, B; Grillmair, C; Beichman, C; Cockell, C; Hanot, C; McCarthy, C; Stark, C; Marois, C; Aime, C; Angerhausen, D; Montes, D; Wilner, D; Defrere, D; Mourard, D; Lin, D; Kite, E; Chassefiere, E; Malbet, F; Tian, F; Westall, F; Illingworth, G; Vasisht, G; Serabyn, G; Marcy, G; Bryden, G; White, G; Laughlin, G; Torres, G; Hammel, H; Ferguson, H; Shibai, H; Rottgering, H; Surdej, J; Wiseman, J; Ge, J; Bally, J; Krist, J; Monnier, J; Trauger, J; Horner, J; Catanzarite, J; Harrington, J; Nishikawa, J; Stapelfeldt, K; von Braun, K; Biazzo, K; Carpenter, K; Balasubramanian, K; Kaltenegger, L; Postman, M; Spaans, M; Turnbull, M; Levine, M; Burchell, M; Ealey, M; Kuchner, M; Marley, M; Dominik, M; Mountain, M; Kenworthy, M; Muterspaugh, M; Shao, M; Zhao, M; Tamura, M; Kasdin, N; Haghighipour, N; Kiang, N; Elias, N; Woolf, N; Mason, N; Absil, O; Guyon, O; Lay, O; Borde, P; Fouque, P; Kalas, P; Lowrance, P; Plavchan, P; Hinz, P; Kervella, P; Chen, P; Akeson, R; Soummer, R; Waters, R; Barry, R; Kendrick, R; Brown, R; Vanderbei, R; Woodruff, R; Danner, R; Allen, R; Polidan, R; Seager, S; MacPhee, S; Hosseini, S; Metchev, S; Kafka, S; Ridgway, S; Rinehart, S; Unwin, S; Shaklan, S; Brummelaar, T ten; Mazeh, T; Meadows, V; Weiss, W; Danchi, W; Ip, W; Rabbia, Y

    2009-01-01

    Over 300 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have been detected orbiting nearby stars. We now hope to conduct a census of all planets around nearby stars and to characterize their atmospheres and surfaces with spectroscopy. Rocky planets within their star's habitable zones have the highest priority, as these have the potential to harbor life. Our science goal is to find and characterize all nearby exoplanets; this requires that we measure the mass, orbit, and spectroscopic signature of each one at visible and infrared wavelengths. The techniques for doing this are at hand today. Within the decade we could answer long-standing questions about the evolution and nature of other planetary systems, and we could search for clues as to whether life exists elsewhere in our galactic neighborhood.

  14. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    -economic and family factors. The AL index was based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Results. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. Conclusions...

  15. Early life origins of psychological development and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina

    2009-12-01

    According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)-hypothesis, conditions early in life may have life-long consequences. In a series of epidemiological birth cohort and clinical studies and natural experiments, we have had the chance to test the extent to which this hypothesis is useful in understanding individual differences in psychological development and mental health. Our findings have provided evidence that individual differences in cognitive, social and emotional development and in mental health may lie in early life circumstances, and add significantly to the literature by pointing out which periods of early growth are the most critical. These findings are also important in translating pre-clinical evidence to humans. What remains less clear, however, is what the mechanisms of programming are. Thus, further research is needed to elucidate these mechanisms before information on the early life origins of health and disease can be used in designing prevention and intervention programs.

  16. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather......) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life....

  17. Intestinal microbiota during early life - impact on health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nylund, L.; Satokari, R.M.; Salminen, S.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the first years after birth, the intestinal microbiota develops rapidly both in diversity and complexity while being relatively stable in healthy adults. Different life-style-related factors as well as medical practices have an influence on the early-life intestinal colonisation. We address the i

  18. Fatigue life characterization for piezoelectric macrofiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Isaac A.; Miller, David A.; Tempero, Tyler

    2012-10-01

    In an effort to aid the investigation into lightweight and reliable materials for actuator design, a study was developed to characterize the temperature-dependent lifetime performance of a piezoelectric macrofiber composite (MFC). MFCs are thin rectangular patches of polyimide film, epoxy and a single layer of rectangular lead zirconium titanate (PZT) fibers. In this study, the useful life of the MFC is characterized to determine the effect of temperature on the performance of the composite as it is fatigued by cyclic piezoelectric excitation. The test specimen consists of the MFC laminated to a cantilevered stainless steel beam. Beam strain and tip displacement measurements are used as a basis for determining the performance of the MFC as it is cyclically actuated under various operating temperatures. The temperature of the beam laminate is held constant and then cycled to failure, or 250 million cycles, in order to determine the useful life of the MFC over a temperature range from - 15 to 145 °C. The results of the experiments show a strong temperature dependence of the operational life for the MFC. Damage inside the composite was identified through in situ visual inspection and during post-test microstructural observation; however, no degradation in operational performance was identified as it was cyclically actuated up to the point of failure, regardless of temperature or actuation cycle number.

  19. Best squirrels trade a long life for an early reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Descamps, Sébastien; Boutin, Stan; Berteaux, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Age at primiparity plays a crucial role in population dynamics and life-history evolution. Long-term data on female North American red squirrels were analysed to study the fitness consequences of delaying first reproduction. Early breeders were born earlier, had a higher breeding success and achieved a higher lifetime reproductive success than females who delayed their first reproduction, which suggests a higher quality of early breeders. However, early breeders had similar mass when tagged, ...

  20. Nutrient Intakes in Early Life and Risk of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Françoise Rolland-Cachera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that environmental factors in early life predict later health. The early adiposity rebound recorded in most obese subjects suggests that factors promoting body fat development have operated in the first years of life. Birth weight, growth velocity and body mass index (BMI trajectories seem to be highly sensitive to the environmental conditions present during pregnancy and in early life (“The first 1000 days”. Particularly, nutritional exposure can have a long-term effect on health in adulthood. The high protein-low fat diet often recorded in young children may have contributed to the rapid rise of childhood obesity prevalence during the last decades. Metabolic programming by early nutrition could explain the development of later obesity and adult diseases.

  1. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  2. Nanosystem Characterization Tools in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first dedicated, all-encompassing text characterizes nanomaterials intended for biological or physiological environments and biomedical applications, in particular for medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. It finally fills the gap for a concise overview of a wide range of different characterization techniques and how to best employ them in the context of nanoscale life science research. It thus serves as a single source of information gathering up the knowledge otherwise spread over many journal articles, and provides an overall picture to members of all the disciplines involved. This handy volume covers all important probing techniques, including nuclear and electron spin resonance, light scattering, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic resonance, tomography, x-ray techniques, and microbalance measurement of antibody binding. Biochemists, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and materials engineers as well as all others working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries or at related research institutions will here a book of great value and importance.

  3. The Human Microbiota in Early Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin Steen

    The bacteria that colonize the human body, our microbiota, can influence our health, both positively and negatively. The importance and functions of the microbiota in our intestinal tract have been the focus of several research projects and are widely published. However, there are great gaps in our...... knowledge concerning microbiota composition, development and function in other areas of human body. Lack of knowledge about the microbiota development in the airways is an example of such a deficiency. The work presented in this PhD thesis is based on the vast sample collection of the COPSAC2010 cohort......, with 700 mother-infant pairs. The objectives were to perform a detailed examination of the mothers’ vaginal microbiota, describe the early composition and development of the microbiota in the airways of their infants, and determine whether the infants’ microbiota are affected by that of their mothers...

  4. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  5. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin......A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...

  6. Early life exposures and risk of atopy among Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of atopy develops in childhood and early life exposures are suspected to play a considerable role in the inception. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early life exposures and development of atopic disease in children. We performed a case-cohort study...... of a random population-based sample of children (n = 480) 7-17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark. Information on breast-feeding, supplementation, wheezy bronchitis, use of antibiotics, and parental smoking during pregnancy and in early life was obtained retrospectively by questionnaire. Skin.......12, 3.49; p = 0.019) and wheezy bronchitis before the age of 2 years (OR = 3.13; 95% CI, 1.63, 6.01; p feeding was longer in subjects...

  7. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary dat...

  8. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  9. Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome Early in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Capone, Kimberly A; Scot E Dowd; Georgios N. Stamatas; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-01-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first yea...

  10. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  11. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    OpenAIRE

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ...

  12. Galvanic cultures: electricity and life in the early nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, I R

    1998-01-01

    Electricity has long proved to be a powerful tool for investigating the properties of life. Towards the beginning of the nineteenth century new discoveries and inventions in electricity stimulated a new popular fascination with such questions. Electricity seemed a good way of understanding the machinery of life. It was the key to unlocking the secrets of vitality. Looking at these early nineteenth-century debates and discussions provides a good way of focusing on the cultural connections and ramifications of science. As electricity provided tools for understanding life, it provided tools for understanding culture also.

  13. Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie A. Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM, which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

  14. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  15. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  16. Early-Life Determinants of Children's Creativity: The Rorschach Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peske, Patric O.

    Using Rorschach inkblots, the author sought investigation and disclosure of early-life determinants of young children's creativity as influenced by home and school environmental experiences. Significant and empirically defined characterological features of children and adults in their lives and children's Rorschach and other examination findings,…

  17. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  18. Early-life medical care and human capital accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2015-01-01

    that both types of interventions may benefit not only child health but also long-term educational outcomes. In addition, early-life medical interventions may improve the educational outcomes of siblings. These findings can be used to design policies that improve long-term outcomes and reduce economic...

  19. Aim for the Inner Life: Teaching Early Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    1979-01-01

    Music study should be construed primarily as an experience of its feeling content. Taught so, it can reach for the inner core of the early adolescent, to pierce that sometimes hard outer surface that protects the vulnerable inner life. Attempts to intellectualize music with young teens are doomed. (Author/SJL)

  20. Immune-mediated diseases and microbial exposure in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Bønnelykke, K; Stokholm, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    colonization patterns in neonates drive both short-term and long-term asthma symptoms, while, on the other hand, the composition of the microbiome in early life may protect against asthma and allergy in later life. This apparent contradiction may be explained by a deeper disease heterogeneity than we...... are currently able to discriminate, and in particular, the indiscriminate lumping together of different diseases into one atopic disease category. Also, the microbiome needs a differentiated understanding, considering balance between microbial groups, diversity and microbial genetic capability. Furthermore......The non-communicable disease pandemic includes immune-mediated diseases such as asthma and allergy, which are likely originating in early life where the immature immune system is prone to alterations caused by the exposome. The timing of exposure seems critical for the developing immune system...

  1. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS......: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  2. DNA methylation: the pivotal interaction between early-life nutrition and glucose metabolism in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao

    2014-12-14

    Traditionally, it has been widely acknowledged that genes together with adult lifestyle factors determine the risk of developing some metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes mellitus in later life. However, there is now substantial evidence that prenatal and early-postnatal nutrition play a critical role in determining susceptibility to these diseases in later life. Maternal nutrition has historically been a key determinant for offspring health, and gestation is the critical time window that can affect the growth and development of offspring. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that exposures during early life play a critical role in determining the risk of developing metabolic diseases in adulthood. Currently, there are substantial epidemiological studies and experimental animal models that have demonstrated that nutritional disturbances during the critical periods of early-life development can significantly have an impact on the predisposition to developing some metabolic diseases in later life. The hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms may link imbalanced early-life nutrition with altered disease risk has been widely accepted in recent years. Epigenetics can be defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic processes play a significant role in regulating tissue-specific gene expression, and hence alterations in these processes may induce long-term changes in gene function and metabolism that persist throughout the life course. The present review focuses on how nutrition in early life can alter the epigenome, produce different phenotypes and alter disease susceptibilities, especially for impaired glucose metabolism.

  3. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  4. Diversity of the human skin microbiome early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Kimberly A; Dowd, Scot E; Stamatas, Georgios N; Nikolovski, Janeta

    2011-10-01

    Within days after birth, rapid surface colonization of infant skin coincides with significant functional changes. Gradual maturation of skin function, structure, and composition continues throughout the first years of life. Recent reports have revealed topographical and temporal variations in the adult skin microbiome. Here we address the question of how the human skin microbiome develops early in life. We show that the composition of cutaneous microbial communities evolves over the first year of life, showing increasing diversity with age. Although early colonization is dominated by Staphylococci, their significant decline contributes to increased population evenness by the end of the first year. Similar to what has been shown in adults, the composition of infant skin microflora appears to be site specific. In contrast to adults, we find that Firmicutes predominate on infant skin. Timely and proper establishment of healthy skin microbiome during this early period might have a pivotal role in denying access to potentially infectious microbes and could affect microbiome composition and stability extending into adulthood. Bacterial communities contribute to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis and modulate inflammatory responses. Early microbial colonization is therefore expected to critically affect the development of the skin immune function.

  5. Epigenetics and early life origins of chronic noncommunicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Walker, Sheila O; Hong, Xiumei; Bartell, Tami R; Wang, Xiaobin

    2013-02-01

    In light of the increasing threats of chronic noncommunicable diseases in developing countries, the growing recognition of the early life origins of chronic disease, and innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research and technology, it is imperative that we harness cutting-edge data to improve health promotion and maintenance. It is well recognized that chronic diseases are complex traits affected by a wide range of environmental and genetic factors; however, the role of epigenetic factors, particularly with regard to early life origins, remains largely unexplored. Given the unique properties of the epigenome-functionality during critical time windows, such as the intrauterine period, heritability, and reversibility-enhancing our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms may offer new opportunities for the development of novel early prediction and prevention paradigms. This may present an unparalleled opportunity to offer maternal and child health professionals important tools with the translational value to predict, detect, and prevent disease at an early age, long before its clinical occurrence, and as such, break lifelong and transgenerational cycles of disease. In doing so, modern technology can be leveraged to make great contributions to population health, quality of life, and reducing the burdensome economic costs of noncommunicable diseases in developing countries.

  6. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  7. Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwafi Hani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects. Maternal separation is a commonly used model of early life neglect, but has led to inconsistent results in the mouse. Results In an effort to develop a mouse model of early life neglect with long-lasting behavioral effects in C57BL/6 mice, we designed a new maternal separation paradigm that we call Maternal Separation with Early Weaning (MSEW. We tested the effects of MSEW on C57BL/6 mice as well as the genetically distinct DBA/2 strain and found significant MSEW effects on several behavioral tasks (i.e., the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim test when assessed more than two months following the MSEW procedure. Our findings are consistent with MSEW causing effects within multiple behavioral domains in both strains, and suggest increased anxiety, hyperactivity, and behavioral despair in the MSEW offspring. Analysis of pup weights and metabolic parameters showed no evidence for malnutrition in the MSEW pups. Additionally, strain differences in many of the behavioral tests suggest a role for genetic factors in the response to early life neglect. Conclusions These results suggest that MSEW may serve as a useful model to examine the complex behavioral abnormalities often apparent in individuals with histories of early life neglect, and may lead to greater understanding of these later life outcomes and offer insight into novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  9. Early life environment and the developing cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The dynamics of cardiovascular system development in childhood are still largely unknown. Despite its known sensitivity to small perturbations, it has not been fully elucidated how the cardiovascular system evolves and responds to different stimuli and how these impact the future cardiovascular status. This thesis is basically aimed at exploring the effects of several possible postnatal determinantson the developing cardiovascular system. These early life determinants perhaps immed...

  10. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  11. Early growth and development of later life metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Joo-Pin; Mantzoros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Growth is effected via a complex interaction of genetic, nutritional, environmental and growth factors. Hormonal factors such as the growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system, the human placental lactogen, and insulin play an integral role in early growth. Genetic factors affecting the GH-IGF system and insulin secretion and actions, and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have been further implicated as contributory factors. These hormonal systems, on a background of genetic susceptibility, together with other factors including maternal nutrition, placental and environmental factors, regulate not only early growth but also development. These interactions may impact on later health consequences in adult life. Accumulating data in the last few decades on developmental programming and later life metabolic disorders has provided a novel perspective on the possible pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation. Despite postulations put forward to elucidate the mechanism underlying the association between early growth and later life metabolic disorders, it remains unclear what the dominant factor(s) would be, how any underlying mechanisms interact, or whether these mechanisms are truly causal.

  12. Lack of Emotional Support from Parents Early in Life and Alcohol Abuse Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between lacking emotional support from parents early in life and adult alcohol abuse. A series of logistic regression models were run with data collected from a nationally representative sample of over 2,500 adults ages 25-74. The findings reveal a linear relationship between level of…

  13. Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.

    2004-07-01

    The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in

  14. Do early life factors influence body mass index in adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Goldani

    Full Text Available The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3% of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95%CI = 22.5-23.0. After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g, 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05. The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05 even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.

  15. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  16. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Kober, Olivia I; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C; Marchesi, Julian R; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3-5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health.

  17. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX): Project Rationale and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J.; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Granum, Berit; Gražulevicˇiene˙, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B.; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C.; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E.; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J.; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure–health effect relationships. The “exposome” concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. Objectives: The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the “early-life exposome.” Here we describe the general design of the project. Methods: In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother–child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother–child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure–response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. Conclusions: HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome. Citation: Vrijheid M, Slama R, Robinson O, Chatzi L, Coen M, van den Hazel P

  18. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone minera...

  19. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  20. Early Life Microbiota, Neonatal Immune Maturation and Hematopoiesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Matilde Bylov

    and the commensals in the gut. Hematopoietic stem cells from the fetal liver seed the fetal spleen and bone marrow in perinatal phase. Granulocytosis in neonate mice and man just after birth is a natural event of early life hematopoiesis and likely contributes to elevated counts of neutrophil-like cells...... bowl disease, later in life. The intestinal epithelium makes up a physical and biochemical barrier between the bacteria in the gut lumen and the immune cells in the submocusal tissue. This monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) makes up an extremely large surface and is highly important...... in the peripheral blood of newborns. Granular myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been described in human cord blood. MDSC are potential immunosuppressive cells often described in cancer, inflammation and during sepsis. They evolve from immature myeloid cells during hematopoiesis. Several recent...

  1. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  2. In vivo research using early life stage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rita; Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, for a variety of reasons, need to carry out in vivo research. Since experiments that require the use of adult animals pose various logistical, economical and ethical issues, the use of embryonic and larval forms of some organisms are potentially attractive alternatives. Early life stages are appealing because, in general, large numbers of individuals can be maintained in relatively simple housing, minimising costs, and their use involves fewer legal formalities. With this succinct review, we aim to provide an overview of different biological issues that have been successfully explored with the help of eggs, embryos and larvae from the frog, zebrafish and chicken.

  3. Environmental insults in early life and submissiveness later in life in mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seico eBenner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dominant and subordinate dispositions are not only determined genetically but also nurtured by environmental stimuli during neuroendocrine development. However, the relationship between early life environment and dominance behavior remains elusive. Using the IntelliCage-based competition task for group-housed mice, we have previously described two cases in which environmental insults during the developmental period altered the outcome of dominance behavior later in life. First, mice that were repeatedly isolated from their mother and their littermates (early deprivation; ED, and second, mice perinatally exposed to an environmental pollutant, dioxin, both exhibited subordinate phenotypes, defined by decreased occupancy of limited resource sites under highly competitive circumstances. Similar alterations found in the cortex and limbic area of these two models are suggestive of the presence of neural systems shared across generalized dominance behavior.

  4. Lifetime fitness consequences of early-life ecological hardship in a wild mammal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Harry H; Vitikainen, Emma I K; Mwanguhya, Francis; Businge, Robert; Kyabulima, Solomon; Hares, Michelle C; Inzani, Emma; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys; Mwesige, Kenneth; Nichols, Hazel J; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Thompson, Faye J; Cant, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life ecological conditions have major effects on survival and reproduction. Numerous studies in wild systems show fitness benefits of good quality early-life ecological conditions ("silver-spoon" effects). Recently, however, some studies have reported that poor-quality early-life ecological conditions are associated with later-life fitness advantages and that the effect of early-life conditions can be sex-specific. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of the variability of early-life ecological conditions on later-life fitness. Here, we test how the mean and variability of early-life ecological conditions affect the longevity and reproduction of males and females using 14 years of data on wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo). Males that experienced highly variable ecological conditions during development lived longer and had greater lifetime fitness, while those that experienced poor early-life conditions lived longer but at a cost of reduced fertility. In females, there were no such effects. Our study suggests that exposure to more variable environments in early life can result in lifetime fitness benefits, whereas differences in the mean early-life conditions experienced mediate a life-history trade-off between survival and reproduction. It also demonstrates how early-life ecological conditions can produce different selection pressures on males and females.

  5. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  6. The stepwise evolution of early life driven by energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, James G; House, Christopher H

    2006-06-01

    Two main theories have emerged for the origin and early evolution of life based on heterotrophic versus chemoautotrophic metabolisms. With the exception of a role for CO, the theories have little common ground. Here we propose an alternative theory for the early evolution of the cell which combines principal features of the widely disparate theories. The theory is based on the extant pathway for conversion of CO to methane and acetate, largely deduced from the genomic analysis of the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. In contrast to current paradigms, we propose that an energy-conservation pathway was the major force which powered and directed the early evolution of the cell. We envision the proposed primitive energy-conservation pathway to have developed sometime after a period of chemical evolution but prior to the establishment of diverse protein-based anaerobic metabolisms. We further propose that energy conservation played the predominant role in the later evolution of anaerobic metabolisms which explains the origin and evolution of extant methanogenic pathways.

  7. Biodemography of exceptional longevity: early-life and mid-life predictors of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States between 1890 and 1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, the Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies, and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33-3.11, p = .001). Paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 years and beyond differ in physical characteristics at a young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men who were born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the U.S. Social Security Administration database and linked to U.S. World War I civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls who were matched by calendar year of birth, race, and place of draft registration in 1917. Results showed a negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15 percent of the population) and survival to age 100. Having the occupation of "farmer" and a large number of children (4 or more) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. The results of both studies demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity.

  8. Babies of the War: The Effect of War Exposure Early in Life on Mortality Throughout Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that circumstances very early in our lives, and particularly during pregnancy, can affect our health for the remainder of life. Studies that have looked at this relationship have often used extreme situations, such as famines that occurred during wartime. Here we investigate whether less extreme situations during World War II also affected later-life mortality for cohorts born in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, and Norway. We argue that these occupied countries experienced a considerable deterioration in daily life situations and show that this resulted in strongly increased mortality rates and lower probabilities of survival until age 55 among civilian populations who had been prenatally exposed to wartime circumstances. However, this mortality effect among the prenatally exposed is entirely concentrated in the first years of life, particularly infanthood. Once we condition on having survived the first years of life, those who had been prenatally exposed do not have higher mortality rates. This suggests that "culling" is important and that effects found in earlier studies may have been biased downward substantially.

  9. Early life stress and later health : Cardiovascular disease and general health among former war evacuees

    OpenAIRE

    Alastalo, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Experienced stress in childhood might have been so severe that it has effects throughout the life course. It has been suggested that early life stress may extend consequences on psychological and physical well-being. Previous findings focusing upon consequences of early life stress are however limited and mostly based upon retrospective studies. Still little is known about the consequences of early life stress, such as war separation on physical health from a longitudinal aspect. This th...

  10. Teaching about the Early Earth: Evolution of Tectonics, Life, and the Early Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Kirk, K.; Williams, M. L.

    2007-12-01

    The early history of the Earth is the subject of some of the most exciting and innovative research in the geosciences, drawing evidence from virtually all fields of geoscience and using a variety of approaches that include field, analytical, experimental, and modeling studies. At the same time, the early Earth presents unique opportunities and challenges in geoscience education: how can we best teach "uncertain science" where the evidence is either incomplete or ambiguous? Teaching about early Earth provides a great opportunity to help students understand the nature of scientific evidence, testing, and understanding. To explore the intersection of research and teaching about this enigmatic period of Earth history, a national workshop was convened for experts in early Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The workshop was held in April, 2007 at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst as part of the On the Cutting Edge faculty professional development program. The workshop was organized around three scientific themes: evolution of global tectonics, life, and the early atmosphere. The "big scientific questions" at the forefront of current research about the early Earth were explored by keynote speakers and follow-up discussion groups: How did plate tectonics as we know it today evolve? Were there plates in the Hadean Eon? Was the early Earth molten? How rapidly did it cool? When and how did the atmosphere and hydrosphere evolve? How did life originate and evolve? How did all these components interact at the beginning of Earth's history and evolve toward the Earth system we know today? Similar "big questions" in geoscience education were addressed: how to best teach about "deep time;" how to help students make appropriate inferences when geologic evidence is incomplete; how to engage systems thinking and integrate multiple lines of evidence, across many scales of observation (temporal and spatial), and among many disciplines. Workshop participants

  11. Initial investigation of a hypothesized link between thyroid peroxidase inhibition and fish early-life stage toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  12. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  13. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  14. Spillover Effects of Early-Life Medical Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard; Daysal, N. Meltem; Simonsen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    substantial positive spillovers on all our measures of academic achievement. Our estimates suggest that siblings of focal children who were slightly below the VLBW cutoff have higher 9th grade language and math test scores, as well as higher probability of enrolling in a high school by age 19. Our results......We investigate the spillover effects of early-life medical treatments on the siblings of treated children. We use a regression discontinuity design that exploits changes in medical treatments across the very low birth weight (VLBW) cutoff. Using administrative data from Denmark, we first confirm...... the findings in the previous literature that children who are slightly below the VLBW cutoff have better short- and long-term health, and higher math test scores in 9th grade. We next investigate spillover effects on siblings and find no evidence of an impact on their health outcomes. However, we find...

  15. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Dilger, Ryan N

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation.

  16. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Yoo, S B; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Kim, B T; Park, K; Jahng, J W

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) - chronic stress experience in early life - affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1-14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH). NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and then food intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS. Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levels of the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggest that neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increased expressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  17. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardamagna, Ornella; Abello, Francesca; Cagliero, Paola; Lughetti, Lorenzo

    2012-12-21

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic.The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body's "metabolic programming". Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood.The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease.

  18. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  19. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  20. Early life stress and novelty seeking behavior in adolescent monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J; Rainwater, Kimberly L; Buckmaster, Christine L; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lindley, Steven E; Lyons, David M

    2007-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that early exposure to mild stress promotes the development of novelty seeking behavior. Here we test this hypothesis in squirrel monkeys and investigate whether novelty seeking behavior is associated with differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), the norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG), and the neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). Monkeys were randomized early in life to either mild intermittent stress (IS) or no stress (NS) conditions, and subsequently presented with opportunities to interact with a familiar or novel object in a test box that was connected to each monkey's home cage. To further minimize the potentially stressful nature of the test situation, monkeys were acclimated to the test procedures prior to study initiation. Post-test plasma levels of cortisol in IS and NS monkeys did not differ significantly from baseline levels measured in undisturbed conditions. During testing, more IS than NS monkeys voluntarily left the home cage, and IS monkeys spent more time in the test box compared to NS monkeys. More IS than NS monkeys engaged in object exploration in the test box, and IS monkeys preferred to interact with the novel vs. familiar object. Novelty seeking was not associated with differences in 5HIAA, HVA, MHPG, or CRF, but correlated with differences in object exploration observed in a different test situation at an earlier age. These trait-like differences in novelty seeking appear to reflect mild early stress-induced adaptations that enhance curiosity and resilience.

  1. Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R; Clark, A

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the possibility that early intervention might prevent mental disorders later in life. Indeed, in the United Kingdom the Department of Health recommends that health promotion should be one of the main functions of child mental health services, a suggestion that has been endorsed by professional bodies. It is easy to see why both purchasers and providers of mental health services would be interested in prevention, but will preventive interventions work in practice? This paper discusses the possibility of preventing depressive disorder in late adolescence and early adult life by intervening in childhood and early adolescence. The paper begins with a description of the phenomenology of depression and its risk factors. It then goes on to describe a framework of prevention and within this framework explores whether there is an adequate knowledge base. The general perspective that is presented is one of cautious scepticism. It is argued that difficulties in defining depression and identifying risk factors that can easily be remedied make it unlikely that within the foreseeable future primary prevention programmes will prove to be more effective than treatment and rehabilitation of affected individuals. The possibility that preventive programmes could do harm will also be discussed. The paper concludes with some proposals about appropriate targets for prevention. It is suggested that apart from a few policy areas where there are some relatively harmless measures that could protect from later depression, a balanced preventive programme will give higher priority to treatment services than to those concerned with early intervention.

  2. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY FACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左祥生; 苏宝田; 魏道严

    1994-01-01

    Early pregnancy factor(EPF)was purified from the pooled sera of 210 pregnant women at 3-8weeks of gestation.Sera from healthy nonpegnant women used as control.The samples (G-Ⅱ,G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ) ob-tained from pregnant women had EPF activity but no HCG activity.Polyacrylamide gel electrophopesis showed that the amjor bands in pregnant G-Ⅲ and G-Ⅳ were at similar positions in tube gels.The results of SDS-PAGE showed 3 bands in pregnant G-Ⅳ:57.0 kD,38.0 kD and 19.0 kD.The basic active form of EPF may be a small peptide of 19.0 kD. The isoelectric points of pregnant G-Ⅳ were 6.45 and 8.20.

  3. Live fast die young life history in females: evolutionary trade-off between early life mating and lifespan in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Laura M; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-01-01

    The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental to life history theory. Sexual selection is expected to favour a 'live fast die young' life history pattern in males due to increased risk of extrinsic mortality associated with obtaining mates. Sexual conflict may also drive a genetic trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in females. We found significant additive genetic variance in longevity independent of lifetime mating frequency, and in early life mating frequency. There was significant negative genetic covariance between these traits indicating that females from families characterized by high levels of multiple mating early in life die sooner than females that engage in less intense early life mating. Thus, despite heritable variation in both traits, their independent evolution is constrained by an evolutionary trade-off. Our findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known male-driven direct costs of mating on female lifespan (mediated by male harassment and harmful effects of seminal fluids), females with a genetic propensity to mate multiply live shorter lives. We discuss the potential role of sexual conflict in driving the evolutionary trade-off between reproduction and lifespan in Drosophila. More generally, our data show that, like males, females can exhibit a live fast die young life history strategy.

  4. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  5. Early life events influence whole-of-life metabolic health via gut microflora and gut permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Caroline A; Grice, Desma M; Tran, Cuong D; Bauer, Denis C; Li, Dongmei; Hendry, Phil; Hannan, Garry N

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of our gut microbial communities to maintain a stable and balanced state, termed 'resilience', in spite of perturbations is vital to our achieving and maintaining optimal health. A loss of microbial resilience is observed in a number of diseases including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are large gaps in our understanding of why an individual's co-evolved microflora consortium fail to develop resilience thereby establishing a trajectory towards poor metabolic health. This review examines the connections between the developing gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in the neonate, infant and during the first years of life. We propose that the effects of early life events on the gut microflora and permeability, whilst it is in a dynamic and vulnerable state, are fundamental in shaping the microbial consortia's resilience and that it is the maintenance of resilience that is pivotal for metabolic health throughout life. We review the literature supporting this concept suggesting new potential research directions aimed at developing a greater understanding of the longitudinal effects of the gut microflora on metabolic health and potential interventions to recalibrate the 'at risk' infant gut microflora in the direction of enhanced metabolic health.

  6. Early life stress as an influence on limbic epilepsy: an hypothesis whose time has come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia S Koe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, the most prevalent form of refractory focal epilepsy in adults, is thought to begin in early life, even though seizures may not commence until adolescence or adulthood. Amongst the range of early life factors implicated in MTLE causation (febrile seizures, traumatic brain injury, etc., stress may be one important contributor. Early life stress is an a priori agent deserving study because of the large amount of neuroscientific data showing enduring effects on structure and function in hippocampus and amygdala, the key structures involved in MTLE. An emerging body of evidence directly tests hypotheses concerning early life stress and limbic epilepsy: early life stressors, such as maternal separation, have been shown to aggravate epileptogenesis in both status epilepticus and kindling models of limbic epilepsy. In addition to elucidating its influence on limbic epileptogenesis itself, the study of early life stress has the potential to shed light on the psychiatric disorder that accompanies MTLE. For many years, psychiatric comorbidity was viewed as an effect of epilepsy, mediated psychologically and/or neurobiologically. An alternative – or complementary – perspective is that of shared causation. Early life stress, implicated in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders, may be one such causal factor. This paper aims to critically review the body of experimental evidence linking early life stress and epilepsy; to discuss the direct studies examining early life stress effects in current models of limbic seizures/epilepsy; and to suggest priorities for future research.

  7. Characterization of Kepler early-type targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanzaro, G; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Marilli, E; 10.1051/0004-6361/201014189

    2010-01-01

    Stellar pulsation offers a unique opportunity to constrain the intrinsic parameters of stars and unveil their inner structure. The Kepler satellite is collecting an enormous amount of data of unprecedent photometric precision, which will allow us to test theory and obtain a very precise tomography of stellar interiors. We attempt to determine the stars' fundamental parameters Teff, log g, v sin i, and luminosity needed for computing asteroseismic models and interpreting Kepler data. We report spectroscopic observations of 23 early-type Kepler asteroseismic targets, 13 other stars in the Kepler field, that had not been selected to be observed. We measured the radial velocity by performing a cross-correlation with template spectra to help us identify non-single stars. Spectral synthesis was performed to derive the stellar parameters of our target stars, and the state-of-the-art LTE atmospheric models were computed. For all the stars of our sample, we derived the radial velocity, Teff, log g, v sin i, and lumino...

