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Sample records for characterize cardiac tamponade

  1. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery : a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

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    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. Case report - We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation,

  2. Recurrent late cardiac tamponade following cardiac surgery: a deceiving and potentially lethal complication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Meuzelaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade, characterized by inflow obstruction of the heart chambers by extracardiac compression, is a potentially lethal complication following cardiac surgery. We present a case of recurrent cardiac tamponade following valve surgery. At first presentation, diagnosis was delayed because of

  3. Cardiac tamponade: contrast reflux as an indicator of cardiac chamber equalization

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    Nauta Foeke Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic hemopericardium remains a rare entity; it does however commonly cause cardiac tamponade which remains a major cause of death in traumatic blunt cardiac injury. Objectives We present a case of blunt chest trauma complicated by cardiac tamponade causing cardiac chamber equalization revealed by reflux of contrast. Case report A 29-year-old unidentified male suffered blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a periaortic hematoma and hemopericardium. Significant contrast reflux was seen in the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins suggesting a change in cardiac chamber pressures. After intensive treatment including cardiac massage this patient expired of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Reflux of contrast on CT imaging can be an indicator of traumatic cardiac tamponade.

  4. [Cardiac tamponade disclosing systemic lupus erythematosus].

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    Nour-Eddine, M; Bennis, A; Soulami, S; Chraibi, N

    1996-02-01

    Cardiac tamponade secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus is rare and has a very serious prognosis. The authors report a case of cardiac tamponade confirmed by echocardiography, which constituted the presenting sign of systemic lupus erythematosus in a 20-year-old patient, who required emergency pericardial aspiration. The diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus was established on the basis of the combination of pericardial involvement, non-erosive arthritis, leukopenia with lymphopenia, presence of LE cells and anti-native DNA antibodies and positive antinuclear antibody titre of 1/2560. The clinical course was favourable in response to 3 months of corticosteroid treatment. The possibility of SLE should be considered in any case of cardiac tamponade in a young patient in which the aetiology is not explained.

  5. Pericardial Effusion with Cardiac Tamponade as a Form of Presentation of Primary Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Acir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of pericardial effusion accompanied by cardiac tamponade caused by primary hypothyroidism. Diagnosis was made by exclusion, because other causes of cardiac tamponade are more frequent. Emergency treatment of cardiac tamponade is pericardiocentesis (with possible pericardial window, and, after stabilization, performance of hormonal reposition therapy with L-thyroxin.

  6. [Cardiac tamponade and myocarditis in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baili, L; Aydi, Z; Soussi, G; Ben Dhaou B, B; Zidi, A; Berraies, A; Boussema, F; Kammoun, S; Hamzaoui, A; Kraiem, S; Ben Miled M'rad, K; Rokbani, L

    2014-09-01

    The successive occurrence of pericardial tamponade and myocarditis during a Churg-Strauss syndrome is exceptionally described. We report a patient in whom pericardial tamponade and myocarditis were the presenting manifestation of a Churg-Strauss syndrome. A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of alteration of the clinical status with eosinophilia. One month ago, she was hospitalized for a pericardial tamponade treated by pericardial drainage. Acute myocarditis was diagnosed on chest pain during the second hospitalization. The etiologic inquiry ended in the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss complicated with a double cardiac involvement. A good response of clinical and biological anomalies was obtained after corticosteroid and immunosuppressive treatment. Isolated or multiple involvements of cardiac tunics should lead to make diagnosis of systemic vasculitis. A complete initial assessment and a close observation of the patients followed for Churg-Strauss syndrome is imperative to detect a cardiac achievement and set up an early treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency room thoracotomy for acute traumatic cardiac tamponade caused by a blunt cardiac injury: A case report

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    Kenichiro Ishida

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: A prompt diagnosis using FAST and treatment can be lifesaving in traumatic acute cardiac tamponade. A pericardiotomy via a thoracotomy is mandatory for lifesaving cardiac decompression in acute traumatic cardiac tamponade in cases of ineffective drainage due to clot formation within the pericardial space.

  8. Guide Wire Induced Cardiac Tamponade: The Soft J Tip Is Not So Benign

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    Sankalp Dwivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheter (CVC insertion rarely causes cardiac tamponade due to perforation. Although it is a rare complication, it can be lethal if not identified early. We report a case of cardiac tamponade caused by internal jugular (IJ central venous catheter (CVC insertion using a soft J-tipped guide wire which is considered safe and rarely implicated with cardiac tamponade. A bedside transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE revealed a pericardial effusion with tamponade. An emergent bedside pericardiocentesis was done revealing bloody fluid and resulted in clinical stabilization.

  9. Right atrial tamponade complicating cardiac operation: clinical, hemodynamic, and scintigraphic correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.; Gray, R.; Chaux, A.; Lee, M.; De Robertis, M.; Berman, D.; Matloff, J.

    1982-01-01

    Persistent bleeding into the pericardial space in the early hours after cardiac operation not uncommonly results in cardiac tamponade. Single chamber tamponade also might be expected, since in this setting the pericardium frequently contains firm blood clots localized to the area of active bleeding. However, this complication has received very little attention in the surgical literature. We are therefore providing documentation that isolated right atrial tamponade can occur as a complication of cardiac operation and that there exists a potential for misdiagnosis and hence incorrect treatment of this condition. Right atrial tamponade may be recognized by a combination of low cardiac output, low blood pressure, prominent neck veins, right atrial pressure in excess of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and a poor response to plasma volume expansion. Findings on chest roentgenogram and gated wall motion scintigraphy may be highly suggestive. This review should serve to increase awareness of this complication and to provide some helpful diagnostic clues

  10. Bedside Echocardiography for Rapid Diagnosis of Malignant Cardiac Tamponade

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    Alaina Brinley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 47-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain and shortness of breath. She was hypotensive and her EKG showed sinus tachycardia with low voltage. A bedside ultrasound was performed that detected a pericardial effusion and evidence of cardiac tamponade. The patient’s vitals improved with a fluid bolus and she went emergently to the cardiac catheterization lab for fluoroscopy and echocardiography guided pericardiocentesis. A total of 770 mL of fluid was removed from her pericardial space. Significant findings: The video shows a subxiphoid view of the heart with evidence of a large pericardial effusion with tamponade – note the anechoic stripe in the pericardial sac (see red arrow. This video demonstrates paradoxical right ventricular collapse during diastole and right atrial collapse during systole which is indicative of tamponade.1,2 Figure 1 is from the same patient and shows sonographic pulsus paradoxus. This is an apical 4 chamber view of the heart with the sampling gate of the pulsed wave doppler placed over the mitral valve. The Vpeak max and Vpeak min are indicated. If there is more than a 25% difference with inspiration between these 2 values, this is highly suggestive of tamponade.1 In this case, there is a 32.4% difference between the Vpeak max 69.55 cm/s and Vpeak min 46.99 cm/s. Discussion: Cardiac tamponade is distinguished from pericardial effusion by right ventricular compression/collapse and hemodynamic instability. Findings can include hypotension, tachycardia, distant heart sounds, and jugular venous distension.3,4 One might also see a plethoric IVC without respiratory variation indicative of elevated right atrial pressures.1 Detection of right ventricular collapse for cardiac tamponade has sensitivities ranging from 48%-100% and specificities ranging from 33%-100%.5 A larger effusion is more likely to lead to cardiac tamponade. However

  11. Cardiac Tamponade as Initial Presentation of Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Adrija Hajra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac involvement in malignant lymphoma is one of the least investigated subjects. Pericardial effusion is rarely symptomatic in patients of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL. Few case reports are available in the literature. There are case reports of diagnosed HL patients presenting with pericardial effusion. HL patients who present with recurrent episodes of pericardial effusion have also been reported. Pericardial effusion has also been reported in cases of non HL. However, pericardial effusion leading to cardiac tamponade as an initial presentation of HL is extremely rare. Very few such cases are there in the literature. Here, we present a case of a 26-year-old male patient who presented with cardiac tamponade and in due course was found to be a case of classical type of HL. This case is interesting because of its presentation.

  12. A different management of saphenous vein graft failure related to cardiac tamponade following coronary surgery

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    Hamit Serdar Başbuğ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tamponade is a state of constriction of the heart with an excessive fluid or hematoma resulted from various conditions. Postoperative tamponade can occur after coronary bypass surgery. Despite it is uncommon, its results may have a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Acute postoperative cardiac tamponade reveals a vast spectrum of symptoms. Moreover, a compression over the saphenous vein graft is the worst complication that should be managed without delay. We report a rare case of saphenous vein graft failure due to the cardiac tamponade following a coronary surgery and its management with a practical measure.

  13. Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letonja, M.; Debeljak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Neoplastic pericarditis can be presented as acute pericarditis, pericardial effusion, effusive constrictive pericarditis or cardiac tamponade. For the majority of patients, a clinical manifestation of neoplastic pericarditis is absent or remains unrecognised during their life. Case report: A 69-year-old non-smoking woman with acute dyspnoea, tachycardia, jugular venous distension, hepatomegaly and right side pleural effusion was presented in the emergency department. The roentgen picture of the chest confirmed pleural effusion and revealed enlarged heart. An emergency echocardiogram established the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade. The patient improved immediately after the therapeutic pericardiocentesis. Cytology of pericardial fluid confirmed malignant glandular cells, consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma. A computed chest tomography showed a right side pleural effusion and a solitary round lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. Bronchoscopy with fundoscopic lung biopsy and brushing revealed adenocarcinoma. Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of malignancy is rare and rare is also malignant pericardial effusion due the adenocarcinoma of the lung in a non-smoking woman. The presented patient had one of the longest survival reported in literature despite a limited life expectancy regardless of the treatment in the patient presented with neoplastic pericarditis. (author)

  14. Plasma Cell Type of Castleman's Disease Involving Renal Parenchyma and Sinus with Cardiac Tamponade: Case Report and Literature Review

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    Kim, Tae Un; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Nam Kyung; Jeon, Ung Bae; Ha, Hong Gu; Shin, Dong Hoon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Castleman's disease is an uncommon disorder characterized by benign proliferation of the lymphoid tissue that occurs most commonly in the mediastinum. Although unusual locations and manifestations have been reported, involvement of the renal parenchyma and sinus, and moreover, manifestations as cardiac tamponade are extremely rare. Here, we present a rare case of Castleman's disease in the renal parenchyma and sinus that also accompanied cardiac tamponade.

  15. Raised international normalized ratio: an early warning for a late cardiac tamponade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Ammad; van den Brink, Albert; de Mol, Bas

    2006-01-01

    Seven consecutive cases of late cardiac tamponade after valvular surgery are reported; all were postoperatively treated with acenocoumarol and 6 had an international normalized ratio peak greater than 6.0 within 3 days preceding tamponade. It is suggested that during this excessive anticoagulation

  16. Percutaneous treatment in patients presenting with malignant cardiac tamponade

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    Marcy, P.Y. [Antoine Lacassagne Center, Interventional Radiology Department, Nice (France); Bondiau, P.Y. [Antoine Lacassagne Center, Radiation Therapy Department, Nice (France); Brunner, P. [Centre Hospitalier Princesse, Grace (Monaco). Interventional Radiology Department

    2005-09-01

    The percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade has undergone an evolution in recent years with the use of less invasive drainage techniques in selected cases. To determine optimal therapy modalities for oncology patients with malignant pericardial tamponade (MPT), the authors review their institutional experience with percutaneous needle puncture routes, means of imaging-guided drainage and percutaneous management of the pericardial fluid effusion (pericardial sclerosis and balloon pericardiotomy). Advantages and limits of the percutaneous techniques will be compared to the surgical treatment. (orig.)

  17. The evaluation of cardiac tamponade risk in patients with pericardial effusion detected by non-gated chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yasutoshi; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Kaminou, Toshio; Kaetsu, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-05-01

    Although pericardial effusion is often identified using non-gated chest computed tomography (CT), findings predictive of cardiac tamponade have not been adequately established. To determine the findings predictive of clinical cardiac tamponade in patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion using non-gated chest CT. We performed a retrospective analysis of 134 patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion who were identified from among 4581 patients who underwent non-gated chest CT. Cardiac structural changes, including right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), were qualitatively evaluated. The inferior vena cava ratio with hepatic (IVCupp) and renal portions (IVClow) and effusion size were measured. The diagnostic performance of each structural change was calculated, and multivariate analysis was used to determine the predictors of cardiac tamponade. Of the 134 patients (mean age, 70.3 years; 64 men), 37 (28%) had cardiac tamponade. The sensitivity and specificity were 76% and 74% for RVOT compression; 87% and 84% for an IVClow ratio ≥0.77; and 60% and 77% for an effusion size ≥25.5 mm, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that RVOT compression, an IVClow ratio ≥0.77, and an effusion size ≥25.5 mm were independent predictors of cardiac tamponade. The combination of these three CT findings had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 81%, 95%, and 91%, respectively. In patients with moderate to large pericardial effusion, non-gated chest CT provides additional information for predicting cardiac tamponade. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  18. Cardiac tamponade as an initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Carrion, Diego M; Carrion, Andres F

    2012-06-12

    Clinical manifestations of pericardial disease may precede other signs and symptoms associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Although pericardial effusion is one of the most common cardiac problems in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, haemodynamically significant effusions manifesting as cardiac tamponade are rare and require prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Empress Sissi and cardiac tamponade: an historical perspective.

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    Meyer, Philippe; Keller, Pierre-Frédéric; Spodick, David H

    2008-11-01

    On September 10, 1898, Empress Elizabeth of Austria, known as Sissi, was stabbed with a stiletto knife in her chest by an Italian anarchist in Geneva, Switzerland, and died 1 hour later. The autopsy revealed a large clot in the pericardial sac due to a perforation of the left ventricular wall, and the report concluded, "Death was undoubtedly caused by a progressive and slow blood leak, sufficient to compress the heart and to suspend its functions." Since antiquity, wounds of the heart had been considered immediately fatal, until Paré observed a delayed death after a stab to the heart in the 16th century. The physiology of cardiac tamponade was then elucidated by Richard Lower in 1669. However, it was only in the 19th century that the main clinical features of cardiac tamponade were described and the first treatments attempted. Kussmaul identified its most important clinical hallmark, pulsus paradoxus, in 1873 and the term "tamponade of the heart" was coined for the first time by Rose in 1884. Romero and Larrey pioneered the open drainage of the pericardium early in the century, and Rehn performed the first successful surgical suture of a heart wound in 1896. In conclusion, logistics aside, medical knowledge at the end of the 19th century would have been theoretically sufficient to save the empress from death.