  8. Early life and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders: what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria Grazia; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex pathology characterized by the occurrence of a variety of symptoms classified as positive, negative and cognitive. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of this disorder has not been unraveled yet, many theories have been endorsed during the last years. Among these, the neurochemical theories have been the most suited, considering the dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysfunctions to be mainly responsible for psychotic symptoms. However, the lack of efficacy of the available drugs, namely antipsychotics, toward negative and cognitive symptoms led to hypothesize alternative approaches. In this regard, the neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia has emerged, proposing the association between the occurrence of environmental risk factors in early-life and the development of psychosis in late-life. In particular, exposure to early life stressing situations, such as pre- and peri-natal stress, has been suggested as a risk factor to d evelop psychopathologies in adulthood in people genetically predisposed. A crucial support in favor of this hypothesis came from neurodevelopmental animal models of schizophrenia, such as maternal malnutrition, maternal deprivation, maternal infections as well as post-weaning social isolation rearing. Moreover, data from these models, corroborated by clinical findings, indicate that oxidative and nitrosative stress play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. In the present work, we reviewed the recent progress in literature regarding data available from animal models linking oxidative and nitrosative stress to psychiatric disorders in order to evaluate novel biomarkers of pathology as well as novel therapeutical targets.

  9. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R

    2015-10-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age.

  10. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  11. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  12. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted.

  13. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  14. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardamagna Ornella

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La

  15. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  16. Early-life stress mediated modulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korosi, A.; Naninck, E.F.G.; Oomen, C.A.; Schouten, M.; Krugers, H.; Fitzsimons, C.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Early life is a period of unique sensitivity during which experience can confer enduring effects on brain structure and function. During early perinatal life the quality of the surrounding environment and experiences, in particular the parent-child relationship, is associated with emotional and cogn

  17. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Ursinus, W.W.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets’ early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Hereto, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a back

  18. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  19. Phylogeny and life habits of Early Arthropods-Predation in the Early Cambrian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas MAAS; Dieter WALOSZEK; CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; WANG Xiuqiang; HUANG Diying

    2004-01-01

    We investigated two new arthropods from the Maotianshan-Shale fauna of southern China in the course of our research on life strategies, particularly predation, in Early Cambrian marine macrofaunal biota. One form clearly belongs to the so-called "great-appendage" arthropods, animals that were, most likely, active predators catching prey with their first pair of large, specialized frontoventral appendages. Based on this, we hypothesize that the new species and many others, if not all, of the "great-appendage" arthropods were derivatives of the chelicerate stem lineage and not forms having branched off at different nodes along the evolutionary lineage of the Arthropoda. Rather, we consider the "great-appendage" arthropods as belonging to a monophyletic clade, which modified autapomorphically their first pair of appendages (antennae in general arthropod terminology) into raptorial organs for food capture. The second new form resembles another Maotianshan-Shale arthropod, Fuxianhuia protensa, in sharing a head made of only two separate segments, a small segment bearing oval eyes laterally, and another bearing a large tergite, which forms a wide shield freely overhanging the subsequent narrow trunk segments. This segment bears a single pair of rather short anteriorly directed uniramous appendages, considered as the "still" limb-shaped antennae. Particularly the evolutionary status of head and limbs of these two forms suggests that both are representatives of the early part of the stem lineage toward the crown-group of Arthropoda, the Euarthropoda. These forms appear rather unspecialized, but may have been but simple predators. This adds to our hypothesis that predation was a common, if not dominant feeding strategy in the Cambrian, at least for arthropods.

  20. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  1. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry.

  2. Early stages of bipolar disorder: characterization and strategies for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel C. Rios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the early stages of bipolar disorder (BD, defined as the clinical prodrome/subsyndromal stage and first-episode phase, and strategies for their respective treatment. Methods: A selective literature search of the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and ISI databases from inception until March 2014 was performed. Included in this review were articles that a characterized prodromal and first-episode stages of BD or b detailed efficacy and safety/tolerability of interventions in patients considered prodromal for BD or those with only one episode of mania/hypomania. Results: As research has only recently focused on characterization of the early phase of BD, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment option in the early phase of BD. Case management; individual, group, and family therapy; supportive therapy; and group psychoeducation programs have been proposed. Most evidence-based treatment guidelines for BD do not address treatment specifically in the context of the early stages of illness. Evidence for pharmacotherapy is usually presented in relation to illness polarity (i.e., manic/mixed or depressed or treatment phase. Conclusions: Although early recognition and treatment are critical to preventing unfavorable outcomes, there is currently little evidence for interventions in these stages of BD.

  3. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  4. Early and later life stress alter brain activity and sleep in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Ståle; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2-14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.

  5. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early life history pelagic exposure profiles of selected commercially important fish species in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.

    2016-10-01

    A synthesis of nearly four decades of ichthyoplankton survey data from the Gulf of Alaska was undertaken to provide the most comprehensive information available on the early life history ecology of five focal species: Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus), Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), and Arrowtooth Flounder (Atheresthes stomias). This analysis of historical data, along with information from published studies, is presented here in the form of ecological reviews of the species during their planktonic phase. The reviews include descriptions of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to the environment, and interpretation regarding associated sensitivities to environmental forcing. On a temporal scale, patterns in abundance of eggs and larvae are synthesized that characterize seasonal exposure to the pelagic environment, and interannual variation that is presumed to incorporate responses to long-term environmental forcing. Spatial patterns are synthesized to identify horizontal and vertical extent of egg and larval distributions, delineate areas of primary larval habitat, and illuminate egg and larval drift pathways. The observed patterns are discussed with respect to characterizing species early life history strategies, identifying long-term adaptations to the Gulf of Alaska environment, and associated resilience and vulnerability factors that may modulate early life responses to environmental forcing in this region. For each species, gaps in knowledge are identified and are concerned primarily with the period of transition between the larval and juvenile stage, and feeding habits and ecology across seasons, habitats and sub-intervals of early ontogeny. These early life history reviews advance our ecological understanding of the pelagic phase, and fine-tune our focus for the investigation of potential response mechanisms to environmental forcing at appropriate, species-specific temporal

  7. Characterization of early autophagy signaling by quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer Tg; Zarei, Mostafa; Sprenger, Adrian;

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of nutrient shortage autophagy is the primary cellular mechanism ensuring availability of substrates for continuous biosynthesis. Subjecting cells to starvation or rapamycin efficiently induces autophagy by inhibiting the MTOR signaling pathway triggering increased autophagic flux....... To elucidate the regulation of early signaling events upon autophagy induction, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics characterizing the temporal phosphorylation dynamics after starvation and rapamycin treatment. We obtained a comprehensive atlas of phosphorylation kinetics within the first 30 min upon...

  8. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  9. Examination of age-related epigenetic changes following early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that transient early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...

  10. Long-term effects of early life stress exposure: Role of epigenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Dafne M; Acosta, Gabriela B; Zorrilla Zubilete, María A

    2016-07-01

    Stress is an adaptive response to demands of the environment and thus essential for survival. Exposure to stress during the first years of life has been shown to have profound effects on the growth and development of an adult individual. There are evidences demonstrating that stressful experiences during gestation or in early life can lead to enhanced susceptibility to mental disorders. Early-life stress triggers hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and the associated neurochemical reactions following glucocorticoid release are accompanied by a rapid physiological response. An excessive response may affect the developing brain resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes later in life. This article reviews the data from experimental studies aimed to investigate hormonal, functional, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the stress response during early-life programming. We think these studies might prove useful for the identification of novel pharmacological targets for more effective treatments of mental disorders.

  11. Local adaptation in brown trout early life-history traits: implications for climate change adaptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.F.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Pertoldi, C.

    2008-01-01

    to adapt. Temperature-related adaptability in traits related to phenology and early life history are expected to be particularly important in salmonid fishes. We focused on the latter and investigated whether four populations of brown trout (Salmo trutta) are locally adapted in early life-history traits...... and heritable variation in phenotypic plasticity suggest that although increasing temperatures are likely to affect some populations negatively, they may have the potential to adapt to changing temperature regimes.  ...

  12. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  13. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towa...

  14. Early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy in British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Coall, David A; Dickins, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    There is growing evidence that the reproductive schedules of female mammals can be affected by conditions experienced during early development, with low parental investment leading to accelerated life-history strategies in the offspring. In humans, the relationships between early-life conditions and timing of puberty are well studied, but much less attention has been paid to reproductive behaviour. Here, we investigate associations between early-life conditions and age at first pregnancy (AFP) in a large, longitudinally studied cohort of British women (n = 4553). Low birthweight for gestational age, short duration of breastfeeding, separation from mother in childhood, frequent family residential moves and lack of paternal involvement are all independently associated with earlier first pregnancy. Apart from that of birthweight, the effects are robust to adjustment for family socioeconomic position (SEP) and the cohort member's mother's age at her birth. The association between childhood SEP and AFP is partially mediated by early-life conditions, and the association between early-life conditions and AFP is partially mediated by emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. The overall relationship between early-life adversities and AFP appears to be approximately additive.

  15. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns.

  16. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  17. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-05-11

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health.

  18. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages.

  19. Effects of early life conditions on immunity in broilers and layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The course for later life immune responses is set early in life during the developmental phase of the immune system and accordingly disturbances of immune development may have long-term consequences for host health. In terms of immune activation and immune development the g

  20. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass or

  1. Lability of IgE Levels Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi N'guessan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a very fast and intriguing decrease in IgE concentrations after exclusion from the diet of any CM lysate in an unusual clinical presentation of cow's milk allergy in an infant. Analysis of IgE kinetics after allergen elimination suggests rapid cessation of IgE biosynthesis and a short IgE half-life.

  2. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life : the INCA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N B M M; Rijkers, G T; Meijssen, C B; Crijns, C E; Oudshoorn, J H; van der Ent, C K; Vlieger, A M; van der Ent, CK

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acquisition and development of infant gut microbiota can be influenced by numerous factors, of which early antibiotic treatment is an important one. However, studies on the effects of antibiotic treatment in early life on clinical outcomes and establishment and development of the gut

  3. Costs and quality of life for prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after surgery of the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Andreasen, Jakob Huus; Asmussen, Mikael;

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years improved operation techniques and administrative procedures have been developed for early rehabilitation. At the same time preoperative lifestyle intervention (prehabilitation) has revealed a large potential for additional risk reduction. The aim was to assess the quality...... of life and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of standard care versus an integrated programme including prehabilitation and early rehabilitation....

  4. Female Early Adolescent Sex Role Attitude and Behavior Development: A Life Span, Ecosystem Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christine Seipke; Keith, Joanne

    Theory and research related to early adolescent sex role development needs to be addressed from both a life-span and an ecological perspective. A study was conducted to examine the development of female early adolescent sex role attitudes and behaviors in an ecological context as defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a…

  5. Health profile of young adults born preterm: Negative effects of rapid weight gain in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); R.H. Willemsen (Ruben); R.W.J. Leunissen (Ralph); P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Early postnatal weight gain is associated with determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in adults born term. We aimed to investigate the association of weight gain during different periods, and weight trajectories in early life after p

  6. Bereavement in early life and later childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    indicator, and subsequent risk of overweight in school-aged children. Methods: We followed 46,401 singletons born in Denmark who underwent annual health examinations at 7-13 years of age in school of Copenhagen. A total of 492 children experienced bereavement by death of a parent during the first 6 years...... of life. We compared BMI levels, changes in BMI, and the prevalence of overweight at 7-13 years of age between bereaved and non-bereaved children. Results: Between bereaved children and non-bereaved children, there were no differences in average BMI levels at any age or changes in BMI at 7-13 years of age....... Bereavement during the first 6 years of life was not associated with an increased risk of overweight at 7-13 years of age. Conclusion: This study did not support that stress induced by bereavement during the first 6 years of life has significant influence on overweight in later childhood. Copyright © 2012 S...

  7. Environmental control on early life stages of flatfishes in the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2009-06-01

    Several flatfishes spawn in oceanic waters and pelagic larvae are transported inshore to settle in the nursery areas, usually estuaries, where they remain during their juvenile life. Nursery areas appear as extremely important habitats, not only for juveniles but also for the earlier planktonic larval fish. Yet, the majority of nursery studies tend to focus only on one development stage, missing an integrative approach of the entire early life that fishes spent within a nursery ground. Thus, the present study assessed the influence of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the larval and juvenile flatfishes, throughout their nursery life in the Lima Estuary. Between April 2002 and April 2004, fortnightly subsurface ichthyoplankton samples were collected and juveniles were collected from October 2003 until September 2005. Larval assemblages comprised nine flatfish species, while only six were observed among the juvenile assemblages. Solea senegalensis and Platichthys flesus were the most abundant species of both fractions of the Lima Estuary flatfishes. Larval flatfish assemblages varied seasonally, without relevant differences between lower and middle estuary. Platichthys flesus dominated the spring samples and summer and autumn periods were characterized by an increase of overall abundance and diversity of larval flatfishes, mainly S. senegalensis, associated with temperature increase and reduced river flow. On the contrary, during the winter abundance sharply decreased, as a consequence of higher river run-off that might compromised the immigration of incompetent marine larvae. Juvenile flatfishes were more abundant in the middle and upper areas of the estuary, but the species richness was higher near the river mouth. Sediment type, distance from the river mouth, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen were identified as the main environmental factors structuring the juvenile flatfish assemblages. Juveniles were spatially discrete, with the most abundant

  8. Early life factors associated with adult onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gibson Parks

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure early in life can influence adult disease and immunity, but the role of early life exposures in risk of SLE is not established.Methods: Women in a national cohort (ages 35-74 provided data on perinatal, maternal and sociodemographic factors, longest residence to age 14 and residential farm history of at least 12 months to age 18. Cases (N=124 reported SLE diagnosed age 16 years or older with use of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Non-cases (N=50,465 did not report lupus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by logistic regression adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Results: SLE was associated with low birthweight (data on 84 cases and 36,477 non-cases; 4 weeks early vs. full-term; OR=3.4; 95%CI 1.6, 7.4. Considering longest childhood residence to age 14, SLE was associated with more frequent pesticide use (e.g., at least monthly OR=2.3; 95%CI 1.3, 4.1. SLE was associated with having an early and extended childhood farm residence (i.e., prenatal/maternal farm exposure and longest childhood farm residence; OR=1.8; 95%CI 1.1, 3.0 versus neither. In those with a childhood-only farm residence of 12+ months, agricultural pesticide use was associated with SLE, with the strongest associations for direct personal exposures. Conclusions: The association of SLE with premature birth is consistent with studies in other populations, and with an observed association with low birthweight. The associations of SLE with childhood exposure to residential and agricultural pesticides warrant further study.INTRODUCTIONSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by immune reactivity to multiple nuclear components and inflammation, resulting in diverse clinical features and multiple organ involvement. The causes of SLE are generally not known. Racial disparities and increased familial risk suggest a genetic predisposition. It is believed that environmental factors may contribute to

  9. Coping with a changing environment: The effects of early life stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Madaro, Angelico; Fraser, Thomas W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing rapid domestication of Atlantic salmon implies that individuals are subjected to evolutionarily novel stressors encountered under conditions of artificial rearing, requiring new levels and directions of flexibility in physiological and behavioural coping mechanisms. Phenotypic plasticity...... to environmental changes is particularly evident at early life stages. We investigated the performance of salmon, previously subjected to an unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) treatment at an early age (10 month old parr), over several months and life stages. The UCS fish showed overall higher specific growth...... farming environments may be beneficial, because in such situations individuals may be able to reallocate energy from stress responses into other life processes, such as growth....

  10. Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowell, Gerardo; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Bansal, Shweta; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-09-01

    There is a long tradition of using mathematical models to generate insights into the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. The increasing use of mathematical models for epidemic forecasting has highlighted the importance of designing reliable models that capture the baseline transmission characteristics of specific pathogens and social contexts. More refined models are needed however, in particular to account for variation in the early growth dynamics of real epidemics and to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. Here, we review recent progress on modeling and characterizing early epidemic growth patterns from infectious disease outbreak data, and survey the types of mathematical formulations that are most useful for capturing a diversity of early epidemic growth profiles, ranging from sub-exponential to exponential growth dynamics. Specifically, we review mathematical models that incorporate spatial details or realistic population mixing structures, including meta-population models, individual-based network models, and simple SIR-type models that incorporate the effects of reactive behavior changes or inhomogeneous mixing. In this process, we also analyze simulation data stemming from detailed large-scale agent-based models previously designed and calibrated to study how realistic social networks and disease transmission characteristics shape early epidemic growth patterns, general transmission dynamics, and control of international disease emergencies such as the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa.

  11. [Early life stressful experiences and neuropsychiatric vulnerability: evidences from human and animal models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincel, Marion; Lépinay, Amandine; Gabory, Anne; Théodorou, Vassilia; Koehl, Muriel; Daugé, Valérie; Maccari, Stefania; Darnaudéry, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    The human newborn is highly dependent on parental care for its survival but also for the healthy development of its brain. A large body of literature demonstrates the impact of early life adversity, even during the prenatal period, on the adult's health. The susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases is often potentiated by early stress. If there is an agreement that a critical developmental period exists, the mechanisms underlying the long term effects of early life adversity are still poorly understood. Recent studies in animals highlight the involvement of epigenetic processes in the transmission of such vulnerabilities, notably via modifications in germ cells, which can be transmitted in the next generations.

  12. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  13. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2011-07-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  14. How can Early Life Flavor Experiences Affect Food Preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences with food flavors lead up to children’s food preferences and develop long-lasting flavor preferences and healthy eating habits. The process of flavor learning begins during pregnancy by the foods eaten by mothers which pass to the amniotic fluid. Some flavors coming from the mother’s diet that pass to the amniotic fluid are detected by the fetus. This flavor learning continues after birth with breastfeeding, since the human milk is composed of flavors which reflect the foods consumed by the mother. Flavor composition in human milk which changes during the course of lactation due to the transmission of flavors into human milk enables the baby to get used to new flavors. Therefore, breastfed infants are likely to accept flavor changes and novel flavors more than formula fed infants. Flavor learning continues with starting complementary foods and eating the foods directly. Exposure to a specific flavor and repeated exposures in different times may facilitate the acceptance of this flavor. Furthermore, infants exposed to a variety of foods accept new flavors than infants following a monotonous diet. This underlines the importance of promoting the access to a variety of foods in early childhood. In conclusion, pregnant and lactating women should have variety of healthy foods in their diets with a variety of flavors and they should be encouraged to breastfeed their babies. In addition, starting complementary foods and early repeated exposure to a wide variety of healthy foods, the infants should get familiar with the flavor of healthy and various food. These factors may influence the development of healthy food preferences and healthy eating habits in later periods.

  15. Early life stress experience may blunt hypothalamic leptin signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JH LEE; SB YOO; JY KIM; JY LEE; BT KIM; K PARK; JW JAHNG

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neonatal maternal separation (MS) – chronic stress experience inearly life – affects the anorectic efficacy of leptin in the offspring at adolescence. Sprague–Dawley pups wereseparated from the dam daily for 3 h during postnatal day 1–14 or left undisturbed as non-handled controls (NH).NH and MS male pups received an intraperitoneal leptin (100 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal day (PND) 28, and thenfood intake and body weight gain were recorded. The hypothalamic levels of leptin-signalling-related genes,phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B(PTP1B) were examined at 40 min after a single injection of leptin on PND 39 by immunohistochemistry and Westernblot analysis. Leptin-induced suppressions in food intake and weight gain was observed in NH pups, but not in MS.Leptin increased pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of NH pups, but not of MS. Interestingly, basal levelsof the hypothalamic PTP1B and pSTAT3 were increased in MS pups compared with NH controls. The results suggestthat neonatal MS experience may blunt the anorectic efficacy of leptin later in life, possibly in relation with increasedexpressions of PTP1B and/or pSTAT3 in the hypothalamus.

  16. Toxicogenomic and phenotypic analyses of bisphenol-A early-life exposure toxicity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hong Lam

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A is an important environmental contaminant due to the increased early-life exposure that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. This study aimed to use zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to capture transcriptomic and phenotypic changes for inference of signaling pathways, biological processes, physiological systems and identify potential biomarker genes that are affected by early-life exposure to bisphenol-A. Phenotypic analysis using wild-type zebrafish larvae revealed BPA early-life exposure toxicity caused cardiac edema, cranio-facial abnormality, failure of swimbladder inflation and poor tactile response. Fluorescent imaging analysis using three transgenic lines revealed suppressed neuron branching from the spinal cord, abnormal development of neuromast cells, and suppressed vascularization in the abdominal region. Using knowledge-based data mining algorithms, transcriptome analysis suggests that several signaling pathways involving ephrin receptor, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, synaptic long-term potentiation, axonal guidance, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin and tight junction were deregulated. Physiological systems with related disorders associated with the nervous, cardiovascular, skeletal-muscular, blood and reproductive systems were implicated, hence corroborated with the phenotypic analysis. Further analysis identified a common set of BPA-targeted genes and revealed a plausible mechanism involving disruption of endocrine-regulated genes and processes in known susceptible tissue-organs. The expression of 28 genes were validated in a separate experiment using quantitative real-time PCR and 6 genes, ncl1, apoeb, mdm1, mycl1b, sp4, U1SNRNPBP homolog, were found to be sensitive and robust biomarkers for BPA early-life exposure toxicity. The susceptibility of sp4 to BPA perturbation suggests its role in altering brain development, function and subsequently behavior observed in

  17. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary

  18. Protein needs early in life and long-term health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Greer, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize selected health aspects of protein intake during the first 2 y of life. During this period there is a marked increase in protein intake from an intake of ∼5% of energy from protein (PE%) in an exclusively breastfed infant to ∼15 PE% when complementary...... foods have been introduced. At this age, mean protein intake is ∼3 times as high as the physiologic requirement, but some children receive 4-5 times their physiologic requirement. Protein from cow milk constitutes a main part of protein intake in toddlers and seems to have a specific effect on insulin......-like growth factor I concentrations and growth. Meat has a high protein content, but the small amounts of meat needed to ensure good iron status have less impact on total protein intake. The difference in protein intake between breastfed and formula-fed infants is likely to play a role in the difference...

  19. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality...... populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have...... to be lower than those from the general population sample. After careful consideration we concluded that this finding was probably incorrect. The most important explanations were thought to be the wording of some HAD Scale items as well as two mechanisms that are not specific to the HAD Scale, the "selective...

  20. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation......, if results from self-assessment and interviews deviated, misunderstandings or other errors might have taken place, and the study would give insight into possible problems. Of 57 breast cancer patients, 46 (81%) were successfully interviewed. In general, the agreement between patient-completed questionnaires......, chemotherapy was associated with more impact on HRQL during the treatment period; only hot flushes/sweats were more pronounced in the ovarian ablation group. Thus, from an overall "HRQL perspective" ovarian ablation or suppression may be preferable. However, younger women may preserve their premenopausal...

  1. Crystals, colloids, or molecules?: Early controversies about the origin of life and synthetic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Crystals, colloids, and (macro-)molecules have played major roles in theoretical concepts and experimental approaches concerning the generation of life from the mid-19th century on. The notion of the crystallization of life out of a nonliving fluid, a special case of the doctrine of spontaneous generation, was most prominently incorporated into Schleiden's and Schwann's version of cell theory. Refutation at the end of the 19th century of spontaneous generation of life and cells, in particular by Pasteur, Remak, and Virchow, not only gave rise to the flourishing fields of microbiology and cytology, but it also opened up research on synthetic life. These approaches focused on growth and form and colloidal chemistry on the one hand, and on the specificity of organisms' macromolecules and chemical reactions on the other. This article analyzes the contribution of these approaches to synthetic life research and argues that researchers' philosophical predilections and basic beliefs have played important roles in the choice of experimental and theoretical approaches towards synthetic life.

  2. Characterizing Early Maternal Style in a Population of Guide Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E.; Sammel, Mary D.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Serpell, James A.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    In both humans and non-humans, differences in maternal style during the first few weeks of life can be reliably characterized, and these differences affect offspring's temperament and cognition in later life. Drawing on the breeding population of dogs at The Seeing Eye, a guide dog school in Morristown, New Jersey, we conducted videotaped focal follows on 21 mothers and their litters (n = 138 puppies) over the first 3 weeks of the puppies' lives in an effort to characterize maternal style. We found that a mother's attitude and actions toward her offspring varied naturally between individuals, and that these variations could be summarized by a single principal component, which we described as Maternal behavior. This component was stable across weeks, associated with breed, litter size, and parity, but not redundant with these attributes. Furthermore, this component was significantly associated with an independent experimental measure of maternal behavior, and with maternal stress as measured by salivary cortisol. In summary, Maternal behavior captured a significant proportion of the variation in maternal style; was stable over time; and had both discriminant and predictive validity.

  3. Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression on anxiety and memory after early life stress in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eKanatsou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of early-life stress on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that early-life stress increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of early life stress on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice.

  4. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: Early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288, it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e. in the case of early-life abuse or neglect may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity.

  5. Prenatal and early-life predictors of atopy and allergic disease in Canadian children: results of the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, T; Reece, P L; Schulze, K M; Morrison, K M; Atkinson, S A; Anand, S S; Teo, K K; Denburg, J A; Cyr, M M

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal and early-life environmental exposures play a key role in the development of atopy and allergic disease. The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life Study is a general, population-based Canadian birth cohort that prospectively evaluated prenatal and early-life traits and their association with atopy and/or allergic disease. The study population included 901 babies, 857 mothers and 530 fathers. Prenatal and postnatal risk factors were evaluated through questionnaires collected during the antenatal period and at 1 year. The end points of atopy and allergic diseases in infants were evaluated through questionnaires and skin prick testing. Key outcomes included atopy (24.5%), food allergy (17.5%), cow's milk allergy (4.8%), wheezing (18.6%) and eczema (16%). The association between infant antibiotic exposure [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-2.88] and increased atopy was noted in the multivariate analysis, whereas prenatal maternal exposure to dogs (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) and acetaminophen (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51-0.92) was associated with decreased atopy. This population-based birth cohort in Canada demonstrated high rates of atopy, food allergy, wheezing and eczema. Several previously reported and some novel prenatal and postnatal exposures were associated with atopy and allergic diseases at 1 year of age.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  7. Investigating epigenetic consequences of early-life adversity: some methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Fiori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stressful and traumatic events occurring during early childhood have been consistently associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. This relationship may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which are influenced by the early-life environment. Epigenetic patterns can have lifelong effects on gene expression and on the functioning of biological processes relevant to stress reactivity and psychopathology. Optimization of epigenetic research activity necessitates a discussion surrounding the methodologies used for DNA methylation analysis, selection of tissue sources, and timing of psychological and biological assessments. Recent studies related to early-life adversity and methylation, including both candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies, have drawn from the variety of available techniques to generate interesting data in the field. Further discussion is warranted to address the limitations inherent to this field of research, along with future directions for epigenetic studies of adversity-related psychopathology.

  8. Early life treatment with vancomycin reduces diabetes incidence in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    immune response and a fine-tuned balance between these immunological components is crucial for characteristics of the disease, such as severity, onset time and recovery. The balance between the regulatory and the adaptive immune response is heavily influenced by early life bacterial stimulation......Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from an uncontrolled T cell mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas. Causal factors include a combination of genetics, early life incidents and the food we eat. The involved adaptive immune response can be down regulated by a regulatory....... An interplay that is likely to represent a critical environmental component to diabetes induction. In a period after birth alterations of the early microbial colonization of the gut therefore can be expected to have an immense impact on diabetes progression later in life. In this study neonate NOD mice were...

  9. The early life origins of vascular ageing and cardiovascular risk: the EVA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Peter M; Lurbe, Empar; Laurent, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    Early vascular ageing is common in patients with hypertension and increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors, often influenced by chronic inflammation. One aspect of this vascular ageing is arterial stiffening, as measured by increased pulse wave velocity or augmentation index and central pressure. Several studies have indicated that this process starts early in life and that arterial function and ageing properties could be programmed during foetal life or influenced by adverse growth patterns in early postnatal life. This could explain the repeated findings in observational epidemiology that an inverse association exists between birth weight, adjusted for gestational age, and systolic blood pressure elevation in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as for increased cardiovascular risk. One new marker of increased pulse pressure and arterial ageing is telomere length, as regulated by telomerase enzymatic activity. Future studies will hopefully shed light on the possibilities to halt or even reverse vascular ageing, and thereby also influence telomere biology and its different expressions.

  10. The Influence of Early Life Conditions on Social Perceptions of Women in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers, Jazmin J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are key contributors to an organizational environment, though the stereotypic perceptions about powerful women are common and often negative. Factors such as wage gap differentials between men and women imply that women are not of the same value to an organization’s success as men. Many empirical studies have examined perceptions about women in positions such as managers, CEOs, supervisors or directors. These studies have not, however, focused on how early life environments, and variables related to an individual’s upbringing, might influence the self-perceptions of these women and the roles they play in the workplace. The purpose of this research is to identify 1 perceptions about women in today’s workplace; 2 how individuals’ early life experiences correlate with their later perceptions about women in the workplace, and 3 how early life influences affect women as organizational leaders in groups and dyads. As such, it is hypothesized that this correlational study will discover that early life conditions, such as the quality of education, household income, and demographic data from both male and female genders will influence common attitudes about women in the workplace. The present research also aims to help employees become more aware of company perceptions and to improve gender communication in the workplace. Examining the workplace perceptions of men and women formed by early life influences, and specifically, researching how women work as leaders in an organizational setting can provide information that will be useful in corporate environments. Significant early life predictors can also be used as data for families and schools raising young women to become leaders in the corporate world.

  11. Early life antibiotic exposure affects pancreatic islet development and metabolic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaying; Yang, Kaiyuan; Ju, Tingting; Ho, Tracy; McKay, Catharine A.; Gao, Yanhua; Forget, Shay K.; Gartner, Stephanie R.; Field, Catherine J.; Chan, Catherine B.; Willing, Benjamin P.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood antibiotic exposure has been recently linked with increased risk of metabolic disease later in life. A better understanding of this association would potentially provide strategies to reduce the childhood chronic disease epidemic. Therefore, we explored the underlying mechanisms using a swine model that better mimics human infants than rodents, and demonstrated that early life antibiotic exposure affects glucose metabolism 5 weeks after antibiotic withdrawal, which was associated with changes in pancreatic development. Antibiotics exerted a transient impact on postnatal gut microbiota colonization and microbial metabolite production, yet changes in the expression of key genes involved in short-chain fatty acid signaling and pancreatic development were detected in later life. These findings suggest a programming effect of early life antibiotic exposure that merits further investigation. PMID:28150721

  12. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment in the s......Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...

  13. Effects of early life trauma are dependent on genetic predisposition: a rat study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Vivienne A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma experienced early in life increases the risk of developing a number of psychological and/or behavioural disorders. It is unclear, however, how genetic predisposition to a behavioural disorder, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, modifies the long-term effects of early life trauma. There is substantial evidence from family and twin studies for susceptibility to ADHD being inherited, implying a strong genetic component to the disorder. In the present study we used an inbred animal model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, to investigate the long-term consequences of early life trauma on emotional behaviour in individuals predisposed to developing ADHD-like behaviour. Methods We applied a rodent model of early life trauma, maternal separation, to SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain from which SHR were originally derived. The effects of maternal separation (removal of pups from dam for 3 h/day during the first 2 weeks of life on anxiety-like behaviour (elevated-plus maze and depressive-like behaviour (forced swim test were assessed in prepubescent rats (postnatal day 28 and 31. Basal levels of plasma corticosterone were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results The effect of maternal separation on SHR and WKY differed in a number of behavioural measures. Similar to its reported effect in other rat strains, maternal separation increased the anxiety-like behaviour of WKY (decreased open arm entries but not SHR. Maternal separation increased the activity of SHR in the novel environment of the elevated plus-maze, while it decreased that of WKY. Overall, SHR showed a more active response in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test than WKY, regardless of treatment, and were also found to have higher basal plasma corticosterone compared to WKY. Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive

  14. Paternal effects on early life history traits in Northwest Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroll, M.-M.; Peck, M.A.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2013-01-01

    and survival. In marine fish, rates of natural mortality are highest during early life and are negatively correlated with rates of growth and body size. In these early life stages (eggs, larvae, young juveniles) subtle differences in mortality can cause large differences in recruitment and year-class success...... this 12 males and two females were crossed using a full-factorial breeding design. Paternity had a strong influence on fertilization success, hatching success, cumulative embryonic mortality, larval standard length, eye diameter, yolk-sac area, and cumulative larval mortality. Female 1 showed an overall...

  15. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The....... The present study includes an in-depth examination of the influence of exposure to vitamin D early in life for development of fractures of the wrist, arm and clavicle; obesity, and type 1 diabetes (T1D) during child- and adulthood....

  16. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  18. Development of atopic dermatitis and its association with prenatal and early life exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Roduit, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Over 20% of children in industrialized countries are affected by atopic dermatitis. From epidemiological studies, it is quite obvious that the worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis has considerably increased over the past decades and constitutes a major public health problem. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that occurs in very early life and frequently precedes the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis during the first several years of life. Although a large...

  19. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides in early life: ontogeny and translational opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jane Battersby

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst developing adaptive immune responses, young infants are especially vulnerable to serious infections including sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (APPs are key effectors that function as broad-spectrum anti-infectives. This review seeks to summarise the clinically relevant functional qualities of APPs and the increasing clinical trial evidence for their use to combat serious infections in infancy. Levels of APPs are relatively low in early life, especially in infants born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW. There are several rationales for the potential clinical utility of APPs in the prevention and treatment of infections in infants: (a APPs may be most helpful in those with reduced levels; (b during sepsis microbial products signal via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causing potentially harmful inflammation which APPs may counteract; and (c in the era of antibiotic resistance, development of new anti-infective strategies is essential. Evidence supports the potential clinical utility of exogenous APPs to reduce infection-related morbidity in infancy. Further studies should characterize the ontogeny of antimicrobial activity in mucosal and systemic compartments, and examine the efficacy of exogenous-APP formulations to inform translational development of APPs for infant groups.

  20. Early life adversity is associated with brain changes in subjects at family risk for depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carballedo, Angela

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of genetic and early environmental factors is recognized as an important factor in the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to examine whether reduced volume of hippocampus and frontal brain regions involved in emotional regulation are already present in unaffected healthy individuals at genetic risk of suffering MDD and to investigate whether early life adversity is a relevant factor interacting with these reduced brain structures.

  1. Application of molecular endpoints in early life stage salmonid environmental biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Vicki L; Sherrard, Ryan; Kennedy, Chris J; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Molecular endpoints can enhance existing whole animal bioassays by more fully characterizing the biological impacts of aquatic pollutants. Laboratory and field studies were used to examine the utility of adopting molecular endpoints for a well-developed in situ early life stage (eyed embryo to onset of swim-up fry) salmonid bioassay to improve diagnostic assessments of water quality in the field. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) were exposed in the laboratory to the model metal (zinc, 40μg/L) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene, 100μg/L) in water to examine the resulting early life stage salmonid responses. In situ field exposures and bioassays were conducted in parallel to evaluate the water quality of three urban streams in British Columbia (two sites with anthropogenic inputs and one reference site). The endpoints measured in swim-up fry included survival, deformities, growth (weight and length), vitellogenin (vtg) and metallothionein (Mt) protein levels, and hepatic gene expression (e.g., metallothioneins [mta and mtb], endocrine biomarkers [vtg and estrogen receptors, esr] and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [cytochrome P450 1A3, cyp1a3 and glutathione transferases, gstk]). No effects were observed in the zinc treatment, however exposure of swim-up fry to pyrene resulted in decreased survival, deformities and increased estrogen receptor alpha (er1) mRNA levels. In the field exposures, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (cyp1a3, gstk) and zinc transporter (zntBigM103) mRNA were significantly increased in swim-up fry deployed at the sites with more anthropogenic inputs compared to the reference site. Cluster analysis revealed that gene expression profiles in individuals from the streams receiving anthropogenic inputs were more similar to each other than to the reference site. Collectively, the results obtained in this study suggest that molecular endpoints may be useful, and potentially more sensitive, indicators of site

  2. Sensitivity of early life stages of white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and fathead minnow to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Oellers, Johanna; Doering, Jon A; Hollert, Henner; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (WS; Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in several parts of the United States and Canada, attributed primarily to poor recruitment caused by degradation of habitats, including pollution with contaminants such as metals. Little is known about sensitivity of WS to contaminants or metals such as copper (Cu). Here, acute (96 h) mortalities of WS early life stages due to exposure to Cu under laboratory conditions are reported. Two standard test species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were exposed in parallel to determine relative sensitivity among species. Swim-up larvae [15 days post-hatch (dph)] and early juveniles (40-45 dph) of WS were more sensitive to Cu (LC(50) = 10 and 9-17 μg/L, respectively) than were yolksac larvae (8 dph; LC(50) = 22 μg/L) and the later juvenile life stage (100 dph; LC(50) = 54 μg/L). WS were more sensitive to Cu than rainbow trout and fathead minnow at all comparable life stages tested. Yolksac larvae of rainbow trout and fathead minnow were 1.8 and 4.6 times, respectively, more tolerant than WS, while swim-up and juvenile life stages of rainbow trout were between 1.4- and 2.4-times more tolerant than WS. When plotted in a species sensitivity distribution with other fishes, the mean acute toxicity value for early life stage WS was ranked between the 1st and 2nd centile. The WS life stage of greatest Cu sensitivity coincides with the beginning of active feeding and close association with sediment, possibly increasing risk. WS early life stages are sensitive to aqueous copper exposure and site-specific water quality guidelines and criteria should be evaluated closely to ensure adequate protection.

  3. The Everyday Life of Children Across Early Childhood Institution and The Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the everyday life of Danish children across different social practices and explores what this outset can tell us about the life of children and families. Building on the critique of classical approaches in developmental psychology (e.g. Burman 1994; James, Jenks, & Prout...... 1998) and family research (e.g. Leira 1993; Thorne & Yalom 1982) the article puts forward a decentred approach to family life. The aim is to show how the institutional context and family context sets conditions for each other - and that interplay sets conditions for the development of the children....... The article argues that the social practice in which the children participate outside the family, in important ways shapes the life of children as well as their parents. The parents' insight and knowledge of their children's everyday life in early childhood institution and the co-operation between parents...

  4. Alchemy as studies of life and matter: reconsidering the place of vitalism in early modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-ming

    2011-06-01

    Early modern alchemy studied both matter and life, much like today's life sciences. What material life is and how it comes about intrigued alchemists. Many found the answer by assuming a vital principle that served as the source and cause of life. Recent literature has presented important cases in which vitalist formulations incorporated corpuscular or mechanical elements that were characteristic of the New Science and other cases in which vitalist thinking influenced important figures of the Scientific Revolution. Not merely speculative, vitalist ideas also motivated chymical practice. The unity of life science and material science that is found in many formulations of Renaissance alchemy disintegrated in Georg Ernst Stahl's version of post-Cartesian vitalism.

  5. Early-life origins of chronic respiratory diseases: understanding and promoting healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Silvia; Scheltema, Nienke; Bont, Louis; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often originate early in life. In addition to a genetic predisposition, prenatal and early-life environmental exposures have a persistent impact on respiratory health. Acting during a critical phase of lung development, these factors may change lung structure and metabolism, and may induce maladaptive responses to harmful agents, which will affect the whole lifespan. Some environmental factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, type of childbirth and diet, may be modifiable, but it is more difficult to influence other factors, such as preterm birth and early exposure to viruses or allergens. Here, we bring together recent literature to analyse the critical aspects involved in the early stages of lung development, going back to prenatal and perinatal events, and we discuss the mechanisms by which noxious factors encountered early on may have a lifelong impact on respiratory health. We briefly comment on the need for early disease biomarkers and on the possible role of "-omic" technologies in identifying risk profiles predictive of chronic respiratory conditions. Such profiles could guide the ideation of effective preventive strategies and/or targeted early lifestyle or therapeutic interventions.

  6. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Beijers, R.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2015-01-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety

  7. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  8. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of fatigue in midlife and later life with physical performance and strength in early old age. METHODS: Data on approximately 1800 men and women from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development with data on fatigue at ages 43 and 60...

  9. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model.

  10. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  11. Sex and strain modify antioxidant response to early life ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 3rd leading cause of death. In women, its impact continues to increase. Oxidant insults like cigarette smoke and air pollution, especially during critical periods of early life, appear to further increase risk of COPD...

  12. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Human exposures to organophosphate insecticides are ubiquitous. Although regarded as neurotoxicants, increasing evidence points toward lasting metabolic disruption from early-life organophosphate exposures. We gave neonatal rats chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in doses devoid of any acute signs of toxicity, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental window altered the trajectory of hepatic adenylyl cyc...

  13. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  14. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  15. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  16. Gut microbiota in early life and its impact on allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.B.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the development of the intestinal microbiota in infancy, investigated by different molecular approaches (all based on rRNA gene analysis), and includes studies describing consequences of early life modulation of microbiota, by supplementation of probiotics, on composition and f

  17. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  18. Association of early-life antibiotic use and protective effects of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Virta, Lauri J.; Kekkonen, Riina A.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Long duration of breastfeeding is known to reduce the frequency of infections and the risk of overweight, both of which are prevalent health problems among children, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To test whether early-life antibiotic use in children prevents the benefici

  19. Early life influences on cognition, behavior, and emotion in humans: from birth to age 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, B.R. Van den; Loomans, E.M.; Mennes, M.

    2015-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of fetal exposure to early life influences (ELI) such as maternal anxiety, stress, and micronutrient deficiencies as well as mediating and moderating factors are quite well established in animal studies, but remain unclear in humans. Here, we report about effects on cognitio

  20. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Abrahamsen, Bo; Bauerek, Marta Jadwiga;

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among otherwise healthy pregnant women and may have consequences for them as well as the early development and long-term health of their children. However, the importance of maternal vitamin D status on offspring health later in life has not been widely studied. The...

  1. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  2. Why Did the Netherlands Develop So Early? The Legacy of the Brethren of the Common Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Akçomak (I. Semih); H.D. Webbink (Dinand); B. ter Weel (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis research establishes a link between the Brethren of the Common Life (BCL), a religious community founded by Geert Groote in Deventer in the late fourteenth century, and the early economic development of the Netherlands. The BCL stimulated human capital accumulation. The histor

  3. Early Years: Young Children Deserve the Best Possible Start in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leena

    2015-01-01

    That all young children should have the best possible start in life is a statement that tends to be met with universal agreement. This article, however, argues there are very many different kinds of ideologies that shape the kinds of "best starts" early years teachers should strive for at a time when childhood poverty is rising and when…

  4. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  5. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Wood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  6. Resistance to early-life stress in mice: effects of genetic background and stress duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Savignac

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress can induce marked behavioural and physiological impairments in adulthood including cognitive deficits, depression, anxiety and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Although robust rat models of early-life stress exist there are few established effective paradigms in the mouse. Genetic background and protocol parameters used are two critical variables in such model development.Thus we investigated the impact of two different early-life stress protocols in two commonly used inbred mouse strains. C57BL/6 and innately anxious BALB/c male mice were maternally deprived 3 hrs daily, either from postnatal day 1 to 14 (Protocol 1 or 6 to 10 (Protocol 2. Animals were assessed in adulthood for cognitive performance (spontaneous alternation behaviour test, anxiety (open field, light/dark box and elevated plus maze tests and depression-related behaviours (forced swim test in addition to stress-sensitive physiological changes. Overall, the results showed that early-life stressed mice from both strains displayed good cognitive ability and no elevations in anxiety. However, paradoxical changes occurred in C57BL/6 mice as the longer protocol (protocol 1 decreased anxiety in the light-dark box and increased exploration in the elevated plus maze. In BALB/c mice there were also limited effects of maternal separation with both separation protocols inducing reductions in stress-induced defecation and protocol 1 reducing the colon length. These data suggest that, independent of stress duration, mice from both strains were on the whole resilient to the maladaptive effects of early-life stress. Thus maternal-separation models of brain-gut axis dysfunction should rely on either different stressor protocols or other strains of mice.

  7. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  8. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  9. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  10. Does dietary protein in early life affect the development of adiposity in mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, C C

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the proposition that dietary protein in pre- and early postnatal life influences the development of adiposity in later life. In rodents, low protein intake during gestation can result in low birth weight and subsequently leads to various metabolic disturbances in adulthood, such as high blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The few controlled studies conducted in animals suggest that high protein or energy intake during gestation leads to low birth weights. Observational studies in humans have been inconclusive in establishing a relationship between dietary protein intake in pregnancy and effects on birth weight and adiposity of the offspring later in life. There is only weak epidemiological evidence linking high protein intake during early childhood and the development of obesity. By contrast, studies in domestic animals have found that higher levels of protein intake are often associated with lower rates of fat accretion. Additional studies are proposed to explore claims linking protein nutrition in early life to the postnatal development of obesity and disease in humans.

  11. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  12. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals. PMID:27620663

  13. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Buchanan, Natasha D

    2016-11-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice.

  14. Simple mechanisms of early life - simulation model on the origin of semi-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Adrian; Bock, Martin; Alt, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H2S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions. To address this question, we implemented a model system featuring the fundamentals of molecular dynamics: heat, attraction, repulsion and formation of covalent bonds. Our basic model exhibits a series of essential processes: self-organization of lipid micelles and bilayers, formation of fluid filled cavities, flux of molecules along membranes, transport of energized groups towards sinks and whole colonies of cell-like structures on a larger scale. The results demonstrate that only a few features are sufficient for discovering hitherto non described phenomena of self-assembly and dynamics of cell-like structures as candidates for early evolving proto-cells. Significance statement The quest for a possible origin of life continues to be one of the most fascinating problems in biology. In one theoretical scenario, early life originated from a solution of reactive chemicals in the ancient deep sea, similar to conditions as to be found in thermal vents. Experiments have shown that a variety of organic molecules, the building blocks of life, form under these conditions. Based on such experiments, the iron-sulfur theory postulates the growth of cell-like structures at certain catalytic surfaces. For an explanation and proof of such a process we have developed a computer model simulating molecular assembly of lipid bilayers and formation of semi-cell cavities. The results demonstrate the possibility of cell-like self

  15. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Yanez-Ruiz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonisation that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early-life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early-life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  16. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations.

  17. CONCEPT OF LIFE QUALITY OF FAMILIES WITH EARLY AGE CHILD WITH ENDANGERED DEVELOPMENT DUE TO DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šándorová Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, there is a trend nowadays in supporting families caring for a child vulnerable due to disability. A network of services offering support to these families is growing. Causes of this fact can be found at three different levels, on the child and family side, but also at the support system. Concept of a life quality, and it´s various dimensions for this target group, have been neglected until recently. Present time, however, introduces significant changes in an approach to this issue and the concept of life quality in general is getting to the fore within the interagency scope and the social policy. In this particular case it presents a complex construct comprising many subunits. We can look at them from a variety of perspectives and operate with them in many different ways. This paper solves a view at this concept unusually at the background of the specific activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice. For the paper processing qualitative research strategies have been used – description of organization´s material and quantitative survey (evaluation questionnaire for the year 2012. Particular aim of this paper is to describe activities of Early Care Centre in Pardubice which affect the concept of life quality of families with child (early age vulnerable due to disability. Results analysis of the evaluation survey which is aimed to identify some of quality indicators of service provided in 2012 also at the Centre for Early Intervention in Pardubice and comparison with the material of the National Centre of social services transformation support - A system of services for children and young people with disabilities and their families (Bačáková, 2013. Results evaluate the life quality concept for families with children in early age with the endangered development due to disability from the position of the family, support and assistance provider and support and assistance evaluator. The conclusion summarizes the problem

  18. Early life exposure to farm animals and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: an ISAAC Phase Three Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Wong, G.; Odhiambo, J.; Clayton, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between early life exposure to farm animals and respiratory symptoms and allergy in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between early life exposure to far

  19. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; El Aidy, Sahar; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Kelly, Philip; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several

  20. Spatio-temporal variability in western Baltic cod early life stage survival mediated by egg buoyancy, hydrography and hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, H-H.; Hüssy, K.; Huwer, B.

    2012-01-01

    explicit understanding of both the spawning stock size and the early life stage dynamics is required. The objectives of this study are to assess the transport of western Baltic cod early life stages as well as the variability in environmentally-mediated survival along drift routes in relation to both...

  1. Early life microbial exposure and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in school-age children : A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Wouters, Inge M.; Torrent, Maties; Gehring, Ulrike; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Thiering, Elisabeth; Postma, Dirkje S.; de Jongste, Johan; Smit, Henriette A.; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvaerinen, Anne; Heinrich, Joachim; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Early life exposure to microbial agents may have an effect on the development of the immune system and on respiratory health later in life. In the present work we aimed to evaluate the associations between early li

  2. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  3. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed onPercina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, orGambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  4. Gene-environment interactions in early life and adulthood: implications for cocaine intake

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Rixt

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to demonstrate the role of gene-environment interactions in the emergence of individual differences in cocaine use. For this purpose we used two inbred mouse strains, the C57Bl/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA), which are known to differ in drug-intake and to be differentially sensitive to several stressors. We studied the impact of early life experiences (long-term influence) as well as a later life psychosocial stressor (short-term influence)...

  5. Endurance training in early life results in long-term programming of heart mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Glenn D; Laker, Rhianna C; McConell, Glenn K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-02-01

    Being born small for gestational age increases the risk of developing adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine if early-life exercise could increase heart mass in the adult hearts from growth restricted rats. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) was performed on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats. A separate group of sham litters had litter size reduced to five pups at birth (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth. Male offspring remained sedentary or underwent treadmill running from 5 to 9 weeks (early exercise) or 20 to 24 weeks of age (later exercise). Remarkably, in Control, Restricted, and Reduced litter groups, early exercise increased (P heart mass in adulthood. This was despite the animals being sedentary for ~4 months after exercise. Later exercise also increased adult absolute and relative heart mass (P early or later exercise. Phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473) in adulthood was increased in the early exercise groups but not the later exercise groups. Microarray gene analysis and validation by real-time PCR did not reveal any long-term effects of early exercise on the expression of any individual genes. In summary, early exercise programs the heart for increased mass into adulthood, perhaps by an upregulation of protein synthesis based on greater phosphorylation of Akt Ser(473).

  6. Effects of early life adversity on cortisol/salivary alpha-amylase symmetry in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrullo, Lauren A; Mandalaywala, Tara M; Parker, Karen J; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P

    2016-11-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) affects physiological and behavioral development. One key component is the relationship between the developing Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis and the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS). Recent studies suggest a relationship between early life adversity and asymmetry in cortisol (a measure of HPA activation) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA: a correlate of SNS activation) responses to stress among human children, but to our knowledge there have been no comparable studies in nonhumans. Here, we investigate the responses of these two analytes in "low stress" and "high stress" situations in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. Behavioral data on maternal maltreatment were collected during the first 3months of life to determine individual rates of ELA, and saliva samples were collected from subjects noninvasively during juvenility. Irrespective of ELA, salivary alpha-amylase levels were lower in low stress situations and higher in high stress situations. For cortisol however, high ELA subjects exhibited higher low stress concentrations and blunted acute responses during high stress situations compared to moderate and low ELA subjects. Cortisol and sAA values were positively correlated among low ELA subjects, suggesting symmetry, but were uncorrelated or negatively correlated among moderate and high ELA subjects, suggesting asymmetry in these individuals. These findings indicate dysregulation of the stress response among juveniles maltreated during infancy: specifically, attenuated cortisol reactivity coupled with typical sAA reactivity characterize the stress response profiles of juveniles exposed to higher rates of ELA during the first 3months of life.

  7. Early life influences on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Janet; Sonnappa, Samatha

    2013-06-01

    There is increasing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not simply a disease of old age that is largely restricted to heavy smokers, but may be associated with insults to the developing lung during foetal life and the first few years of postnatal life, when lung growth and development are rapid. A better understanding of the long-term effects of early life factors, such as intrauterine growth restriction, prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and other pollutants, preterm delivery and childhood respiratory illnesses, on the subsequent development of chronic respiratory disease is imperative if appropriate preventive and management strategies to reduce the burden of COPD are to be developed. The extent to which insults to the developing lung are associated with increased risk of COPD in later life depends on the underlying cause, timing and severity of such derangements. Suboptimal conditions in utero result in aberrations of lung development such that affected individuals are born with reduced lung function, which tends to remain diminished throughout life, thereby increasing the risk both of wheezing disorders during childhood and subsequent COPD in genetically susceptible individuals. If the current trend towards the ever-increasing incidence of COPD is to be reversed, it is essential to minimize risks to the developing lung by improvements in antenatal and neonatal care, and to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposures to environmental pollutants, including passive tobacco smoke. Furthermore, adult physicians need to recognize that lung disease is potentially associated with early life insults and provide better education regarding diet, exercise and avoidance of smoking to preserve precious reserves of lung function in susceptible adults. This review focuses on factors that adversely influence lung development in utero and during the first 5 years of life, thereby predisposing to subsequent COPD.

  8. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  9. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Brislawn, Colin J.; Noecker, Cecilia; Zink, Erika M.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Miller, Darla; Huang, Yurong; Karpen , Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Borenstein, Elhanan A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-28

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes in the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.

  10. Patterns of variability in early-life traits of fishes depend on spatial scale of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Guidetti, Paolo

    2011-06-23

    Estimates of early-life traits of fishes (e.g. pelagic larval duration (PLD) and spawning date) are essential for investigating and assessing patterns of population connectivity. Such estimates are available for a large number of both tropical and temperate fish species, but few studies have assessed their variability in space, especially across multiple scales. The present study, where a Mediterranean fish (i.e. the white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus) was used as a model, shows that spawning date and PLD are spatially more variable at a scale of kilometres than at a scale of tens to hundreds of kilometres. This study indicates the importance of considering spatial variability of early-life traits of fishes in order to properly delineate connectivity patterns at larval stages (e.g. by means of Lagrangian simulations), thus providing strategically useful information on connectivity and relevant management goals (e.g. the creation of networks of marine reserves).

  11. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies.

  12. Early life stress in depressive patients: role of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juruena, Mario Francisco; Werne Baes, Cristiane Von; Menezes, Itiana Castro; Graeff, Frederico Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a chronic, recurrent and long-term disorder characterized by high rates of impairment and several comorbidities. Early life stress (ELS) is associated with the increased risk for developing depression in adulthood, influences its clinical course and predicts a poorer treatment outcome. Stressful life events play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression, being well established as acute triggers of psychiatric illness. The vulnerability for developing depression is associated to changes in neurobiological systems related to stress regulation. The hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis responds to external and internal stimuli. Reported results indicate that stress in early phases of development can induce persistent changes in the response of the HPA axis to stress in adulthood, leading to a raised susceptibility to depression. These abnormalities appear to be related to the HPA axis deregulation in depression, partially due to an imbalance between glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and mineral ocorticoid receptors (MR). While most studies have consistently demonstrated that GR function is impaired in major depression (reduced GR-mediated feedback in HPA axis), data about the MR role in depression are still limited and contr oversial. Thus, in this review article we summarize the main reported findings about the consequences of ELS in HPA axis functioning and in the responsivity of MR/GR receptors in depression.

  13. Early life predictors of childhood intelligence: evidence from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    OpenAIRE

    Lawlor,D.A.; Batty, G D; Morton, S M B; Deary, I.J.; Macintyre, S.; Ronalds, G.; Leon, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the early life predictors of childhood intelligence. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study of 10 424 children who were born in Aberdeen (Scotland) between 1950 and 1956. \\ud \\ud Results: Social class of father around the time of birth, gravidity, maternal age, maternal physical condition, whether the child was born outside of marriage, prematurity, intrauterine growth, and childhood height were all independently associated with childhood intelligence at ages 7, 9, and 11. The ef...

  14. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Cong; Wanli Xu; Susan Janton; Henderson, Wendy A.; Adam Matson; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Kendra Maas; Joerg Graf

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of li...

  15. Early Life Stress Effects on the Glucocorticoid - BDNF interplay in the Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos P Daskalakis; Edo Ronald eDe Kloet; Rachel eYehuda; Dolores eMalaspina; Kranz, Thorsten M.

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling mediates the regulation of the stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidan...

  16. Characterization of bathtub distributions via percentile residual life functions

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M.; Lillo, Rosa E.; Romo, Juan

    2010-01-01

    In reliability theory and survival analysis, many set of data are generated by distributions with bathtub shaped hazard rate functions. Launer (1993) established several relations between the behaviour of the hazard rate function and the percentile residual life function. In particular, necessary conditions were given for a special type of bathtub distributions in terms of percentile residual life functions. The purpose of this paper is to complete the study initiated by Launer...

  17. Global Effects Of Early Life Stress On Neurons And Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulma, Dueñas; Carlos, Caicedo-Mera Juan; Luz, Torner

    2017-02-24

    Early life stress is considered a risk factor for the development of many diseases in both adolescence and adulthood. It has been reported that chronic stress (for instance, due to maternal separation during breast feeding), causes damage to the central nervous system at the level of neurons and glial cells, which are reflected in behavioral disturbances and susceptibility to the development of primarily emotional psychopathology. The aim of this review is to identify the overall state of the scientific literature that relates the information about the consequences of early life stress, contextualizing the mechanisms that may be altered, the behavioral consequences that have been studied and the possible dimorphic effects and its causes. At the end a short overview of pharmacological treatments that have been proposed to reduce the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences caused by early life stress is presented. This review pretends to integrate general but relevant information based primarily on studies in animal models, which allow the experimental approach and the study of the mechanisms involved. A series of questions remains for reflection and surely will be answered in the near future.

  18. Age- and sex-dependent effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manila eLoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology in genetically predisposed individuals. As it is hard to study how early life stress impacts human brain structure and function, various animal models have been developed to address this issue. The models discussed here reveal that perinatal stress in rodents exerts lasting effects on the stress system as well as on the structure and function of the brain. One of the structural parameters strongly affected by perinatal stress is adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Based on compiled literature data, we report that postnatal stress slightly enhances neurogenesis until the onset of puberty in male rats; when animals reach adulthood, neurogenesis is reduced as a consequence of perinatal stress. By contrast, female rats showed a prominent reduction in neurogenesis prior to the onset of puberty, but this effect subsides when animals reach young adulthood. We further present preliminary data that transient treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist can normalize cell proliferation in maternally deprived female rats, while the compound had no effect in non-deprived rats. Taken together, the data show that neurogenesis is affected by early life stress in an age-and sex-dependent manner and that normalization may be possible during critical stages of brain development.

  19. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  20. Costs and quality of life for prehabilitation and early rehabilitation after surgery of the lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Jakob

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the recent years improved operation techniques and administrative procedures have been developed for early rehabilitation. At the same time preoperative lifestyle intervention (prehabilitation has revealed a large potential for additional risk reduction. The aim was to assess the quality of life and to estimate the cost-effectiveness of standard care versus an integrated programme including prehabilitation and early rehabilitation. Methods The analyses were based on the results from 60 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar disease; 28 patients were randomised to the integrated programme and 32 to the standard care programme. Data on cost and health related quality of life was collected preoperatively, during hospitalisation and postoperatively. The cost was estimated from multiplication of the resource consumption and price per unit. Results Overall there was no difference in health related quality of life scores. The patients from the integrated programme obtained their postoperative milestones sooner, returned to work and soaked less primary care after discharge. The integrated programme was 1,625€ (direct costs 494€ + indirect costs 1,131€ less costly per patient compared to the standard care programme. Conclusion The integrated programme of prehabilitation and early rehabilitation in spine surgery is more cost-effective compared to standard care programme alone.

  1. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae.

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma.

  3. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an "adult problem", has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals.

  4. Associations between early life experience, chronic HPA axis activity, and adult social rank in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Wooddell, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Kendra L; Kaburu, Stefano S K; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank. We found that mother-peer-reared (MPR) monkeys acquired higher social ranks than either of the two nursery-reared (NR) groups (peer-reared, PR, or surrogate-peer-reared, SPR monkeys) (β = -0.07, t(89) = -2.16, p = 0.034). We also found that MPR HCCs were lower during the juvenile period at 18 months (F(2,25) = 3.49, p = 0.047). Furthermore, for MPR but not NR monkeys, changes in HCCs from 18 to 24 months (r(s) = -0.627, p = 0.039) and adult HCCs (r(s) = -0.321, p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with adult social rank. These findings suggest that chronic HPA axis regulation in juvenility, and perhaps in adulthood, may influence adult social status for primates that experience typical early rearing. However, early life adversity may result in dissociation between neuroendocrine stress regulation and adult social competence, which may be risk factors for adverse health outcomes.

  5. [Setting the course early: relevance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, T

    2010-05-01

    The article examines the importance of childhood and adolescence for health in later life against the background of the population-aging process and the debate on the social challenges expected to result from this process. In this context, it describes the findings of life course epidemiology, which suggest (among other things) that there is a connection between early organic damage and the risk of illness in middle and old age, that risks and resources accumulate throughout a person's lifespan, and that living conditions and opportunities in life influence the development of health. The article also describes the health situation of children and adolescents based on the data available in Germany, in order to draw attention to existing problems and to identify possible ways of preventing them and taking action.

  6. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  7. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2017-01-07

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course.

  8. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Magnus; Nätt, Daniel; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Persson, Mia; Hjelm, Jonas; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  9. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Elfwing

    Full Text Available Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  10. What traces of life can we expect on Mars? Lessons from the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, F.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Environmental conditions on early Mars, from a microbial point of view, were largely similar to those on the early Earth. The oldest, well-preserved rocks on the early Earth (~3.5 Ga) host a wide range of morphological and geochemical traces of life, including chemolithotrophic, heterotrophic and photosynthetic anaerobic microorganisms. These microorganisms evolved in a tectonically evolving geological context, including carbonate platform formation. This scenario did not exist on Mars. Moreover, Mars was outside the habitable zone and standing bodies of water were probably ice-covered. Evolutionary advancement of martian life (if it appeared) would have been curtailed very early and it is unlikely that photosynthesis could have evolved. It is therefore unlikely that martian life will leave visible traces that can be detected with in situ instrumentation (no biolaminites or stromatolites). Geochemical detection of organic components will be possible but it is unlikely that the results will be conclusive. The return of suitable rocks from Mars is advocated. Early life on Earth and Mars The oldest, well preserved rocks on Earth, including both sedimentary and volcanic lithologies, contain abundant morphological and geochemical traces of life [1]. Evidence of borings into basalt lavas [2] and microbial colonies within volcanic sediments [3,4] testify to microbial utilisation of chemolithotrophy. Microscopic tunnels, tens of microns in length, containing traces of biologically important elements, such as C and N, in the vitreous rinds of pillow lavas are identified in petrographic thin section (Fig. 1) [2]. Similar 5-10 μm-sized tunnels have been channelled into the surfaces of detrital volcanic grains [4]. They contain the remains of microbial polymeric substances (EPS) but can only be identified in petrographic thin section and using the high magnification of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Furthermore, volcanic sediments deposited in water contain

  11. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory.

  12. Is cognitive impairment following early life stress in severe mental disorders based on specific or general cognitive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Steen, Nils E; Agartz, Ingrid; Aminoff, Sofie R; Lorentzen, Steinar; Sundet, Kjetil; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2012-08-15

    Schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorder are characterized by high levels of childhood trauma as well as of cognitive dysfunction. Our aim is to investigate the association between these two factors in the largest study in the literature so far. A total of 406 patients with schizophrenia spectrum- or bipolar disorders were recruited from a catchment area based organization in Oslo, Norway. Information about early life stress was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Cognitive function was assessed through a comprehensive and standardized neuropsychological test battery. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and physical neglect were significantly associated with reduced scores on working memory and executive function scales (p=0.04 to pIntelligence (WASI) (p=0.059 to pdisorders, in particular working memory and executive function as well as general cognition. Moreover, these dysfunctions seem to be driven by underlying deficits in general cognitive tasks as measured by the WASI.

  13. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko;

    2011-01-01

    . Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all...

  14. Enduring neurobehavioral effects of early life trauma mediated through learning and corticosterone suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Moriceau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Early life trauma alters later life emotions, including fear. To better understand mediating mechanisms, we subjected pups to either predictable or unpredictable trauma, in the form of paired or unpaired odor-0.5mA shock conditioning which, during a sensitive period, produces an odor preference and no learning respectively. Fear conditioning and its neural correlates were then assessed after the sensitive period at postnatal day (PN13 or in adulthood, ages when amygdala-dependent fear occurs. Our results revealed that paired odor-shock conditioning starting during the sensitive period (PN8-12 blocked fear conditioning in older infants (PN13 and pups continued to express olfactory bulb-dependent odor preference learning. This PN13 fear learning inhibition was also associated with suppression of shock-induced corticosterone, although the age appropriate amygdala-dependent fear learning was reinstated with systemic corticosterone (3mg/kg during conditioning. On the other hand, sensitive period odor-shock conditioning did not prevent adult fear conditioning, although freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake and corticosterone levels were attenuated compared to adult conditioning without infant conditioning. Normal levels of freezing, amygdala and hippocampal 2-DG uptake were induced with systemic corticosterone (5mg/kg during adult conditioning. These results suggest that the contingency of early life trauma mediates at least some effects of early life stress through learning and suppression of corticosterone levels. However, developmental differences between infants and adults are expressed with PN13 infants’ learning consistent with the original learned preference, while adult conditioning overrides the original learned preference with attenuated amygdala-dependent fear learning.

  15. Exposures in early life: associations with DNA promoter methylation in breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, M-H; Marian, C; Shields, P G; Potischman, N; Nie, J; Krishnan, S S; Berry, D L; Kallakury, B V; Ambrosone, C; Edge, S B; Trevisan, M; Winston, J; Freudenheim, J L

    2013-04-01

    There is evidence that epigenetic changes occur early in breast carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that early-life exposures associated with breast cancer would be associated with epigenetic alterations in breast tumors. In particular, we examined DNA methylation patterns in breast tumors in association with several early-life exposures in a population-based case-control study. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16 and RAR-β2 genes was assessed in archived tumor blocks from 803 cases with real-time methylation-specific PCR. Unconditional logistic regression was used for case-case comparisons of those with and without promoter methylation. We found no differences in the prevalence of DNA methylation of the individual genes by age at menarche, age at first live birth and weight at age 20. In case-case comparisons of premenopausal breast cancer, lower birth weight was associated with increased likelihood of E-cadherin promoter methylation (OR = 2.79, 95% CI, 1.15-6.82, for ⩽2.5 v. 2.6-2.9 kg); higher adult height with RAR-β2 methylation (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.39, for ⩾1.65 v. <1.60 m); and not having been breastfed with p16 methylation (OR = 2.75, 95% CI, 1.14-6.62). Among postmenopausal breast cancers, birth order was associated with increased likelihood of p16 promoter methylation. Being other than first in the birth order was inversely associated with likelihood of ⩾1 of the three genes being methylated for premenopausal breast cancers, but positively associated with methylation in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that there may be alterations in methylation associated with early-life exposures that persist into adulthood and affect breast cancer risk.

  16. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data.

  17. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka A. Abosede

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos.Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method: The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period.Results: The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8% and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%. All mothers and 32 (80% of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182 per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation.Conclusion: Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  18. Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Nasuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life permethrin treatment from the sixth to 21th day of life, has been analyzed with the aim to assess if metal and microelement content could be used as biomarkers. A hair trace element assay was performed by the ICP-MS technique in six- and 12-month-old rats. A significant increase of As, Mg, S and Zn was measured in the permethrin-treated group at 12 months compared to six months, while Si and Cu/Zn were decreased. K, Cu/Zn and S were increased in the treated group compared to age-matched controls at six and 12 months, respectively. Cr significantly decreased in the treated group at 12 months. PCA analysis showed both a best difference between treated and age-matched control groups at six months. The present findings support the evidence that the Cu/Zn ratio and K, measured at six months, are the best biomarkers for neurodegeneration. This study supports the use of hair analysis to identify biomarkers of neurodegeneration induced by early life permethrin pesticide exposure.