  20. An unusual case of cardiac tamponade following electrical cardioversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, GAJ; Crijns, HJGM; vanWijngaarden, J

    The clinical presentation of cardiac tamponade may uncover underlying pericardial disease. We describe a patient who was being treated for lone atrial fibrillation, In this case, direct current cardioversion for recurrence of atrial fibrillation was complicated by a life-threatening hemopericardium.

  1. Catheter-Malposition-Induced Cardiac Tamponade via Contrast Media Leakage During Computed Tomography Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, C.-D.; Ko, S.-F.; Huang, C.-F.; Chien, S.J.; Tiao, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a rare case of a central venous catheter-malposition-induced life-threatening cardiac tamponade as a result of computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement in an infant with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiographs and CT study with catheter perforation through the right atrial wall and extravasation of the contrast medium into the pericardium, leading to cardiac tamponade and subsequent circulatory collapse. Two hours after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient gradually resumed normal hemodynamic status

  2. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade caused by a central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. One of the life-threatening complications is pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; however, it is potentially reversible ...

  3. Hashimoto thyroiditis with an unusual presentation of cardiac tamponade in Noonan syndrome.

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    Lee, Mi Ji; Kim, Byung Young; Ma, Jae Sook; Choi, Young Earl; Kim, Young Ok; Cho, Hwa Jin; Kim, Chan Jong

    2016-11-01

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder. Autoimmune thyroiditis with hypothyroidism is an infrequent feature in patients with Noonan syndrome. A 16-year-old boy was admitted because of chest discomfort and dyspnea; an echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion. Additional investigations led to a diagnosis of severe hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto thyroiditis. The patient was treated with L-thyroxine at 0.15 mg daily. However, during admission, he developed symptoms of cardiac tamponade. Closed pericardiostomy was performed, after which the patient's chest discomfort improved, and his vital signs stabilized. Herein, we report a case of an adolescent with Noonan syndrome, who was diagnosed with Hashimoto thyroiditis with an unusual presentation of cardiac tamponade.

  4. Thoracentesis-reverting cardiac tamponade physiology in a patient with myxedema coma and large pleural effusion.

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    Werlang, Monia E; Pimentel, Mario R; Diaz-Gomez, Jose L

    2017-07-01

    A large pleural effusion causing cardiac tamponade physiology and severe hemodynamic compromise is an uncommon event. We report a case of a 53-year-old woman with severe hypothyroidism presenting with myxedema coma and refractory shock. Her hemodynamic status failed to respond to fluid resuscitation and vasopressors. A transthoracic echocardiogram and chest radiograph demonstrated a pericardial fluid accumulation associated with a large left-sided pleural effusion. Thoracostomy tube insertion resulted in prompt improvement of the patient's hemodynamic status. Our finding demonstrates that a large pleural effusion may play an important role in cardiac tamponade physiology.

  5. Hypothyroidism in a five-year-old boy with rhabdomyolysis and recent history of cardiac tamponade: a case report

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    Lorenzana Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac tamponade is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism, and a less rare cause of pericardial effusion. The accumulation of the pericardial fluid is gradual, and often does not compromise cardiac hemodynamic function. There is a relationship between the severity and chronicity of the disease with the presence of pericardial effusion. There are few cases describing associated pericardial tamponade published in the literature. When a tamponade occurs, a concomitant provocative factor such as a viral pericarditis may be related. Our patient's case appears to be the youngest patient described so far. Case presentation We report the case of a previously healthy five-year-old Hispanic (non-indigenous boy who developed rhabdomyolysis with a history of a recent pericardial effusion and tamponade two months before that required the placement of a percutaneous pericardial drainage. Pericardial effusion was considered to be viral. Later on readmission, clinical primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and thought to be associated with the previous cardiac tamponade. He developed rhabdomyolysis, which was considered to be autoimmune and was treated with steroids. The level of creatine phosphate kinase and creatine kinase MB fraction returned to within the reference rangeone week after our patient was started on steroids and three weeks after he was started on thyroid hormones. Conclusions Physicians should consider hypothyroidism as a differential diagnosis in patients with pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion may progress and cause a cardiac tamponade with hemodynamic instability. The fact that our patient did not have any manifestations of hypothyroidism might have delayed diagnosis.

  6. Hemorrhagic Cardiac Tamponade: Rare Complication of Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Loh, Kok Beng; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Mokhtar, Raja Amin Raja; Mohamed, Rosmawati [Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-09-15

    Local treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely used in clinical practice due to its minimal invasiveness and high rate of cure. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely used because its treatment effectiveness. However, some serious complications can arise from percutaneous RFA. We present here a rare case of hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade secondary to an anterior cardiac vein (right marginal vein) injury during RFA for treatment of HCC.

  7. The role of bedside ultrasound in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade

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    Adam Goodman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses two clinical cases of patients presenting to the emergency department with pericardial effusions. The role of bedside ultrasound in the detection of pericardial effusions is investigated, with special attention to the specific ultrasound features of cardiac tamponade. Through this review, clinicians caring for patients with pericardial effusions will learn to rapidly diagnose this condition directly at the bedside. Clinicians will also learn to differentiate between simple pericardial effusions in contrast to more complicated effusions causing cardiac tamponade. Indications for emergency pericardiocentesis are covered, so that clinicians can rapidly determine which group of patients will benefit from an emergency procedure to drain the effusion.

  8. Cardiac tamponade in a patient with severe dengue fever

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    Ana Isabel Vieira Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract A 26-year-old postpartum female presented with symptoms characteristic of dengue fever on the 16th day of puerperium. On the third day of the illness, the patient presented a clinical picture consistent with shock. Tests determined primary infection with dengue virus serotype 2. Cardiac tamponade was confirmed by echocardiography. This rare manifestation is described in a patient without any associated comorbidity.

  9. Benign giant mediastinal schwannoma presenting as cardiac tamponade in a woman: a case report

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    Sekiya Mitsuaki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mediastinal schwannomas are typically benign and asymptomatic, and generally present no immediate risks. We encountered a rare case of a giant benign posterior mediastinal schwannoma, complicated by life-threatening cardiac tamponade. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman, who presented with cardiogenic shock. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a posterior mediastinal mass 150 cm in diameter, with pericardial effusion. The cardiac tamponade was treated with prompt pericardial fluid drainage. A biopsy was taken from the mass, and after histological examination, it was diagnosed as a benign schwannoma, a well-encapsulated non-infiltrating tumor, originating from the intrathoracic vagus nerve. It was successfully excised, restoring normal cardiac function. Conclusion Our case suggests that giant mediastinal schwannomas, although generally benign and asymptomatic, should be excised upon discovery to prevent the development of life-threatening cardiopulmonary complications.

  10. Delayed cardiac tamponade in a patient with previous minor blunt chest trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Jeannine A.J.M.; Wajon, Elly M.C.J.; Grandjean, Jan G; Grandjean, Jan G.; Haalebos, Max M.P.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade after non-penetrating chest trauma is a very rare but life-threatening condition. If this complication develops after an interval of several weeks following the non-penetrating chest trauma, the causal relation with the traumatic event is less evident, which

  11. Diagnostic difficulties in a 32-year-old patient with recurrent cardiac tamponade; Trudnosci diagnostyczne u 32-letniego chorego z tamponada serca

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    Piwowarska, W.; Nessler, B.; Pietrzak, I.; Gajos, G.; Pfitzner, R.; Sadowski, J. [Inst. Kardiologii, Akademia Medyczna, Cracow (Poland); Krzemieniecki, K. [Instytut Onkologii, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    At present the most frequent cause of cardiac tamponade is neoplasma. A case of a 32-year-old male with recurrent cardiac tamponade caused by pericardium mesothelioma is described. Despite advanced neoplastic process in the pericardium, pleura and mediastinum, neither radiological examinations of the chest, echocardiography, nor repeated cytological examination of the pericardial exudate, could establish the etiology of the tamponade. Only after a pericardial window had been performed was it possible to: 1) establish the diagnosis and introduce causal treatment; 2) prevent recurrence of the tamponade; 3) perform cytoreduction of the tumor. It seems that in cases of chronic exudative pericarditis of unknown cause it is proper to perform an early pericardial window as a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. (author) 24 refs, 1 tab

  12. Heparin-Induced Cardiac Tamponade and Life-Threatening Hyperkalemia in a Patient with Chronic Hemodialysis

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    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant agent, is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis. As with most medications, heparin has a significant side effect profile. Two of its most important side effects, major bleeding and hyperkalemia, may be devastating without immediate diagnosis and treatment. Major bleeding such as gastrointestinal, genitourinary or intracranial bleeding is occasionally encountered and rarely neglected. However, heparin-induced cardiac tamponade is rarely encountered and may be easily overlooked. Another side effect, heparin-induced hyperkalemia, an unusual but well-described side effect, is frequently forgotten until life-threatening arrhythmia has occurred. We report a case involving a 40-year-old male patient with uremia, who had received heparin for 10 days for deep vein thrombosis in the left lower extremity. Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hyperkalemia were both noted in this patient.

  13. Short-term minoxidil use associated with pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade: an uncommon presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Krishna K; Gujja, Karthik; Prabhu, Hejmadi; Vasavada, Balendu; Konka, Sudarsanam

    2012-11-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with complaints of shortness of breath and lower extremity swelling. His medical history was significant for hypertension on minoxidil and recent intracerebellar hemorrhage. Electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia with left ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiomegaly was noted in the chest x-ray. The patient was hypertensive and tachypneic on admission. An echocardiogram taken immediately showed a large pericardial effusion with evidence of cardiac tamponade. He underwent immediate pericardiocentesis with drainage of 900 mL of pericardial fluid with significant improvement in the symptoms. Analysis of the pericardial fluid proved to be nondiagnostic. Infectious and rheumatologic causes were ruled out. After an extensive battery of tests, not yielding any diagnostic results, the pericardial effusion was attributed to minoxidil therapy. Closer monitoring is needed to prevent potentially fatal complications such as cardiac tamponade as in our patient.

  14. Hemodynamic and regional blood flow distribution responses to dextran, hydralazine, isoproterenol and amrinone during experimental cardiac tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, R.W.; Fowler, N.O.; Gabel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Four different interventions were examined in dogs with cardiac tamponade. Infusion of 216 to 288 ml saline solution into the pericardium reduced cardiac output from 3.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 liters/min as systemic vascular resistance increased from 4,110 +/- 281 to 6,370 +/- 424 dynes . s . cm-5. Left ventricular epicardial and endocardial blood flows were 178 +/- 13 and 220 +/- 12 ml/min per 100 g, respectively, and decreased to 72 +/- 14 and 78 +/- 11 ml/min per 100 g with tamponade. Reductions of 25 to 65% occurred in visceral and brain blood flows and in a composite brain sample. Cardiac output during tamponade was significantly increased by isoproterenol, 0.5 microgram/kg per min intravenously; hydralazine, 40 mg intravenously; dextran infusion or combined hydralazine and dextran, but not by amrinone. Total systemic vascular resistance was reduced by all interventions. Left ventricular epicardial flow was increased by isoproterenol, hydralazine and the hydralazine-dextran combination. Endocardial flow was increased by amrinone and the combination of hydralazine and dextran. Right ventricular myocardial blood flow increased with all interventions except dextran. Kidney cortical and composite brain blood flows were increased by both dextran alone and by the hydralazine-dextran combinations. Blood flow to small intestine was increased by all interventions as was that to large intestine by all except amrinone and hydralazine. Liver blood flow response was variable. The most pronounced hemodynamic and tissue perfusion improvements during cardiac tamponade were effected by combined vasodilation-blood volume expansion with a hydralazine-dextran combination. Isoproterenol had as dramatic an effect but it was short-lived. Amrinone was the least effective intervention

  15. Cardiac tamponade 7 years after radiotherapy in a child with Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Minoru; Horibe, Keizo; Miyajima, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Goto, Masahiko; Nishibata, Kenji; Nagashima, Masami (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Tauchi, Akira

    1994-11-01

    A 12-year-old boy with massive pericardial effusion which developed 7 years after radiotherapy was reported. In May 1986, he had stage I Hodgkin's disease of the right axillary lymph nodes. He received 40 Gy mantle field radiotherapy without chemotherapy following complete resection of the tumor. Seven years later, he was admitted with symptoms of dyspnea and facial edema. Chest X-ray films showed pleural effusion and echocardiography showed cardiac tamponade. Cytologic examinations of the pleural and pericardial effusion, computed tomography of chest, and gallium scintigraphy showed no signs of malignancy. He was diagnosed as suffering from acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade, most likely due to radiotherapy. Following initial improvement by pericardiocentesis, dyspnea reappeared with an increase in pericardial effusion. The effusion subsided in response to prednisolone following the second pericadiocentesis. Although pericarditis following radiotherapy is rarely reported in Japan, partly because of the low incidence of Hodgkin's disease, it should be emphasized as a major sequela of radiotherapy. (author).

  16. Acute pericarditis with cardiac tamponade induced by pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Masami; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Suzuki, Haruo

    2015-11-01

    An 87-year-old woman was diagnosed with third-degree atrioventricular block and underwent pacemaker implantation. On postoperative day 12, she experienced cardiac tamponade that was suspected on computed tomography to be caused by lead perforation; therefore, we performed open-heart surgery. However, we could not identify a perforation site on the heart, and drained a 400-mL exudative pericardial effusion. Subsequently, we diagnosed the pericardial effusion as due to pericarditis induced by pacemaker implantation. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish pericarditis from pacemaker lead perforation, so both should be included in the differential diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in β thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, S.; Pramudita, A.; Lusiani

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency condition. Rapid diagnosis and determination of the etiology with epidemiologic consideration may lead to earlier treatment and improved survival. Occasionally, the etiology may be clearly related to a recognized underlying disease, but the possibility of unrelated etiologies should be considered. Pericarditis tuberculosis, a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a non-HIV patient, has to be deliberate as one of the etiology, especially in the endemic area. Here, we report a case of 28 years old male with β thalassemia major presented with excessive exertion breathlessness progressing to orthopnea. Sign of cardiac tamponade was identified from echocardiography which showed large pericardial effusion with swinging heart and right atrial systolic collapse. Pericardiocentesis was performed immediately, drained 870 ml of hemorrhagic fluid from inserted pigtail. The patient was treated with the anti-tuberculosis regimen and oral corticosteroid after real-time polymerase chain reaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity in pericardial fluid. MRI T2 confirmed no haemosiderosis in patient’s heart. After treatment, the patient responded well and showed clinical improvement.

  18. Focal intramural pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade associated with necrotic adipose tissue in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Terence A; Schutrumpf, Robert J; Zitz, Julie C

    2017-07-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was examined because of an acute onset of lethargy, tachypnea, and inappetence. CLINICAL FINDINGS On initial physical examination, the dog was tachypneic with muffled heart sounds on thoracic auscultation and a palpable abdominal fluid wave. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed focal intramural pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The patient underwent emergency therapeutic pericardiocentesis, followed by right lateral intercostal thoracotomy and subtotal pericardiectomy. A 3 × 5-cm mass located between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium was resected. The histologic diagnosis was necrotic adipose tissue with granulomatous inflammation and fibroplasia. The patient also underwent exploratory laparotomy and umbilical herniorrhaphy during the same anesthetic episode and recovered from surgery without apparent complications. There were no further clinical signs of cardiac disease. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The patient described in the present report underwent successful subtotal pericardiectomy for treatment of a benign focal lesion causing recurrent pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Prompt diagnosis and intervention may have contributed to the positive outcome in this case.

  19. Air tamponade of the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołota, Janusz J; Orłowski, Tadeusz; Iwanowicz, Katarzyna; Snarska, Jadwiga

    2016-06-01

    Pneumopericardium is a rare disease defined as the presence of air or gas in the pericardial sac. Among the etiological factors, the following stand out: chest trauma, barotrauma, air-containing fistulas between the pericardium and the surrounding structures, secondary gas production by microorganisms growing in the pericardial sac, and iatrogenic factors. Until now, spontaneous pneumopericardium has been considered a harmless and temporary state, but a review of clinical cases indicates that the presence of air in the pericardium can lead to cardiac tamponade and life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances. We present the case of an 80-year-old patient with a chronic bronchopericardial fistula, who suffered from a cardiac arrest due to air tamponade of the heart.

  20. Cardiac tamponade leading to the diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome): a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Toshiyuki; Ishimura, Shutaro; Furukawa, Tetsuaki; Koyama, Masayuki; Tanaka, Marenao; Shimoshige, Shinya; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2015-11-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), which was previously called Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a necrotizing systemic vasculitis of unknown cause accompanied by prominent eosinophilia. Cardiovascular complications, including eosinophilic myocarditis, are a major cause of mortality in this disorder. Acute pericarditis with slight pericardial effusion is a typical manifestation in EGPA, though hemodynamically significant pericardial effusion has been reported in a few cases. We report a case that initially presented with isolated cardiac tamponade, which was followed by systemic manifestations of EGPA over 3 weeks. Including the present case, previous EGPA cases with cardiac tamponade are reviewed to delineate its clinical characteristics.

  1. [Cardiac tamponade as first manifestation in Mediterranean fever with autosomal dominant form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Ferrer, F; Martinez Villar, M; Fernández Bernal, A; Martín de Lara, I; Paya Elorza, I

    2015-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease characterized by brief, recurring and self-limited episodes of fever and pain with inflammation, of one or several serous (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium, synovial or vaginal tunic of the testicle). Amyloidosis is its more important complication and the principal reason of death in the cases in which it appears. Diagnosis is based on the clinic and is confirmed by genetic tests. The treatment with Colchicine (0,02-0,03 mg/kg/day) prevents the recurrence of FMF attacks and the development of secondary (AA) amyloidosis. We report a case of a 13-year-old child in which FMF was diagnosed after several coincidental episodes with fever, pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. The genetic confirmation showed an autosomal dominant inheritance that is less frecuent than the recesive form, in this disease. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Massive pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade due to subclinical hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Panteleimon E; Gourniezakis, Nikolaos; Skiadas, Christos; Patrianakos, Alexandros; Gikas, Achilleas

    2018-05-01

    Hypothyroidism is a significant cause of pericardial effusion. However, large pericardial effusions due to hypothyroidism are extremely rare. Hormone replacement therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for hypothyroidism and regular follow-up of patients after initiation of the therapy is indicated. Herein, the case of a 70-year-old woman with a massive pericardial effusion due to Hashimoto's disease is presented. A 70-year-old female from a rural village on the island of Crete, Greece, was admitted to our hospital due to a urinary tract infection. She was under hormone replacement therapy with levothyroxine 100 µg once a day for Hashimoto's disease. Two years previously, the patient had had an episode of pericarditis due to hypothyroidism and had undergone a computed tomography-guided pericardiocentesis. The patient did not have regular follow-up and did not take the hormone replacement therapy properly. On admission, the patient's chest X-ray incidentally showed a possible pericardial effusion. The patient was referred for echocardiography, which revealed a massive pericardial effusion. Beck's triad was absent. Thyroid hormones were consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 30.25 mIU/mL (normal limits: 0.25-3.43); free thyroxin 4 0.81 ng/dL (normal limits: 0.7-1.94). The patient had a score of 5 on the scale outlined by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) position statement on triage strategy for cardiac tamponade and, despite the absence of cardiac tamponade, a pericardiocentesis was performed after 48 hours. The patient was treated with 125 µg levothyroxine orally once daily. This was a rare case of an elderly female patient from a rural village with chronic massive pericardial effusion due to subclinical hypothyroidism without cardiac tamponade. Hypothyroidism should be included in the differential diagnosis of pericardial effusion, especially in a case of unexplained pericardial fluid. Initiation of hormone

  3. A case of Hodgkin`s disease presenting a cardiac tamponade during treatment developed a pancytopenia after cessation of chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Shigeru; Iwami, Mika; Narita, Tsutomu; Higashino, Katsumi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Taga, Takashi; Shimada, Morimi [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    There had been many reports about cardiac complications of patients with Hodgkin`s disease (HD) after cessation of treatment in Europe and the United States. However, cases of HD accompanied with these complications were extremely rare in Japan. We report a case with HD that developed a cardiac tamponade during the clinical course of chemotherapy and showed a pancytopenia after cessation of chemotherapy. The case was a 14 year-old boy with HD (nodular sclerosis) of anterior upper mediastinum origin. He received modified MOPP therapy and irradiation to the semimantle field and to the mediastinum. The total dose of radiation was 36.3 Gy. He suddenly developed a chest pain, chest discomfort, and dyspnea during the sixth course of chemotherapy. He was diagnosed to have a cardiac tamponade by thoracentesis. The symptoms were improved by continuous transcutaneous drainage. The invasion of HD into the effusion was not detected by cytology, and the chemotherapy was completed after one course. However, he gradually developed a macrocytic anemia and finally developed a pancytopenia. The bone marrow specimen revealed a hypoplasia without evidence of pathological cells. The karyotype of marrow derived cells was normal. With oxymetholone administration, the pancytopenia has improved in four months. He has now been doing well for five years after the cessation of therapy. (author)

  4. Sub-acute Tamponade and the Value of Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Rapid Diagnosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Kolinsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minoxidil is a strong oral vasodilator that is used to treat patients with hypertension refractory to first-line medications. We report a case of minoxidil-associated subacute cardiac tamponade diagnosed by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS in a hypertensive patient. A 30-year-old male with a past medical history of poorly controlled hypertension (treated with minoxidil and chronic kidney disease presented with 2–3 days of chest pain and shortness of breath with markedly elevated blood pressures. A point-of-care transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a massive pericardial effusion with sonographic tamponade physiology. We review the risk factors for developing pericardial effusions that progress to cardiac tamponade, the utility of diagnosing these patients by POCUS, and the incidence of patients who present with sonographic signs of cardiac tamponade without hypotension.

  5. Cardiac tamponade in an infant during contrast infusion through central venous catheter for chest computed tomography; Tamponamento cardiaco durante infusao de contraste em acesso venoso central para realizacao de tomografia computadorizada do torax em lactente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Danilo Felix; Campos, Marcos Menezes Freitas de; Fleury Neto, Augusto de Padua [Hospital Geral de Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Complications from central venous catheterization include infectious conditions, pneumothorax, hemothorax and venous thrombosis. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade hardly occurs, and in infants is generally caused by umbilical catheterization. The authors describe the case of cardiac tamponade occurred in an infant during chest computed tomography with contrast infusion through a central venous catheter inserted into the right internal jugular vein. (author)

  6. Oculomotor Nerve Palsy following Cardiac Tamponade with Churg-Strauss Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Suganuma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old man with a history of more than 10 years of bronchial asthma and chronic sinusitis complained of double vision which developed 18 days after cardiac tamponade with eosinophil-rich fluid (eosinophils 30%. He had oculomotor nerve palsy, and a blood test revealed eosinophilia (12,700/mm3 and elevation of both C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor. He was diagnosed as having Churg-Strauss syndrome. His symptoms were relieved by corticosteroid therapy. Our case and previous cases in the literature revealed that oculomotor nerve palsy in Churg-Strauss syndrome is associated with pupil involvement and may be relieved by corticosteroid treatment.

  7. Predicting outcome of rethoracotomy for suspected pericardial tamponade following cardio-thoracic surgery in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beishuizen Albertus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Pericardial tamponade after cardiac surgery is difficult to diagnose, thereby rendering timing of rethoracotomy hard. We aimed at identifying factors predicting the outcome of surgery for suspected tamponade after cardio-thoracic surgery, in the intensive care unit (ICU. Methods Twenty-one consecutive patients undergoing rethoracotomy for suspected pericardial tamponade in the ICU, admitted after primary cardio-thoracic surgery, were identified for this retrospective study. We compared patients with or without a decrease in severe haemodynamic compromise after rethoracotomy, according to the cardiovascular component of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score. Results A favourable haemodynamic response to rethoracotomy was observed in 11 (52% of patients and characterized by an increase in cardiac output, and less fluid and norepinephrine requirements. Prior to surgery, the absence of treatment by heparin, a minimum cardiac index 2 and a positive fluid balance (> 4,683 mL were predictive of a beneficial haemodynamic response. During surgery, the evacuation of clots and > 500 mL of pericardial fluid was associated with a beneficial haemodynamic response. Echocardiographic parameters were of limited help in predicting the postoperative course, even though 9 of 13 pericardial clots found at surgery were detected preoperatively. Conclusion Clots and fluids in the pericardial space causing regional tamponade and responding to surgical evacuation after primary cardio-thoracic surgery, are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, by clinical, haemodynamic and even echocardiographic evaluation in the ICU. Only absence of heparin treatment, a large positive fluid balance and low cardiac index predicted a favourable haemodynamic response to rethoracotomy. These data might help in deciding and timing of reinterventions after primary cardio-thoracic surgery.

  8. Cardiac tamponade preceding skin involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bozzola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of pericardial involvement in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc is high on autoptic or echocardiographic studies, but the clinical recognition of pericarditis with or without effusion is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old female with no previous history of heart disease, who presented with a large pericardial effusion and tamponade that required pericardial drain. She had suffered from Raynaud’s phenomenon since 25 years. Six weeks after hospital discharge she complained of skin hardening on left leg. Pericardial tamponade is a very rare manifestation of SSc and occurs both early or late in the course of the disease, but in our case it preceded the recognition of scleroderma. We have only identified two other cases of pericardial effusion preceding cutaneous involvement in scleroderma.

  9. Pericardial effusion complicated by tamponade: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compress the heart (cardiac tamponade) and cause circulatory ... Pitting lower limb oedema up to the knees. ... and early diagnosis and treatment of TB pericarditis may prevent this ... suspicion. In the absence of an alternative diagnosis,.

  10. Cardiac tamponade mimicking tuberculous pericarditis as the initial presentation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 58-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Sandeep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disease that often presents with complaints of lymphadenopathy or is detected as an incidental laboratory finding. It is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tamponade or a large, bloody pericardial effusion. In patients without known cancer, a large, bloody pericardial effusion raises the possibility of tuberculosis, particularly in patients from endemic areas. However, the signs, symptoms and laboratory findings of pericarditis related to chronic lymphocytic leukemia can mimic tuberculosis. Case Presentation We report the case of a 58-year-old African American-Nigerian woman with a history of travel to Nigeria and a positive tuberculin skin test who presented with cardiac tamponade. She had a mild fever, lymphocytosis and a bloody pericardial effusion, but cultures and stains were negative for acid-fast bacteria. Assessment of blood by flow cytometry and pericardial biopsy by immunohistochemistry revealed CD5 (+ and CD20 (+ lymphocytes in both tissues, demonstrating this to be an unusual manifestation of early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusion Although most malignancies that involve the pericardium clinically manifest elsewhere before presenting with tamponade, this case illustrates the potential for early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia to present as a large pericardial effusion with tamponade. Moreover, the presentation mimicked tuberculosis. This case also demonstrates that it is possible to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia-related pericardial tamponade by removal of the fluid without chemotherapy.

  11. Myxedema coma with cardiac tamponade and severe cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Majid-Moosa, Abdulla; Schussler, Jeffrey M.; Mora, Adan

    2015-01-01

    Myxedema coma is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of hypothyroidism. We present a rare case of previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting in cardiogenic shock from pericardial tamponade and depressed myocardial contractility in myxedema coma. Here, we focus on cardiovascular complications associated with the condition.

  12. Myxedema coma with cardiac tamponade and severe cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid-Moosa, Abdulla; Schussler, Jeffrey M; Mora, Adan

    2015-10-01

    Myxedema coma is an infrequent but potentially fatal complication of hypothyroidism. We present a rare case of previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting in cardiogenic shock from pericardial tamponade and depressed myocardial contractility in myxedema coma. Here, we focus on cardiovascular complications associated with the condition.

  13. Spontaneous Hemopericardium Leading to Cardiac Tamponade in a Patient with Essential Thrombocythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshmukh

    2011-01-01

    thrombocythemia (ET has never been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 72-year-old Caucasian female who presented with spontaneous hemopericardium and tamponade requiring emergent pericardiocentesis. The patient was subsequently diagnosed to have ET. ET is characterized by elevated platelet counts that can lead to thrombosis but paradoxically it can also lead to a bleeding diathesis. Physicians should be aware of this complication so that timely life-saving measures can be taken if this complication arises.