  19. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846

  20. Acquisition and adaptation of the airway microbiota in the early life of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Sébastien; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2017-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life. The objective of this mini-review is to give an update on the current knowledge about the development of the microbiota in the early life of CF patients. Microbial acquisition in the human airways can be described by the island model: Microbes found in the lower airways of CF patients represent "islands" that are at first populated from the upper airways reflecting the "mainland." Colonization can be modeled following the neutral theory in which the most abundant bacteria in the mainland are also frequently found in the lower airways initially. At later times, however, the colonization process of the lower airways segregates by active selection of specific microbes. Future research should focus on those processes of microbial and host interactions to understand how microbial communities are shaped on short- and long-term scales. We point out what therapeutic consequences arise from the microbiome data obtained within ecological framework models.

  1. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  2. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  3. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Molloy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  4. Effect of salicylic acid on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivna, Dana; Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Prokes, Miroslav; Divisova, Lenka; Stancova, Vlasta; Dobsikova, Radka; Tichy, Frantisek; Siroka, Zuzana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2015-07-01

    Environmental concentrations of pharmaceutical residues are often low; nevertheless, they are designed to have biological effects at low doses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid on the growth and development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) early life stages with respect to antioxidant defence enzymes. An embryo-larval toxicity test lasting 34 days was performed according to OECD guidelines 210 (Fish, Early-life Stage Toxicity Test). The tested concentrations were 0.004, 0.04, 0.4, 4 and 20mg/l of salicylic acid. Hatching, early ontogeny, and both morphometric and condition characteristics were significantly influenced by subchronic exposure to salicylic acid. Also, changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and an increase in lipid peroxidation were observed. The LOEC value was found to be 0.004 mg/l salicylic acid. The results of our study confirm the suggestion that subchronic exposure to salicylic acid at environmental concentrations can have significant effects on aquatic vertebrates.

  5. The early Earth under a superflare and super-CME attack: prospects for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Glocer, Alex; Gronoff, Guillaume

    Kepler observations suggest that G-type stars produce powerful flares suggesting that the early Earth may also have been exposed to frequent and energetic solar explosive events generated by the young Sun. We show that powerful coronal mass ejection (CME) events associated with superflares impacting the Earth magnetosphere with a frequency of 1 event/day. What was the impact of superflares, CMEs and associated solar energetic particle (SEPs) events on the atmospheric erosion of the young Earth and habitability? In this paper we discuss our three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that show that frequent and energetic CMEs from the early Sun continuously destroyed the sub-solar parts of Earth's magnetosphere at heights Photo-collisional dissociation of molecular nitrogen and carbon dioxide creates reactive chemistry that efficiently produces nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide, the essential molecule in prebiotic life chemistry. This raises an possibility that frequent super-CMEs could serve as a potential catalyst for the origin of life on early Earth.

  6. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Treatment Prevents Delayed Effects of Early Life Stress in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Early developmental insults can cause dysfunction within parvalbumin (PVB)-containing interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. The neuropsychiatric disorders associated with such dysfunction might involve neuroinflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key mediator of inflammation and is therefore a potential target for preventive treatment. Here, we investigated whether the developmental trajectories of PVB expression and COX-2 induction in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex are altered after maternal separation stress in male rats. Methods Male rat pups were separated from their mother and littermates for 4 hours/day between postnatal Days 2 and 20. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze PVB and COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A separate cohort of animals was treated with a COX-2 inhibitor during preadolescence and analyzed for PVB, COX-2, and working memory performance. Results We demonstrate that maternal separation causes a reduction of PVB and an increase in COX-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex in adolescence, with concurrent working memory deficits. Parvalbumin was not affected earlier in development. Prophylactic COX-2 inhibition preadolescence prevents PVB loss and improves working memory deficits induced by maternal separation. Conclusions These data are the first to show a preventive pharmacological intervention for the delayed effects of early life stress on prefrontal cortex interneurons and working memory. Our results suggest a possible mechanism for the relationship between early life stress and interneuron dysfunction in adolescence. PMID:21679927

  7. Variation in early-life telomere dynamics in a long-lived bird: links to environmental conditions and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hannah; Bolton, Mark; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Conditions experienced during early life can have profound consequences for both short- and long-term fitness. Variation in the natal environment has been shown to influence survival and reproductive performance of entire cohorts in wild vertebrate populations. Telomere dynamics potentially provide a link between the early environment and long-term fitness outcomes, yet we know little about how the environment can influence telomere dynamics in early life. We found that environmental conditions during growth have an important influence on early-life telomere length (TL) and attrition in nestlings of a long-lived bird, the European storm petrel Hydrobates pelagicus. Nestlings reared under unfavourable environmental conditions experienced significantly greater telomere loss during postnatal development compared with nestlings reared under more favourable natal conditions, which displayed a negligible change in TL. There was, however, no significant difference in pre-fledging TL between cohorts. The results suggest that early-life telomere dynamics could contribute to the marked differences in life-history traits that can arise among cohorts reared under different environmental conditions. Early-life TL was also found to be a significant predictor of survival during the nestling phase, providing further evidence for a link between variation in TL and individual fitness. To what extent the relationship between early-life TL and mortality during the nestling phase is a consequence of genetic, parental and environmental factors is currently unknown, but it is an interesting area for future research. Accelerated telomere attrition under unfavourable conditions, as observed in this study, might play a role in mediating the effects of the early-life environment on later-life performance.

  8. The impact of early life gut colonization on metabolic and obesogenic outcomes: what have animal models shown us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J G; Gohir, W; Sloboda, D M

    2016-02-01

    The rise in the occurrence of obesity to epidemic proportions has made it a global concern. Great difficulty has been experienced in efforts to control this growing problem with lifestyle interventions. Thus, attention has been directed to understanding the events of one of the most critical periods of development, perinatal life. Early life adversity driven by maternal obesity has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease and obesity in the offspring later in life. Although a mechanistic link explaining the relationship between maternal and offspring obesity is still under investigation, the gut microbiota has come forth as a new factor that may play a role modulating metabolic function of both the mother and the offspring. Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota plays a much larger role in mediating the risk of developing non-communicable disease, including obesity and metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. With the observation that the early life colonization of the neonatal and postnatal gut is mediated by the perinatal environment, the number of studies investigating early life gut microbial establishment continues to grow. This paper will review early life gut colonization in experimental animal models, concentrating on the role of the early life environment in offspring gut colonization and the ability of the gut microbiota to dictate risk of disease later in life.

  9. Characterization of early host responses in adults with dengue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While dengue-elicited early and transient host responses preceding defervescence could shape the disease outcome and reveal mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis, assessment of these responses are difficult as patients rarely seek healthcare during the first days of benign fever and thus data are lacking. Methods In this study, focusing on early recruitment, we performed whole-blood transcriptional profiling on denguevirus PCR positive patients sampled within 72 h of self-reported fever presentation (average 43 h, SD 18.6 h and compared the signatures with autologous samples drawn at defervescence and convalescence and to control patients with fever of other etiology. Results In the early dengue fever phase, a strong activation of the innate immune response related genes were seen that was absent at defervescence (4-7 days after fever debut, while at this second sampling genes related to biosynthesis and metabolism dominated. Transcripts relating to the adaptive immune response were over-expressed in the second sampling point with sustained activation at the third sampling. On an individual gene level, significant enrichment of transcripts early in dengue disease were chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1, CCL8 (MCP-2, CXCL10 (IP-10 and CCL3 (MIP-1α, antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 1 (DEFB1, desmosome/intermediate junction component plakoglobin (JUP and a microRNA which may negatively regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines in dengue infected peripheral blood cells, mIR-147 (NMES1. Conclusions These data show that the early response in patients mimics those previously described in vitro, where early assessment of transcriptional responses has been easily obtained. Several of the early transcripts identified may be affected by or mediate the pathogenesis and deserve further assessment at this timepoint in correlation to severe disease.

  10. Early Life Lung Antioxidant Levels and Response to Ozone: Influence of Sex and Maturation in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Epidemiologic studies of air pollution effects on respiratory health report significant modification by sex. Studies of children suggest stronger effects among boys in early life and girls in later childhood. In adults, particularly the elderly, studies report stronger...

  11. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship....

  12. Targeting regulatory T cells to improve vaccine immunogenicity in early life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh eNdure

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB, malaria and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses to many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs. It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future.

  13. Maternal Smoking and the Risk of Cancer in Early Life – A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Viluksela, Matti; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Gissler, Mika; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hänninen, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Background In spite of the well-known harmful effects on the fetus, many women continue smoking during pregnancy. Smoking as an important source of toxic chemicals may contribute to the developmental origin of diseases. Objectives The aim of this work was to pursue the possible association between maternal smoking and cancer in early life. Specifically, we wanted to identify the associated early life cancer types, and to quantify the associations. Methods In a systematic literature search 825 articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science, and 55 more through the reference lists. Of these 62 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in meta-analyses. Using Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird method, depending on heterogeneity of the studies, pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals for eight cancer types were calculated. Results Smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for for brain and central nervous system tumors (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.02–1.17). Although the risk for lymphoma was also associated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.05–1.34), it did not hold up in subgroup analyses. Leukemia was not found to be associated with maternal smoking. Five other cancer types (bone, soft tissue, renal, hepatic, and germ cell cancer) were also examined, but the number of studies was too limited to exclude the possibility of maternal smoking as a risk factor for cancer in offspring. Conclusions According to our meta-analyses, maternal smoking is associated with nervous system cancers, but not with leukemia in early life. Confirming or rejecting associations of maternal smoking with lymphoma and the five other cancer types requires further studies. PMID:27824869

  14. ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Massey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early life seizures are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of early life seizures (ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action. We found that while rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm as well as controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH. Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation, and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway.

  15. Behavioural consequences of visual deprivation occurring at hatch or in the early life of chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hocking, Paul M.; Haldane, Kirsty-Anne; Davidson, Emma M.;

    2015-01-01

    behaviours are a response to a complete loss of vision regardless of initial sight. Birds that became blind during rearing (rdd) may be more active as adults than birds that were blind throughout life but in general the behaviour of blind birds was similar regardless of early sight.......The development of behaviour in a line of chickens that are born sighted (rdd) but turn blind after hatching was compared with a line that is blind at hatch (beg) and with sighted White Leghorn controls (WL) to test the hypothesis that birds that become blind later in their life will show...... characteristic behaviours of both blind and sighted birds. Individual behaviour, group aggregation and behavioural synchrony were compared at 1, 5 and 9 weeks of age (experiment 1) and in the parents of these chicks at 9–13 months of age (experiment 2). Responses to visual and physical isolation were assessed...

  16. Long-term impact of early life events on physiology and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, G J; Bale, T L; Casanello, P; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Suchecki, D; Tamashiro, K L

    2014-09-01

    This review discusses the effects of stress and nutrition throughout development and summarises studies investigating how exposure to stress or alterations in nutrition during the pre-conception, prenatal and early postnatal periods can affect the long-term health of an individual. In general, the data presented here suggest that that anything signalling potential adverse conditions later in life, such as high levels of stress or low levels of food availability, will lead to alterations in the offspring, possibly of an epigenetic nature, preparing the offspring for these conditions later in life. However, when similar environmental conditions are not met in adulthood, these alterations may have maladaptive consequences, resulting in obesity and heightened stress sensitivity. The data also suggest that the mechanism underlying these adult phenotypes might be dependent on the type and the timing of exposure.

  17. Early life history and habitat ecology of estuarine fishes: responses to natural and human induced change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Able

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the early life history of fishes and their habitats has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in conceptual and quantitative models of ecosystems. This understanding is further limited by the complex life history of fishes and the lack of appreciation of shifting baselines in estuaries. These inadequacies are especially evident when we try to address the effects of human influences, e.g. fishing, urbanization, and climate change. Often our baselines are inadequate or inaccurate. Our work has detected these along the coasts of the U.S. in extensive time series of larval fish ingress into estuaries, studies of the effects of urbanization, and responses to catastrophes such as the BP oil spill. Long-term monitoring, especially, continues to provide critical insights

  18. An animal model of eating disorders associated with stressful experience in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Jeong Won

    2011-02-01

    Experience of childhood abuse is prevalent among patients with eating disorders, and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in its pathophysiology. Neonatal maternal separation is considered as an animal model of stressful experience early in life. Many of studies have demonstrated its impact both on the activity of HPA axis and the development of psycho-emotional disorders later in life. In this paper, a series of our researches on developing an animal model of eating disorders is reviewed. An animal model of neonatal maternal separation was used; Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of life (MS) or undisturbed. Anxiety-/depression-like behaviors were observed in MS rats at the age of two months with decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and the raphe. Post-weaning social isolation promoted food intake and weight gain of adolescent MS pups, with impacts on anxiety-like behaviors. Sustained hyperphagia was observed in the MS pups subjected to a fasting/refeeding cycle repeatedly during adolescence, with increased plasma corticosterone levels. Anhedonia, major symptom of depression, to palatable food was observed in adolescent MS pups with blunted response of the mesolimbic dopaminergic activity to stress. Results suggest that neonatal maternal separation lead to the development of eating disorders when it is challenged with social or metabolic stressors later in life, in which dysfunctions in the HPA axis and the brain monoaminergic systems may play important roles.

  19. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain; Huërou-Luron, Isabelle L E; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering.

  20. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering. PMID:28072880

  1. The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehonova, Pavla; Plhalova, Lucie; Blahova, Jana; Berankova, Petra; Doubkova, Veronika; Prokes, Miroslav; Tichy, Frantisek; Vecerek, Vladimir; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations of 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 144h. An embryo-larval toxicity test on C. carpio was performed according to OECD guideline 210 also with tramadol hydrochloride at concentrations 10; 50; 100 and 200μg/l for a period of 32 days. Hatching was significantly influenced in both acute and subchronic toxicity assays. Subchronic exposure also influenced early ontogeny, both morphometric and condition characteristics and caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activity. The LOEC value was found to be 10μg/l tramadol hydrochloride.

  2. Depression and quality of life in monogenic compared to idiopathic, early-onset Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Tadic, Vera

    2012-01-01

    ). For comparison purposes, we included patients with idiopathic PD (IPD; n = 128; early onset, n = 38; late onset, n = 90), healthy controls (n = 127), and data on depressive symptoms of 144 patients with major depression (treated controls). Depression affected 31% of early-onset PD cases, 21% of late-onset cases......Quality of life (QoL) is decreased in PD and is linked with depression and anxiety. However, little is known about QoL in monogenic PD. Subjects with mutations in PD genes were recruited from ongoing family and genetic studies (manifesting carriers, n = 23; nonmanifesting carriers, n = 19......, and 44% of manifesting carriers of mutations in PD genes, but was rare in the nonmanifesting carriers (7%) and healthy controls (5%). Subjects with Parkinson-associated depression reported fewer feelings of guilt or self-doubt than treated controls, but the occurrence of suicidal ideation was associated...

  3. Early-life origins of metabolic dysfunction: role of the adipocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Beverly; Smith, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    More than 60% of adults in the US are classified as overweight, with most developing associated metabolic problems. It is increasingly clear that the origins of obesity and metabolic disease are early in life, yet the physiological basis for this is not well understood. We propose that perturbations to nutrient supply in utero affect adipocyte development, altering functional properties and promoting excess body fat accumulation after birth. We also propose that excessive body fat accumulation leads to leptin and insulin resistance in these individuals, rendering them more susceptible to further weight gain and metabolic deterioration. Finally, we propose that interventions that inhibit this early increase in fat deposition have the potential to interrupt the pathway to obesity.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress: Multifaceted interplay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NATALYA P BONDAR; TATIANA I MERKULOVA

    2016-12-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. Longtermchanges in the BDNF pathway are associated with childhood adversity and adult depression symptoms.Initially, stress-induced decreases in the BDNF pathway were found in some studies, but subsequent reportsindicated the relationship between stress and BDNF to be much more complex, and the concept wassignificantly revised. In the present mini-review, we focus on the structure and regulation of the Bbnf geneas well as on the stress–BDNF interactions under early-life adverse conditions.

  5. Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: evidence from the Greek famine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelsen, Sven; Stratmann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse outcomes due to the famine are largest for infants. Further, in our regression analysis we exploit the fact that the famine was more severe in urban than in rural areas. Consistent with our prediction, we find that urban-born cohorts show larger negative impacts on educational outcomes than rural-born cohorts.

  6. Early-life origin of adult disease: evidence from natural experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Until the present time, disease susceptibility was believed to be determined solely by the genetic information carried in the DNA sequence. In recent years, however, it has become clear that epigenetic rearrangements play an equally essential role in the disease development and that this process, particularly at key developmental stages, is very susceptible to environmental modulations. The extensive studies, both human and animal, have shown that early-life environment is probably the most important causal component in the etiology of some diseases including cancer as well as metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. This review considers the natural experiment-based evidence regarding the developmental origin of human adult disease.

  7. Impact of salinity on early life history traits of three estuarine fish species in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Maylis; Morize, Eric; Scolan, Pierre; Lae, Raymond; Dabas, Eric; Bohn, Marcel

    2009-05-01

    The adaptive mechanisms on the early life stages of fishes to hypersaline stress are still poorly understood and probably determine the resistance of a population to disruption, compared with other less plastic species. The Casamance River in Senegal is an ideal location to test the adaptation to salinity as a dam was built in 1998 to exclude saline water intrusion. This lowered the salinity from 70 to 5 upstream and 60 downstream. The salinity influence on the growth in the early life of three West African fish species ( Ethmalosa fimbriata, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Tilapia guineensis) was studied using the width of microstructures in the otoliths and the individual migratory behaviour analysed from strontium (Sr) to calcium (Ca) ratios in the otoliths. The Sr:Ca ratio was quantified along individual transects measured from the posterior edge of the otolith to the core. The fishes were sampled on both sides of the dam that separated water with low salinity upstream from metahaline and hyperhaline water downstream. The results showed that salinity has different influence on the growth of each species. Ethmalosa fimbriata has the highest growth during the first 180 days in the freshwaters, indicating growth inhibition in the hyperhaline areas. For the two other species no growth difference were found. The Sr/Ca ratio varied widely, in Tilapia and Sarotherodon from below the dam. Individual life histories were more heterogeneous than upstream and showed a crossing of the dam for some individuals which could reach half of the fishes analysed. On the contrary in E. fimbriata, despite the large range of salinity, identical Sr/Ca profiles were found both upstream and downstream. This indicated that Sr/Ca ratio was not appropriate to evaluate life history patterns linked to salinity for this specie.

  8. Early-Life Intranasal Colonization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Exacerbates Juvenile Airway Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jessica R; Mason, Stanley N; Auten, Richard L; St Geme, Joseph W; Seed, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between asthma development and colonization with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Specifically, nasopharyngeal colonization of human infants with NTHi within 4 weeks of birth is associated with an increased risk of asthma development later in childhood. Monocytes derived from these infants have aberrant inflammatory responses to common upper respiratory bacterial antigens compared to those of cells derived from infants who were not colonized and do not go on to develop asthma symptoms in childhood. In this study, we hypothesized that early-life colonization with NTHi promotes immune system reprogramming and the development of atypical inflammatory responses. To address this hypothesis in a highly controlled model, we tested whether colonization of mice with NTHi on day of life 3 induced or exacerbated juvenile airway disease using an ovalbumin (OVA) allergy model of asthma. We found that animals that were colonized on day of life 3 and subjected to induction of allergy had exacerbated airway disease as juveniles, in which exacerbated airway disease was defined as increased cellular infiltration into the lung, increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 in lung lavage fluid, decreased regulatory T cell-associated FOXP3 gene expression, and increased mucus production. We also found that colonization with NTHi amplified airway resistance in response to increasing doses of a bronchoconstrictor following OVA immunization and challenge. Together, the murine model provides evidence for early-life immune programming that precedes the development of juvenile airway disease and corroborates observations that have been made in human children.

  9. Early Life Stress and Sleep Restriction as Risk Factors in PTSD: An Integrative Pre-Clinical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    M., He, H., Arora, J., Lu, N., Tu, X. M. and Katz, I. R. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide in 5.9 million individuals receiving...Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0111 TITLE: Early Life Stress and Sleep Restriction as Risk Factors in PTSD: An Integrative Pre-Clinical Approach...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Early Life Stress and Sleep Restriction as Risk Factors in PTSD: An Integrative Pre- Clinical Approach” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  10. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo M Pusceddu; Sahar El Aidy; Fiona Crispie; Orla O'Sullivan; Paul Cotter; Catherine Stanton; Philip Kelly; John F Cryan; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) o...

  11. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces a...

  12. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism...

  13. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechan...

  14. Early life stress enhancement of limbic epileptogenesis in adult rats: mechanistic insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life 'programming' of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2-14 to either maternal separation stress (MS or control brief early handling (EH, underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU. Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts and dentate gyrus (DG (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting. As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05, with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p = 0.002. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life

  15. Early life respiratory infections and asthma development: role in disease pathogenesis and potential targets for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigelman, Avraham; Bacharier, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To present recent findings and perspectives on the relationship between early life respiratory infections and asthma inception and to discuss emerging concepts on strategies that target these infectious agents for asthma prevention. Recent findings Cumulative evidence supports the role of early life viral infections, especially respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, as major antecedents of childhood asthma. These viruses may have different mechanistic roles in the pathogenesis of asthma. The airway microbiome and virus-bacteria interactions in early life have emerged as additional determinants of childhood asthma. Innovative strategies for the prevention of these early life infections, or for attenuation of acute infection severity, are being investigated and may identify effective strategies for the primary and secondary prevention of childhood asthma. Summary Early life infections are major determinants of asthma development. The pathway from early life infections to asthma is the result of complex interactions between the specific type of the virus, genetic and environmental factors. Novel intervention strategies that target these infectious agents have been investigated in proof-of-concepts trials, and further study is necessary to determine their capacity for asthma prevention. PMID:26854761

  16. Systemic immune markers characterizing early stages of rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalan, Paulina Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease occurring in ~1% of the world population. The main feature of the disease is ongoing joint inflammation, caused by immune cells and their soluble factors, leading to irreversible bone erosions and cartilage damage. Early treatment can halt progres

  17. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  18. The impact of reproductive investment and early-life environmental conditions on senescence : support for the disposable soma hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, M.; Richardson, D. S.; Burke, T.; Komdeur, J.

    2013-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of senescence. One of the leading hypotheses, the disposable soma hypothesis, predicts a trade-off, whereby early-life investment in reproduction leads to late-life declines in survival (survival senescence). Testing this hypothesis i

  19. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celedon, JC; Wright, RJ; Litonjua, AA; Sredl, D; Ryan, L; Weiss, ST; Gold, DR

    2003-01-01

    Among children not selected on the basis of a parental history of atopy, day care attendance in early life is inversely associated with asthma at school age. We examined the relation between day care in the first year of life and asthma, recurrent wheezing, and eczema at the age of 6 years and wheez

  20. On Becoming Batman: An Ethnographic Examination of Hero Imagery in Early-Career Residential Life Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Danielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency response is an essential function of all residential life staff, but particularly for resident assistants serving on the front line. This organizational ethnography examined the role that professional identity played for early-career residential life practitioners engaged in emergency management. The data elucidated heroism as a…

  1. Long-term Effects of Early Life Maize Yield on Maize Productivity and Efficiency in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The paper assesses the effects of maize yields just prior to birth (in utero), in the first and the second years of life on adult life productivity and efficiency of maize farmers born between 1984 and 1995 in rural Malawi. To ensure that early life maize yields are not confounded by omitted local chacteristics, they are transformed into relative maize yields by using a cumulative gamma distribution. I find that maize yield just prior to birth significantly increases maize output in a farmer'...

  2. Effects of early adolescent environmental enrichment on cognitive dysfunction, prefrontal cortex development, and inflammatory cytokines after early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Carine H; Narahari, Tanya; Holland, Freedom H; Lee, Ha-Neul; Murthy, Shashi K; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-05-01

    Early postnatal stress such as maternal separation causes cognitive dysfunction later in life, including working memory deficits that are largely mediated by the prefrontal cortex. Maternal separation in male rats also yields a loss of parvalbumin-containing prefrontal cortex interneurons in adolescence, which may occur via inflammatory or oxidative stress mechanisms. Environmental enrichment can prevent several effects of maternal separation; however, effects of enrichment on prefrontal cortex development are not well understood. Here, we report that enrichment prevented cognitive dysfunction in maternally separated males and females, and prevented elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that was evident in maternally separated males, but not females. However, enrichment did not prevent parvalbumin loss or adolescent measures of oxidative stress. Significant correlations indicated that adolescents with higher oxidative damage and less prefrontal cortex parvalbumin in adolescence committed more errors on the win-shift task; therefore, maternal separation may affect cognitive dysfunction via aberrant interneuron development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 482-491, 2016.

  3. Glutamine Randomized Studies in Early Life: The Unsolved Riddle of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrossini Briassouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups, premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of “glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response” in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  4. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Lauterstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq. Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  5. Glutamine randomized studies in early life: the unsolved riddle of experimental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassouli, Efrossini; Briassoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine may have benefits during immaturity or critical illness in early life but its effects on outcome end hardpoints are controversial. Our aim was to review randomized studies on glutamine supplementation in pups, infants, and children examining whether glutamine affects outcome. Experimental work has proposed various mechanisms of glutamine action but none of the randomized studies in early life showed any effect on mortality and only a few showed some effect on inflammatory response, organ function, and a trend for infection control. Although apparently safe in animal models (pups), premature infants, and critically ill children, glutamine supplementation does not reduce mortality or late onset sepsis, and its routine use cannot be recommended in these sensitive populations. Large prospectively stratified trials are needed to better define the crucial interrelations of "glutamine-heat shock proteins-stress response" in critical illness and to identify the specific subgroups of premature neonates and critically ill infants or children who may have a greater need for glutamine and who may eventually benefit from its supplementation. The methodological problems noted in the reviewed randomized experimental and clinical trials should be seriously considered in any future well-designed large blinded randomized controlled trial involving glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  6. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life. PMID:22743759

  7. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  8. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish.

  9. Microbial ecology and host-microbiota interactions during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Carmen; Cernada, Maria; Baüerl, Christine; Vento, Máximo; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The role of human microbiota has been redefined during recent years and its physiological role is now much more important than earlier understood. Intestinal microbial colonization is essential for the maturation of immune system and for the developmental regulation of the intestinal physiology. Alterations in this process of colonization have been shown to predispose and increase the risk to disease later in life. The first contact of neonates with microbes is provided by the maternal microbiota. Moreover, mode of delivery, type of infant feeding and other perinatal factors can influence the establishment of the infant microbiota. Taken into consideration all the available information it could be concluded that the exposure to the adequate microbes early in gestation and neonatal period seems to have a relevant role in health. Maternal microbial environment affects maternal and fetal immune physiology and, of relevance, this interaction with microbes at the fetal-maternal interface could be modulated by specific microbes administered to the pregnant mother. Indeed, probiotic interventions aiming to reduce the risk of immune-mediated diseases may appear effective during early life.

  10. Environmental and Economic Strategies for Primary Prevention of Cancer in Early Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, David; Hoppin, Polly J; Jacobs, Molly M; Clapp, Richard W

    2016-11-01

    This article summarizes the evidence for environmental toxic exposures contributing to cancers in early life, focusing on the most common cancer sites in this age group. It provides examples of widespread avoidable exposures to human carcinogens through air, water, and food and then describes recent examples of successful initiatives to reduce exposure to chemicals linked to these cancer sites, through government policy, industry initiatives, and consumer activism. State government initiatives to reduce toxic chemical exposures have made important gains; the Toxics Use Reduction Act of Massachusetts is now 25 years old and has been a major success story. There are a growing number of corporate initiatives to eliminate toxics, especially carcinogens, from the products they manufacture and sell. Another important opportunity for cancer prevention is provided by online databases that list chemicals, their toxicity, and lower-toxicity alternatives; these can be used by businesses, health care institutions, consumers, and workers to reduce exposures to chemicals of concern. The article concludes by inviting pediatricians and public health professionals to include elimination of carcinogen exposures in their work to promote primary prevention of cancer in early life.

  11. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  12. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  13. Loss to follow up did not bias associations between early life factors and adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the consequences of nonresponse in a follow-up survey for the associations of early life factors with adult depression. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A cohort of 11,532 Danish men born in 1953 had nearly complete follow up for outcomes retrieved from the Danish Psychiat...... of this nonresponse on the estimated ORs was small, and all ROR were nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: Although early life characteristics were related to response in a follow-up survey, the ORs for the exposure-risk associations were not biased by nonresponse....... characteristics and four measures of depression were described by odd ratios (OR), estimated by logistic regression. For the register-based measures the effect of nonresponse was described by a relative OR(OR(responders)/OR(entire cohort)=ROR). RESULTS: Nonresponse at 50 years of age was related to having...... a single mother at birth, low educational attainment at age 18, and low cognitive function at ages 12 and 18. Hospitalizations for depression and having claimed a prescription for an antidepressive drug were also most frequent among men who did not respond in the follow up. However, the effect...

  14. Oxytocin pathways in the intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT.

  15. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories.

  16. Prenatal and early life exposure to stressful life events and risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based studies in Sweden and England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Rai

    Full Text Available Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been suggested as a potential risk factor for offspring Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, but the literature is limited and inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to stressful life events would be associated with increased risks of offspring ASD, and that these risks would be highest for exposures during the prenatal period.We used prospectively collected data from two large population based studies in Sweden and England. In the Swedish study of 4429 ASD cases and 43277 controls, our exposure comprised the occurrence of any severe life event before and during pregnancy and the child's early life. In the English study (maximum n = 11554, ASD n = 72, we studied the risk of offspring ASD in relation to a combined maternal exposure to multiple (up to 42 common and rare life events, as well as their perceived impact upon the mother during pregnancy and early life. In crude and adjusted regression analyses in both studies, we found no evidence of an association between prenatal life events, or their number and perceived impact and the risk of offspring ASD. Sub-group analysis of ASD with and without intellectual disability in the Swedish study yielded similar results.We found no evidence to support the hypotheses that exposure to stressful life events during the prenatal period is associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD.

  17. Sucrose exposure in early life alters adult motivation and weight gain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristianne R M Frazier

    Full Text Available The cause of the current increase in obesity in westernized nations is poorly understood but is frequently attributed to a 'thrifty genotype,' an evolutionary predisposition to store calories in times of plenty to protect against future scarcity. In modern, industrialized environments that provide a ready, uninterrupted supply of energy-rich foods at low cost, this genetic predisposition is hypothesized to lead to obesity. Children are also exposed to this 'obesogenic' environment; however, whether such early dietary experience has developmental effects and contributes to adult vulnerability to obesity is unknown. Using mice, we tested the hypothesis that dietary experience during childhood and adolescence affects adult obesity risk. We gave mice unlimited or no access to sucrose for a short period post-weaning and measured sucrose-seeking, food consumption, and weight gain in adulthood. Unlimited access to sucrose early in life reduced sucrose-seeking when work was required to obtain it. When high-sugar/high-fat dietary options were made freely-available, however, the sucrose-exposed mice gained more weight than mice without early sucrose exposure. These results suggest that early, unlimited exposure to sucrose reduces motivation to acquire sucrose but promotes weight gain in adulthood when the cost of acquiring palatable, energy dense foods is low. This study demonstrates that early post-weaning experience can modify the expression of a 'thrifty genotype' and alter an adult animal's response to its environment, a finding consistent with evidence of pre- and peri-natal programming of adult obesity risk by maternal nutritional status. Our findings suggest the window for developmental effects of diet may extend into childhood, an observation with potentially important implications for both research and public policy in addressing the rising incidence of obesity.

  18. Records of our Early Biosphere Illuminate our Origins and Guide our Search for Life Beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2003-01-01

    A scientific "mission of exploration to early Earth" will help us chart the distribution of life elsewhere. We must discriminate between attributes of biospheres that are universal versus those attributes that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. In addition to the basic physics and chemistry of matter, the geologic evolution of rocky habitable planets and their climates might be similar elsewhere in the Universe. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to reconstruct ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth- like planets. Early Earth was tectonically more active than today and therefore it exhaled reduced chemical species into the more oxidized surface environment at greater rates. This tectonic activity thus sustained oxidation-reduction reactions that provided the basis for the development of biochemical pathways that harvest chemical energy ("bioenergetics"). Most examples of bioenergetics today that extract energy by reacting oxidized and reduced chemicals in the environment were likely more pervasive among our microbial ancestors than are the presently known examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of small continents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from local communities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical

  19. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  20. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  1. Combined Effect of TLR2 Gene Polymorphism and Early Life Stress on the Age at Onset of Bipolar Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    José Oliveira; Bruno Etain; Mohamed Lajnef; Nora Hamdani; Meriem Bennabi; Djaouida Bengoufa; Aparna Sundaresh; Arij Ben Chaabane; Frank Bellivier; Chantal Henry; Jean-Pierre Kahn; Dominique Charron; Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy; Marion Leboyer; Ryad Tamouza

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions may play an important role in modulating the impact of early-life stressful events on the clinical course of bipolar disorder (BD), particularly associated to early age at onset. Immune dysfunction is thought to be an important mechanism linking childhood trauma with early-onset BD, thus the genetic diversity of immune-related loci may account for an important part of the interindividual susceptibility to this severe subform. Here we investigated the potential in...