  14. Tamponamento cardíaco tardio traumático: análise de cinco casos Traumatic late cardiac tamponade: analysis of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO LUIZ WESTPHAL

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available São analisados cinco casos de tamponamento cardíaco tardio traumático. Os pacientes eram masculinos, idade média de 26,2 anos, vítimas de ferimento por arma branca em região precordial, área de Ziedler, sendo admitidos em centro de referência para trauma. Foram classificados pelo índice fisiológico de Ivatury para trauma cardíaco e inicialmente tratados por pleurotomia intercostal e reposição volêmica, com estabilização do quadro hemodinâmico e respiratório. Os pacientes foram readmitidos após intervalo de oito a 24 dias (mediana de 20 dias, agora no serviço de cirurgia torácica de um hospital de referência terciária, com sinais de tamponamento cardíaco. Os exames diagnósticos confirmaram derrame pericárdico com espessamento pericárdico associado a encarceramento de base pulmonar esquerdo em quatro casos, os quais foram abordados por toracotomia póstero-lateral, com realização de pericardiectomia parcial e descorticação pulmonar. Um paciente evoluiu com pericardite purulenta, comprovada por exames complementares, e foi submetido à drenagem pericárdica subxifóidea. Ocorreu arritmia pós-operatória em um paciente; os demais evoluíram sem complicações pós-operatórias ou recidiva do tamponamento.Five traumatic late cardiac tamponade cases were analyzed. All patients were male, mean age was 26.2, victims of thoracic penetrating stabbing wound in the precordial region, Ziedler area, admitted to a trauma reference center. They were classified by the Ivatury physiological index for cardiac trauma. The first treatment approach was intercostal pleurectomy and volemic resuscitation followed by hemodynamic and respiratory recovery. Patients with cardiac tamponade symptoms were re-admitted within an interval from eight to twenty four days (mean 20 days in a thoracic surgery service of a tertiary reference hospital. Diagnostic exams confirmed thickening and pericardial effusion associated with a left pulmonary base

  15. Aspergillus Pericarditis with Tamponade in a Renal Transplant Patient

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    Sylvia Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus pericarditis is a rare and life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients. It has nonspecific clinical manifestations that often mimic other disease entities especially in patients who have extensive comorbidities. Diagnosis is oftentimes delayed and rarely done antemortem. A high degree of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is necessary for evaluation and timely diagnosis. This is a case of Aspergillus pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in a renal transplant patient with liver cirrhosis. Two months after transplant, he developed decompensation of his cirrhosis from hepatitis C, acute cellular rejection, and Kluyvera bacteremia, followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE bacteremia. Four months after transplant, the patient presented with lethargy and fluid overload. He subsequently developed shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. An echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. He had emergent pericardiocentesis that showed purulent drainage. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Amphotericin B was initiated when the pericardial fluid grew mold that was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient quickly decompensated and expired.

  16. Acute tamponade alters subendo- and subepicardial pressure-flow relations differently during vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, J G; Martin, J; Rouleau, J R

    1994-07-01

    Instantaneous diastolic left coronary artery pressure-flow relations (PFR) shift during acute tamponade as pressure surrounding the heart increases. Coronary pressure at zero flow (Pf = 0) on the linear portion of the PFR is the weighted mean of the different myocardial waterfall pressures, the distribution of which varies across the left ventricular wall during diastole. However, instantaneous PFR measured in large epicardial coronary arteries cannot be used to estimate Pf = 0 in the different myocardial tissue layers. During coronary vasodilatation in a capacitance-free model, myocardial PFR differs from subendocardium to subepicardium. Therefore, we studied the effects of acute tamponade during maximal pharmacology induced coronary vasodilatation on myocardial PFR in in situ anesthetized dogs. Tamponade reduced cardiac output, aortic pressure, and coronary blood flow. Results demonstrate that different mechanisms influence distribution of myocardial blood flow during tamponade. Subepicardial vascular resistance is unchanged and the extrapolated Pf = 0 is increased, thereby shifting PFR to a higher intercept on the pressure axis. Subendocardial vascular resistance is increased while the extrapolated Pf = 0 remains unchanged. Results indicate that in the setting of acute tamponade with coronary vasodilatation different mechanisms regulate the distribution of myocardial blood flow: in the subepicardium only outflow pressure increases, whereas in the subendocardium only vascular resistance increases.

  17. Cardiac catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests. However, it is very safe when done by an experienced team. The risks include: Cardiac tamponade Heart attack Injury to a coronary artery Irregular heartbeat Low blood pressure Reaction to the contrast dye Stroke Possible complications ...

  18. Acute Purulent Tuberculosis Pericarditis with Cardiac Tamponade: a Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Benaich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pulmonary localization is the most frequent. However, pericardial including extra- pulmonary disease, can cause fatal complications. A 37 years old man , without pathological history , who consults for emergency mid-thoracic pain associated with dyspnea, preceded by 10 days before a febrile syndrome with night sweats. Clinical examination showed patient in poor general condition, dyspneic and tachycardia. Cardiovascular examination showed spontaneous jugular veins and painful hepatomegaly, auscultation showed muted heart sounds without pericardial friction and breathless. Chest radiography showed cardiomegaly with symmetric edge straightness, electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia at 125bpm, microvoltage and electric alternating QRS complexes. A diffuse ST elevation ascending .Diagnosis of tamponade is suspected, transthoracic echocardiography showed abundance circumferential pericardial effusion measuring 40mm, with prolonged collapse of the right atrium and right ventricle , paradoxical septum , and significant changes in the flow inspiration. Pericardiocentesis ultrasound-guided has allowed a gradual evacuation of 2 liters of a cloudy yellow pericardial fluid, slightly viscous. Direct examination revealed the presence of 14 400 white cells, 99 % are neutrophils with gram-negative bacilli. Research bacillus by PCR and culture in the middle of LOWENSTEIN, later returned negative. Biologically, it is an important infectious syndrome. Taking into account the epidemiological profile of the country, diagnosis tuberculous primary infection tamponade was certain. quadruple anti- tuberculous treatment associated to corticosteroid therapy is instituted, The outcome was good, the patient was asymptomatic, with complete remission, echocardiography control finds no signs suggesting chronic constrictive pericarditis.

  19. An atypical presentation of cardiac tamponade and periorbital swelling in a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Alexandra C; Hymas, Joseph C; Emerson, Lyska L; Ryan, John J

    2017-09-24

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare, necrotizing systemic vasculitis associated with asthma and hypereosinophilia. Its cause and pathophysiology are still being elucidated. We report a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in a 50-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with chest pain, dyspnea at rest, fever, and periorbital swelling. She was found to have significant hypereosinophilia and cardiac tamponade physiology. A biopsy confirmed extensive infiltration of both lungs and pericardium by eosinophils. She did not have any anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis diagnosis does not require the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis may present with different clinical phenotypes, perhaps suggesting two distinct disease etiologies and distinct pathophysiology.

  20. ebb® Complete Tamponade System: effective hemostasis for postpartum hemorrhage

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    McQuivey RW

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block,2 Robert A Massaro3 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Independent Clinical Consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ, USA Abstract: As a leading cause of maternal death, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH remains a worldwide obstetrical problem. However, in most cases, mortality and morbidity can be averted if efforts are immediately undertaken to achieve hemostasis. Uterine balloon tamponade has been shown to provide effective control of PPH and avoid more invasive surgical procedures and even the emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Recent clinical recommendation suggests that balloon tamponade should be considered earlier in the treatment cascade in conjunction with uterotonic agents to ensure hemostasis in the most timely fashion and maximize clinical outcomes. This paper profiles the ebb® Complete Tamponade System, a unique dual-balloon single-use device that was developed specifically for hemostatic management of PPH. The ebb system combines a uterine conforming balloon that can be rapidly deployed with a vaginal balloon that eliminates the need for vaginal packing. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and clinical characterization of this device are presented. Keywords: postpartum hemorrhage, balloon tamponade, hemostasis, maternal bleeding

  1. MRI and intraocular tamponade media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfre, I. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Fabbri, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Avitabile, T. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Biondi, P. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Reibaldi, A. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Pero, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment and injection of intraocular tamponade media (silicone oil, flurosilicone oil, or perfluoro-carbon liquid) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images. The ophthalmic tamponade media showed different signal intensity, according to their chemical structure. Unlike ophthalmoscopy or ultrasonography, MRI showed no oil-related artefact, making possible recognition of recurrent retinal detachment. (orig.)

  2. MRI and intraocular tamponade media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfre, I.; Fabbri, G.; Avitabile, T.; Biondi, P.; Reibaldi, A.; Pero, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment and injection of intraocular tamponade media (silicone oil, flurosilicone oil, or perfluoro-carbon liquid) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images. The ophthalmic tamponade media showed different signal intensity, according to their chemical structure. Unlike ophthalmoscopy or ultrasonography, MRI showed no oil-related artefact, making possible recognition of recurrent retinal detachment. (orig.)

  3. Ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, cardiogenic shock, and death in a patient with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction during transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A El Kady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of mechanical complications related to myocardial infarction has decreased due to various factors over the last few decades. Patients admitted for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI may respond well to thrombolytic therapy before being taken up for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention depending on the facilities available at the specific center. Unfortunately, some patients develop complications of myocardial infarction during hospital stay or postdischarge. We present a patient admitted with acute STEMI responding well to thrombolytic therapy. During transthoracic echocardiography of the patient in Intensive Care Unit, the patient developed ventricular septal rupture, right ventricular free wall rupture, hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, and cardiogenic shock and expired.

  4. Over-diuresis or cardiac tamponade? An unusual case of acute kidney injury and early closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurkeerat Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An 84-year-old man with hypertension and a history of deep venous thrombosis (on warfarin was admitted with shortness of breath presumed to be due to congestive heart failure. Echocardiogram performed the following day showed a low-normal ejection fraction with signs of elevated right-sided pressures but was otherwise normal. He improved with diuretic therapy but after a few days was found to be hypotensive with a concomitant rise in creatinine with decreased urine output. This was felt to be secondary to over-diuresis but he did not respond to small boluses of intravenous fluids as his kidney function continued to worsen and hypotension persisted. He was transferred to the intermediate care unit where a rapid, bedside ultrasound revealed a new, moderate-sized pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. Pericardiocentesis, with removal of 750 cc of frank blood, led to dramatic improvement in blood pressure, kidney function, and urine output. Here, we demonstrate the utility of point-of-care ultrasound in a community hospital setting where urgent echocardiogram is not routinely available. We also report acute kidney injury due to pericardial tamponade reversed with therapeutic pericardiocentesis.

  5. Air versus gas tamponade in retinal detachment surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of air tamponade with gas tamponade in primary vitrectomy for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods We examined the records of 524 cases of 523 patients that underwent primary vitrectomy for RRD with air or sulphur hexafluoride 20% gas

  6. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery, i...... on the coronary vessels, with cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial exudate. In the lighter cases, PCIS may be treated with NSAID and, in the more severe cases, with systemic glucocorticoid which has a prompt effect....

  7. C.A.U.S.E.: Cardiac arrest ultra-sound exam--a better approach to managing patients in primary non-arrhythmogenic cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Caleb; Shuler, Klaus; Hannan, Hashibul; Sonyika, Chionesu; Likourezos, Antonios; Marshall, John

    2008-02-01

    Cardiac arrest is a condition frequently encountered by physicians in the hospital setting including the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit and medical/surgical wards. This paper reviews the current literature involving the use of ultrasound in resuscitation and proposes an algorithmic approach for the use of ultrasound during cardiac arrest. At present there is the need for a means of differentiating between various causes of cardiac arrest, which are not a direct result of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. Identifying the cause of pulseless electrical activity or asystole is important as the underlying cause is what guides management in such cases. This approach, incorporating ultrasound to manage cardiac arrest aids in the diagnosis of the most common and easily reversible causes of cardiac arrest not caused by primary ventricular arrhythmia, namely; severe hypovolemia, tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolus. These four conditions are addressed in this paper using four accepted emergency ultrasound applications to be performed during resuscitation of a cardiac arrest patient with the aim of determining the underlying cause of a cardiac arrest. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest represents the one of the greatest challenges of managing patients with asystole or PEA and accurate determination has the potential to improve management by guiding therapeutic decisions. We include several clinical images demonstrating examples of cardiac tamponade, massive pulmonary embolus, and severe hypovolemia secondary to abdominal aortic aneurysm. In conclusion, this protocol has the potential to reduce the time required to determine the etiology of a cardiac arrest and thus decrease the time between arrest and appropriate therapy.

  8. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Ervin, Ann-Margret

    2009-10-07

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery. During surgery, a tamponade agent is needed to reduce the rate of recurrent retinal detachment. The objective of this review was to evaluate the benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery with various tamponade agents. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin America and Carribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2009. We included randomized clinical trials comparing patients treated with various tamponade agents. Two individuals screened the search results independently. One study with two trials was eligible for inclusion in the review. One study with two trials was included in the review. The first trial randomized 151 eyes to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tamponades; the second trial randomized 271 eyes to receive either silicone oil or perfluropropane (C(3)F(8)) gas tamponades. In patients with RD associated with PVR, pars plana vitrectomy and infusion of either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas appear comparable for a broad variety of cases. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was associated with worse anatomic and visual outcomes than either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas. The use of either C(3)F(8) or silicone oil appears reasonable for most patients with RD associated with PVR. Because there do not appear to be any major differences in outcomes between the two agents, the choice of a tamponade agent should be individualized for each patient.

  9. Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with transesophageal echocardiography following the induction of anesthesia for suspected testicular torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M McHugh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a valuable tool for evaluating hemodynamic instability in patients under general anesthesia. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with complaints of testicular pain concerning for testicular torsion. After induction of general anesthesia for scrotal exploration and possible orchiopexy, the patient developed severe and persistent hypotension. Using intraoperative TEE, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was made, and an emergent pericardial window was performed.

  10. Air Versus Sulfur Hexafluoride Gas Tamponade in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: A Fellow Eye Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marchtaler, Philipp V; Weller, Julia M; Kruse, Friedrich E; Tourtas, Theofilos

    2018-01-01

    To perform a fellow eye comparison of outcomes and complications when using air or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas as a tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). One hundred thirty-six eyes of 68 consecutive patients who underwent uneventful DMEK in both eyes for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were air tamponade (80% of the anterior chamber volume) in the first eye and 20% SF6 gas tamponade (80% of the anterior chamber volume) in the second eye; and same donor tissue culture condition in both eyes. All eyes received laser iridotomy on the day before DMEK. Main outcome measures included preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, corneal volume, rebubbling rate, and rate of postoperative pupillary block caused by the air/gas bubble. Thirteen of 68 eyes (19.1%) with an air tamponade needed rebubbling compared with 4 of 68 eyes (5.9%) with an SF6 gas tamponade (P = 0.036). Postoperative pupillary block necessitating partial release of air/gas occurred in 1 eye (1.5%) with an air tamponade and 3 eyes (4.4%) with an SF6 gas tamponade (P = 0.301). There were no significant differences in preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and corneal volume within 3-month follow-up. Our results confirm the previously reported better graft adhesion when using an SF6 gas tamponade in DMEK without increased endothelial cell toxicity. The rate of pupillary block in eyes with an SF6 gas tamponade was comparable to that with an air tamponade. As a consequence, we recommend using SF6 gas as the tamponade in DMEK.