  2. Accounting for Life-Course Exposures in Epigenetic Biomarker Association Studies: Early Life Socioeconomic Position, Candidate Gene DNA Methylation, and Adult Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jonathan Y; Gavin, Amelia R; Richardson, Thomas S; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Siscovick, David S; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that epigenetic programming may mediate the relationship between early life environment, including parental socioeconomic position, and adult cardiometabolic health. However, interpreting associations between early environment and adult DNA methylation may be difficult because of time-dependent confounding by life-course exposures. Among 613 adult women (mean age = 32 years) of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Family Follow-up (2007-2009), we investigated associations between early life socioeconomic position (paternal occupation and parental education) and mean adult DNA methylation at 5 frequently studied cardiometabolic and stress-response genes (ABCA1, INS-IGF2, LEP, HSD11B2, and NR3C1). We used multivariable linear regression and marginal structural models to estimate associations under 2 causal structures for life-course exposures and timing of methylation measurement. We also examined whether methylation was associated with adult cardiometabolic phenotype. Higher maternal education was consistently associated with higher HSD11B2 methylation (e.g., 0.5%-point higher in 9-12 years vs. ≤8 years, 95% confidence interval: 0.1, 0.8). Higher HSD11B2 methylation was also associated with lower adult weight and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We found that associations with early life socioeconomic position measures were insensitive to different causal assumption; however, exploratory analysis did not find evidence for a mediating role of methylation in socioeconomic position-cardiometabolic risk associations.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of early-life stress in 5-Htt deficient mice: Gene x environment interactions and epigenetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Early-life stress has been shown to influence the development of the brain and to increase the risk for psychiatric disorders later in life. Furthermore, variation in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SLC6A4) gene is suggested to exert a modulating effect on the association between early-life stress and the risk for depression. At the basis of these gene x environment (G x E) interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA-methylation, seem to represent the primary biological processes...

  4. Establishment of intestinal microbiota during early life: a longitudinal, explorative study of a large cohort of Danish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain; Roager, Henrik Munch; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Licht, Tine Rask

    2014-05-01

    Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutritional parameters and measures of growth and body composition were determined and investigated in relation to the observed development in microbiota composition. We found that significant changes in the gut microbiota occurred, particularly from age 9 to 18 months, when cessation of breastfeeding and introduction of a complementary feeding induce replacement of a microbiota characterized by lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae with a microbiota dominated by Clostridium spp. and Bacteroides spp. Classification of samples by a proxy enterotype based on the relative levels of Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. showed that enterotype establishment occurs between 9 and 36 months. Thirty percent of the individuals shifted enterotype between 18 and 36 months. The composition of the microbiota was most pronouncedly influenced by the time of cessation of breastfeeding. From 9 to 18 months, a positive correlation was observed between the increase in body mass index and the increase of the short-chain-fatty-acid-producing clostridia, the Clostridum leptum group, and Eubacterium hallii. Considering previously established positive associations between rapid infant weight gain, early breastfeeding discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention.

  5. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A antagonist (bicuculline methiodine delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse

  6. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  7. Hippocampal neuroligin-2 links early-life stress with impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Christine; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Grosse, Jocelyn; Fournier, Céline; Harbich, Daniela; Westerholz, Sören; Li, Ji-Tao; Bacq, Alexandre; Sippel, Claudia; Hausch, Felix; Sandi, Carmen; Schmidt, Mathias V

    2015-05-01

    Early-life stress is a key risk factor for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Neuronal cell adhesion molecules have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in modulating social behaviors associated with these diseases. Neuroligin-2 is a synaptic cell adhesion molecule, located at the postsynaptic membrane of inhibitory GABAergic synapses, and is involved in synaptic stabilization and maturation. Alterations in neuroligin-2 expression have previously been associated with changes in social behavior linked to psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. In this study, we show that early-life stress, induced by limited nesting and bedding material, leads to impaired social recognition and increased aggression in adult mice, accompanied by increased expression levels of hippocampal neuroligin-2. Viral overexpression of hippocampal neuroligin-2 in adulthood mimics early-life stress-induced alterations in social behavior and social cognition. Moreover, viral knockdown of neuroligin-2 in the adult hippocampus attenuates the early-life stress-induced behavioral changes. Our results highlight the importance of neuroligin-2 in mediating early-life stress effects on social behavior and social cognition and its promising role as a novel therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Early-life Stress Impacts the Developing Hippocampus and Primes Seizure Occurrence: cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Tung eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-life stress includes prenatal, postnatal, and adolescence stress. Early-life stress can affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, and cause cellular and molecular changes in the developing hippocampus that can result in neurobehavioral changes later in life. Epidemiological data implicate stress as a cause of seizures in both children and adults. Emerging evidence indicates that both prenatal and postnatal stress can prime the developing brain for seizures and an increase in epileptogenesis. This article reviews the cellular and molecular changes encountered during prenatal and postnatal stress, and assesses the possible link between these changes and increases in seizure occurrence and epileptogenesis in the developing hippocampus. In addititon, the priming effect of prenatal and postnatal stress for seizures and epileptogenesis is discussed. Finally, the roles of epigenetic modifications in hippocampus and HPA axis programming, early-life stress, and epilepsy are discussed.

  9. A Framework for Evaluating R&D Impacts and Supply Chain Dynamics Early in a Product Life Cycle. Looking inside the black box of innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Gretchen [360 Innovation LLC (United States); Mote, Jonathan [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc. (United States); Choi, Thomas [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a framework for evaluation of R&D investments aimed at speeding up the pace of innovation and strengthening domestic manufacturing and supply chains, which make up a portion of the investments of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). These investments focus on early phases of the product life cycle, characterized as extending from pre-product, late stage R&D, to initial product introduction and through to early market growth. The investments aim to provide support for additional technology, supply-chain, manufacturing, and early market development to enhance or create markets for clean energy technologies and strengthen the U.S. industry base.

  10. Early life stress, the development of aggression and neuroendocrine and neurobiological correlates: what can we learn from animal models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Alexa H

    2009-10-01

    Early life stress (child and adolescent abuse, neglect and trauma) induces robust alterations in emotional and social functioning resulting in enhanced risk for the development of psychopathologies such as mood and aggressive disorders. Here, an overview is given on recent findings in primate and rodent models of early life stress, demonstrating that chronic deprivation of early maternal care as well as chronic deprivation of early physical interactions with peers are profound risk factors for the development of inappropriate aggressive behaviors. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA), vasopressin and serotonin systems and their relevance for the regulation of aggression are discussed. Data suggest that social deprivation-induced inappropriate forms of aggression are associated with high or low HPA axis (re)activity and a generally lower functioning of the serotonin system in adulthood. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic modifications in HPA and serotonin systems influence the outcome of early life stress and may even moderate adverse effects of early social deprivation on aggression. A more comprehensive study of aggression, neuroendocrine, neurobiological and (epi)genetic correlates of early life stress using animal models is necessary to provide a better understanding of the invasive aggressive deficits observed in humans exposed to child maltreatment.

  11. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22–2.60, p<0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27–2.83, p<0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Conclusion Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain. PMID:28243147

  12. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  13. Early cerebral hemodynamic, metabolic and histological changes in hypoxic-ischemic fetal lambs during postnatal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eRey-Santano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic, metabolic and biochemical changes produce during transition from fetal to neonatal life could be aggravated if asphyctic event occur during fetal life. The aim of the study was to examine the regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF, histological changes, and cerebral brain metabolism in preterm lambs, and to analyze the role of oxidative stress for the first hours of postnatal life following severe fetal asphyxia. 18 chronically instrumented fetal lambs were assigned to: hypoxic-ischemic group, following fetal asphyxia animals were delivered and maintained on intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation for 3 hours, and non-injured animals that were managed similarly to the previous group and used as control group. During hypoxic-ischemic insult, injured group developed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, latacidaemia and tachycardia in comparison to control group, without hypotension. Intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation transiently improved gas exchange and cardiovascular parameters. After HI injury and during ventilation-support, the increased RCBF in inner zones was maintained for hypoxic-ischemic group, but cortical flow did not exhibit differences compared to the control group. Also, the increase of TUNEL positive cells (apoptosis and antioxidant enzymes, and decrease of ATP reserves was significantly higher in the brain regions where the RCBF were not increased.In conclusion, early metabolic, histological and hemodynamic changes involved in brain damage have been intensively investigated and reported in premature asphyctic lambs for the first 3 hours of postnatal life. Those changes have been described in human neonates, so our model could be useful to test the security and the effectiveness of different neuroprotective or ventilatory strategies when are applied in the first hours after fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  14. Characterization of early dental caries by polarized Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark D.; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-02-01

    The early approximal caries lesion in enamel is observed clinically as a white spot and is difficult to detect and/or monitor with current methods available to dentists. New methods with high sensitivity and specificity are required to enable improved early dental caries diagnosis. Using unpolarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned teeth, peak intensity changes in the phosphate (PO 4 3-) vibrations (ν II, ν 3 and ν 4) were observed between spectra of sound and carious enamel. However, there is little change in the ν I vibration with this approach. In contrast, when tooth sections were examined by unpolarized Raman spectroscopy, marked changes in the ν I peak at 959 cm -1 were noted between healthy and carious enamel. These differences suggest that sampling orientation play a role in understanding the spectral changes. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned samples, cross polarized measurements from sound enamel exhibited significant reduction of the ν I peak compared with parallel polarized measurements. A similar reduction was observed with carious enamel, however, the reduction was not as prominent. By calculating the depolarization ratio of the area under the ν I peak, sound enamel can be clearly distinguished from demineralized regions. The spectral changes observed are attributed to changes in the structure and/or orientation of the apatite crystals as a result of the acid demineralization process.

  15. COMPENSATORY GROWTH AND FAT PARAMETERS ON BROILER FASTED IN EARLY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed withholding in the very early life ofbird on its compensatory growth capacity and fat parameters. A total of 60 mixed-sexes of one day oldRoss chicks were used in the experiment conducted with completely randomized design of 2 differentfeeding times after hatching, i.e.: T1: given access to feed and water ad libitum immediately afterhatching until 35d of age; and T2: withheld from feed (fasted but not from water for 48h after hatchingand then fed ad libitum until d35. The birds were weighed at the start of experiment and weeklythereafter, and DWG was then calculated. Feed intakes and FCR were also recorded weekly. At d36,abdominal fat was taken out from 2 birds per pen and was weighed. Breast meat (skinless from thesame birds was also sampled for total FA analysis. Final BW (d35 and total feed consumption of earlyfastedbirds were 1935.17±43.90 kg and 2745.55±47.48 kg and those of unfasted birds were2019.00±50.85 kg and 2910.84±128.10 kg, respectively. FCR of early-fasted and unfasted birds at d35were 1.42±0.03 and 1.45±0.07. The magnitude difference of DWG between early-fasted and unfastedbirds was 27% at d7, whereas at d35 the difference was only 4.5%. Abdominal fat percentage to live BWof early-fasted birds was 1.65±0.09% (male and 1.60±0.10% (female and that of unfasted birds was2.00±0.19% (male and 1.89±0.38% (female. Total FA contained in meat of early-fasted and unfastedbirds were 0.82±0.10 and 0.85±0.10 g/100gDM. Overall, BW and feed consumption of early-fastedbirds were significantly lower (P<0.05 than unfasted birds. DWG, FCR, abdominal fat and total FAcontained in meat were not significantly different (P>0.05 between early-fasted and unfasted birds. Inconclusion, holding birds without feed following hatch (under practical conditions may limit thecompensatory growth capacity of birds in the later age. Fasting applied in the very early life of broilerleads to

  16. Older siblings, pets and early life infections: impact on gut microbiota and allergy prevalence during the first three years of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    with allergies did not differ substantially from that in children without symptoms. Conclusions: Early life infections might precede childhood respiratory allergy and are associated with low microbial diversity/richness during late infancy. The presence of older siblings affects the gut microbiota composition......, diversity and richness during late infancy and the risk of developing eczema during early childhood. However, gut microbiota in late infancy was not associated with eczema or respiratory allergy in early childhood. Further studies are warranted to assess whether the profound sibling effect on the gut...

  17. The performance of field scientists undertaking observations of early life fossils while in simulated space suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, D.; Rask, J. C.; George, S. C.; de Leon, P.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Blank, J.; Slocombe, J.; Silburn, K.; Steele, H.; Gargarno, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulated Apollo Extravehicular Activity's (EVA) at the 3.45 Ga Australian 'Pilbara Dawn of life' (Western Australia) trail with field and non-field scientists using the University of North Dakota's NDX-1 pressurizable space suit to overview the effectiveness of scientist astronauts employing their field observation skills while looking for stromatolite fossil evidence. Off-world scientist astronauts will be faced with space suit limitations in vision, human sense perception, mobility, dexterity, the space suit fit, time limitations, and the psychological fear of death from accidents, causing physical fatigue reducing field science performance. Finding evidence of visible biosignatures for past life such as stromatolite fossils, on Mars, is a very significant discovery. Our preliminary overview trials showed that when in simulated EVAs, 25% stromatolite fossil evidence is missed with more incorrect identifications compared to ground truth surveys but providing quality characterization descriptions becomes less affected by simulated EVA limitations as the science importance of the features increases. Field scientists focused more on capturing high value characterization detail from the rock features whereas non-field scientists focused more on finding many features. We identified technologies and training to improve off-world field science performance. The data collected is also useful for NASA's "EVA performance and crew health" research program requirements but further work will be required to confirm the conclusions.

  18. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life and Midlife Conditions, and Familial Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1891 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are occupation as a farmer at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States, and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880-1895. We found that male gender of centenarian has a significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival

  19. Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

    2010-01-01

    Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

  20. Cognitive impairment effects of early life stress in adolescents can be predicted with early biomarkers: Impacts of sex, experience, and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Holland, Freedom H; Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychiatric disorders that emerge in adolescence, in a sex-dependent manner. Early adversity modeled in rodents with maternal separation (MS) affects cognition and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuitry. Humans and animals exposed to early life adversity also display heightened circulating inflammatory cytokines, however the predictive relationship of these early measures with later behavioral deficits is unknown. Here, male and female rats were exposed to MS or control rearing during the postnatal period (P2-21). Blood samples were taken at distinct developmental time points for analysis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, and IL-10, followed by win-shift cognitive testing and analysis of mPFC parvalbumin (PVB) immunofluorescent interneurons in adolescence. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between early cytokines and adolescent behavioral measures. We observed sex- and age-dependent effects of MS on circulating cytokines. MS also yielded adolescent decreases in mPFC PVB and cognitive deficits, which were predicted by early cytokine expression in a sex- and experience-dependent manner. Taken together, the present data reveals that circulating cytokines and PVB levels are predictive of adolescent cognitive deficits, and therefore provide compelling evidence for a putative role of early biomarkers in mediating MS-induced behavioral dysfunction. Importantly, predictive relationships often depended on sex and on MS history, suggesting that early life experiences may yield individualistic mechanisms of vulnerability compared to the general population.

  1. Characterizing lifespan development of three aspects of coherence in life narratives: a cohort-sequential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Schmiedek, Florian; Habermas, Tilmann

    2015-02-01

    The ability to narrate stories and a synchronic self-concept develop in the pre- and primary school years. Life story theory proposes that both developments extend to an even later developmental stage, that is, to adolescents' acquisition of a coherent life story. Cross-sectional evidence supports the emergence of a life story in adolescence, but is mixed in terms of later life span development. The present study examines longitudinally the development of global coherence in life narratives across almost the entire life span. Starting in 2003, a total of 172 participants narrated their lives over the course of 8 years (aged 16, 20, 24, 28, 44, and 69 when last tested) resulting in up to 4 life narratives per person. Three aspects of global life narrative coherence--temporal, causal-motivational, and thematic coherence--were measured with global ratings and predicted by their respective textual indicators. Children lacked most aspects of global coherence. Almost all indicators of temporal and causal-motivational coherence increased substantially across adolescence up to early adulthood, as did thematic coherence, which continued to develop throughout middle adulthood.

  2. Increased microbe-receptor contact in early life – approaching immune regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Katja Maria Bangsgaard; Hansen, Camilla H. F.; Krych, Lukasz;

    Sulphate Sodium interrupts the barrier function of the gut wall by shaving the mucus layer. In low doses it may have the desired contact-increasing effect without inducing colitis-related disease. Following low-dose DSS treatment in early life of BALB/c mice, we did a gene expression screening in ileum...... and colon together with cell counts in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes combined with sequencing the gut microbiota. We investigated the effect of DSS alone, and in combination with Ampicillin and LPS to elucidate the importance of bacterial ligands. Our study shows that DSS changes the gut microbiota......, and Ampicillin itself can act protective as well as activating on inflammatory markers in a time-dependent manner. It is apparent that DSS works differently in the ileum and colon for some genes. In some cases LPS as only ligand reduces inflammatory markers, but overall it is confirmed that the abundance...

  3. Early Life Exposure to Fructose and Offspring Phenotype: Implications for Long Term Metabolic Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Sloboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of artificially sweetened processed foods, particularly high in fructose or high fructose corn syrup, has increased significantly in the past few decades. As such, interest into the long term outcomes of consuming high levels of fructose has increased significantly, particularly when the exposure is early in life. Epidemiological and experimental evidence has linked fructose consumption to the metabolic syndrome and associated comorbidities—implicating fructose as a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Yet, despite the widespread consumption of fructose-containing foods and beverages and the rising incidence of maternal obesity, little attention has been paid to the possible adverse effects of maternal fructose consumption on the developing fetus and long term effects on offspring. In this paper we review studies investigating the effects of fructose intake on metabolic outcomes in both mother and offspring using human and experimental studies.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in early life and the potential programming of cardiovascular disease in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmish, Oksan; Black, Mary Jane

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major worldwide public health problem affecting people of all ages, from infants to the elderly. Of particular concern is the high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in women during pregnancy and lactation, leading to the exposure of the growing fetus/infant to inadequate levels of vitamin D, which is essential for normal development. Vitamin D deficiency in adulthood is linked to the etiology of hypertension and to a multitude of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. It is now well-established that the antecedents of cardiovascular disease can originate very early in life. The purpose of this review is to highlight how maternal vitamin D deficiency, and its effects in upregulating the fetal renin-angiotensin system and altering cardiomyocyte growth in the fetal heart, has the potential to program long-term vulnerability to cardiovascular disease.

  5. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2006-01-01

    hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...... of early weaning was 1.47. Elevated relative risks were also associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (1.52) and unwanted pregnancy status (1.59). Other independent predictors were male gender, maternal psychiatric hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis, and low parental social status......OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...

  6. Toxicity of chlorine dioxide to early life stages of marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hose, J.E.; Di Fiore, D.; Parker, H.S.; Sciarrotta, T.

    1989-03-01

    With increasing interest in minimizing exposure to chlorine, many electric generating and water treatment plants are exploring the use of alternative biocides such as chlorine dioxide. Unlike chlorine, chlorine dioxide does not react with ambient organic compounds to form potentially carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform. However, the toxicity of chlorine dioxide to aquatic organisms has received little study. No information exists on chlorine toxicity to marine organisms. Furthermore, West Coast electric power stations usually discharge chlorine intermittently once or twice daily and substantial mixing of receiving water occurs between treatments. Therefore, this study sought to obtain information on chlorine dioxide toxicity using an exposure schedule typical of generating stations which discharge into the marine environment. Early life history stages of a plant, invertebrate and fish were tested since these stages are generally acknowledged to be most sensitive to toxicants and are the stages that are most likely to be exposed to the effluent.

  7. Early Life Fructose Exposure and Its Implications for Long-Term Cardiometabolic Health in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly clear that maternal nutrition can strongly influence the susceptibility of adult offspring to cardiometabolic disease. For decades, it has been thought that excessive intake of fructose, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and foods, has been linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in various populations. These deleterious effects of excess fructose consumption in adults are well researched, but limited data are available on the long-term effects of high fructose exposure during gestation, lactation, and infancy. This review aims to examine the evidence linking early life fructose exposure during critical periods of development and its implications for long-term cardiometabolic health in offspring.

  8. Ontogeny and growth of early life stages of captive-bred European eel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of viable eggs and larvae of European eel, providing the basis for studies on early life stages of this species in captivity. In this study, we describe and illustrate morphological characteristics of eggs, embryos, and larvae from fertilization to termination of the yolk sac stage and provide a comparison...... of yolk and oil absorption, the larvae undertook significant changes in head and body morphology. At the completion of yolk sac absorption, the largely transparent larvae had a set of protruding teeth, pigmented eyes and tail, and a simple alimentary tract. Larvae appeared capable of feeding at ~12 days......-sustained aquaculture of this high-value and critically endangered species. Statement of relevance: European eel is a high-value species in aquaculture, however, production is presently hampered by reliance on wild caught fry. Captive production of glass eels will reopen markets in Europe and Asia, benefiting European...

  9. Early life factors and being overweight at 4 years of age among children in Malmö, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Martin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of obesity and overweight is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Recent research has shown the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of early life factors and presence of parental overweight on the development of child overweight. Methods The study was population-based and cross-sectional. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centers in Malmö for their 4-year health check during 2003-2008 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 9009 children. Results The results showed that having overweight/obese parents was strongly associated with the child being overweight or obese. Furthermore, there was an association between unfavorable early life factors (i.e., mother smoking during pregnancy, presence of secondhand tobacco smoke early in life, high birth weight and the development of child overweight/obesity at four years of age, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. For example, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.76 for overweight and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.68, 3.17 for obesity. The results further showed synergistic effects between parental overweight and exposure to unfavourable early life factors in the development of child overweight. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of early life factors in the development of child overweight and obesity, and thus puts focus on the importance of early targeted interventions.

  10. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  11. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  12. Dose-Dependent Early Life Stage Toxicities in Xenopus laevis Exposed In Ovo to Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Anita J; Muscatello, Jorgelina R; Janz, David M

    2015-11-17

    Selenium (Se) is a developmental toxicant in oviparous vertebrates. The adverse reproductive effects of Se toxicity have been predominantly investigated in fishes and birds with only a few studies focusing on amphibians. The objective of this study was to determine tissue-based toxicity thresholds for early life stage Se toxicities in Xenopus laevis as a consequence of in ovo exposure through maternal transfer of dietary Se. Following a 68-day dietary exposure to food augmented with l-selenomethionine (SeMet) at measured concentrations of 0.7 (control), 10.9, 30.4, or 94.2 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.), adult female X. laevis were bred with untreated males, and resulting embryos were incubated until 5 days postfertilization (dpf). The measured Se concentrations in eggs were 1.6, 10.8, 28.1, and 81.7 μg Se/g d.m., respectively. No biologically significant effects were observed on fertilization success, hatchability, or mortality in offspring. Frequency and severity of morphological abnormalities were significantly greater in 5 dpf tadpoles from the highest exposure group when compared to the control, with eye lens abnormalities being the most prominent of all abnormalities. The estimated EC10 value for frequency of total early life stage abnormalities was 44.9 μg Se/g egg d.m., which suggests that this amphibian species is less sensitive to in ovo Se exposure than most of the fish species studied to date.

  13. Early life stress perturbs the maturation of microglia in the developing hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Wei, Lan; Hao, Jin; Yu, Xiaoqing; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Kaffman, Arie

    2016-10-01

    Children exposed to abuse or neglect show abnormal hippocampal development and similar findings have been reported in rodent models. Using brief daily separation (BDS), a mouse model of early life stress, we previously showed that exposure to BDS impairs hippocampal function in adulthood and perturbs synaptic maturation, synaptic pruning, axonal growth and myelination in the developing hippocampus. Given that microglia are involved in these developmental processes, we tested whether BDS impairs microglial activity in the hippocampus of 14 (during BDS) and 28-day old mice (one week after BDS). We found that BDS increased the density and altered the morphology of microglia in the hippocampus of 14-day old pups, effects that were no longer present on postnatal day (PND) 28. Despite the normal cell number and morphology seen at PND28, the molecular signature of hippocampal microglia, assessed using the NanoString immune panel, was altered at both ages. We showed that during normal hippocampal development, microglia undergo significant changes between PND14 and PND28, including reduced cell density, decreased ex vivo phagocytic activity, and an increase in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and cell migration. However, microglia harvested from the hippocampus of 28-day old BDS mice showed an increase in phagocytic activity and reduced expression of genes that normally increase across development. Promoter analysis indicated that alteration in the transcriptional activity of PU.1, Creb1, Sp1, and RelA accounted for most of the transcriptional changes seen during normal microglia development and for most of the BDS-induced changes at PND14 and PND28. These findings are the first to demonstrate that early life stress dysregulates microglial function in the developing hippocampus and to identify key transcription factors that are likely to mediate these changes.

  14. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  15. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Alastalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. METHODS: The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8% had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36 between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. RESULTS: Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08. Those men separated in school age (>7 years and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20 and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05, respectively. Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06. These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. CONCLUSION: Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  16. Sucrose-induced analgesia during early life modulates adulthood learning and memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alabwaini, Jehad; Khabour, Omar F; Kassab, Manal I

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at examining the long-term effects of chronic pain during early life (postnatal day 0 to 8weeks), and intervention using sucrose, on cognitive functions during adulthood in rats. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution or paracetamol was administered for analgesia before the paw prick. Control groups include tactile stimulation to account for handling and touching the paws, and sucrose alone was used. All treatments were started on day one of birth and continued for 8weeks. At the end of the treatments, behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), as well as pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate apparatus. Additionally, the hippocampus was dissected, and blood was collected. Levels of neurotrophins (BDNF, IGF-1 and NT-3) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. The results show that chronic noxious stimulation resulted in comparable foot-withdrawal latency between noxious and tactile groups. On the other hand, pretreatment with sucrose or paracetamol increased pain threshold significantly both in naive rats and noxiously stimulated rats (Psucrose treatment prevented such impairment (PSucrose significantly increased serum levels of endorphin and enkephalin. Chronic pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus and this decrease was prevented by sucrose and paracetamol treatments. Hippocampal levels of NT-3 and IGF-1 were not affected by any treatment. In conclusion, chronic pain induction during early life induced short memory impairment, and pretreatment with sucrose prevented this impairment via mechanisms that seem to involve BDNF. As evident in the results, sucrose, whether alone or in the presence of pre-noxious stimulation, increases pain threshold in such circumstances; most likely via a mechanism that involves an increase in endogenous opioids.

  17. Genetic and epigenetic catalysts in early-life programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estampador AC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Angela C Estampador,1,2 Paul W Franks1,3,4 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, Sweden; 2Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 4Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts. Keywords: early-life, epigenetic, programming, pregnancy, cardiometabolic

  18. Ecologically Relevant Cooling Early in Life Alters Prefledging Adrenocortical Response in Free-Living Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Kern, Michael D

    In vertebrates, exposure to stressful stimuli early in development may alter the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, with the potential for fitness consequences later in life. For altricial species, whose young rely on their parents for food, warmth, and protection from predators, adult behavior can modify the impact of some stressors on their offspring after birth or hatching. We have shown that single bouts of cooling that normally occur when brooding females leave the nest elevate corticosterone secretion in very young free-living eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) chicks. Thus, natural variation in maternal brooding patterns can result in differential exposure of offspring to cooling, and also to glucocorticoids, very early in development. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to repeated bouts of cooling (mimicking those that occur normally when females leave the nest) would alter the activity of the chicks' HPA axis later in life. We exposed free-living chicks to either four 18-min bouts of cooling or brooding temperatures (control) during the first week after hatching. Then, just before fledging (i.e., at least 7 d after the cooling treatments had ceased), we assessed their corticosterone responses to restraint. Repeatedly cooled chicks had a significantly lower corticosterone response to restraint than did control chicks but did not differ from controls in other measures of growth and development. Our data suggest that natural variation in maternal brooding patterns, and hence natural variation in the chicks' body temperature, can alter the activity of the HPA axis well beyond the brooding period.

  19. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Young, Larry J; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP) or by a single mother (SM). BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10%) and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  20. The role of early life experience and species differences in alcohol intake in microtine rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M J Anacker

    Full Text Available Social relationships have important effects on alcohol drinking. There are conflicting reports, however, about whether early-life family structure plays an important role in moderating alcohol use in humans. We have previously modeled social facilitation of alcohol drinking in peers in socially monogamous prairie voles. We have also modeled the effects of family structure on the development of adult social and emotional behaviors. Here we assessed whether alcohol intake would differ in prairie voles reared by both parents compared to those reared by a single mother. We also assessed whether meadow voles, a closely related species that do not form lasting reproductive partnerships, would differ in alcohol drinking or in the effect of social influence on drinking. Prairie voles were reared either bi-parentally (BP or by a single mother (SM. BP- and SM-reared adult prairie voles and BP-reared adult meadow voles were given limited access to a choice between alcohol (10% and water over four days and assessed for drinking behavior in social and non-social drinking environments. While alcohol preference was not different between species, meadow voles drank significantly lower doses than prairie voles. Meadow voles also had significantly higher blood ethanol concentrations than prairie voles after receiving the same dose, suggesting differences in ethanol metabolism. Both species, regardless of rearing condition, consumed more alcohol in the social drinking condition than the non-social condition. Early life family structure did not significantly affect any measure. Greater drinking in the social condition indicates that alcohol intake is influenced similarly in both species by the presence of a peer. While the ability of prairie voles to model humans may be limited, the lack of differences in alcohol drinking in BP- and SM-reared prairie voles lends biological support to human studies demonstrating no effect of single-parenting on alcohol abuse.

  1. Characterization of tomato accessions for resistance to early blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Jurca Grigolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize 50 tomato genotypes of the Vegetable Genebank of the FederalUniversity of Viçosa. They were evaluated together with the controls Débora, Fanny and Santa Clara, in a randomized block designwith two replications. The experiment was conducted in a research field of the UFV, from February to May 2007. We evaluated thedisease severity, which is the percentage of diseased leaf area. The severity values were transformed into area under the diseaseprogress curve (AUDPC, improving the result visualization. The analysis of variance and grouping of AUDPC means by the Scott-Knott test at 5 % significance were performed. The accessions BGH-2081, BGH-2034, BGH-700, BGH-2057, BGH-2035, BGH-2054, BGH-2018, BGH-2065, BGH-2008, and BGH-2032 had a lower mean AUDPC than the controls and are therefore indicatedfor future breeding programs.

  2. Characterizing Early Adolescent Plate Waste Using the Mobile Food Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe E. Panizza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the amount of plate waste and how plate waste was disposed by early adolescent girls using a mobile food record (mFR. Participants were girls nine to thirteen years residing in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93. Foods selected and leftover were estimated using a three day mFR. Each leftover food was then classified as thrown into the trash, fed to a pet, eaten later, or other (e.g., composted. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to adjust for multiple comparisons between times (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack on leftover food and leftover food thrown into the trash. The percentage of food leftover and thrown into the trash was highest at lunch. The percentage of protein, grain, vegetables, fruit, and dairy leftover at lunch were unexpectedly low compared to previous studies. The median for percentage of food thrown into the trash at lunch was <5% for all food groups, and was consistently low across the day (<10%. Average energy intake was 436 kcal (±216 at lunch, and 80% of caregivers reported total household income as ≥$70,000. Studies in real-time using technology over full days may better quantify plate waste among adolescents.

  3. The K2 Mission: Characterization and Early results

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Steve B; Haas, Michael; Still, Martin; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Troeltzsch, John; Aigrain, Suzanne; Bryson, Stephen T; Caldwell, Doug; Chaplin, William J; Cochran, William D; Huber, Daniel; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Miglio, Andrea; Najita, Joan R; Smith, Marcie; Twicken, J D; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    The K2 mission will make use of the Kepler spacecraft and its assets to expand upon Kepler's groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of exoplanets and astrophysics through new and exciting observations. K2 will use an innovative way of operating the spacecraft to observe target fields along the ecliptic for the next 2-3 years. Early science commissioning observations have shown an estimated photometric precision near 400 ppm in a single 30 minute observation, and a 6-hour photometric precision of 80 ppm (both at V=12). The K2 mission offers simultaneous observation of thousands of objects at a precision far better than is achievable from the ground. Ecliptic fields will be observed for approximately 75-days enabling a unique exoplanet survey which fills the gaps in duration and sensitivity between the Kepler and TESS missions, and offers pre-launch exoplanet target identification for JWST transit spectroscopy. Astrophysics observations with K2 will include studies of young open clusters, bright stars, galaxi...

  4. Galaxies in the Early Universe characterized in absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly-alpha absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand how the absorption selected galaxies relate to the emission selected galaxies by identifying the faint glow from the absorbing galaxies at redshift z~2. In the last Chapter, a study of the more evolved, massive galaxies is presented. These galaxies are observed to be a factor of 2 to 6 times smaller than local galaxies of similar masses. A new spectroscopically selected sample is presented and the increased precisio...

  5. Nick Hales Award Lecture 2011: glucocorticoids and early life programming of cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R M

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between low birthweight and a range of diseases in adult life including cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. One of the key mechanisms proposed to underlie early life 'programming' of disease is overexposure of the developing foetus to glucocorticoids. This review will explore the data from human studies that glucocorticoids are not only mediators of programming, but also targets of programming. Cohort studies of men and women of known birthweight have demonstrated that low birthweight is associated with high fasting cortisol levels. In healthy individuals and in people with type 2 diabetes who are at high cardiovascular risk, there is a similar association between high fasting cortisol and the metabolic syndrome. The high cortisol levels appear to be due to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis though detailed studies to further explore central negative feedback sensitivity are required. The evidence in humans that glucocorticoids mediate programming is more scanty, though changes in maternal body composition, stress and anxiety levels and activity of the placental barrier enzyme 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) may all influence maternal HPA axis activity. Emerging studies are supportive that high maternal cortisol levels in humans and/or deficiencies placental 11β-HSD2 humans are associated with lower birthweight and adverse metabolic and neurocognitive outcomes in the offspring.

  6. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  7. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  8. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  9. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood.

  10. Amino and fatty acid dynamics of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vanessa M; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Paula, José R; Couto, Ana; Bandarra, Narcisa; Anacleto, Patrícia; Marques, António; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The oceans are becoming warmer, and the higher temperatures are expected to have a major impact on marine life at different levels of biological organization, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Thus, we hypothesize that the future warmer scenarios (here +3 °C) will affect the biochemical composition (amino acid - AA, and fatty acid-FA) of octopod (Octopus vulgaris) embryos and recently-hatched pelagic paralarvae. The main essential amino acids found in octopus embryos were arginine, leucine and lysine; while aspartic and glutamic acids, and taurine were the main non-essential amino acids. Palmitic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the main FAs found in octopus tissues. Relevant ontogenetic changes were observed, namely a steep decrease in the content of many AAs, and a selective retention of FAs, thus evidencing the protein-based metabolism of these cephalopods. Temperature per si did not elicit significant changes in the overall FA composition, but was responsible for a significant decrease in the content of several AAs, indicating increased embryonic consumption.

  11. Determination of interannual variability in early life history of Pleuronectes platessa (L. using otolith microstructure

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    Joana Filipa Moreira De Sousa

    2015-11-01

    Plaice 0-group juveniles were sampled from an inshore nursery ground (Valosen, Bodø, Norway between 2005 and 2006, and otolith microstructure was examined. For that, sagitta otoliths were mounted in microscope slides using a thermoplastic cement (crystalbond™, with the concave side down. Otoliths were then hand-ground to the otolith core using sandpaper (3, 1 µm and examined under transmitted light in a microscope linked to an image analysis system. This technique exposed the daily increments in the otoliths that once counted allowed to determine hatch dates, larval duration, settlement dates and total age of the fish. A one-month difference in hatching and settlement times was found between 2005 and 2006, occurring later in 2006, but larval stage duration was similar in both years. Compared to other areas located further south, hatching and settlement occurred earlier showing a latitudinal cline. Interannual differences in growth were also detected, with higher rates in 2006 which could be related to warmer temperatures during plaice first summer of life. Yet, growth rates were similar to other locations across the species distributional range which suggest the existence of a countergradient growth compensation mechanism in this northern population. This means that despite the lower environmental temperature at high latitudes, other factors such as productivity and photoperiod may play a key role during the growing season. Nevertheless, further work needs to be done in order to fully understand temporal variation in plaice early life dynamics.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism.

  13. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases.

  14. Effects of professional support on nausea, vomiting, and quality of life during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chao-Po; Yang, Yung-Mei; Chou, Fan-Hao; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a professional support (PS) intervention (including individualized health education and supportive phone calls) in reducing the severity of nausea and vomiting (NV) and improving the quality of life (QOL) of women in early pregnancy. An experimental pretest/posttest design with a control group was used. Participants were recruited from a regional teaching hospital in southern Taiwan. The women in the experimental group (n = 40) received the PS intervention, while those in the control group (n = 39) only received routine nursing care. Analysis of covariance and mixed models were used to compare the experimental and control groups while adjusting for covariates. The severity of NV and the perceived level of symptom distress were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group during weeks 2 and 4, and the women in the experimental group showed a significant improvement in their QOL in week 4 (p < .05). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in body weight at week 4 (p = .501). These findings provide empirical evidence in support of the effectiveness of PS in reducing the severity of NV and improving QOL for women during early pregnancy. This intervention could be routinely applied in prenatal nursing health education. Future studies could apply the concept of PS to different populations and health issues.

  15. Early life in a barren environment adversely affects spatial cognition in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Tahamtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task, however the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  16. Effects of mixture of pharmaceuticals on early life stages of tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancova, Vlasta; Plhalova, Lucie; Bartoskova, Marta; Zivna, Dana; Prokes, Miroslav; Marsalek, Petr; Blahova, Jana; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca). Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg · L(-1) for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg · L(-1)). Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg · L(-1)) used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  17. Effects of Mixture of Pharmaceuticals on Early Life Stages of Tench (Tinca tinca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Stancova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment results in concern about potential adverse the effects on nontarget organisms. In water, drugs are present in complex mixtures, in which complicated interactions affect toxicity of single components. The purpose of this study was to examine effect of 35-day-long exposure to mixture of ibuprofen, diclofenac, and carbamazepine on the mortality, growth, early ontogeny, and histopathological changes in tench (Tinca tinca. Early life stage toxicity test was carried out using a modified protocol according to OECD guideline 210. Exposure to mixture of pharmaceuticals at concentration of 60 μg·L−1 for each substance was associated with significant increase in mortality, as well as significant increase in growth and elevated incidence of malformations. Any of the tested concentrations resulted in histopathological changes of liver, kidney, skin, or gill. After fourteen days of exposure there was short-term delay of development related to increased concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the mixture (2, 20, and 60 μg·L−1. Environmentally relevant concentrations (0.02; and 0.2 μg·L−1 used in this experiment did not result in toxic impairment of tench.

  18. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  19. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arp, J.M.; ter Horst, J.P.; Loi, M.; den Blaauwen, J.; Bangert, E.L.; Fernández, G.; Joëls, M.; Oitzl, M.S.; Krugers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal d

  20. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arp, J.M.; Horst, J.P. ter; Loi, M.; Blaauwen, J. den; Bangert, E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Joels, M.; Oitzl, M.S.; Krugers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal

  1. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L.; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis. PMID:27668081

  2. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis.

  3. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  4. Discrete Modeling of Early-Life Thermal Fracture in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dolbow, John E. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Hales, Jason D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Fracturing of ceramic fuel pellets heavily influences performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Early in the life of fuel, starting with the initial power ramp, large thermal gradients cause high tensile hoop and axial stresses in the outer region of the fuel pellets, resulting in the formation of radial and axial cracks. Circumferential cracks form due to thermal gradients that occur when the power is ramped down. These thermal cracks cause the fuel to expand radially, closing the pellet/cladding gap and enhancing the thermal conductance across that gap, while decreasing the effective conductivity of the fuel in directions normal to the cracking. At lower length scales, formation of microcracks is an important contributor to the decrease in bulk thermal conductivity that occurs over the life of the fuel as the burnup increases. Because of the important effects that fracture has on fuel performance, a realistic, physically based fracture modeling capability is essential to predict fuel behavior in a wide variety of normal and abnormal conditions. Modeling fracture within the context of the finite element method, which is based on continuous interpolations of solution variables, has always been challenging because fracture is an inherently discontinuous phenomenon. Work is underway at Idaho National Laboratory to apply two modeling techniques model fracture as a discrete displacement discontinuity to nuclear fuel: The extended finite element method (XFEM), and discrete element method (DEM). XFEM is based on the standard finite element method, but with enhancements to represent discontinuous behavior. DEM represents a solid as a network of particles connected by bonds, which can arbitrarily fail if a fracture criterion is reached. This paper presents initial results applying the aforementioned techniques to model fuel fracturing. This work has initially focused on early life behavior of ceramic LWR fuel. A coupled thermal-mechanical XFEM method that includes

  5. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  6. In search of early life: Carbonate veins in Archean metamorphic rocks as potential hosts of biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carl A.; Piazolo, Sandra; Webb, Gregory E.; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; George, Simon C.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of early life signatures using hydrocarbon biomarkers in Precambrian rocks struggles with contamination issues, unspecific biomarkers and the lack of suitable sedimentary rocks due to extensive thermal overprints. Importantly, host rocks must not have been exposed to temperatures above 250 °C as at these temperatures biomarkers are destroyed. Here we show that Archean sedimentary rocks from the Jeerinah Formation (2.63 billion yrs) and Carawine Dolomite (2.55 billion yrs) of the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia) drilled by the Agouron Institute in 2012, which previously were suggested to be suitable for biomarker studies, were metamorphosed to the greenschist facies. This is higher than previously reported. Both the mineral assemblages (carbonate, quartz, Fe-chlorite, muscovite, microcline, rutile, and pyrite with absence of illite) and chlorite geothermometry suggest that the rocks were exposed to temperatures higher than 300 °C and probably ∼400 °C, consistent with greenschist-facies metamorphism. This facies leads to the destruction of any biomarkers and explains why the extraction of hydrocarbon biomarkers from pristine drill cores has not been successful. However, we show that the rocks are cut by younger formation-specific carbonate veins containing primary oil-bearing fluid inclusions and solid bitumens. Type 1 veins in the Carawine Dolomite consist of dolomite, quartz and solid bitumen, whereas type 2 veins in the Jeerinah Formation consist of calcite. Within the veins fluid inclusion homogenisation temperatures and calcite twinning geothermometry indicate maximum temperatures of ∼200 °C for type 1 veins and ∼180 °C for type 2 veins. Type 1 veins have typical isotopic values for reprecipitated Archean sea-water carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 3 ‰ to 0‰ and δ18OVPDB ranging from - 13 ‰ to - 7 ‰, while type 2 veins have isotopic values that are similar to hydrothermal carbonates, with δ13CVPDB ranging from - 18

  7. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adol

  8. Life might be rare despite its early emergence on Earth: a Bayesian analysis of the probability of abiogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S

    2011-01-01

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young-Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a Bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a Bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, sentient creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of Bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Thus, although life began on this planet fairly soon after the Earth became habitable, this fact is consistent with an ...

  9. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO THE EDUCATION OF LIFE-MEANINGFUL VALUES OF TEENAGERS AND EARLY ADOLESCENCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinа Zhurba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the conceptual approaches to the upbringing in the education of life-meaningful values of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. The definition of life-meaningful values has been given up. The major problems and contradictions in the upbringing of the Ukrainian children were paid attention to. The dependence of the result of upbringing, from the desire and the participation of all actors: children, parents, teachers is pointed out. Conceptual approaches to education of life values meaning are analyzed on the methodological, theoretical and practical levels. The aspects of the previous researches have been underlined. In this context, a systematic approach determines the integrity of the educational process in primary and high school. Synergetic approach combines the organization and self-organization of the growing personality. Humanistic approach recognizes each child's highest value at school, family, and society. Personal-centered approach provides individual attention to him, to free choice of that or other life-meaningful values. Activity approach provides practice and deed activity of children and shows how the value of the meaning of life affects the behavior of the individual. The theoretical level of substantiation of the concept of education of children of teenagers and early youth gives ability to define key points and concepts. Practical level implies the corresponding experimental activity, the determination of propriate pedagogical conditions, the selection of content, forms and methods of education of teenagers and early adolescence. Conceptual approaches offer the opportunity to develop a modern system of education of the values of the meaning of life of teenagers and early adolescence in Ukraine. Implementation of conceptual approaches aimed at qualitative changes in the education of life-meaningful values among of teenagers and early adolescence.

  10. Early life trauma is associated with decreased peripheral levels of thyroid-hormone T3 in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, T D; Salum, G A; Bosa, V L; Goldani, M Z; Meaney, M J; Agranonik, M; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2015-12-01

    An adverse early life environment can induce changes on behavioral and metabolic responses later in life. Recent studies in rats showed that the quality of maternal care as measured by high levels of pup licking and grooming (LG) was associated with changes in the relationship between the precursor thyroid-hormone T4 and the more active T3. Here we investigated if early exposure to childhood abuse is associated with thyroid-hormone levels in human adolescents. Given the empirical evidence from animal models showing that good maternal care was associated with increased conversion of T4 to T3, we hypothesized that early adversity would be associated with a decreased peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. A sample of 80 adolescents (10-18 years) participated in this study. We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to investigate early life stress. We calculate the body mass index (BMI) assessing weight and height and sexual maturation stage was determined by self-assessment. Blood samples were collected to measure T3 and T4 levels. ANCOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the Physical Abuse domain of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire as the early life stress variable in T3 and T4 separately, adjusted for potential confounders such as pubertal status, gender, socioeconomic status and BMI. Early life trauma was associated with reduced T3 levels in adolescents, when adjusted for potential confounders (p=0.013), but not with peripheral T4 levels (p=0.625). We extended findings from animal models showing that adverse early experience persistently impacts on the individual's responses to stress, which is marked by an abnormal metabolism of thyroid hormones. Further studies are needed to further investigate the nature of such associations.

  11. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.

    2001-07-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  12. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

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    Yamada K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Yamada,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,3,4 Eizaburo Tanaka,1,5 Hiroyuki Oka,3 Junji Katsuhira,3,6 Hiroyasu Iso1 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Center for Pain Management, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, 3Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japan Labour Health & Welfare Organization, Tokyo, 5Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, 6Department of Prosthetics & Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Background: Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the ­sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods: We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1 chronic pain prevalence, 2 multisite pain (≥3 sites prevalence, and 3 multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01 in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01 in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life

  13. Exposure to Early Life Stress Results in Epigenetic Changes in Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in a Parkinsonian Rat Model

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    Thabisile Mpofana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity increases the risk of mental disorders later in life. Chronic early life stress may alter neurotrophic factor gene expression including those for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF that are important in neuronal growth, survival, and maintenance. Maternal separation was used in this study to model early life stress. Following unilateral injection of a mild dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, we measured corticosterone (CORT in the blood and striatum of stressed and nonstressed rats; we also measured DNA methylation and BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum using real time PCR. In the presence of stress, we found that there was increased corticosterone concentration in both blood and striatal tissue. Further to this, we found higher DNA methylation and decreased neurotrophic factor gene expression. 6-OHDA lesion increased neurotrophic factor gene expression in both stressed and nonstressed rats but this increase was higher in the nonstressed rats. Our results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress increases corticosterone concentration which leads to increased DNA methylation. This effect results in decreased BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum leading to decreased protection against subsequent insults later in life.

  14. Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life.

  15. Enduring Effects of Early Life Stress on Firing Patterns of Hippocampal and Thalamocortical Neurons in Rats: Implications for Limbic Epilepsy.

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    Idrish Ali

    Full Text Available Early life stress results in an enduring vulnerability to kindling-induced epileptogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent studies indicate the involvement of thalamocortical neuronal circuits in the progression of kindling epileptogenesis. Therefore, we sought to determine in vivo the effects of early life stress and amygdala kindling on the firing pattern of hippocampus as well as thalamic and cortical neurons. Eight week old male Wistar rats, previously exposed to maternal separation (MS early life stress or early handling (EH, underwent amygdala kindling (or sham kindling. Once fully kindled, in vivo juxtacellular recordings in hippocampal, thalamic and cortical regions were performed under neuroleptic analgesia. In the thalamic reticular nucleus cells both kindling and MS independently lowered firing frequency and enhanced burst firing. Further, burst firing in the thalamic reticular nucleus was significantly increased in kindled MS rats compared to kindled EH rats (p<0.05. In addition, MS enhanced burst firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Following a stimulation-induced seizure, somatosensory cortical neurons exhibited a more pronounced increase in burst firing in MS rats than in EH rats. These data demonstrate changes in firing patterns in thalamocortical and hippocampal regions resulting from both MS and amygdala kindling, which may reflect cellular changes underlying the enhanced vulnerability to kindling in rats that have been exposed to early life stress.

  16. Role of Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 in Fetal Development and in the Early Postnatal Life of Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Ann; Ley, David; Hansen-Pupp, Ingrid; Hallberg, Boubou; Ramenghi, Luca A; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hård, Anna-Lena

    2016-09-01

    The neonatal period of very preterm infants is often characterized by a difficult adjustment to extrauterine life, with an inadequate nutrient supply and insufficient levels of growth factors, resulting in poor growth and a high morbidity rate. Long-term multisystem complications include cognitive, behavioral, and motor dysfunction as a result of brain damage as well as visual and hearing deficits and metabolic disorders that persist into adulthood. Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a major regulator of fetal growth and development of most organs especially the central nervous system including the retina. Glucose metabolism in the developing brain is controlled by IGF-1 which also stimulates differentiation and prevents apoptosis. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 decrease to very low levels after very preterm birth and remain low for most of the perinatal development. Strong correlations have been found between low neonatal serum concentrations of IGF-1 and poor brain and retinal growth as well as poor general growth with multiorgan morbidities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that early supplementation with IGF-1 can improve growth in catabolic states and reduce brain injury after hypoxic/ischemic events. A multicenter phase II study is currently underway to determine whether intravenous replacement of human recombinant IGF-1 up to normal intrauterine serum concentrations can improve growth and development and reduce prematurity-associated morbidities.

  17. The Case of the Lacking Carbonates and the Emergence of Early Life on Mars

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    Ricardo Amils

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical characterization of Mars by different exploration missions, provides a new image of the earliest conditions that prevailed on the planet surface. The detection of extensive deposits of phyllosillicates has been considered to be as a result of the production of hydrated silicates through alteration and precipitation under neutral to sub-alkaline conditions. Although extensive deposits of carbonates should precipitate beneath a thick CO2-bearing atmosphere, only a few outcrops of Mg-rich carbonates have been detected on Mars. Paradoxically those carbonates occur in association with geological units exposed to acidic paleoenvironments. Given such geochemical conditions on Earth, the carbon cycle is intimately associated with life, then, we can assume that the presence or absence of microbial communities should have impacted the distribution of those carbonate compounds on Mars. In this paper, we suggest three potential geobiological scenarios to explain how the emergence of life on Mars would have impacted the carbon cycle and, hence, the formation of carbonates on a planetary scale.

  18. Early-life stress, corpus callosum development, hippocampal volumetrics, and anxious behavior in male nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Andrea; Perera, Tarique D; Abdallah, Chadi G; Garrido, Griselda; Tang, Cheuk Y; Martinez, Jose; Mathew, Sanjay J; Gorman, Jack M; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Smith, Eric L P; Dwork, Andrew J; Shungu, Dikoma C; Kaffman, Arie; Gelernter, Joel; Coplan, Jeremy D; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-04-30

    Male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were subjected to the variable foraging demand (VFD) early stress paradigm as infants, MRI scans were completed an average of 4 years later, and behavioral assessments of anxiety and ex-vivo corpus callosum (CC) measurements were made when animals were fully matured. VFD rearing was associated with smaller CC size, CC measurements were found to correlate with fearful behavior in adulthood, and ex-vivo CC assessments showed high consistency with earlier MRI measures. Region of interest (ROI) hippocampus and whole brain voxel-based morphometry assessments were also completed and VFD rearing was associated with reduced hippocampus and inferior and middle temporal gyri volumes. The animals were also characterized according to serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR), and the effect of genotype on imaging parameters was explored. The current findings highlight the importance of future research to better understand the effects of stress on brain development in multiple regions, including the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and other regions involved in emotion processing. Nonhuman primates provide a powerful model to unravel the mechanisms by which early stress and genetic makeup interact to produce long-term changes in brain development, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  19. If started early in life, metformin treatment increases life span and postpones tumors in female SHR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Berstein, Lev M.; Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Egormin, Peter A.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Margarita L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Kovalenko, Irina G.; Poroshina, Tatiana E.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia accelerate both aging and cancer. Antidiabetic biguanides such as metformin decrease glucose, insulin and IGF-1 level. Metformin increases lifespan and prevents cancer in mice, although its effects vary, depending on mice strain and gender. Here we showed that chronic treatment of female outbred SHR mice with metformin started at the age of 3, 9 or 15 months decreased body temperature and postponed age-related switch-off of estrous function. Surprisingly, metformin did not affect levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Treatment with metformin started at the age of 3 months increased mean life span by 14% and maximum life span by 1 month. The treatment started at the age of 9 months insignificantly increased mean life span by only 6%, whereas the treatment started at the age of 15 months failed to increase life span. The mean life span of tumor-free mice was increased by 21% in ‘the youngest group’, by 7% in ‘middle-aged group’ and in contrast was reduced by 13% in ‘the oldest group’. When started at the age of 3 and 9 months, metformin delayed the first tumor detection by 22% and 25%, correspondingly. Thus, in female SHR mice, metformin increased life span and postponed tumors when started at the young and middle but not at the old age. In contrast, metformin improves reproductive function when started at any age. PMID:21386129

  20. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

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    Daniel Nettle

    Full Text Available Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris. We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old, at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old, and once the birds were independent (55 days old. Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  1. Bottom of the heap: having heavier competitors accelerates early-life telomere loss in the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Early-life adversity is associated with poorer health and survival in adulthood in humans and other animals. One pathway by which early-life environmental stressors could affect the adult phenotype is via effects on telomere dynamics. Several studies have shown that early-life adversity is associated with relatively short telomeres, but these are often cross-sectional and usually correlational in design. Here, we present a novel experimental system for studying the relationship between early-life adversity and telomere dynamics using a wild bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). We used cross-fostering to experimentally assign sibling chicks to either small or large broods for twelve days of the growth period. We measured telomere length in red blood cells using quantitative PCR near the beginning of the experimental manipulation (4 days old), at the end of the experimental manipulation (15 days old), and once the birds were independent (55 days old). Being in a larger brood slowed growth and retarded wing development and the timing of fledging. We found no evidence that overall brood size affected telomere dynamics. However, the greater the number of competitors above the focal bird in the within-brood size hierarchy, the greater was the telomere loss during the period of the experimental manipulation. The number of competitors below the focal in the hierarchy had no effect. The effect of heavier competitors was still evident when we controlled for the weight of the focal bird at the end of the manipulation, suggesting it was not due to retarded growth per se. Moreover, the impact of early competition on telomeres was still evident at independence, suggesting persistence beyond early life. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that social stress, in this case induced by the presence of a greater number of dominant competitors, accelerates the rate of telomere loss.

  2. Early-life conditions and older adult health in low- and middle-income countries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, M

    2013-02-01

    Population aging and subsequent projected large increases in chronic conditions will be important health concerns in low- and middle-income countries. Although evidence is accumulating, little is known regarding the impact of poor early-life conditions on older adult (50 years and older) health in these settings. A systematic review of 1141 empirical studies was conducted to identify population-based and community studies in low- and middle-income countries, which examined associations between early-life conditions and older adult health. The resulting review of 20 studies revealed strong associations between (1) in utero/early infancy exposures (independent of other early life and adult conditions) and adult heart disease and diabetes; (2) poor nutrition during childhood and difficulties in adult cognition and diabetes; (3) specific childhood illnesses such as rheumatic fever and malaria and adult heart disease and mortality; (4) poor childhood health and adult functionality/disability and chronic diseases; (5) poor childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult mortality, functionality/disability and cognition; and (6) parental survival during childhood and adult functionality/disability and cognition. In several instances, associations remained strong even after controlling for adult SES and lifestyle. Although exact mechanisms cannot be identified, these studies reinforce to some extent the importance of early-life environment on health at older ages. Given the paucity of cohort data from the developing world to examine hypotheses of early-life conditions and older adult health, population-based studies are relevant in providing a broad perspective on the origins of adult health.

  3. Oestradiol Exposure Early in Life Programs Daily and Circadian Activity Rhythms in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, S E; Bunick, D; Mahoney, M M

    2016-01-01

    Hormone signalling during critical periods organises the adult circadian timekeeping system by altering adult hormone sensitivity and shaping fundamental properties of circadian rhythmicity. However, the timing of when developmental oestrogens modify the timekeeping system is poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations in postnatal oestrogenic signalling organise adult daily activity rhythms, we utilised aromatase knockout mice (ArKO), which lack the enzyme required for oestradiol synthesis. ArKO and wild-type (WT) males and females were administered either oestradiol (E) or oil (OIL) daily for the first 5 postnatal days (p1-5E and p1-5OIL , respectively) because this time encompasses the emergence of clock gene rhythmicity and light responsiveness in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a bilateral hypothalamic structure regarded as the 'master oscillator'. After sexual maturation, gonadectomy and exogenous oestradiol supplementation, locomotor parameters were assessed. We determined that altered oestrogenic signalling in early life exerts organisational control over the expression of daily and circadian activity rhythms in adult mice. Specifically, p1-5E reduced total wheel running activity in male and female ArKO and female WT mice but had no effect on WT male activity levels. In females, wheel running was consolidated by p1-5E to the early versus late evening, a phenomenon characteristic of male mice. The time of peak activity was advanced by p1-5E in WT and ArKO females but not males. P1-5E shortened the length of the active phase (alpha) in WT males but had no effect on ArKO males or females of either genotypes. Finally, p1-5E altered the magnitude of photic-induced shifts, suggesting that developmental oestrogenic signalling impacts adult circadian functions. In the present study, we further define both a critical period of development of the adult timekeeping system and the role that oestrogenic signalling plays in the expression of daily and

  4. Early life-stage mortalities of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program; Cormier, J.A. [St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, Nova Scotia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Huestis, S.Y.; Niimi, A.J. [Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Fisheries and Oceans

    1997-08-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a group of compounds that resemble polychlorinated dibenzofurans in structure that have been detected at ppb concentrations in fish from the Great Lakes. The objective of this project was to determine the toxicological significance of PCDE residues in fish. PCDE congener 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 71 (2,3{prime},4{prime},6-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 118 (2,3{prime}4,4{prime},5-pentachlorodiphenyl ether), and congener 105 (2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorodiphenyl) were tested for toxicity with early life stages (ELS) of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. These embryotoxicity data showed that the mono-ortho congeners 105 and 118 and the non-ortho congener 77 were embryotoxic to medaka. However, the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congeners 105, 77, and 118 relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD were relatively low at 0.00056, 0.00003, and 0.00001, respectively. PCDE compounds were isolated in a fraction prepared from a bulk extract of Lake Ontario lake trout. In this fraction, congeners 99 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCDE), 153 (2,2{prime},4,m4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCDE), 154 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,6{prime}-hexaCDE), and 163 (2,3,3{prime},4{prime},5,6-hexaCDE) comprised 81.3% of total PCDEs, while congeners 77, 71, 118, and 105 comprised only 1.1% of total PCDEs. The LC50 for embryotoxicity of this fraction was equivalent to 15.5 ng/ml of total PCDEs. Toxicopathic lesions noted in medaka embryos exposed to either individual PCDEs or the lake trout extract included vascular hemorrhage but no edematous lesions. Medaka fry did not exhibit symptoms of hyperexcitability prior to death, as has been noted for ELS of lake trout exhibiting swim-up syndrome. These data indicate that PCDEs in Lake Ontario lake trout have the potential to induce toxic effects in early life stages of fish.

  5. Reproduction and Growth in a Murine Model of Early Life-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

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    Eniko Nagy

    Full Text Available Studies in transgenic murine models have provided insight into the complexity underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, a disease hypothesized to result from an injurious immune response against intestinal microbiota. We recently developed a mouse model of IBD that phenotypically and histologically resembles human childhood-onset ulcerative colitis (UC, using mice that are genetically modified to be deficient in the cytokines TNF and IL-10 ("T/I" mice. Here we report the effects of early life onset of colon inflammation on growth and reproductive performance of T/I mice. T/I dams with colitis often failed to get pregnant or had small litters with pups that failed to thrive. Production was optimized by breeding double homozygous mutant T/I males to females homozygous mutant for TNF deficiency and heterozygous for deficiency of IL-10 ("T/I-het" dams that were not susceptible to spontaneous colon inflammation. When born to healthy (T/I-het dams, T/I pups initially gained weight similarly to wild type (WT pups and to their non-colitis-susceptible T/I-het littermates. However, their growth curves diverged between 8 and 13 weeks, when most T/I mice had developed moderate to severe colitis. The observed growth failure in T/I mice occurred despite a significant increase in their food consumption and in the absence of protein loss in the stool. This was not due to TNF-induced anorexia or altered food consumption due to elevated leptin levels. Metabolic studies demonstrated increased consumption of oxygen and water and increased production of heat and CO2 in T/I mice compared to their T/I-het littermates, without differences in motor activity. Based on the clinical similarities of this early life onset model of IBD in T/I mice to human IBD, these results suggest that mechanisms previously hypothesized to explain growth failure in children with IBD require re-evaluation. The T/I mouse model may be useful for further investigation of such mechanisms and

  6. Spatial distribution of sardine and anchovy early life stages along the eastern Adriatic Sea

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    Barbara Zorica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite long-term investigations of the Adriatic Sea in general and extensive research on sardine and anchovy as ecologically and economically important fish species, knowledge concerning their spawning ecology, precisely their possible spawning grounds, is still incomplete. Therefore, two scientific surveys (January, July 2012 were performed, as target species spawn during different periods of the year (sardine - October to April (Sinovčić et al., 2007 and anchovy - April to September (Zorica et al., 2013. Throughout these surveys, standard vertical plankton tows were made during the daylight at 72 stations in January and 60 stations in July using a WP2 sampler (mouth opening, 0.255 m2; mesh size, 0.200 mm. WP2 net was put vertically down during the calm sea to a depth of 100 m or to 5 m above the seabed in relatively shallow marine area (less than 100 m. Plankton samples were preserved in 4% buffered formalin and transported to the laboratory where they were analysed. Throughout ichtyoplankton analysis of samples collected during the winter survey a total of 506 sardine eggs and 348 larvae were sorted out. The mean sardine egg and larval abundance in the analysed period at positive stations was 57.8 +/- 77.4 eggs/m2 and 29 +/- 25.85 larvae/m2, with peaks of 396 eggs/m2 and 108 larvae/m2 at positive sampling stations. Concerning the summer survey and anchovy early life stages from obtained samples 1489 anchovy eggs and 1036 larvae were isolated. Average abundance of anchovy eggs and larvae was 145.26 +/- 201.27eggs/m2 and 115.11+/- 162.32 larvae/m2, respectively. The highest values of mentioned parameters at positive stations were 800 eggs/m2 and 952 larvae/m2. According to obtained results and their processing within Ocean Data View (odv.awi.de, revile that both species during 2012 spawn above the whole continental shelf and the areas of higher early life stages abundance overlap.

  7. Early life stress as a risk factor for substance use disorders: Clinical and neurobiological substrates

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    Sajoy Purathumuriyil Varghese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Life Stress (ELS can profoundly influence an individual′s genotype and phenotype. Effects of ELS can manifest in the short-term, late life and even in subsequent generations. ELS activate corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF; CRF influences drug seeking and addiction. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of endogenous elevated levels of CRF on addiction. Materials and Methods: Inducible forebrain over-expression of CRF mice (tetop-CRH x CaMKII-tTA was used for this study. Morphine (10 mg/kg was administered every other day for 10 days or with increasing doses of morphine: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 100 mg/kg. The behavioral trials including morphine sensitization, Somatic Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms (SOWS were conducted in a single, open field, activity. After behavioral trial, animals were perfused for immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: CRF-over expressed (CRF-OE mice showed increase in morphine sensitization and withdrawal symptoms after morphine administration compared to wild type (WT mice. The two-way ANOVA in the morphine sensitization study showed a significant effect of treatment (P<0.05 and genotype for distance traveled (P<0.01. In the SOWS study, opiate withdrawal symptoms such as rearings, circling behavior, grooming, and jump in CRF-OE were amplified in parallel to WT mice. In the immunohistochemistry study, pro-dynorphine (PDYN expression was increased after morphine administration in both amygdala and nucleus accumbens (NAcc. Conclusions: CRF-OE in the forebrain increases the sensitization and withdrawal symptoms in morphine treated mice. On exposure to morphine, in CRF-OE mice the PDYN protein expression was increased as compared to WT mice in the amygdala and NAcc.

  8. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  9. Adipose tissue development during early life: novel insights into energy balance from small and large mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2012-08-01

    Since the rediscovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult human subjects in 2007, there has been a dramatic resurgence in research interest in its role in heat production and energy balance. This has coincided with a reassessment of the origins of BAT and the suggestion that brown preadipocytes could share a common lineage with skeletal myoblasts. In precocial newborns, such as sheep, the onset of non-shivering thermogenesis through activation of the BAT-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is essential for effective adaptation to the cold exposure of the extra-uterine environment. This is mediated by a combination of endocrine adaptations which accompany normal parturition at birth and further endocrine stimulation from the mother's milk. Three distinct adipose depots have been identified in all species studied to date. These contain either primarily white, primarily brown or a mix of brown and white adipocytes. The latter tissue type is present, at least, in the fetus and, thereafter, appears to take on the characteristics of white adipose tissue during postnatal development. It is becoming apparent that a range of organ-specific mechanisms can promote UCP1 expression. They include the liver, heart and skeletal muscle, and involve unique endocrine systems that are stimulated by cold exposure and/or exercise. These multiple pathways that promote BAT function vary with age and between species that may determine the potential to be manipulated in early life. Such interventions could modify, or reverse, the normal ontogenic pathway by which BAT disappears after birth, thereby facilitating BAT thermogenesis through the life cycle.

  10. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  11. Saffold virus, a human Theiler's-like cardiovirus, is ubiquitous and causes infection early in life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zoll

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Picornaviridae contains well-known human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and parechovirus. In addition, this family contains a number of viruses that infect animals, including members of the genus Cardiovirus such as Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV and Theiler's murine encephalomyelits virus (TMEV. The latter are important murine pathogens that cause myocarditis, type 1 diabetes and chronic inflammation in the brains, mimicking multiple sclerosis. Recently, a new picornavirus was isolated from humans, named Saffold virus (SAFV. The virus is genetically related to Theiler's virus and classified as a new species in the genus Cardiovirus, which until the discovery of SAFV did not contain human viruses. By analogy with the rodent cardioviruses, SAFV may be a relevant new human pathogen. Thus far, SAFVs have sporadically been detected by molecular techniques in respiratory and fecal specimens, but the epidemiology and clinical significance remained unclear. Here we describe the first cultivated SAFV type 3 (SAFV-3 isolate, its growth characteristics, full-length sequence, and epidemiology. Unlike the previously isolated SAFV-1 and -2 viruses, SAFV-3 showed efficient growth in several cell lines with a clear cytopathic effect. The latter allowed us to conduct a large-scale serological survey by a virus-neutralization assay. This survey showed that infection by SAFV-3 occurs early in life (>75% positive at 24 months and that the seroprevalence reaches >90% in older children and adults. Neutralizing antibodies were found in serum samples collected in several countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia. In conclusion, this study describes the first cultivated SAFV-3 isolate, its full-length sequence, and epidemiology. SAFV-3 is a highly common and widespread human virus causing infection in early childhood. This finding has important implications for understanding the impact of these ubiquitous viruses and their possible

  12. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  13. Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repolho, Tiago; Baptista, Miguel; Pimentel, Marta S; Dionísio, Gisela; Trübenbach, Katja; Lopes, Vanessa M; Lopes, Ana Rita; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings' physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.