  11. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  12. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  13. Effectiveness of computed tomography attenuation values in characterization of pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Mehmet Serkan; Özcan Çetin, Elif Hande; Özdemir, Mustafa; Topaloğlu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydoğdu, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) attenuation values in the characterization of pericardial effusion. This study consisted of 96 patients with pericardial effusion who underwent pericardiocentesis. For further diagnostic evaluation of pericardial effusion, all the patients were assessed by thorax CT. CT attenuation values were measured from at least 5 different areas of pericardial fluid by specifying the largest region of interest. The average of these measurements was computed and considered as the CT attenuation value of the patient. The patients were classified into two groups: patients with transudative pericardial effusion and those with exudative pericardial effusion. CT attenuation values were significantly higher in patients with exudative pericardial effusion than in those with transudative pericardial effusion [14.85±10.7 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 1.13±4.3 HU, peffusion. In addition, a cut-off value of 6.5 HU had 71.4% sensitivity and 72.3% specificity for the prediction of cardiac tamponade. In patients with pericardial effusion, CT attenuation values seem to be correlated with the characterization parameters of the fluid and may distinguish exudative pericardial effusion from transudative pericardial effusion. This parameter was also found to be a predictor of cardiac tamponade. CT attenuation values can be a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of patients with pericardial effusion.

  14. Derrame pericárdico con inminente taponamiento cardiaco secundario a inhibidor de la tirosina quinasa: Reporte de un caso Pericardial effusion secondary to tyrosine kinase inhibitor with imminence of cardiac tamponade: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F Buitrago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La leucemia es una enfermedad maligna que se caracteriza por una proliferación no controlada de una clona iniciada en una etapa precoz de la diferenciación linfoide. Es importante determinar si hay una alteración genética conocida como cromosoma Filadelfia, para pronóstico y tratamiento. El imatinib, un inhibidor de la tirosina kinasa, tiene buena respuesta terapéutica y pocos efectos adversos. Uno de frecuente aparición es la serositis manifestada como derrame pleural, aunque es de menor incidencia asociada con derrame pericárdico. El tratamiento se debe individualizar, pero en caso de inminente taponamiento cardiaco se realiza pericardiocentesis.Leukemia is a malignant disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of a clone initiated at an early stage of lymphoid differentiation. It is important to determine if there is a genetic disorder known as the Philadelphia chromosome, for both prognosis and treatment. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor has good therapeutic response and few adverse effects. An adverse event is the frequent occurrence of serositis manifested as pleural effusion, but its association with pericardial effusion has a lower incidence. Treatment should be individualized, but in case of imminent cardiac tamponade pericardiocentesis is performed.

  15. CT-Guided Drainage of Pericardial Effusion after Open Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin Abdelrehim; Alsubhi, Mohammed; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Vogl, Thomas J; Kaltenbach, Benjamin; Soliman, Hazem Hamed; Hassan, Wael Eman; Abolyazid, Sherif Maher; Naguib, Nagy N

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided drainage of the pericardial effusion in patients after cardiac surgery. The study included 128 consecutive patients (82 males, 46 females; mean age 66.6 years, SD: 4.2) complicated by pericardial effusion or hemopericardium after cardiac surgeries between June 2008 and June 2016. The medical indication for therapeutic pericardiocentesis in all patients was hemodynamic instability caused by pericardial effusion. The treatment criteria for intervention were evidence of pericardial tamponade with ejection fraction (EF) effusion was 260 ml (range 80-900 ml; standard deviation [SD]: ±70). Directly after pericardiocentesis, there was a significant improvement of the ejection fraction to 40-55% (mean: 45%; SD: ±5; p effusion drainage was 10%. The drainage was applied anteriorly (preventricular) in 39 of 128 (30.5%), retroventricularly in 33 of 128 (25.8%), and infracardiac in 56 of 128 (43.8%). Recurrence rate of pericardial effusion after removal of drains was 4.7% (67/128). Complete drainage was achieved in retroventricular and infracardiac positioning of the catheter (p effusion is a minimally invasive technique for the release of the tamponade effect of the effusion and improvement of cardiac output.

  16. Internal limiting membrane peeling and gas tamponade for myopic foveoschisis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Zhao, Lu; Yin, Yi; Li, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Xiufen; You, Ran; Wang, Jialin; Zhang, Youjing; Wang, Hui; Du, Ran; Wang, Ningli; Zhan, Siyan; Wang, Yanling

    2017-09-08

    Myopic foveoschisis (MF) is among the leading causes of visual loss in high myopia. However, it remains controversial whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or gas tamponade is necessary treatment option for MF. PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP databases were systematically reviewed. Outcome indicators were myopic foveoschisis resolution rate, visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Nine studies that included 239 eyes were selected. The proportion of resolution of foveoschisis was higher in ILM peeling group than non-ILM peeling group (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.06-4.35; P = 0.03). The proportion of postoperative complications was higher in Tamponade group than non-Tamponade group (OR = 10.81, 95% CI: 1.26-93.02; P = 0.03). However, the proportion of visual acuity improvement (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 0.56-4.80; P = 0.37) between ILM peeling group and non-ILM peeling group and the proportion of resolution of foveoschisis (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 0.76-4.28; P = 0.18) between Tamponade group and non-Tamponade group were similar. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling could contribute to better resolution of myopic foveoschisis than non-peeling, however it does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and postoperative complications. Vitrectomy with gas tamponade is associated with more complications than non-tamponade and does not significantly influence the proportion of visual acuity improvement and resolution of myopic foveoschisis.

  17. Pericardial tamponade complicated by interventional management for Budd-Chiari syndrome: clinical analysis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luxi; Zu Maoheng; Wu Jinping; Xu Hao; Jiao Xudong; Chen Zhengkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the cases and treatment of pericardial tamponade (PT) occurred in the interventional management for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). Methods: During the period from 1990 to 2006, interventional treatment was performed in 812 patients with BCS. Pericardial tamponade occurred in nine patients during the period of interventional treatment. The clinical data, including angiographic findings, clinical symptoms, management and outcomes, of the nine patients were retrospectively analyzed. The possible causes of pericardial tamponade were discussed. Results: Of the nine patients occurring pericardial tamponade, successful treatment was obtained in eight and death occurred in one. The lesions of BCS in the nine cases included inferior vena cava obstruction type (n=7), hepatic venous obstruction type (n=1) and mixed type (n=1). Pericardial tamponade was caused by mistakenly puncturing into pericardium (n=5), mistakenly puncturing together with laceration of pericardium by balloon (n=3), and breaking of pericardium by displaced stent (n=1). Conventional pericardicentesis was employed in one case, surgery was carried out in three cases, and infra-xiphoid catheterization and drainage using Seldinger technique was performed in two cases. Conservative treatment was adopted in one case and aspiration through the wrongly inserted catheter was tried in one case. In the remaining one case, aspiration through the wrongly inserted catheter together with infra-xiphoid catheterization and drainage by using Seldinger technique was carried out. Conclusion: The pericardial tamponade is an severe complication occurred in the interventional management for Budd-Chiari syndrome, although it is rarely seen. Preoperative prevention, prompt detection and rational treatment are the keys avoid serious consequences. (authors)

  18. Cardiac mesothelial papillary hyperplasia in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejczyk, Shannon G; Burnum, Anne L; Brown, Corrie C; Sakamoto, Kaori; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-05-01

    Mesothelial papillary hyperplasia (MPH) has been described as an incidental finding on the epicardial surface of clinically normal laboratory Beagle dogs. We describe MPH in 4 dogs diagnosed with acute cardiac tamponade (1 case) or chronic cardiac disease (3 cases). Cardiac MPH appeared as distinct, soft, irregular villous plaques on the epicardial surface of the auricles and occasionally the ventricles. Histologically, areas of MPH were composed of multiple papillary fronds arising from the epicardial surface and projecting into the pericardial space. Fronds were covered by cuboidal and occasionally vacuolated mesothelial cells and were supported by loose fibrovascular stroma with various degrees of edema and inflammation. Although these may represent incidental findings with no clinical significance, the gross appearance warrants differentiation from other conditions. Additional insight into the pathogenesis of MPH is needed to fully understand its significance in the face of concurrent cardiac disease.

  19. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  20. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Neves Mancuso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.

  1. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves, E-mail: frederico.mancuso@grupofleury.com.br [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Medicina de Urgência - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira [Disciplina de Medicina de Urgência - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.

  2. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy

  3. A randomized trial of early versus delayed mediastinal drain removal after cardiac surgery using silastic and conventional tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Emmanuel; Miller, Corey S.; Jensen, Henrik; Basmadjian, Arsène; Bouchard, Denis; Carrier, Michel; Perrault, Louis P.; Cartier, Raymond; Pellerin, Michel; Demers, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Mediastinal drainage following cardiac surgery with traditional large-bore plastic tubes can be painful and cumbersome. This study was designed to determine whether prolonged drainage (5 days) with a silastic tube decreased the incidence of significant pericardial effusion and tamponade following aortic or valvular surgery. METHODS One hundred and fifty patients undergoing valvular or aortic surgery in a tertiary cardiac surgery institution were randomized to receive a conventional mediastinal tube plus a silastic Blake drain (n = 75), or two conventional tubes (n = 75). Conventional drains were removed on postoperative day (POD) 1, while Blake drains were removed on POD 5. The primary end-point was the combined incidence of significant pericardial effusion (≥15 mm) or tamponade through POD 5. Secondary end-points included total mediastinal drainage, postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) and pain. RESULTS Analysis was performed for 67 patients in the Blake group and 73 in the conventional group. There was no difference between the two groups in the combined end-point of significant effusion or tamponade (7.4 vs 8.3%, P = 0.74), or in the incidence of AF (47 vs 46%, P = 0.89). Mean 24-h drainage was greater in the Blake group than in the conventional group (749 ± 444 ml vs 645 ± 618 ml, P tubes is safe and does not increase postoperative pain. There was no difference between the Blake and conventional drains with regard to significant pericardial effusion or tamponade in this cohort; however, this conclusion is limited by the low overall incidence of the primary outcome in this cohort. PMID:23575759

  4. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  5. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Condom Tamponade to Manage Massive Obstetric Hemorrhage at a Tertiary Center in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasabe, Rakesh; Gupta, Kumud; Rathode, Pallavi

    2016-10-01

    Conventionally postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as blood loss of more than 500 ml following vaginal delivery and 1000 ml following a cesarean section [Pritchard et al. in Am J Obstet Gynecol 84(10):1271-1282, (1962)]. Another definition labels PPH as any blood loss which causes a 10 % drop in hematocrit [Combs et al. in Obstet Gynecol 77:69-76, (1991)] or which threatens the hemodynamic stability of the patient and necessitates blood transfusion [Prendiville et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000007, (2000)]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of condom tamponade in the management of massive obstetric hemorrhage. To evaluate the efficacy of a condom as a tamponade for intrauterine pressure to stop massive PPH. This prospective study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of NIMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, between December 2013 and February 2015. With aseptic precautions, a sterile rubber catheter fitted with a condom was introduced into the uterus. The condom was inflated with 250-500 ml normal saline according to need. Vaginal bleeding was observed, and further inflation was stopped when bleeding ceased. In all but 2 (94.44 %) the cases, postpartum bleeding was stopped within 10 min of creation of tamponade. On an average, 350 ml of normal saline was required to create adequate tamponade to stop the bleeding. Use of condom tamponade can effectively help in reducing both maternal morbidity and mortality associated with PPH. Our study encourages use of condom tamponade which is efficient, cost-effective, easily available and requires lesser skills as compared to the traditional surgical procedures.

  7. Pericardial effusion complicated by tamponade: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pericardial effusion complicated by tamponade: a case report. Michele Montandon, Rae Wake, Stephen Raimon. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  8. Effect of early vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade for severe infectious traumatized endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the relations of clinical efficacy and surgical timing of vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade for severe infectious traumatized endophthalmitis.METHODS: Totally 59 patients(59 eyeswith severe infectious traumatized endophthalmitis accepted vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade. Patients were divided into two groups by different surgical timing. Group A accepted operation in 24 hours. Group B accepted operation 24 hours after injury. Retina status during operation, clinical efficacy and best-corrected visual acuity were observed and recorded. RESULTS: The cases of early operation group got lesser retina injury and higher efficacy and better best-corrected visual acuity. CONCLUSION:Vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade is an effective way to cure severe infected traumatized endophthalmitis. Early surgical treatment is the key to achieve better effect.

  9. Subendocardial hemorrhages in a case of extrapercardial cardiac tamponade: A possible mechanism of appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subendocardial hemorrhages are grossly visible bleedings in the inner surface of the left ventricle, the interventricular septum, and the opposing papillary muscles and adjacent columnae carneae of the free wall of the ventricle. These are commonly seen in sudden profound hypotension either from severe blood loss from “shock” in the widest sense and, even more often, in combination with brain injuries. Case Outline. We present a case of a 38-year-old man, injured as a car driver in a frontal collision, who died c. 45 minutes after the accident. The autopsy revealed severe chest trauma, including multiple right-sided direct rib fractures with the torn parietal pleura and right-sided pneumothorax, several right lung ruptures, and a rupture of one of the lobar bronchi with pneumomediastinum, and prominent subcutaneous emphysema of the trunk, shoulders, neck and face. The patchy subendocardial hemorrhage of the left ventricle was observed. The cause of death is attributed to severe blunt force chest trauma. Conclusion. We postulate pneumomediastinum leading to extrapericardial tamponade as the underlying mechanism of this subendocardial hemorrhage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  10. Cardiac tamponade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test may be done at the bedside in emergency cases. A physical exam may show: Blood pressure that ... Pericardiocentesis. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  11. Final anatomic and visual outcomes appear independent of duration of silicone oil intraocular tamponade in complex retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Maedbh; McElnea, Elizabeth; Murtagh, Patrick; Stephenson, Kirk; Harris, Elaine; Connell, Paul; Keegan, David

    2018-01-01

    To report anatomic and visual outcomes following silicone oil removal in a cohort of patients with complex retinal detachment, to determine association between duration of tamponade and outcomes and to compare patients with oil removed and those with oil in situ in terms of demographic, surgical and visual factors. We reported a four years retrospective case series of 143 patients with complex retinal detachments who underwent intraocular silicone oil tamponade. Analysis between anatomic and visual outcomes, baseline demographics, duration of tamponade and number of surgical procedures were carried out using Fisher's exact test and unpaired two-tailed t -test. One hundred and six patients (76.2%) had undergone silicone oil removal at the time of review with 96 patients (90.6%) showing retinal reattachment following oil removal. Duration of tamponade was not associated with final reattachment rate or with a deterioration in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Patients with oil removed had a significantly better baseline and final BCVA compared to those under oil tamponade ( P =0.0001, <0.0001 respectively). Anatomic and visual outcomes in this cohort are in keeping with those reported in the literature. Favorable outcomes were seen with oil removal but duration of oil tamponade does not affect final attachment rate with modern surgical techniques and should be managed on a case by case basis.

  12. Pericardial Tamponade Following CT-Guided Lung Biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Montgomery, Mark; Reiter, Charles G.; Culp, William C.

    2008-01-01

    While not free from hazards, CT-guided biopsy of the lung is a safe procedure, with few major complications. Despite its safety record, however, potentially fatal complications do rarely occur. We report a case of pericardial tamponade following CT-guided lung biopsy. Rapid diagnosis and therapy allowed for complete patient recovery. Physicians who perform this procedure should be aware of the known complications and be prepared to treat them appropriately.

  13. Elastic stability of silicone ferrofluid internal tamponade (SFIT) in retinal detachment surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltairas, P.A. E-mail: pvolter@cs.uoi.gr; Fotiadis, D.I.; Massalas, C.V

    2001-07-01

    It has been argued that silicone ferrofluid internal tamponade (SFIT) can provide (360 deg.) tamponade of the retina in retinal detachment surgery. Provided that the produced SFIT is biocompatible, exact knowledge is needed of its elastic stability in the magnetic field produced by the semi-solid magnetic silicon band (MSB) used as a scleral buckle. We propose a quantitative, phenomenological model to estimate the critical magnetic field produced by the MSB that 'closes' retinal tears and results in the reattachment of the retina. The magnetic 'deformation' of SFIT is modeled in accordance with the deformation of a ferrofluid droplet in an external magnetic field.

  14. DFPE, PARTIALLY FLUORINATED ETHER: A Novel Approach for Experimental Intravitreal Tamponade.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Santos, Rodrigo A V

    2012-07-16

    PURPOSE:: To evaluate decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether (DFPE) as a vitreous tamponade by examining ocular tolerance in rabbits\\' eyes. METHODS:: Thirteen rabbits were divided into 4 groups after mechanical vitrectomy and were followed up to 12 months. The tamponade remained in the eye for 6 months in Group 1 (DFPE) and Group 3 (DFPE and silicone oil) and for 12 months in Group 2 (DFPE). Group 4 served as control. RESULTS:: In Groups 1, 2, and 3, dispersion of the fluid appeared 2 weeks postoperatively. Posterior subcapsular cataracts appeared in rabbits\\' eyes with large fills of DFPE (>50%). Histologic findings in Groups 1 and 2 showed no detectable change in outer nuclear layer thickness. Except for some vacuolations, the inner retina was well preserved in all injected rabbits\\' eyes. On the electroretinography of injected rabbits\\' eyes, there was no effect on the a wave amplitude and b wave implicit time, but the b wave amplitude was elevated with statistical significance (P < 0.001) at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively but with no statistical significance (P > 0.05) after that period when compared with Group 4 and unoperated fellow rabbits\\' eyes of each group. CONCLUSION:: Decafluoro-di-n-pentyl ether demonstrated minimum adverse effects in retinal rabbits; further studies are needed before clinical use as short-term tamponade.

  15. Densiron® 68 as an intraocular tamponade for complex inferior retinal detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain RN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumana N Hussain, Somnath BanerjeeLeicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKIntroduction: Densiron® 68 is a high-density liquid used to tamponade inferior retinal detachments. We present a case series of 12 patients treated with Densiron as an intraocular tamponade agent.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes in 12 patients was carried out. The primary endpoint was anatomic reattachment of the retina following removal of Densiron oil.Results: All patients had inferior detachments; 33% had associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Densiron was utilized as a primary agent in five patients (42%; the remaining patients had prior unsuccessful surgery for retinal reattachment, including pars plana vitrectomy, cryotherapy, laser, encirclement, gas (C3F8 or C2F6, or silicone oil. Eleven patients (91% had successful reattachment of the retina at 3 months following removal of Densiron; one patient had extensive PVR, total retinal detachment, preretinal macula fibrosis, and chronic hypotony, and surgical intervention was unsuccessful. Six patients (50% had raised intraocular pressure (IOP, resolving in the majority of cases following Densiron removal; two patients had long-term raised IOP requiring topical or surgical therapy. Of the six phakic patients, 50% developed significant cataract in the operated eye. Of those with successful retinal reattachment, visual outcome was variable, with 36% patients gaining two to four lines on Snellen, 27% remaining objectively the same, and 36% losing one to two lines.Conclusion: The anatomic success rate is high (91% in patients requiring Densiron tamponade for inferior retinal detachments with or without evidence of PVR either as a primary or secondary intervention. A common complication is raised IOP; however, this most often resolves following removal of the oil.Keywords: intraocular tamponade, silicone oil, retinal detachment, retinal reattachments

  16. Cardiac surgery in a patient with immunological thrombocytopenic purpura: Complications and precautions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chowdhry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP patients are at high-risk for bleeding complications during and after cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass. We report a patient with ITP with severe coronary artery disease and mitral valve regurgitation who underwent uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement. Three weeks later, the patient was readmitted in a very low general condition with signs of pericardial tamponade. We describe our experience of managing the case.

  17. Comparison of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and Air Tamponade in Noniridectomized Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Sorkin, Nir; Boutin, Tanguy; Showail, Mahmood; Borovik, Armand; Jamshidi, Farzad; Chan, Clara C; Rootman, David S

    2018-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 20% sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) and air tamponade in patients who underwent noniridectomized Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent DMEK with either air or SF6 tamponade: 41 eyes received air tamponade (group 1) and 41 received SF6 tamponade (group 2). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and complications including graft detachment and elevated intraocular pressure were compared. The mean follow-up time was 8 ± 4 months in group 1 and 3 ± 2 months in group 2. Mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 1.12 ± 0.88 to 0.64 ± 0.78 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in group 1 (P = 0.009) and from 1.00 ± 0.78 to 0.62 ± 0.53 logMAR in group 2 (P = 0.006). The graft detachment rate was 39% (16 eyes) in group 1 and 42% (17 eyes) in group 2 (P = 0.822). The rate of graft detachment larger than one third of the graft area was 17% in group 1 and 20% in group 2 (P = 0.775). Rebubbling was performed in 26.8% and 20% of eyes in group 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.43). Average endothelial cell loss was 32% in group 1 and 33% in group 2 (P = 0.83). In the immediate postoperative period, elevated intraocular pressure was observed in 2 eyes (5%) in group 1 and in 4 eyes (10%) in group 2 (P = 0.4). There was 1 primary graft failure in each group. Use of air with it being readily available and short acting is a good method of Descemet membrane tamponade in noniridectomized DMEK.

  18. The Role of Heart Team Approach in Penetrating Cardiac Trauma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Cottini

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating cardiac trauma has been increasing in clinical experience and is joined to important morbidity and mortality. A case of a 38-year-old female with history of postpartum depression was reported, admitted to our department for cardiac tamponade due to penetrating self-inflicted multiple stab wound of the chest complicated by rupture of anterior left ventricular wall and traumatic ventricular septal defect. Following the unstable hemodynamic instability, a combined therapeutic strategy was chosen: surgery and transcatheter implantation to correct free wall ventricle damage and traumatic ventricular septal defect, respectively.

  19. Getting to the heart of hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Grace, Julie; Ahmed, Mohamed; Mulvihill, Niall; Feeney, Eoin R; Crowley, Rachel K

    2017-04-01

    A 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with hypopituitarism following an acute presentation with cardiac tamponade and hyponatraemia, having recently been investigated for a pericardial effusion. Secondary hypothyroidism is a rare cause of pericardial effusion and tamponade, but an important differential to consider. Management requires appropriate hormone replacement and, critically, a low threshold for commencing stress dose steroids. Clinical signs classically associated with cardiac tamponade are frequently absent in cases of tamponade due to primary and secondary hypothyroidism, and the relatively volume deplete state of secondary hypoadrenalism in hypopituitarism may further mask an evolving tamponade, as the rise in right atrial pressure is less marked even in the presence of large effusion. Our case demonstrates the importance of a high index of suspicion for cardiac tamponade in this patient cohort, even in the absence of clinical signs, and for measuring both thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxine levels when evaluating a pericardial effusion. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  20. Pericardial tamponade and pancytopenia as the first manifestation of mixed connective tissue disorder and its complete reversal with corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 25-year-old lady who presented to our department with complaints of easy fatigability and shortness of breath since one week. She had a history of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Examination revealed scleroderma like skin changes and pericardial friction rub. Investigations revealed high titer of anti-U1 RNP antibodies along with co-existing pancytopenia. Chest x-ray and echocardiography confirmed pericardial tamponade. Patient was diagnosed as having mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD and she was started on high dose prednisolone, which led to complete reversal of pancytopenia and pericardial tamponade after 1 month of treatment. There are only 6 reported cases of pericardial tamponade in a patient with MCTD, and none of them had pancytopenia. Present case highlights the need to investigate the patient of pericardial tamponade for MCTD, especially in the presence of pancytopenia and relevant clinical history, as prompt treatment with corticosteroids can avoid invasive procedures like pericardiocentesis.

  1. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy for impending cardiac tamponade in immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlem, P. G.; von Rosenstiel, I. A.; Lam, J.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a boy with Kawasaki disease (KD) whose clinical course was marked by a rapid improvement upon treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and oral aspirin, which - within 14 days - was followed by the development of a large pericardial effusion with symptoms of impending cardiac

  2. Efficacy of Intrauterine Bakri Balloon Tamponade in Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Cho

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the predictive factors for the use of intrauterine balloon insertion and to evaluate the efficacy and factors affecting failure of uterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon during cesarean section for abnormal placentation.We reviewed the medical records of 137 patients who underwent elective cesarean section for placenta previa between July 2009 and March 2014. Cesarean section and Bakri balloon insertion were performed by a single qualified surgeon. The Bakri balloon was applied when blood loss during cesarean delivery exceeded 1,000 mL.Sixty-four patients (46.7% required uterine balloon tamponade during cesarean section due to postpartum bleeding from the lower uterine segment, of whom 50 (78.1% had placenta previa totalis. The overall success rate was 75% (48/64 for placenta previa patients. Previous cesarean section history, anterior placenta, peripartum platelet count, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy all significantly differed according to balloon success or failure (all p<0.05. The drainage amount over 1 hour was 500 mL (20-1200 mL in the balloon failure group and 60 mL (5-500 mL in the balloon success group (p<0.01.Intrauterine tamponade with a Bakri balloon is an adequate adjunct management for postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean section for placenta previa to preserve the uterus. This method is simple to apply, non-invasive, and inexpensive. However, possible factors related to failure of Bakri balloon tamponade for placenta previa patients such as prior cesarean section history, anterior placentation, thrombocytopenia, presence of DIC at the time of catheter insertion, and catheter drainage volume more than 500 mL within 1 hour of catheter placement should be recognized, and the next-line management should be prepared in advance.

  3. Spontaneous Right Coronary Artery Rupture and Acute Cardiac Tamponade in Behçet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Bozbay, Mehmet; Kayacıoğlu, İlyas; Koçoğulları, Cevdet; Bozbay, Ayfer Yıldız; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Gürkan, Ufuk; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Coronary involvement in Behçet's disease is extremely rare and it can bring devastating consequences when it occurs. In this report, we present a 29-year-old male patient with Behçet's disease who developed rapidly changing and progressive coronary artery involvements under medical treatment. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical coherence tomography can be used in evaluation of morphological and functional results after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery with different tamponade agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tat'yana Andreevna Avanesova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT findings are helpful in assessing the cause of reduced visual acuity (VA after successful rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD surgery. Objective: To study anatomical and functional results after successful RRD surgery with gas-air mixture or silicone oil (SO tamponade using OCT. Materials and methods. 70 patients were divided into 2 groups: group I (n = 34 - gas-air mixture tamponade; group II (n = 36 - SO tamponade. At baseline, were no significant differences by gender, age and VA between the groups. Follow-up was 12 months after the surgery. OCT was performed with the Cirrus HD-OCT 4000, CARL ZEISS MEDITEC, USA. Results: VA increased significantly in both groups. Regression analysis showed lower VA in group II and statistically significant association between VA and IS/OS and ELM defects. Сonclusions. There is a strong association of disruption of the IS/OS and ELM with reduced vision after successful retinal detachment surgery. Gas-air mixture tamponade showed some benefits in comparison with SO tamponade.

  5. Treatment of acute infectious endophthalmitis by vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe theclinical effect of acute infectious endophthalmitis by vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade.METHODS:The clinical data of 23 patients(23 eyesdiagnosed with acute endophthalmitis in our hospital from January, 2008 to February, 2013 were retrospectively analyzed, excluding the patients with intraocular foreign body. All the patients were undergone routine closed three-channel vitrectomy with silicon oil, including 6 eyes(complicated with traumatic cataractwith Ⅰ lensectomy and Ⅰ intraocular lens(IOLimplantation, 3 eyes(complicated with traumatic cataractwith Ⅰ lensectomy and Ⅱ IOL implantation, 4 eyes(complicated with cataract during silicon oil tamponadewith Ⅱ lensectomy and Ⅱ IOL implantation, 5 eyes(4 eyes with traumatic endophthalmitis and 1 eye with entophthalmia caused by glaucoma filtering bleb leakingreserved lens, 1 eye(post-cataract surgery entophthalmiawith Ⅰ IOL explantation and Ⅱ IOL implantation, and 4 eyes(post-cataract surgery entophthalmiareserved lens. RESULTS:Within follow-up 6~24mo, inflammation after vitrectomy surgery with silicon oil tamponade was controlled in all the 23 patients(23 eyes. Final visual acuity was improved in 21 eyes(91%. The intraocular pressure(IOPof 2 eyes were over 30mmHg. IOP of 1 eye was controlled after silicon oil removed, and IOP of the other eye after silcon oil extraction was still high and needed to be controlled by IOP lowering drugs. CONCLUSION: The patients of acuteinfectious endophthalmitis should undergo vitrectomy with silicon oil tamponade as early as possible, which can effectively controli endophthalmitis and improve visual acuity.

  6. Silicone oil migration along the optic nerve after intraocular tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo Vaamonde, Á; Ibáñez Muñoz, D; Salceda Artola, J; Garatea Aznar, P; Zalazar, R; Yanguas Barea, N

    2016-11-01

    We present a case of silicone oil migration trough the optic nerve in a diabetic patient with retinal detachment and review the etiologic mechanism and clinical implications. Intracranial silicone oil migration is an uncommon complication associated with silicone oil tamponade. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of 10% SF6 Gas Compared to 100% Air Tamponade in Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Szurman, Peter; Jung, Sacha; Boden, Karl Thomas; Wahl, Silke; Haus, Arno; Boden, Katrin; Januschowski, Kai

    2018-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes following Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with 100% air tamponade versus 10% sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) tamponade. Retrospective analysis of 108 consecutive DMEK cases subdivided by anterior chamber tamponade with 54 eyes receiving 10% SF 6 and 54 eyes receiving 100% air injection. A post-hoc matched analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups. The main outcome measurements were the complication rate, including intra- and postoperative complications and graft detachment rate requiring re-bubbling. Clinical outcome included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell count (ECC), and central corneal thickness (CCT) measured 1, 3, and 6 months after DMEK surgery. The graft detachment rate with consecutive re-bubbling was 18.5% in the air group and 22.2% in the SF 6 group (p = 0.2). Remaining small peripheral graft detachments with a clear cornea occurred more often in the 100% air group (air: 22.2%; 12/54, 6/12 inferior compared to SF 6 : 7.4%; 4/54, 2/4 inferior; p = 0.06). The primary graft failure rate was comparable between the two groups. No complete graft detachment occurred. Outcome results for BCVA, ECC, and CCT at all follow-up time points were comparable between the two groups. The clinical outcomes (including re-bubbling rate, primary graft failure rate, and endothelial cell loss) were comparable with 100% air versus 10% SF 6 tamponade, whereas other studies suggest that a higher SF 6 concentration (20%) may result in a lower re-bubbling rate.

  8. Visual and anatomical success with short-term macular tamponade and autologous platelet concentrate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhern, M G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether, in eyes treated for macular hole by vitrectomy and autologous platelet injection, short-term tamponade with SF6 gas was as effective as longer tamponade with C3F8 gas. METHODS: Patients in group 1 (n=31) had vitrectomy, injection of platelet concentrate, and 16% C3F8 gas\\/air exchange. Patients in group 2 (n=31) were similarly treated, except that 23% SF6 gas was used. Group 1 patients were required to posture prone for 2-4 weeks, group 2 for 6 days. RESULTS: All patients had 3 months\\' follow-up. Postoperatively, visual acuity improved faster in group 2. However, the final mean improvement in logMAR acuity was similar in both groups. Intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes occurred in 12 patients in group 2 and in 17 patients in group 1. Posterior subcapsular cataract (PSCC) occurred in 55% of cases in group 1 and in just 37% in group 2. The rate of anatomical success in group 1 was 96.7%, and in group 2, 93.5% (P=1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of SF6 gas, platelet concentrate, and short-term prone posturing gave a degree of anatomical and visual success comparable to that of the group which had longer tamponade. Although no differences were statistically significant, several trends did emerge; in group 2, patients recovered visual acuity faster, had fewer IOP spikes, and there were fewer cases of PSCC formation.

  9. Preliminary study of the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides for use as an intraocular tamponading agent in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Vincent J; Laurent, Camille; Sakr, Frédéric; Regnier, Alain; Tricoire, Cyrielle; Cases, Olivier; Kozyraki, Renata; Douet, Jean-Yves; Pagot-Mathis, Véronique

    2017-08-01

    To date, only silicone oils and gases have the appropriate characteristics for use in vitreo-retinal surgery as vitreous substitutes with intraocular tamponading properties. This preliminary study evaluated the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for use as a tamponading agent in minipigs. In 15 minipigs, 15 right eyes underwent vitrectomies followed by injection of MCT tamponade (day 1). Two groups were defined. In Group A (ten eyes), the surgical procedure before MCT injection included induced rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retina flattening, and retinopexy. In Group B (five eyes), MCT was injected without inducing RRD; in these eyes, MCT was removed on day 90. Pigs were sacrificed on day 45 (Group A) or 120 (Group B). Eyes were examined on days 1, 5, 15, and 45 in both groups and on days 90 and 120 in Group B. In Group B only, we performed bilateral electroretinography examinations on days 1 and 120, and histological examinations of MCTs and controlateral eyes were performed after sacrifice. In Group A eyes (n = 9; one eye was non-assessable), on day 45, the retina was flat in seven eyes and two RRD detachments were observed in insufficiently MCT-filled eyes. In Group B, electroretinography showed no significant differences between MCT eyes and controls on days 1 or 120. Histological analyses revealed no signs of retinal toxicity. This study showed that MCT tamponade seems to be effective and safe; however, additional studies are needed before it becomes commonly used as a tamponading agent in humans.

  10. IOP measurement in silicone oil tamponade eyes by Corvis ST tonometer, Goldmann applanation tonometry and non-contact tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Lin; Bian, Ailing; Zhou, Qi

    2018-04-01

    To compare the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) of eyes following pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with intravitreal silicone oil (SO) tamponade by Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CST), Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and non-contact tonometry (NCT). Thirty-eight participants who had undergone PPV combined with SO tamponade to treat vitreoretinal diseases were enrolled. Postoperative IOP measurements were obtained using CST, NCT and GAT. Inter-device agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. The correlation coefficient was used to describe the potential postoperative factors affecting the postoperative IOP differences between each device. Bland-Altman analysis revealed the bias between CST and GAT, between CST and NCT, and between GAT and NCT to be -0.2, 2.1 and 2.4 mmHg, respectively. CST and GAT correlated well with each other. NCT values were lower than those of GAT and CST (all p contact method for measuring postoperative IOP in SO tamponade eyes.

  11. Rebubbling in Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty: Influence of Pressure and Duration of the Intracameral Air Tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Daniel; Wilkemeyer, Ina; Schroeter, Jan; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Torun, Necip

    2017-06-01

    To explore the impact of intracameral air tamponade pressure and duration on graft attachment and rebubbling rates. A prospective, interventional, nonrandomized study. setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. One hundred seventeen patients who underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Intraocular pressure (IOP) at the end of the surgery, immediately after filling the anterior chamber with air, categorized into low (20 mm Hg), and the time until partial removal of the air. Rebubbling rates and endothelial cell density over a 3-month follow-up period analyzed by a multivariable Cox regression model and an analysis of covariance model. Thirty-two patients required a rebubbling (27% [95% CI 19%-35%]). Nine patients required more than 1 rebubbling (7% [95% CI 3%-12%]). Compared with normal IOP, lower (HR 8.98 [95% CI 1.07-75.41]) and higher IOP (HR 10.63 [95% CI 1.44-78.27]) increased the risk of requiring a rebubbling (P = .006). Independent of the IOP, an air tamponade duration beyond 2 hours reduced the risk of rebubbling (HR 0.36 [95% CI 0.18-0.71, P = .003]). One month after surgery, the mean endothelial cell loss was 13% (95% CI 2%-25%) and 23% (95% CI 17%-29%) in the group with air tamponade duration of below and above 2 hours, respectively (P = .126). At 3 months after surgery, it was 31% (95% CI 17%-42%) and 42% (95% CI 32%-52%) in the respective groups (P = .229). A postsurgical air tamponade of at least 2 hours with an IOP within the physiological range could help to reduce rebubbling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Full Thickness Macular Hole Closure after Exchanging Silicone-Oil Tamponade with C3F8 without Posturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Xirou

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of macular hole closure after the exchange of a silicone-oil tamponade with gas C3F8 14%. Method: A 64-year-old female patient with a stage IV macular hole underwent a three-port pars-plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling. Due to the patient’s chronic illness (respiratory problems, a silicone-oil tamponade was preferred. However, the macula hole was still flat opened four months postoperatively. Therefore, the patient underwent an exchange of silicone oil with gas C3F8 14%. No face-down position was advised postoperatively due to her health problems. Results: Macular hole closure was confirmed with optical coherence tomography six weeks after exchanging the silicone oil with gas. Conclusions: Macular hole surgery using a silicone-oil tamponade has been proposed as treatment of choice for patients unable to posture. In our case, the use of a long-acting gas (C3F8 14%, even without posturing, proved to be more effective.

  13. Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with different vitreous tamponade for idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare visual outcomes, central foveal thickness(CFT, and postoperative complications after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane(ILMpeeling, with balanced salt solution(BSSor gas tamponade, for the treatment of idiopathic macular epiretinal membrane(IMEM. METHODS: Retrospective clinical study. 44 patients with IMEM were included in this study. All patients had undergone vitrectomy and ILM peeling. Eyes were divided into two groups: 20 eyes in group A with BSS tamponade. 24 patients in group B with gas tamponade(11 eyes were injected with filtered air and 13 eyes with perfluoropropane,100mL/L C3F8. The follow-up period was 12-16(mean 13months. The following parameters were collected and compared: best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand CFT(at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, intraocular pressure(IOP(at baseline and on the 1th,7th day, 1, 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS: BCVA significantly improved, and 29 of 44 eyes(65.9%achieved visual recovery≥0.2 logMAR. There were no significant differences between group A and group B in mean baseline logMAR BCVA(0.53±0.18 vs 0.52±0.14; P>0.05and final logMAR BCVA(0.31±0.14 vs 0.28±0.09; P>0.05. With respect to OCT parameters, the mean CFT at 12 months(285.25±70.07μmwas significantly decreased from that of the baseline(407.82±97.00μm,(Z=4.29, Pvs 406.46±88.76μm; P>0.05and final CFT(287.60±66.94μm vs 283.29±73.95μm; P>0.05. With respect to IOP, there were no significant differences between group A and group B at mean baseline and on the 7th day, 1, 3 months postoperatively(P>0.05. The IOP in group A was significant lower at 1th postoperative day compared with group B(Z=3.12, PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy and ILM peeling can significantly improve the visual acuity and decrease the CFT no matter with gas or with BSS tamponade, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes, but it is neither necessary for patients with BSS tamponade to maintain a prone

  14. [Opacification of an intraocular lens: calcification of hydrophilic intraocular lenses after gas tamponade of the anterior chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, G; Pemp, B; Werner, L

    2013-11-01

    A patient with endothelial dystrophy was treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) combined with cataract extraction and implantation of a hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL, Lentis-L312, Oculentis) but visual acuity dropped from 0.15 logMAR to 0.52 logMAR 18 months later due to calcification of the IOL. With new methods of lamellar corneal transplantation being used more frequently the number of necessary anterior chamber tamponades with air/gas are increasing. In cataract cases in which a gas tamponade and transplantation might be necessary later on (cornea guttata), hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided.

  15. Cardiac Tamponade following Mitral Valve Replacement for Active Infective Endocarditis with Ring Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periannular extension and abscess formation are rare but deadly complications of infective endocarditis (IE with high mortality. Multimodality cardiac imaging, invasive and noninvasive, is needed to accurately define the extent of the disease. Debridement, reconstruction, and valve replacement, often performed in an emergent setting, remain the treatment of choice. Here we present a case of severe IE in a 29-year-old intravenous drug user who after undergoing debridement of the abscess, annular reconstruction, and mitral valve replacement (MVR presented with recurrence of shortness of breath and pedal edema. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE showed a 6.2×5.5 cm cavity, posterior to and communicating with the left ventricle through a 3 cm wide fistulous opening, in proximity of the reconstructed mitral annulus. The patient underwent a redo MVR with patch closure of the fistulous opening, with good clinical outcome. This case highlights the classic TTE findings and the necessity for close follow-up in the perioperative period in patients undergoing surgery for periannular extension of infection. A cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can be considered, preoperatively, in such cases to identify the extent of myocardial involvement and surgical planning.

  16. Comparison of results of Bakri balloon tamponade and caesarean hysterectomy in management of placenta accreta and increta: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Şehmus; Atilgan, Remzi; Başpınar, Melike; Kavak, Ebru Çelik; Yavuzkır, Şeyda; Akyol, Alparslan; Kavak, Burçin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative results of the patients who were treated with Bakri balloon tamponade or hysterectomy for placenta accreta and increta. Patients who were diagnosed with placenta accreta or increta preoperatively and intraoperatively and treated with Bakri balloon tamponade (Group 1) or caesarean hysterectomy (Group 2) were compared in regards to the postoperative results. Among the 36 patients diagnosed with placenta accreta or increta, 19 patients were treated with Bakri balloon tamponade while 17 cases were treated with hysterectomy. Intraoperative blood loss amount was 1794 ± 725 ml in G1, which was lower than that in G2 (2694 ± 893 ml). Blood transfusion amount was 2.7 ± 2.6 units in G1, lower than that in G2 (5.7 ± 2.4 units), too. Operation time was 64.5 ± 29 min and 140 ± 51 min in G1 and G2, respectively, showing significant differences between two groups. The success rate of Bakri balloon was determined as 84.21%. In conclusion, cases with placenta accreta/increta, with predicted placental detachment who are willing to preserve fertility, application of uterine balloon tamponade devices before the hysterectomy is encouraging with its advantages compared with the hysterectomy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Invasive placental anomalies are the most common indication of postpartum hysterectomy. Recently, uterine balloon tamponade was also included in the treatment modalities of postpartum haemorrhage.This study aimed to compare the postoperative results of UBT or hysterectomy for patients with placenta accreta and increta. What the results of this study add: In this study, the total amount of blood loss was higher in the caesarean hysterectomy group when compared with the Bakri balloon tamponade group. The mean transfusion requirement, mean operation time and hospitalisation period was significantly longer in the caesarean hysterectomy group. The success

  17. [Gas tamponade following intraoperative pneumothorax on a single lung: A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jaouhari, S D; Mamane Nassirou, O; Meziane, M; Bensghir, M; Haimeur, C