  14. Early life course risk factors for childhood obesity: the IDEFICS case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bammann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The early life course is assumed to be a critical phase for childhood obesity; however the significance of single factors and their interplay is not well studied in childhood populations. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of pre-, peri- and postpartum risk factors on the risk of obesity at age 2 to 9. METHODS: A case-control study with 1,024 1:1-matched case-control pairs was nested in the baseline survey (09/2007-05/2008 of the IDEFICS study, a population-based intervention study on childhood obesity carried out in 8 European countries in pre- and primary school settings. Conditional logistic regression was used for identification of risk factors. RESULTS: For many of the investigated risk factors, we found a raw effect in our study. In multivariate models, we could establish an effect for gestational weight gain (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.00-1.04, smoking during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.01, Caesarian section (adjusted OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.10-1.74, and breastfeeding 4 to 11 months (adjusted OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.62-0.96. Birth weight was related to lean mass rather than to fat mass, the effect of smoking was found only in boys, but not in girls. After additional adjustment for parental BMI and parental educational status, only gestational weight gain remained statistically significant. Both, maternal as well as paternal BMI were the strongest risk factors in our study, and they confounded several of the investigated associations. CONCLUSIONS: Key risk factors of childhood obesity in our study are parental BMI and gestational weight gain; consequently prevention approaches should target not only children but also adults. The monitoring of gestational weight seems to be of particular importance for early prevention of childhood obesity.

  15. Functional limitations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells limit type I interferon, T cell responses and virus control in early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Belnoue

    Full Text Available Infant mortality from viral infection remains a major global health concern: viruses causing acute infections in immunologically mature hosts often follow a more severe course in early life, with prolonged or persistent viral replication. Similarly, the WE strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-WE causes acute self-limiting infection in adult mice but follows a protracted course in infant animals, in which LCMV-specific CD8⁺ T cells fail to expand and control infection. By disrupting type I IFNs signaling in adult mice or providing IFN-α supplementation to infant mice, we show here that the impaired early life T cell responses and viral control result from limited early type I IFN responses. We postulated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC, which have been identified as one major source of immediate-early IFN-I, may not exert adult-like function in vivo in the early life microenvironment. We tested this hypothesis by studying pDC functions in vivo during LCMV infection and identified a coordinated downregulation of infant pDC maturation, activation and function: despite an adult-like in vitro activation capacity of infant pDCs, the expression of the E2-2 pDC master regulator (and of critical downstream antiviral genes such as MyD88, TLR7/TLR9, NF-κB, IRF7 and IRF8 is downregulated in vivo at baseline and during LCMV infection. A similar pattern was observed in response to ssRNA polyU, a model ligand of the TLR7 viral sensor. This suggests that the limited T cell-mediated defense against early life viral infections is largely attributable to / regulated by infant pDC responses and provides incentives for novel strategies to supplement or stimulate immediate-early IFN-α responses.

  16. Diverse Early Life-History Strategies in Migratory Amazonian Catfish: Implications for Conservation and Management.

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    Jens C Hegg

    Full Text Available Animal migrations provide important ecological functions and can allow for increased biodiversity through habitat and niche diversification. However, aquatic migrations in general, and those of the world's largest fish in particular, are imperiled worldwide and are often poorly understood. Several species of large Amazonian catfish carry out some of the longest freshwater fish migrations in the world, travelling from the Amazon River estuary to the Andes foothills. These species are important apex predators in the main stem rivers of the Amazon Basin and make up the region's largest fishery. They are also the only species to utilize the entire Amazon Basin to complete their life cycle. Studies indicate both that the fisheries may be declining due to overfishing, and that the proposed and completed dams in their upstream range threaten spawning migrations. Despite this, surprisingly little is known about the details of these species' migrations, or their life history. Otolith microchemistry has been an effective method for quantifying and reconstructing fish migrations worldwide across multiple spatial scales and may provide a powerful tool to understand the movements of Amazonian migratory catfish. Our objective was to describe the migratory behaviors of the three most populous and commercially important migratory catfish species, Dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, Piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii, and Piraíba (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum. We collected fish from the mouth of the Amazon River and the Central Amazon and used strontium isotope signatures ((87Sr/(86Sr recorded in their otoliths to determine the location of early rearing and subsequent. Fish location was determined through discriminant function classification, using water chemistry data from the literature as a training set. Where water chemistry data was unavailable, we successfully in predicted (87Sr/(86Sr isotope values using a regression-based approach that related

  17. Plasma Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and d-Dopachrome Tautomerase Show a Highly Specific Profile in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thierry; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Wellmann, Sven; Marquis, Patrick; Vermijlen, David; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic, constitutively expressed, pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important regulator of immune responses. d-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a newly described member of the MIF protein superfamily, shares sequence homology and biological activities with MIF. We recently reported that high expression levels of MIF sustain innate immune responses in newborns. Here, we elected to further characterize age-dependent MIF expression and to define whether DDT shares a similar expression profile with MIF. Therefore, we delineated the circulating concentrations of MIF and DDT throughout life using a large cohort of 307 subjects including fetuses, newborns, infants, children, and adults. Compared to levels measured in healthy adults (median: 5.7 ng/ml for MIF and 16.8 ng/ml for DDT), MIF and DDT plasma concentrations were higher in fetuses (median: 48.9 and 29.6 ng/ml), increased further at birth (median: 82.6 and 52.0 ng/ml), reached strikingly elevated levels on postnatal day 4 (median: 109.5 and 121.6 ng/ml), and decreased to adult levels during the first months of life. A strong correlation was observed between MIF and DDT concentrations in all age groups (R = 0.91, P < 0.0001). MIF and DDT levels correlated with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor, a protein upregulated under low oxygen tension and implicated in vascular and lung development (R = 0.70, P < 0.0001 for MIF and R = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for DDT). In very preterm infants, lower levels of MIF and DDT on postnatal day 6 were associated with an increased risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia and late-onset neonatal sepsis. Thus, MIF and DDT plasma levels show a highly specific developmental profile in early life, supporting an important role for these cytokines during the neonatal period. PMID:28179905

  18. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay N Dygalo

    Full Text Available Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  19. A critical point of male gonad development: neuroendocrine correlates of accelerated testicular growth in rats during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, Nikolay N; Shemenkova, Tatjana V; Kalinina, Tatjana S; Shishkina, Galina T

    2014-01-01

    Testis growth during early life is important for future male fertility and shows acceleration during the first months of life in humans. This acceleration coincides with the peak in gonadotropic hormones in the blood, while the role of hypothalamic factors remains vague. Using neonatal rats to assess this issue, we found that day 9 of life is likely critical for testis development in rats. Before this day, testicular growth was proportional to body weight gain, but after that the testes showed accelerated growth. Hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor mRNA levels begin to elevate 2 days later, at day 11. A significant increase in the mRNA levels for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the hypothalamus between days 5 and 7 was followed by a 3-fold decrease in GnRH mRNA levels in this brain region during the next 2 days. Starting from day 9, hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels increased significantly and positively correlated with accelerated testicular growth. Triptorelin, an agonist of GnRH, at a dose that had no effect on testicular growth during "proportional" period, increased testis weights during the period of accelerated growth. The insensitivity of testicular growth to GnRH during "proportional" period was supported by inability of a 2.5-fold siRNA knockdown of GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the 7-day-old animals to produce any effect on their testis weights. GnRH receptor blockade with cetrorelix was also without effect on testis weights during "proportional" period but the same doses of this GnRH antagonist significantly inhibited "accelerated" testicular growth. GnRH receptor mRNA levels in the pituitary as well as plasma LH concentrations were higher during "accelerated" period of testicular growth than during "proportional" period. In general, our data defined two distinct periods in rat testicular development that are primarily characterized by different responses to GnRH signaling.

  20. USE OF MULTIPHOTON LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO IMAGE BENZO[A]PYRENE AND METABOLITES IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiphoton laser scanning micrsocopy holds promise as a tool to study the tissue distribution of environmental chemical contaminants during fish early life stage development. One such chemical for which this is possible is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a polyaromatic hydrocarbon that a...

  1. A novel common variant in> DCST2 is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kooijman, Marjolein N.;

    2015-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identif...

  2. Estrogenic endpoints in fish early life-stage tests: luciferase and vitellogenin induction in estrogen-responsive transgenic zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.; Mutsaerds, E.; Druke, J.; Roode, de D.F.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.; Legler, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study incorporated specific endpoints for estrogenic activity in the early life-stage (ELS) test, as described in Guideline 210 of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and traditionally used for toxicity screening of chemicals. A transgenic zebrafish model expressing an est

  3. Effects of non-employment in early work-life on subsequent employment chances of individuals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the effects of non-employment in early work-life on subsequent employment chances of individuals in the Netherlands are examined. A main concern is whether the experience of non-employment in the beginning of the career (permanently) damages a workers later employment opportunities

  4. Association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Renee D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the association between infection early in life and mental disorders among youth in the community. Methods Data were drawn from the MECA (Methods in Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent psychopathology, a community-based study of 1,285 youth in the United States conducted in 1992. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between parent/caregiver-reported infection early in life and DSM/DISC diagnoses of mental disorders at ages 9-17. Results Infection early in life was associated with a significantly increased odds of major depression (OR = 3.9, social phobia (OR = 5.8, overanxious disorder (OR = 6.1, panic disorder (OR = 12.1, and oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 3.7. Conclusions These findings are consistent with and extend previous results by providing new evidence suggesting a link between infection early in life and increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders among youth. These results should be considered preliminary. Replication of these findings with longitudinal epidemiologic data is needed. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Exposure to parents’ negative emotions in early life as a developmental pathway in the intergenerational transmission of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aktar, E.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the links between exposure to parents’ depression and anxiety in the early years of life, and infants’ socio-emotional development. The thesis first focuses on the associations between infants’ and parents’ emotional expressions, and between infants’ and parents’ reaction

  6. SURVIVAL AND QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER STEREOTACTIC OR 3D-CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY FOR INOPERABLE EARLY-STAGE LUNG CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or threedimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters afte

  7. Moderator Role of Self-Esteem on the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitci, Asim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the moderator effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between life satisfaction domains (family, friends and school) and depression in early adolescents were examined. The participants consisted of 255 students, aged from 11 to 15 years, from three junior high schools in Turkey. Data were collected using the Rosenberg…

  8. A novel common variant in DCST2 i>is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kooijman, Marjolein N.;

    2015-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identif...

  9. How does a neuron know to modulate its epigenetic machinery in response to early-life environment/experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A Karsten

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently re-programmed via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programming: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early life experience on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting re-wiring of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other stress-related disorders.

  10. A novel common variant in DCST2 is associated with length in early life and height in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, Ralf J P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Kooijman, Marjolein N; Guxens, Mònica; Stergiakouli, Evangelia; Sääf, Annika; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Geller, Frank; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Cousminer, Diana L; Körner, Antje; Thiering, Elisabeth; Curtin, John A; Myhre, Ronny; Huikari, Ville; Joro, Raimo; Kerkhof, Marjan; Warrington, Nicole M; Pitkänen, Niina; Ntalla, Ioanna; Horikoshi, Momoko; Veijola, Riitta; Freathy, Rachel M; Teo, Yik-Ying; Barton, Sheila J; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M; Davey Smith, George; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Hakonarson, Hakon; Mentch, Frank D; Bisgaard, Hans; Chawes, Bo; Stokholm, Jakob; Waage, Johannes; Eriksen, Patrick; Sevelsted, Astrid; Melbye, Mads; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C; Taal, H Rob; Uitterlinden, André G; Armstrong, Loren L; Eriksson, Johan; Palotie, Aarno; Bustamante, Mariona; Estivill, Xavier; Gonzalez, Juan R; Llop, Sabrina; Kiess, Wieland; Mahajan, Anubha; Flexeder, Claudia; Tiesler, Carla M T; Murray, Clare S; Simpson, Angela; Magnus, Per; Sengpiel, Verena; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Lewin, Alexandra; Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexessander; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Buxton, Jessica L; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Sebert, Sylvain; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Lakka, Timo; Lindi, Virpi; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Ang, Wei; Newnham, John P; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Pahkala, Katja; Raitakari, Olli T; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Boomsma, Dorret I; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria; Ilonen, Jorma; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pers, Tune H; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Hocher, Berthold; Knip, Mikael; Saw, Seang-Mei; Holloway, John W; Melén, Erik; Grant, Struan F A; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lowe, William L; Widén, Elisabeth; Sergeyev, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Custovic, Adnan; Jacobsson, Bo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Atalay, Mustafa; Koppelman, Gerard H; Pennell, Craig E; Niinikoski, Harri; Dedoussis, George V; Mccarthy, Mark I; Frayling, Timothy M; Sunyer, Jordi; Timpson, Nicholas J; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-01-01

    Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified

  11. Loneliness and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Early Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Self Esteem and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure whether self-esteem and social support are mediators in the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction. The study includes early teenagers from the 6th, 7th and 8th grades aged between 11 and 15 (M = 13.31, SD = 1.09). The study group consisted of 431 secondary school students from large and medium sized…

  12. Maternal warmth buffers the effects of low early-life socioeconomic status on pro-inflammatory signaling in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E; Miller, G E; Kobor, M S; Cole, S W

    2011-07-01

    The notion that family support may buffer individuals under adversity from poor outcomes has been theorized to have important implications for mental and physical health, but little is known about the biological mechanisms that explain these links. We hypothesized that adults who grew up in low socioeconomic status (SES) households but who experienced high levels of maternal warmth would be protected from the pro-inflammatory states typically associated with low SES. A total of 53 healthy adults (aged 25-40 years) low in SES early in life were assessed on markers of immune activation and systemic inflammation. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling also was conducted. Low early-life SES individuals who had mothers, who expressed high warmth toward them, exhibited less Toll-like receptor-stimulated production of interleukin 6, and reduced bioinformatic indications of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activity (NF-κB) and immune activating transcription factor activity (AP-1) compared to those who were low in SES early in life but experienced low maternal warmth. To the extent that such effects are causal, they suggest the possibility that the detrimental immunologic effects of low early-life SES environments may be partly diminished through supportive family climates.

  13. Early-Life events, including mode of delivery and type of feeding, siblings and gender, shape the developing gut microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Yavuz, Aysun Cetinyurek; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with

  14. Periconceptional nutrition and the early programming of a life of obesity or adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Rattanatray, L; McMillen, I C; Suter, C M; Morrison, J L

    2011-07-01

    Women entering pregnancy with a high body weight and fat mass have babies at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese in childhood and later life. It is not known, whether exposure to a high level of maternal nutrition before pregnancy and exposure to a high transplacental nutrient supply in later pregnancy act through similar mechanisms to program later obesity. Using the pregnant sheep we have shown that maternal overnutrition in late pregnancy results in an upregulation of PPARγ activated genes in fetal visceral fat and a subsequent increase in the mass of subcutaneous fat in the postnatal lamb. Exposure to maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period alone, however, results in an increase in total body fat mass in female lambs only with a dominant effect on visceral fat depots. Thus the early programming of later obesity may result from 'two hits', the first occurring as a result of maternal overnutrition during the periconceptional period and the second occurring as a result of increased fetal nutrition in late pregnancy. Whilst a short period of dietary restriction during the periconceptional period reverses the impact of periconceptional overnutrition on the programming of obesity, it also results in an increased lamb adrenal weight and cortisol stress response, together with changes in the epigenetic state of the insulin like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene in the adrenal. Thus, not all of the effects of dietary restriction in overweight or obese mother in the periconceptional period may be beneficial in the longer term.

  15. [World"--an unlikely scenario of the life origin and early ecolution on Earth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregestowski, P D

    2015-01-01

    The most widely accepted modern scenario of prebiotic evolution that led to the emergence of the first cells on our planet is the "RNA World"--a hypothetical period of the early Earth's biosphere, when the information transfer and all the processes necessary for the functioning of the primary systems were provided by replicating RNA molecules. The essence of the "RNA World" hypothesis is based on two postulates: 1) at the initial stages of the origin of life, RNA molecules performed all functions necessary for reproduction and replication of biological molecules: informational, catalytic and structural; 2) at a certain stage of evolution arose separation of RNA and DNA, appeared genetically encoded proteins and occurred a transition to the modern world of living systems functioning. However, the analysis shows that the hypothesis of "RNA World" has a number of unsurmountable problems of chemical and informational nature. The biggest of them are: a) the unreliability of the initial components synthesis; b) a catastrophic rise of polynucleotide chains instability with their elongation; c) catastrophically low probability of formation of sequences possessing meaningful information; d) lack of a mechanism determining the regularities division of the membrane vesicles permeable to nitrogen bases and other RNA components; e) lack of driving forces for the transition from the RNA world to the much more complex world based on DNA and RNA. Therefore, the "RNA World" scenario seems unlikely.

  16. Perceived instrumental support and children's health across the early life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2013-10-01

    A large, venerable literature demonstrates the importance of social relationships and social support for health, though much less research examines whether the benefits of social support to mothers extend to children. This paper examines the relationship between mothers' perceptions of instrumental support and children's health using longitudinal data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4342), a cohort of American children born in urban areas to mostly unmarried parents. Results suggest mothers' perceptions of instrumental support is positively associated with children's overall health, and this finding persists despite controlling for a host of individual-level characteristics of mothers and children (including a lagged indicator of children's health) and in fixed-effect models. Mothers' economic security and mothers' wellbeing attenuate some, but not all, of the association between perceived instrumental support and children's overall health. In addition, the link between perceived instrumental support and three specific indicators of health - asthma, overweight/obese, and number of emergency room visits - falls to statistical insignificance after accounting for individual-level characteristics, suggesting these associations result from social selection processes. Taken together, these findings suggest the beneficial health consequences of social support may extend to children across the early life course and demonstrate the need to better understand mothers' reports of children's overall health.

  17. Early life trauma is associated with altered white matter integrity and affective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, Vincent; Amick, Melissa A; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2016-08-01

    Early life trauma (ELT) has been shown to impair affective control and attention well into adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have further shown that ELT was associated with decreased white matter integrity in the prefrontal areas in children and adults. However, no study to date has looked at the relationship between white matter integrity and affective control in individuals with and without a history of ELT. To examine this, we tested 240 Veterans with (ELT N = 80) and without (NoELT N = 160) a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse or family violence. Affective control was measured with the Affective Go/No-Go (AGN) and attention was indexed with the Test of Variable Attention (TOVA). White matter integrity was measured using fractional anisotropy (FA). Results showed greater number of errors on the AGN in ELT compared to NoELT. There was no difference on the TOVA. While there were no mean differences in FA, there was an interaction between FA and reaction time to positive stimuli on the AGN where the ELT group showed a positive relationship between FA and reaction time in right frontal and prefrontal areas, whereas the NoELT group showed a negative or no association between FA and reaction time. This suggests that ELT may be associated with a distinct brain-behavior relationship that could be related to other determinants of FA than those present in healthy adults.

  18. Pellet microfossils: Possible evidence for metazoan life in Early Proterozoic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, E I; Porter, K G; Haberyan, K A

    1985-09-01

    Microfossils resembling fecal pellets occur in acid-resistant residues and thin sections of Middle Cambrian to Early Proterozoic shale. The cylindrical microfossils average 50 x 110 mum and are the size and shape of fecal pellets produced by microscopic animals today. Pellets occur in dark gray and black rocks that were deposited in the facies that also preserves sulfide minerals and that represent environments analogous to those that preserve fecal pellets today. Rocks containing pellets and algal microfossils range in age from 0.53 to 1.9 gigayears (Gyr) and include Burgess Shale, Greyson and Newland Formations, Rove Formation, and Gunflint Iron-Formation. Similar rock types of Archean age, ranging from 2.68 to 3.8 Gyr, were barren of pellets. If the Proterozoic microfossils are fossilized fecal pellets, they provide evidence of metazoan life and a complex food chain at 1.9 Gyr ago. This occurrence predates macroscopic metazoan body fossils in the Ediacaran System at 0.67 Gyr, animal trace fossils from 0.9 to 1.3 Gyr, and fossils of unicellular eukaryotic plankton at 1.4 Gyr.

  19. Part 2: Potencies and interactions of polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout early life stage mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenylethers (PBDPES) in aquatic environments may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. Following rainbow trout egg microinjection, the potencies of these polybrominated aromatic hydrocarbons were determined using fish specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). TEFs are defined as the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to brominated congener LD{sub 50}. Sac fry stage specific TCDD like toxicity included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages and craniofacial malformations. TEFs of active congeners were: 2,3,7,8-TBDF = 0.23; 2,3,4,7,8-PBDF = 0.069; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD = 0.009. No signs of toxicity with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-TBDPE, 2,2{prime},3,4,4{prime}-PBDPE, or 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-PBDPE occurred at egg concentrations up to 126,37 {mu}g/g. Since these congeners occur as complex mixtures, the potential for additive, antagonistic, or synergistic interactions must also be determined for accurate risk assessment. Graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TBDD or 1,2,3,7,8-PBDD alone, or graded doses of fixed ratios of the two congeners were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs. Separate dose response curves were determined for each ratio and each individual congener. Isobolographic analysis supports the hypothesis that these congeners act additively.

  20. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Vollhardt, Claudia [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Humphrey, Craig [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Heyward, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia); Jones, Ross [Centre for Marine Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Queensland Health Scientific Services, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains 4108 (Australia); Eaglesham, Geoff [Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc, Ferry Reach, St George' s GE 01 (Bermuda); Fabricius, Katharina [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3 Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of broadcast spawning and brooding corals were examined in laboratory experiments. Fertilisation of Acropora millepora and Montipora aequituberculata oocytes were not inhibited at diuron concentrations of up to 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Metamorphosis of symbiont-free A. millepora larvae was only significantly inhibited at 300{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. Pocillopora damicornis larvae, which contain symbiotic dinoflagellates, were able to undergo metamorphosis after 24h exposure to diuron at 1000{mu}gl{sup -1}. Two-week old P. damicornis recruits on the other hand were as susceptible to diuron as adult colonies, with expulsion of symbiotic dinoflagellates (bleaching) evident at 10{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron after 96h exposure. Reversible metamorphosis was observed at high diuron concentrations, with fully bleached polyps escaping from their skeletons. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence techniques demonstrated a reduction in photosynthetic efficiency ({delta}F/F{sub m}{sup '}) in illuminated P. damicornis recruits after a 2h exposure to 1{mu}gl{sup -1} diuron. The dark-adapted quantum yields (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) also declined, indicating chronic photoinhibition and damage to photosystem II.

  1. Early-life exercise may promote lasting brain and metabolic health through gut bacterial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-02-01

    The 100 trillion microorganisms residing within our intestines contribute roughly 5 million additional genes to our genetic gestalt, thus posing the potential to influence many aspects of our physiology. Microbial colonization of the gut shortly after birth is vital for the proper development of immune, neural and metabolic systems, while sustaining a balanced, diverse gut flora populated with beneficial bacteria is necessary for maintaining optimal function of these systems. Although symbiotic host-microbial interactions are important throughout the lifespan, these interactions can have greater and longer lasting impacts during certain critical developmental periods. A better understanding of these sensitive periods is necessary to improve the impact and effectiveness of health-promoting interventions that target the microbial ecosystem. We have recently reported that exercise initiated in early life increases gut bacterial species involved in promoting psychological and metabolic health. In this review, we emphasize the ability of exercise during this developmentally receptive time to promote optimal brain and metabolic function across the lifespan through microbial signals.

  2. Early Life Stress Effects on the Glucocorticoid - BDNF interplay in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P Daskalakis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. Glucocorticoid (GC signaling mediates the regulation of the stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and glucocorticoid signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS, particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (GR and MR as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB. This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF- dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders.

  3. Early Life Stress Effects on Glucocorticoid-BDNF Interplay in the Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; De Kloet, Edo Ronald; Yehuda, Rachel; Malaspina, Dolores; Kranz, Thorsten M

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is implicated in the etiology of multiple psychiatric disorders. Important biological effects of ELS are manifested in stress-susceptible regions of the hippocampus and are partially mediated by long-term effects on glucocorticoid (GC) and/or neurotrophin signaling pathways. GC-signaling mediates the regulation of stress response to maintain homeostasis, while neurotrophin signaling plays a key role in neuronal outgrowth and is crucial for axonal guidance and synaptic integrity. The neurotrophin and GC-signaling pathways co-exist throughout the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in the hippocampus, which has high expression levels of glucocorticoid-receptors (GR) and mineralocorticoid-receptors (MR) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB). This review addresses the effects of ELS paradigms on GC- and BDNF-dependent mechanisms and their crosstalk in the hippocampus, including potential implications for the pathogenesis of common stress-related disorders.

  4. A biophysical model of S. aurita early life history in the northern Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Vamara; Lett, Christophe; Penven, Pierrick; Bourlès, Bernard; Djakouré, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    S. aurita is the most abundant small pelagic fish in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Its reproduction and recruitment depend crucially on environmental conditions. We developed a biophysical model of S. aurita early life history by coupling offline an individual-based model with the regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS). We used this model to investigate the main factors driving variability in eggs and larval dispersal and survival in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Precisely, individuals were released from different spawning areas along the coast and tracked for a period of 28 days corresponding to their planktonic phase. Individuals that remained in the coastal recruitment areas at an age more than 7 days, at which they can supposedly actively retain themselves in a favorable area, were considered as recruited. Simulation results show the importance of the spawning areas around Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points where cyclonic eddies trap eggs and larvae along the coast, preventing their advection offshore by the Guinea Current. The spawning period also plays a key role in the recruitment success, with highest coastal retention obtained during the major upwelling period (July-September). We find that a second retention peak can occur during the minor upwelling period (February-March) when larval mortality due to temperature is included in the model. These results are in general agreement with knowledge of S. aurita reproduction in the northern Gulf of Guinea.

  5. The effect of early-life stress on memory systems supporting instrumental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tara K; Craske, Michelle G; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2013-11-01

    People experiencing early-life stress (ELS) exhibit increased incidence of behaviors that lead to addiction and obesity as adults. Many of these behaviors may be viewed as resulting from an overreliance on habits as opposed to goal-directed instrumental behavior. This increased habitization may result from alterations in the interactions between dorsolateral striatum-dependent and hippocampus-dependent learning systems. As an initial examination of this idea, we investigated the effect of ELS on instrumental learning and extinction. In Experiment 1, we examined the effect of ELS in two groups of people, one trained on a continuous reinforcement schedule and one trained on a partial reinforcement schedule. We found that people who experienced ELS had a diminished effect of the partial reinforcement schedule on extinction. In Experiment 2, we again manipulated reinforcement schedule and also challenged declarative memory by requiring subjects to perform a concurrent task. We found that the declarative challenge did not affect extinction responding in the non-ELS group. In a moderate-ELS group, we observed a diminished sensitivity to the reinforcement schedule during extinction only under divided attention. In the high-ELS group, we observed a reduced sensitivity to reinforcement schedule even in the absence of the declarative memory challenge, consistent with Experiment 1. Our results suggest that ELS reduces the tendency to use declarative, hippocampus-dependent memory in instrumental tasks in favor of habits. ELS may affect hippocampal development, thus altering the interaction between memory systems and potentially contributing to poor health outcomes.

  6. Efficiency of eugenol as anesthetic for the early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A P; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C; Melo, Daniela C de; Luz, Ronald K

    2015-03-01

    In aquaculture, activities with anesthetic compounds are usually used in order to ensure the welfare of farmed fish, allowing handling out of water with decreased trauma by stress. Presently, there is no information about anesthetic action of eugenol in early life stages of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of eugenol for larvae and juveniles of Nile tilapia. Sixty animals were used for each group of weight, group I = 0.02 g; group II = 0.08 g; group III = 0.22 g; group IV = 2.62 g; and group V = 11.64 g. The eugenol concentrations tested were 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 and 175 mg L-1. No mortality was reported during the tests with eugenol. Tilapia larvae with 0.02 g and juveniles around 11.64 g can be anesthetized with eugenol concentrations between 150 and 175 mg L-1, since they determine the shortest sedation time (23 and 72 seconds, for the group of lowest and highest weights, respectively).

  7. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride in early life stages of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swee Joo; Wong, Cecilia; Furtula, Vesna; Teh, Foo-Ching

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to describe the acute lethality and latent toxicity of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) on early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Fish responses to 0, 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 microg/L concentrations of DDAC were determined using a 96-h standard static renewal method for acute toxicity testing, with three replicates per concentration. Twenty fish per replicate were tested for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae, and 7 fish per replicate were tested for 78-d-old juveniles. Following exposure, survival and growth were evaluated in exposed fish raised in clean water for 2 weeks. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for DDAC were 10.0 to 50.0, 58.5, and 99.7 microg/L for 3, 11, and 42-d-old larvae and 100 to 250 microg/L for 78-d-old juveniles. Significant decreases in larval growth and survival were noted at all tested concentrations and in all sturgeon age groups. Results of this study reveal age- and concentration-dependent responses to DDAC. Among the age groups tested, the 3-d-old larvae were the most sensitive group. Results also revealed that 96-h lethality testing alone is not adequate for determining the toxicity of DDAC to white sturgeon.

  8. Toxicity of sulfate and chloride to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Mathis, Michael B; Walker, Rachel; Tuominen, Lindsey K; Hansel, Mike; Hall, Scott; Richards, Robin; Grattan, S R; Anderson, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    Despite the importance of wild rice (Zizania palustris) in the Great Lakes region of North America, its sensitivity to sulfate is not well understood. A 21-d hydroponic experiment was performed to determine the toxicity of sulfate to wild rice seeds and seedlings. Effects of 6 sulfate concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 5000 mg/L and of chloride salts at equivalent conductivity were evaluated to determine whether adverse effects were attributable to sulfate or to conductivity-related stress. Sulfate treatment decreased root length, shoot length, and leaf number, and increased phytotoxic effects at concentrations of 5000 mg/L relative to a 50 mg/L control. The time to 30% mesocotyl emergence decreased at 2500 mg/L sulfate, indicating a potential stimulatory effect. Sulfate exposures of ≤ 5000 mg/L had no effect on 5 additional end points. Multiple regression analysis indicated that most observed changes could be attributed to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate per se, with the exception of shoot length and leaf number. Chloride was more toxic than sulfate, as determined by root length and phytotoxicity. In summary, sulfate concentrations below 5000 mg/L did not adversely affect early-life stage wild rice during a 21-d period, and effects at 5000 mg/L sulfate were attributable to conductivity-related stress rather than sulfate toxicity in 2 of 4 end points.

  9. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  10. Transplacental and early life exposure to inorganic arsenic affected development and behavior in offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Shuhua; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Sun, Wenjuan; Wang, Fengzhi [Shenyang Medical College, Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2009-06-15

    To evaluate the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic in offspring rats by transplacental and early life exposure to sodium arsenite in drinking water, the pregnant rats or lactating dams, and weaned pups were given free access to drinking water, which contained arsenic at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 mg/L from GD 6 until PND 42. A battery of physical and behavioral tests was applied to evaluate the functional outcome of pups. Pups in arsenic exposed groups weighed less than controls throughout lactation and weaning. Body weight of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups decreased significantly on PND 42, 16 and 12, respectively. Physical development (pinna unfolding, fur appearance, incisor eruption, or eye opening) in pups displayed no significant differences between control and arsenic treated groups. The number of incidences within the 100 mg/L arsenic treated group, in tail hung, auditory startle and visual placing showed significant decrease compared to the control group (p<0.05). In square water maze test, the trained numbers to finish the trials successfully in 50 and 100 mg/L arsenic exposed groups increased remarkably compared to control group, and there was a dose-related increase (p<0.01) observed. Taken together, these data show that exposure of inorganic arsenite to pregnant dams and offspring pups at levels up to 100 mg/L in drinking water may affect their learning and memory functions and neuromotor reflex. (orig.)

  11. Genetic and epigenetic catalysts in early-life programming of adult cardiometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estampador, Angela C; Franks, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has emerged across the past few decades that the lifetime risk of developing morbidities like type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease may be influenced by exposures that occur in utero and in childhood. Developmental abnormalities are known to occur at various stages in fetal growth. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies have sought to delineate developmental processes and plausible risk factors influencing pregnancy outcomes and later health. Whether these observations reflect causal processes or are confounded by genetic and social factors remains unclear, although animal (and some human) studies suggest that epigenetic programming events may be involved. Regardless of the causal basis to observations of early-life risk factors and later disease risk, the fact that such associations exist and that they are of a fairly large magnitude justifies further research around this topic. Furthermore, additional information is needed to substantiate public health guidelines on lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy to improve infant health outcomes. Indeed, lifestyle intervention clinical trials in pregnancy are now coming online, where materials and data are being collected that should facilitate understanding of the causal nature of intrauterine exposures related with gestational weight gain, such as elevated maternal blood glucose concentrations. In this review, we provide an overview of these concepts.

  12. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Richterová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L-1 on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L-1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L-1 gamma-cyhalothrin. All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L-1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L-1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L-1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

  13. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Tyrka, Audrey R; McDougle, Christopher J; Malison, Robert T; Owens, Michael J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Price, Lawrence H

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have reported elevated concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in patients with major depression. Elevations of CSF CRF have also been reported in adult laboratory animals exposed to the stress of brief maternal deprivation or maternal neglect in the neonatal or preweaning period. The present study was designed to determine whether major depression and a history of perceived early adversity in childhood are independently associated with elevated CSF CRF concentrations in adults. In this case-control study, 27 medication-free adults with major depression and 25 matched controls underwent standardized lumbar puncture for collection of a single CSF sample at 1200. Subjects provided data about significant adverse early-life experiences and rated their global perceived level of stress during pre-school and preteen years on a six-point Likert scale. The mean difference in CSF CRF between depressed patients and controls did not reach statistical significance. In a regression model, perceived early-life stress was a significant predictor of CSF CRF, but depression was not. Perinatal adversity and perceived adversity in the preteen adversity years (ages 6-13 years) were both independently associated with decreasing CSF CRF concentrations. The relationship observed between perceived early-life stress and adult CSF CRF concentrations in this study closely parallels recent preclinical findings. More work is needed to elucidate the critical nature and timing of early events that may be associated with enduring neuroendocrine changes in humans.