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative pneumothorax is a rare complication with a high risk of cardiorespiratory arrest by gas tamponade especially on a single lung. We report the case of a female patient aged 53 years who benefited from a left pneumonectomy on pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae. The patient presented early postoperative anemia with a left hemothorax requiring an emergency thoracotomy. In perioperative, the patient had a gas tamponade following a pneumothorax of the remaining lung, and the fate has been avoided by an exsufflation. Intraoperative pneumothorax can occur due to lesions of the tracheobronchial airway, of the brachial plexus, the placement of a central venous catheter or barotrauma. The diagnosis of pneumothorax during unipulmonary ventilation is posed by the sudden onset of hypoxia associated with increased airway pressures and hypercapnia. The immediate life-saving procedure involves fine needle exsufflation before the placement of a chest tube. Prevention involves reducing the risk of barotrauma by infusing patients with low flow volumes and the proper use of positive airway pressure, knowing that despite protective ventilation, barotraumas risk still exists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Glutamatergic Neurons in the Rat Atrial Intrinsic Cardiac Ganglia that Project to the Cardiac Ventricular Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Miller, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system modulates cardiac function by acting as an integration site for regulating autonomic efferent cardiac output. This intrinsic system is proposed to be composed of a short cardio-cardiac feedback control loop within the cardiac innervation hierarchy. For example, electrophysiological studies have postulated the presence of sensory neurons in intrinsic cardiac ganglia for regional cardiac control. There is still a knowledge gap, however, about the anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of sensory neurons inside intrinsic cardiac ganglia. In the present study, rat intrinsic cardiac ganglia neurons were characterized neurochemically with immunohistochemistry using glutamatergic markers: vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1; VGLUT2), and glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme essential for glutamate production. Glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT1/VGLUT2/GLS) in the ICG that have axons to the ventricles were identified by retrograde tracing of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injected in the ventricular wall. Co-labeling of VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GLS with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was used to evaluate the relationship between post-ganglionic autonomic neurons and glutamatergic neurons. Sequential labeling of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in adjacent tissue sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in ICG neurons. Our studies yielded the following results: (1) intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain glutamatergic neurons with GLS for glutamate production and VGLUT1 and 2 for transport of glutamate into synaptic vesicles; (2) atrial intrinsic cardiac ganglia contain neurons that project to ventricle walls and these neurons are glutamatergic; (3) many glutamatergic ICG neurons also were cholinergic, expressing VAChT. (4) VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 co-localization occurred in ICG neurons with variation of their protein expression level. Investigation of both glutamatergic and cholinergic ICG

  19. Clinical study of secondary glaucoma after silicone oil tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the related risk factors and treatment method of secondary glaucoma after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade.METHODS: The retrospective study analyzed 114 patients(118 eyeswho were treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade. Lenses were reserved in 78 eyes and were taken away in 40 eyes among which intraocular lens were implanted in 17 eyes. There were 39 eyes in which the filling time of silicone was no more than 6 months while 79 eyes in which the filling time was more than 6 months. The follow-up time was(16.2±4.9months. Primary and secondary glaucoma were excluded before the vitrectomy. Silicone oil glaucoma(SOGwas diagnosed when intraocular pressure(IOPwas measured higher than 21mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPathree times in succession at least 1 month after silicone oil tamponade and inflammation and neovascular glaucoma should be excluded. Anti-glaucoma drugs were administrated once SOG was diagnosed. If the IOP was not controlled after 2 weeks, the silicone oil was taken away. If the IOP was still high, the anti-glaucoma surgery was operated. The data was analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software using a binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 32 eyes of SOG, lenses were removed in 16 eyes(50%. The filling time of silicone oil was more than 6 months in 27 eyes(84.4%and silicone oil emulsion happened in 20 eyes(62.5%. IOP returned normal in 17 eyes after administrating anti-glaucoma medication within 2 weeks. Silicone oils were taken away in 15 eyes. However, 4 eyes still had high IOP after surgery; one of them was given anti-glaucoma drugs once more; two of them underwent trabeculectomy and one of them underwent cyclophotocoagulation. The lens conditions(whether it was taken away or not, P=0.024, the silicone oil filling time(whether the time was more than 6 months, P=0.014, and the status of the silicone oil(whether emulsification occurred or not, P=0.000were all found to be

  20. Surgical management of macular holes: results using gas tamponade alone, or in combination with autologous platelet concentrate, or transforming growth factor beta 2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minihan, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vitrectomy and gas tamponade has become a recognised technique for the treatment of macular holes. In an attempt to improve the anatomic and visual success of the procedure, various adjunctive therapies--cytokines, serum, and platelets--have been employed. A consecutive series of 85 eyes which underwent macular hole surgery using gas tamponade alone, or gas tamponade with either the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) or autologous platelet concentrate is reported. METHODS: Twenty eyes had vitrectomy and 20% SF6 gas tamponade; 15 had vitrectomy, 20% SF6 gas, and TGF-beta 2; 50 had vitrectomy, 16% C3F8 gas tamponade, and 0.1 ml of autologous platelet concentrate prepared during the procedure. RESULTS: Anatomic success occurred in 86% of eyes, with 96% of the platelet treated group achieving closure of the macular hole. Visual acuity improved by two lines or more in 65% of the SF6 only group, 33% of those treated with TGF-beta 2 and in 74% of the platelet treated group. In the platelet treated group 40% achieved 6\\/12 or better and 62% achieved 6\\/18 or better. The best visual results were obtained in stage 2 holes. CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy for macular holes is often of benefit and patients may recover good visual acuity, especially early in the disease process. The procedure has a number of serious complications, and the postoperative posturing requirement is difficult. Patients need to be informed of such concerns before surgery.

  1. Hemodynamic effects of knee-joint tamponade; sup 99m Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry in growing dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender Hansen, E.; Buenger, C. (Aarhus Orthopedic Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)); Brink Henriksen, T. (University of Aarhus, Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, Aarhus (Denmark)); Noer, I. (Department of Clinical Physiology, County Hospital, Randers (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    We studied the influence of joint effusion on juxtaarticular vascularity and bone metabolism of the immature knee in puppies by dynamic and static {sup 99m}Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry. Unilateral joint tamponade of 10 KPa (75 mmHg), introduced by intraarticular dextran-70 infusion, resulted in quantitatively similar scintimetric changes in an angiographic Phase I (0-20 sec), a blood pool Phase II (20-256 sec), and a bone-uptake Phase III (2h). The uptake was reduced by 20 percent in the distal femoral epiphysis, by 15 percent in the distal femoral growth plate in Phase II-III, and by 8 percent in the proximal tibial growth plate in Phase III. The main part of scintimetric changes during joint tamponade could be ascribed to altered epiphyseal and metaphyseal intraosseous hemodynamics. (author).

  2. Hemorrhagic Tamponade as Initial Manifestation of Systemic Lupus with Subsequent Refractory and Progressive Lupus Myocarditis Resulting in Cardiomyopathy and Mitral Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Marijanovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical and serological manifestations. Cardiac disease among patients with SLE is common and can involve the pericardium, myocardium, valves, conduction system, and coronary arteries. We are reporting a case of SLE in a young woman that is unique is unique in that initial symptoms consisted of pericarditis and hemorrhagic tamponade which remained progressive and resistant to aggressive immunosuppressive treatment and led to severe cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction of 25% and severe (+4 mitral regurgitation. Her immunosuppressive treatment included hydroxychloroquine, high-dose steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, azathioprine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Her disease progression was felt to be due to underlying uncontrolled SLE because the complement levels remained persistently low throughout the entire course and PET Myocardial Perfusion and Viability study showed stable persistent active inflammation. Eventually, she was treated with cyclophosphamide which led to improvement in ejection fraction to 55% with only mild mitral regurgitation.

  3. ebb® Complete Tamponade System: effective hemostasis for postpartum hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    McQuivey,Ross W; Block,Jon E; Massaro,Robert A

    2018-01-01

    Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block,2 Robert A Massaro3 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Independent Clinical Consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Monmouth Medical Center, Long Branch, NJ, USA Abstract: As a leading cause of maternal death, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a worldwide obstetrical problem. However, in most cases, mortality and morbidity can be averted if efforts are immediately undertaken to achieve hemostasis. Uterine balloon tamponade has been shown to provide e...

  4. Pericardial Effusion and Pericardiocentesis: Role of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can develop from any pericardial disease, including pericarditis and several systemic disorders, such as malignancies, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic renal failure, thyroid diseases, and autoimmune diseases. The causes of large pericardial effusion requiring invasive pericardiocentesis may vary according to the time, country, and hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography is the most important tool for diagnosis, grading, the pericardiocentesis procedure, and follow up of pericardial effusion. Cardiac tamponade is a kind of cardiogenic shock and medical emergency. Clinicians should understand the tamponade physiology, especially because it can develop without large pericardial effusion. In addition, clinicians should correlate the echocardiographic findings of tamponade, such as right ventricular collapse, right atrial collapse, and respiratory variation of mitral and tricuspid flow, with clinical signs of clinical tamponade, such as hypotension or pulsus paradoxus. Percutaneous pericardiocentesis has been the most useful procedure in many cases of large pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, or pericardial effusion of unknown etiology. The procedure should be performed with the guidance of echocardiography. PMID:23236323

  5. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Wang, Xue

    2014-02-14

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery to restore normal anatomy and to stabilize or improve vision. PVR usually occurs in association with recurrent RD (that is, after initial retinal re-attachment surgery) but occasionally may be associated with primary RD. Either way, a tamponade agent (gas or silicone oil) is needed during surgery to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrent RD. The objective of this review was to assess the relative safety and effectiveness of various tamponade agents used with surgery for retinal detachment (RD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 June 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgery for RD associated with PVR that compared various tamponade agents. Two review authors screened the search results independently. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. The review included 516 participants from three RCTs. One study was conducted in the USA and consisted of two trials: the first trial randomized 151 adults to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponades; and the second trial randomized 271 adults to receive either

  6. Clinical evaluation on cardiac enlargement in patients with esophageal cancer treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasamoto, Ryuta [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    Recent literature on chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer report the comparable survival results as surgery, and suggest the importance of management for the late adverse effect of chemoradiotherapy. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and risk factors of cardiomegaly after chemoradiotherapy using low dose continuous infusion of 5FU/CDDP+5FU for esophageal cancer. Fifty-one patients with stage I-IVA esophageal cancer who were treated by radiotherapy with more than 50 Gy with or without chemotherapy and followed up for more than 6 months were analyzed. Sixteen patients were treated by radiation alone and 35 patients were treated by chemoradiotherapy. A change of CTR (cardio-thoracic ratio) was defined as the difference between CTR in the pre-treatment X-ray film and CTR in the post-treatment X-ray film with maximum cardiac silhouette. A change of CTR by more than 10% was defined as ''significant cardiomegaly''. In this study cardiac area-dose'', which is the sum of the products of cardiac area within every radiation field and its target dose, was calculated in each patient as a radiation parameter. Significant cardiomegaly was noted in 1 patient (6%) in the radiation alone group, in 8 patients (23%) in the chemoradiotherapy group and in 9 patients (18%) in the total population. In cases with more than 0.4 m{sup 2}{center_dot}Gy in cardiac area-dose, CTR elevation was significantly higher than in cases with less than 0.4m{sup 2}{center_dot}Gy. More than moderate pleural effusion was noted in 5 patients (10%). Chronic pericardial effusion and subsequent cardiac tamponade was considered to be one of the contributing factors for pleural effusion, because increases of pleural effusion coincided with CTR elevations in 3 cases. In addition, the fact that no case had right-sided unilateral pleural effusion suggested the direct effect of radiation to the pleura. Significant cardiomegaly was seen in 18% of 51 patients with

  7. Failure of Sengstaken balloon tamponade for rebleeding after tissue adhesive injection in a fundic varix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, JA; Peters, FTM; Sanders, J; Van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG

    A 61-year-old man developed a huge fundic varix due to portal hypertension in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. After a third injection therapy session with tissue adhesive (Histoacryl(R)) massive hemorrhage developed. Sengstaken (gastric) balloon tamponade failed. Autopsy showed a huge, solid varix with a

  8. Nontyphoidal Cardiac Salmonellosis: Two Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel; Siegal, Eric M.; Kramer, Christopher; Brauer, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella, especially Salmonella enterica, is a rare cause of endocarditis and pericarditis that carries a high mortality rate. Proposed predisposing conditions include immunodeficiency states, congenital heart defects, and cardiac valve diseases. We present 2 cases of cardiovascular salmonellosis. The first case is that of a 73-year-old woman with mechanical mitral and bioprosthetic aortic valves who died from sequelae of nontyphoidal Salmonella mitral valve vegetation, aortic valve abscess, and sepsis. The second case is that of a 62-year-old man with a recent systemic lupus erythematosus exacerbation treated with oral steroids, who presented with obstructive features of tamponade and sepsis secondary to a large S. enteritidis purulent pericardial cyst. He recovered after emergent pericardial drainage and antibiotic therapy. Identifying patients at risk of cardiovascular salmonellosis is important for early diagnosis and treatment to minimize sequelae and death. We reviewed the literature to identify the predisposing risk factors of nontyphoidal Salmonella cardiac infection. PMID:25120393

  9. Ultrasonographic visualization of bleeding sites can help control postpartum hemorrhage using intrauterine balloon tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Eiji; Konishi, Mitsunaga; Kariya, Yoshitaka; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Identification of precise bleeding sites is generally important to control hemorrhage. Nevertheless, the optimal technique to detect the bleeding sites has not yet been fully defined for patients with life-threatening post partum hemorrhage. We describe that ultrasonographic visualization of bleeding sites can help control post partum hemorrhage using intrauterine balloon tamponade. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Successful resuscitation from two cardiac arrests in a female patient with critical aortic stenosis, severe mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijušković Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis is up to 34% and resuscitation is described as highly unsuccessful. Case report. A 72-year-old female patient with severe aortic stenosis combined with severe mitral regurgitation and three-vessel coronary artery disease was successfully resuscitated following two in-hospital cardiac arrests. The first cardiac arrest occurred immediately after intraarterial injection of low osmolar iodinated agent during coronary angiography. Angiography revealed 90% occlusion of the proximal left main coronary artery and circumflex branch. The second arrest followed induction of anesthesia. Following successful open-chest resuscitation, aortic valve replacement, mitral valvuloplasty and three-vessel aortocoronary bypass were performed. Postoperative pericardial tamponade required surgical revision. The patient recovered completely. Conclusion. Decision to start resuscitation may be justified in selected patients with critical aortic stenosis, even though cardiopulmonary resuscitation in such cases is generally considered futile.

  11. Rigor mortis at the myocardium investigated by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzon, Jérôme; Schön, Corinna A; Schwendener, Nicole; Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Kara, Levent; Persson, Anders; Jackowski, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Post-mortem cardiac MR exams present with different contraction appearances of the left ventricle in cardiac short axis images. It was hypothesized that the grade of post-mortem contraction