  15. Early-life compartmentalization of human T cell differentiation and regulatory function in mucosal and lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Joseph J C; Bickham, Kara L; Ohmura, Yoshiaki; Kubota, Masaru; Matsuoka, Nobuhide; Gordon, Claire; Granot, Tomer; Griesemer, Adam; Lerner, Harvey; Kato, Tomoaki; Farber, Donna L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how the immune response in early life becomes appropriately stimulated to provide protection while also avoiding excessive activation as a result of diverse new antigens. T cells are integral to adaptive immunity; mouse studies indicate that tissue localization of T cell subsets is important for both protective immunity and immunoregulation. In humans, however, the early development and function of T cells in tissues remain unexplored. We present here an analysis of lymphoid and mucosal tissue T cells derived from pediatric organ donors in the first two years of life, as compared to adult organ donors, revealing early compartmentalization of T cell differentiation and regulation. Whereas adult tissues contain a predominance of memory T cells, in pediatric blood and tissues the main subset consists of naive recent thymic emigrants, with effector memory T cells (T(EM)) found only in the lungs and small intestine. Additionally, regulatory T (T(reg)) cells comprise a high proportion (30-40%) of CD4(+) T cells in pediatric tissues but are present at much lower frequencies (1-10%) in adult tissues. Pediatric tissue T(reg) cells suppress endogenous T cell activation, and early T cell functionality is confined to the mucosal sites that have the lowest T(reg):T(EM) cell ratios, which suggests control in situ of immune responses in early life.

  16. Ocean acidification effects in the early life-stages of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus

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    R. C. Chambers

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited available evidence about effects of high CO2 and acidification of our oceans on fish suggests that effects will differ across fish species, be subtle, and interact with other stressors. An experimental framework was implemented that includes the use of (1 multiple marine fish species of relevance to the northeastern USA that differ in their ecologies including spawning season and habitat; (2 a wide yet realistic range of environmental conditions (i.e., concurrent manipulation of CO2 levels and water temperatures, and (3 a diverse set of response variables related to fish sensitivity to elevated CO2 levels, water temperatures, and their interactions. This report is on an array of early life-history responses of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, an ecologically and economically important flatfish of this region, to a wide range of pH and CO2 levels. Survival of summer flounder embryos was reduced by 50% below local ambient conditions (7.8 pH, 775 ppm pCO2 when maintained at the intermediate conditions (7.4 pH, 1860 ppm pCO2, and by 75% below local ambient when maintained at the most acidic conditions tested (7.1 pH, 4715 ppm pCO2. This pattern of reduced survival of embryos at higher CO2 levels was consistent among three females used as sources of embryos. Sizes and shapes of larvae were altered by elevated CO2 levels with longer larvae in more acidic waters. This pattern of longer larvae was evident at hatching (although longer hatchlings had less energy reserves to midway through the larval period. Larvae from the most acidic conditions initiated metamorphosis at earlier ages and smaller sizes than those from more moderate and ambient conditions. Tissue damage was evident in older larvae (age 14 to 28 d post-hatching from both elevated CO2 levels. Damage included liver sinusoid dilation, focal hyperplasia on the epithelium, separation of the trunk muscle bundles, and dilation of the liver sinusoids and central veins. Cranial

  17. Declining Lake Habitats in the Andes: Implications for Early Mars, Life, and Exploration (Invited)

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    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; High Lakes Project Team

    2010-12-01

    The environment of the Andes presents analogies with Mars when the planet was transitioning from a wetter to a drier, colder climate: thin atmosphere, high solar irradiance, depleted ozone, high temperature fluctuations with low averages, ice, low precipitation and RH, and volcanic activity. This region is also among three areas of the world most impacted by climate change, which results in enhanced evaporation and high negative water balance that modifies lake habitat rapidly. Data shows strong interannual fluctuations in precipitation, water balance, major ion concentration, and pH are well marked. Microorganisms dwelling near the surface are exposed to a UV flux 170% that of sea level, and exceptionally high UVB levels. The thin cold atmosphere generates sudden and significant inverse relationship between UV and temperatures. In this cold, unstable environment lake habitats host abundant life. In addition to adaptation strategies, the timing of key cycles appears to be a critical factor in life’ survival. Environmental analogy with early Mars is multifold. Aridification has resulted in an evaporative environment. Latitude and altitude generate a UV-flux double that of present-day Mars at the equator and UVB only half that of the red planet, low average total ozone, and a low atmospheric pressure. Yearly temperature extremes range from -40C to +9C. Lakes are ice-covered starting austral fall, reaching maximum thickness by mid-winter. Thawing occurs in spring, but negative night temperatures result in the formation of a thin film of ice that thaws by mid-morning in spring and summer. Because of their geophysical environment, rapid climate change, isolation, and mostly uncharted ecosystems, these lakes are representative of an end-member class of terrestrial lakes and are meaningful analogs to early martian lakes. With differences inherent to the study of terrestrial analogs, the overall environmental similarity of Andean lakes with Mars at the Noachian

  18. Early life stress and hippocampal neurogenesis in the neonate: sexual dimorphism, long term consequences and possible mediators. A minireview.

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    Naima eLajud

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and results in increased vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite that the effects of postnatal stress on neurogenesis have been widely studied in adult individuals, few efforts have been done to evaluate its immediate effects on the developing hippocampus. Moreover, it is not clear whether postnatal stress causes a differential impact in hippocampus development in male and female neonates that could be related to emotional deficits in adulthood. It has been proposed that the long term effects of early stress exposure rise from a persistent HPA axis activation during sensitive time windows; nevertheless the exact mechanisms and mediators remain unknown. Here, we summarize the immediate and late effects of early life stress on hippocampal neurogenesis in male and female rat pups, compare its later consequences in emotionality, and highlight some relevant mediator peptides that could be potentially involved in programming.

  19. A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2014-03-01

    This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted.

  20. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

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    Matteo M Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (80% EPA, 20% DHA n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

  1. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

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    Marija eKundakovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (B6 and Balb/c and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to maternal separation. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of maternal separation in early adolescent offspring on measures on open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally-separated B6 females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/c offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated B6 males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later life

  2. Life Finder Detectors; Detector Needs and Status for Spectroscopic Biosignature Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; McElwain, Michael W.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stahle, Carl; Stark, Christopher C.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life on other worlds looms large in NASA's future. Outside our solar system, direct spectroscopic biosignature characterization using very large UV-Optical-IR telescopes with coronagraphs or starshades is a core technique to both AURA's High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) concept and NASA's 30-year strategic plan. These giant space observatories require technological advancements in several areas, one of which is detectors. In this presentation, we review the detector requirements for spectroscopic biosignature characterization and discuss the status of some existing and proposed detector technologies for meeting them.

  3. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  4. EARLY LIFE-HISTORY OF MELAMPUS AND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SEMILUNAR SYNCHRONY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Hunter, W D; Apley, Martyn L; Hunter, R Douglas

    1972-12-01

    series of experiments with laboratory-laid egg-masses showed that eclosion normally occurs in response to a sequence of about 4 tidal floodings in under 50 hours. Hatching can occur from egg-masses from 10 to 24 days after laying. Being facultative, the process allows better survival and overlap of cohorts but also reestablishes the synchronization with spring tides. 6. Veligers feed actively and grow from shell length 127 µ to 280 µ during their time in the plankton, deduced to be 14 ±2 days. The bulk of the settlement is into the exact vertical zone occupied by adult Melampus. 7. A period as a crawling, radula-feeding postlarva (after loss of velar lobes and operculum) is followed by an abrupt metamorphosis of the mantle and shell. Postmetamorphic spat grow rapidly. In terms of organic carbon or ash-free dry weight, growth extends through two orders of magnitude during veliger and early spat life, through more than three during the first eleven weeks, and six in the entire 3-4year life-span. In contrast, similar biomass growth measures in freshwater pulmonates involve only two to three orders in their life-span. 8. In Melampus, the shells of late veligers and of post-larvae show sinistral coiling, and those of metamorphosed spat and of adults dextral coiling. There is a metamorphosis of mantle and shell alone; throughout development, larval and spat stages, the internal organs are in their adult dextral arrangement. Such a metamorphosis from a hyperstrophic shell condition to an orthostrophic one is known to occur in the ectocommensal opisthobranch family Pyramidellidae and in certain other snails with planktonic larvae. The present study provides the first description of the succession of shell stages and metamorphosis for any pulmonate. 9. In conclusion, the small eggs, the mantle-shell metamorphosis, and the semilunar synchrony are discussed in their evolutionary setting. "Primitive" reproduction with small eggs, as retained in Melampus, confers advantages in

  5. 'Nano' Morphology and Element Signatures of Early Life on Earth: A New Tool for Assessing Biogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Mostefaoui, S.; Meibom, A.; Selo, M.; McKay, D. S.; Robert, F.

    2006-01-01

    The relatively young technology of NanoSIMS is unlocking an exciting new level of information from organic matter in ancient sediments. We are using this technique to characterize Proterozoic organic material that is clearly biogenic as a guide for interpreting controversial organic structures in either terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. NanoSIMS is secondary ion mass spectrometry for trace element and isotope analysis at sub-micron resolution. In 2005, Robert et al. [1] combined NanoSIMS element maps with optical microscopic imagery in an effort to develop a new method for assessing biogenicity of Precambrian structures. The ability of NanoSIMS to map simultaneously the distribution of organic elements with a 50 nm spatial resolution provides new biologic markers that could help define the timing of life s development on Earth. The current study corroborates the work of Robert et al. and builds on their study by using NanoSIMS to map C, N (as CN), S, Si and O of both excellently preserved microfossils and less well preserved, non-descript organics in Proterozoic chert from the ca. 0.8 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia.

  6. Copper and thermal perturbations on the early life processes of the hard coral Platygyra acuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C. K.; Lam, K. Y.; Leung, S. M.; Chui, A. P. Y.; Ang, P. O.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants and climate change are major threats to coral reefs today. Yet interactions between chemical and thermal perturbations have not been fully explored in reef studies. Here, we present the single and combined effects of copper (Cu) with thermal stress on five early life-history stages/processes (fertilization, larval mortality, swimming ability, metamorphosis and growth of juvenile recruits) of the massive coral Platygyra acuta in Hong Kong. In the first four experiments, coral gametes and larvae were exposed to different Cu doses (0-200 μg L-1, apart from the fertilization assay in which 0-1000 μg L-1 was used) and temperature treatments (ambient and ambient +2 or +3 °C as a thermal stress treatment) following a factorial experimental design. Exposure time was 5 h for the fertilization assay and 48 h for the other experiments. The last experiment on growth of coral recruits was conducted over 56 d with 0-80 μg L-1 Cu used. Cu significantly reduced percent fertilization success, percentage of active swimming larvae and larval survivorship (EC50s, the half maximal effective concentrations, for percent fertilization success and percentage of active swimming larvae were 92-145 and 45-47 μg L-1 respectively. While LC50, the lethal concentration that kills 50% of the population, was 101-110 μg L-1), while growth of coral recruits was not affected at 80 μg L-1 Cu for 56 d. No settling cues were used in the settlement experiment. In their absence, percent metamorphosis increased with Cu doses, in sharp contrast to earlier findings. Settlement and metamorphosis may thus be strategies for coral larvae to escape from Cu toxicity. Thermal treatment did not significantly affect any experimental end points. This is likely because the thermal regimes used in the experiments were within the range experienced by local corals. The high variability in Cu toxicities indicates differential susceptibilities of the various life-history stages/processes of P

  7. All in the ears: unlocking the early life history biology and spatial ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, Danswell; Ebner, Brendan C; Fulton, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining biological and spatial information of the early life history (ELH) phases of fishes has been problematic, such that larval and juvenile phases are often referred to as the 'black box' of fish population biology and ecology. However, a potent source of life-history data has been mined from the earstones (otoliths) of bony fishes. We systematically reviewed 476 empirical papers published between 2005 and 2012 (inclusive) that used otoliths to examine fish ELH phases, which has been an area of increasing attention over this period. We found that otolith-based research during this period could be split into two broad themes according to whether studies examined: (i) biological objectives related to intrinsic processes such as larval and juvenile age, growth and mortality, and/or (ii) spatial objectives, such as habitat use, dispersal and migration. Surprisingly, just 24 studies (5%) explored a combined biological-spatial objective by simultaneously exploiting biological and spatial information from otoliths, suggesting much more scope for such integrated research objectives to be answered via the use of multiple otolith-based techniques in a single study. Mapping otolith analytical techniques across these two approaches revealed that otolith structural analysis was mainly used to investigate biological processes, while otolith chemical analyses were most often applied to spatial questions. Heavy skew in research effort was apparent across biomes, with most (62%) publications specific to marine species, despite comparable levels of species richness and the importance of freshwater taxa (just 15% of papers). Indeed, around 1% (380 species) of a possible 31400+ extant species were examined in our surveyed papers, with a strong emphasis on temperate marine species of commercial value. Potential model species for otolith-based ELH ecology research are arising, with the eel genus Anguilla (24 studies) and the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolis (14 studies

  8. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development.

  9. Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is a relatively young yet rapidly developing scientific field. Assessing the potential response(s of marine organisms to projected near-future OA scenarios has been at the forefront of scientific research, with a focus on ecosystems (e.g., coral reefs and processes (e.g., calcification that are deemed particularly vulnerable. Recently, a heightened emphasis has been placed on evaluating early life history stages as these stages are generally perceived to be more sensitive to environmental change. The number of acidification-related studies focused on early life stages has risen dramatically over the last several years. While early life history stages of corals have been understudied compared to other marine invertebrate taxa (e.g., echinoderms, mollusks, numerous studies exist to contribute to our status of knowledge regarding the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment dynamics. To synthesize this information, the present paper reviews the primary literature on the effects of acidification on sexual reproduction and early stages of corals, incorporating lessons learned from more thoroughly studied taxa to both assess our current understanding of the potential impacts of OA on coral recruitment and to inform and guide future research in this area.

  10. Effect of ocean acidification on the early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis

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    C. H. R. Heip

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments have shown a decrease of growth and calcification of organisms at decreased pH levels but relatively few studies have focused on early life stages which are believed to be more sensitive to environmental disturbances such as hypercapnia. Here, we present experimental data demonstrating that the growth of planktonic mussel (Mytilus edulis larvae is significantly affected by a decrease of pH to a level expected for the end of the century. Even though there was no significant effect of a 0.25–0.34 pH unit decrease on hatching and mortality rates during the first 2 days of development nor during the following 13-day period prior to settlement, final shells were, respectively, 4.5±1.3 and 6.0±2.3% smaller at pHNBS~7.8 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Moreover, a decrease of 12.0±5.4% of shell thickness was observed. More severe impacts were found with a decrease of ~0.5 pHNBS unit during the first 2 days of development which could be attributed to a decrease of calcification due toslight undersaturation of seawater with respect to aragonite. Indeed, important effects on both hatching and D-veliger shell growth were found. Hatching rates were 24±4% lower while D-veliger shells were 12.7±0.9% smaller at pHNBS~7.6 than at a control pHNBS of ~8.1. Although these results show that blue mussel larvae are still able to develop a shell in seawater undersaturated with respect to aragonite, decreases of hatching rates and shell growth suggest a negative impact of ocean acidification on the future survival of bivalve populations potentially leading to significant ecological and economical losses.

  11. Cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral toxicity of carbofuran on Oreochromis niloticus early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, P C; Luchmann, K H; Ribeiro, A B; Veras, M M; Correa, J R M B; Nogueira, A J; Bainy, A C D; Carvalho, P S M

    2011-10-01

    Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at 9 days post-hatch were exposed in semi-static experiments to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, which is applied in agricultural systems in Brazil. Although the molecular mechanism of carbofuran toxicity is well known, a detailed understanding of the ecological mechanisms through which carbofuran effects can propagate towards higher levels of biological organization in fish is incomplete. Mortality rates were quantified for larvae exposed for 96 h to 8.3, 40.6, 69.9, 140, 297 and 397 μg/L carbofuran, and the LC(50) 96 h was 214.7 μg/L. In addition, the biochemical biomarker cholinesterase inhibition and behavioral biomarkers related to vision, swimming, prey capture and predator avoidance were quantified in individual larvae, as well as their growth in weight. The behavioral parameters were quantified by analysis of digitally recorded videos of individual larvae within appropriate experimental setups. The activity of the enzyme cholinesterase decreased after exposure to carbofuran with a lowest observed effects concentration (LOEC) of 69.9 μg/L. Visual acuity deficits were detected after carbofuran exposure with a LOEC of 40.6 μg/L. Swimming speed decreased with carbofuran exposure, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. The number of attacks to prey (Daphnia magna nauplii) decreased in larvae exposed to carbofuran, with a LOEC of 397.6 μg/L. Growth in weight was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner, and all carbofuran groups exhibited a statistically significant decrease in growth when compared to controls (pcarbofuran, and the LOEC was 69.9 μg/L. These results show that exposure of sensitive early life stages of tilapia O. niloticus to sublethal concentrations of carbofuran can affect fundamental aspects of fish larval ecology that are relevant to recruitment of fish populations, and that can be better understood by the application of behavioral biomarkers.

  12. Learning to eat vegetables in early life: the role of timing, age and individual eating traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Caton

    Full Text Available Vegetable intake is generally low among children, who appear to be especially fussy during the pre-school years. Repeated exposure is known to enhance intake of a novel vegetable in early life but individual differences in response to familiarisation have emerged from recent studies. In order to understand the factors which predict different responses to repeated exposure, data from the same experiment conducted in three groups of children from three countries (n = 332 aged 4-38 m (18.9±9.9 m were combined and modelled. During the intervention period each child was given between 5 and 10 exposures to a novel vegetable (artichoke puree in one of three versions (basic, sweet or added energy. Intake of basic artichoke puree was measured both before and after the exposure period. Overall, younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. Four distinct patterns of eating behaviour during the exposure period were defined. Most children were "learners" (40% who increased intake over time. 21% consumed more than 75% of what was offered each time and were labelled "plate-clearers". 16% were considered "non-eaters" eating less than 10 g by the 5th exposure and the remainder were classified as "others" (23% since their pattern was highly variable. Age was a significant predictor of eating pattern, with older pre-school children more likely to be non-eaters. Plate-clearers had higher enjoyment of food and lower satiety responsiveness than non-eaters who scored highest on food fussiness. Children in the added energy condition showed the smallest change in intake over time, compared to those in the basic or sweetened artichoke condition. Clearly whilst repeated exposure familiarises children with a novel food, alternative strategies that focus on encouraging initial tastes of the target food might be needed for the fussier and older pre-school children.

  13. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  14. Undernutrition in early life and body composition of adolescent males from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Lima, Rosângela C

    2007-05-01

    The evidence for an association between poor nutrition in early life and subsequent obesity is inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated the associations between stunting, wasting and underweight at 2 and 4 years of age, and body composition in adolescence in male subjects studied since birth. The 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study included all children born in maternity hospitals and living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All males born in 1982 were legally required to enlist in the army between January and April 2000. We were thus able to track 2250 subjects in 2000 (78.9% of the original cohort). Anthropometric measurements were collected in 1984 and 1986, and body composition was assessed in 2000. In the present analysis, we used as predictors the nutritional indices height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age presented in six categories. Outcomes included fat, lean and body mass indices and fat:lean mass ratio, derived from anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements. ANOVA and linear regression were used in the analyses to adjust for confounding. All predictors were positively associated with fat and body mass indices. Height-for-age Z score at age 2 or 4 years was not associated with lean mass index, but all other predictors were associated. Fat:lean mass ratio was associated only with weight-for-height Z score. Our results suggest that undernutrition is not a risk factor for overweight and obesity in our population and may partially protect against fatness in adolescence.

  15. The microbial community of the cystic fibrosis airway is disrupted in early life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Renwick

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques have uncovered vast numbers of organisms in the cystic fibrosis (CF airways, the clinical significance of which is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the microbial communities of the lower airway of clinically stable children with CF and children without CF.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and paired oropharyngeal swabs from clinically stable children with CF (n = 13 and BAL from children without CF (n = 9 were collected. DNA was isolated, the 16S rRNA regions amplified, fragmented, biotinylated and hybridised to a 16S rRNA microarray. Patient medical and demographic information was recorded and standard microbiological culture was performed.A diverse bacterial community was detected in the lower airways of children with CF and children without CF. The airway microbiome of clinically stable children with CF and children without CF were significantly different as measured by Shannon's Diversity Indices (p = 0.001; t test and Principle coordinate analysis (p = 0.01; Adonis test. Overall the CF airway microbial community was more variable and had a less even distribution than the microbial community in the airways of children without CF. We highlighted several bacteria of interest, particularly Prevotella veroralis, CW040 and a Corynebacterium, which were of significantly differential abundance between the CF and non-CF lower airways. Both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae culture abundance were found to be associated with CF airway microbial community structure. The CF upper and lower airways were found to have a broadly similar microbial milieu.The microbial communities in the lower airways of stable children with CF and children without CF show significant differences in overall diversity. These discrepancies indicate a disruption of the airway microflora occurring early in life in children with CF.

  16. Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences of early life maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Emilia L; Neukel, Corinne; Bertsch, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Möhler, Eva; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-06-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of early life maltreatment (ELM) is the risk of transmission across generations, which could be linked to differences in maternal behavior. Maternal sensitivity includes appropriate and positive affective exchanges between mother and child. Mothers with a history of ELM have been found to show a lower sensitivity representing a significant risk factor for maltreating their own children. 25 mothers with and 28 mothers without sexual and/or physical childhood maltreatment (as assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and their children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by two independent trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales. In addition, empathic capabilities were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. High resolution structural magnetic resonance brain images of the mothers were analyzed with unbiased voxel-based morphometry and correlated with maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that mothers with ELM were less sensitive in the standardized interaction with their own child. In non-maltreated control mothers, maternal sensitivity was positively related to anterior insular grey matter volume, a region which is crucially involved in emotional empathy, while there was a positive association between maternal sensitivity and grey matter volume in parts of the cognitive empathy network such as the superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole region in mothers with ELM. These results implicate that neurostructural alterations associated with poor maternal sensitivity might be a sequelae of ELM and that mothers with ELM may try to compensate deficits in emotional empathy by recruiting brain regions involved in cognitive empathy when interacting with their child. Thus, findings suggest possible coping strategies of mother with ELM to prevent an intergenerational transmission of abuse.

  17. Quality of Life after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Gastric Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyun; Ji, Seon Mi; Lee, Na Rae; Park, Seung-Hee; You, Ji Hye; Choi, Il Ju; Lee, Wan Sik; Park, Seun Ja; Lee, Jun Haeng; Seol, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Gwang Ha; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Yong Chan; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jae J.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been an established treatment for indicated early gastric cancer (EGC) without deterioration of quality of life (QOL) compared with surgical resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term QOL in patients undergoing ESD for EGC. Methods Patients scheduled to undergo curative ESD for EGC were prospectively enrolled from 12 institutions between May 2010 and December 2011. Assessments of QOL with Korean versions of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL questionnaire-core (QLQ-C30) and a gastric cancer-specific questionnaire (STO22) were performed at baseline and at 7 days, 3 months, and 6 months after ESD. Results A total of 666 subjects were assessed for QLQ-C30 and QLQ-STO22. The mean QLQ-C30 score was 69.5 at baseline, 68.8 at 7 days, 73.1 at 3 months, and 73.2 at 6 months. The global health status on the EORTC QLQ-C30 was significantly improved after 3 and 6 months (p=0.0003 and p<0.0001, respectively). The QLQ-C30 and STO22 scores were not significantly different, or they only slightly deteriorated between before and immediately after ESD, but they were significantly improved after 3 and 6 months (p<0.05). Conclusions QOL did not deteriorate immediately after ESD, and it improved more significantly at up to 6 months in patients who underwent curative ESD for EGC without significant complications. PMID:27282267

  18. Effect of dietary lipid structure in early postnatal life on mouse adipose tissue development and function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; van Vlies, Naomi; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; Ringler, Silvia; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2014-01-28

    Obese individuals have more (hyperplastic) and larger (hypertrophic) adipocytes in their white adipose tissue (WAT) than normal-weight individuals. The difference in cell number emerges early in childhood, suggesting that this is a critical period for being susceptible to obesity. Breast-feeding has been shown to be protective against obesity, and we have previously shown in mice that the physical structure of lipids in human milk may contribute to this protective effect. In the present study, we investigated how differences in the physical structure of lipids in the early diet may modulate adipose tissue development. Male mice were fed a diet containing control infant milk formula (Control IMF; Danone Research) or Nuturis® (Concept IMF with large phospholipid-coated lipid droplets; Danone Research) from postnatal day (PN)16 to 42. Subsequently, mice were challenged with a moderate Western-style diet (WSD) until PN98, and body composition was monitored by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Epididymal WAT was analysed for adipocyte size, number and gene expression of metabolic transcription factors. Early Concept IMF exposure reduced fat accumulation during the WSD challenge by 30 % compared with the Control IMF. It reduced adipocyte size without affecting adipocyte number in adult mice. The Concept IMF decreased the expression of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and retinoid X receptor α in WAT in adulthood, key regulators of metabolic activity. In conclusion, Concept IMF exposure in early life reduced susceptibility to obesity in adult life, by preventing adipocyte hypertrophia upon adult dietary challenge without affecting adipogenesis. These data emphasise the importance of the physical properties of dietary lipids in early life in obesity risk later in life.

  19. Protective effects of resveratrol on the inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis induced by ethanol during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Yang, Yang; Gao, Lixiong; Zhao, Jinghui; Cai, Yulong; Huang, Jing; Jing, Sheng; Bao, Xiaohang; Wang, Ying; Gao, Junwei; Xu, Haiwei; Fan, Xiaotang

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during early postnatal life triggers obvious neurotoxic effects on the developing hippocampus and results in long-term effects on hippocampal neurogenesis. Resveratrol (RSV) has been demonstrated to exert potential neuroprotective effects by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effects of RSV on the EtOH-mediated impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis remain undetermined. Thus, mice were pretreated with RSV and were later exposed to EtOH to evaluate its protective effects on EtOH-mediated toxicity during hippocampal development. The results indicated that a brief exposure of EtOH on postnatal day 7 resulted in a significant impairment in hippocampal neurogenesis and a depletion of hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). This effect was attenuated by pretreatment with RSV. Furthermore, EtOH exposure resulted in a reduction in spine density on the granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG), and the spines exhibited a less mature morphological phenotype characterized by a higher proportion of stubby spines and a lower proportion of mushroom spines. However, RSV treatment effectively reversed these responses. We further confirmed that RSV treatment reversed the EtOH-induced down-regulation of hippocampal pERK and Hes1 protein levels, which may be related to the proliferation and maintenance of NPCs. Furthermore, EtOH exposure in the C17.2 NPCs also diminished cell proliferation and activated apoptosis, which could be reversed by pretreatment of RSV. Overall, our results suggest that RSV pretreatment protects against EtOH-induced defects in neurogenesis in postnatal mice and may thus play a critical role in preventing EtOH-mediated toxicity in the developing hippocampus.

  20. A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone; Chowell, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: A better characterization of the early growth dynamics of an epidemic is needed to dissect the important drivers of disease transmission, refine existing transmission models, and improve disease forecasts.Materials and methods: We introduce a 2-parameter generalized-growth model......, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing...

  1. Age at the onset of senescence in birds and mammals is predicted by early-life performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Guillaume; Gimenez, Olivier; Charmantier, Anne; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2010-09-22

    Life-history theory predicts that traits involved in maturity, reproduction and survival correlate along a fast-slow continuum of life histories. Evolutionary theories and empirical results indicate that senescence-related traits vary along this continuum, with slow species senescing later and at a slower pace than fast species. Because senescence patterns are typically difficult to estimate from studies in the wild, here we propose to predict the associated trait values in the frame of life-history theory. From a comparative analysis based on 81 free-ranging populations of 72 species of birds and mammals, we find that a nonlinear combination of fecundity, age at first reproduction and survival over the immature stage can account for ca two-thirds of the variance in the age at the onset of actuarial senescence. Our life-history model performs better than a model predicting the onset based on generation time, and it only includes life-history traits during early life as explanatory variables, i.e. parameters that are both theoretically expected to shape senescence and are measurable within relatively short studies. We discuss the good-fit of our life-history model to the available data in the light of current evolutionary theories of senescence. We further use it to evaluate whether studies that provided no evidence for senescence lasted long enough to include the onset of senescence.

  2. Osteopenia is present at an early age and worsens across the life span in girls and women with Rett syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...

  3. Examining the Differential Effectiveness of a Life Skills Program (IPSY) on Alcohol Use Trajectories in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wiesner, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether a universal school-based life skills program--IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection)--against substance misuse exerted the same effectiveness for young adolescents (10.5-13 years) from distinct alcohol use trajectories characterized by late childhood risk factors (temperament,…

  4. The interaction between early life epilepsy and autistic-like behavioral consequences: a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia M Talos

    Full Text Available Early life seizures can result in chronic epilepsy, cognitive deficits and behavioral changes such as autism, and conversely epilepsy is common in autistic children. We hypothesized that during early brain development, seizures could alter regulators of synaptic development and underlie the interaction between epilepsy and autism. The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR modulates protein translation and is dysregulated in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, a disorder characterized by epilepsy and autism. We used a rodent model of acute hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures that results in long term increases in neuronal excitability, seizure susceptibility, and spontaneous seizures, to determine how seizures alter mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling. We hypothesized that seizures occurring at a developmental stage coinciding with a critical period of synaptogenesis will activate mTORC1, contributing to epileptic networks and autistic-like behavior in later life. Here we show that in the rat, baseline mTORC1 activation peaks during the first three postnatal weeks, and induction of seizures at postnatal day 10 results in further transient activation of its downstream targets phospho-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46, phospho-p70S6K (Thr389 and phospho-S6 (Ser235/236, as well as rapid induction of activity-dependent upstream signaling molecules, including BDNF, phospho-Akt (Thr308 and phospho-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204. Furthermore, treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin immediately before and after seizures reversed early increases in glutamatergic neurotransmission and seizure susceptibility and attenuated later life epilepsy and autistic-like behavior. Together, these findings suggest that in the developing brain the mTORC1 signaling pathway is involved in epileptogenesis and altered social behavior, and that it may be a target for development of novel therapies that eliminate the progressive effects of neonatal seizures.

  5. Genetic characterization of early maturing maize hybrids (Zea mays L. obtained by protein and RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Iva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of maize germplasm genetic diversity is important for planning breeding programmes, germplasm conservation per se etc. Genetic variability of maize hybrids grown in the fields is also very important because genetic uniformity implies risks of genetic vulnerability to stress factors and can cause great losts in yield. Early maturing maize hybrids are characterized by shorter vegetation period and they are grown in areas with shorter vegetation season. Because of different climatic conditions in these areas lines and hybrids are developed with different features in respect to drought resistance and disease resistance. The objective of our study was to characterize set of early maturing maize hybrids with protein and RAPD markers and to compare this clasification with their pedigree information. RAPD markers gave significantly higher rate of polymorphism than protein markers. Better corelation was found among pedigree information and protein markers.

  6. Early life stages of fish and the relationships with zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir: Lake Monte Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschiatti, A J; Arcifa, M S

    2002-02-01

    For evaluating the trophic relationship between early life stages of fish and zooplankton in Lake Monte Alegre, fish distribution and feeding habits have been studied in areas with and without macrophytes. In the first of these areas, 356 specimens belonging to 8 species, mostly juveniles, were caught by a sieve. Another 35 specimens, belonging to 4 species, were caught by gill nets and seine in areas lacking macrophytes. Their diets were composed of aquatic insects, microcrustaceans, rotifers, detritus, and other aquatic invertebrates. Microcrustacean prey were mainly littoral or benthic dwellers, found in the highest proportion in specimens of 7-20 mm SL. Most fish species have parental care, which could explain the absence of planktonic larvae. Early life stages of fish do not exert a predation pressure on the lake zooplankton.

  7. Local adaptation at the transcriptome level in brown trout: Evidence from early life history temperature genomic reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric;

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences...... reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees......, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations...

  8. Life and death in the family: early parental death, parental remarriage, and offspring suicide risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshaus, Michael S; Smith, Ken R

    2015-04-01

    Early-life parental death (PD) may increase suicide and other mortality risk in adulthood. The potential implications of subsequent remarriage of the widowed parent (RWP) for suicide have not been well examined. Data came from the Utah Population Database for birth cohorts between 1886 and 1960, yielding a sample of N = 663,729 individuals, including 4533 suicides. Cox models showed PD was associated with increased adult suicide risk before age 50, and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease deaths (CVD) for adults of all ages. For females, RWP attenuated the suicide relationship before age 50 (though not statistically significant), but significantly exacerbated it after age 50. RWP had no significant impact for males. Further, for females, PD's positive association with suicide was stronger than with CVD before age 50. These findings reinforce the importance of biological and social mechanisms in linking early-life stressors to adult mental and physical health.

  9. Characterization of Moisture Diffusion in Cured Concrete Slabs at Early Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Zhang; Hongduo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the characterization of moisture diffusion inside early-age concrete slabs subjected to curing. Time-dependent relative humidity (RH) distributions of three mixture proportions subjected to three different curing methods (i.e., air curing, water curing, and membrane-forming compounds curing) and sealed condition were measured for 28 days. A one-dimensional nonlinear moisture diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) based on Fick’s second law,...

  10. Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

    2009-04-01

    Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether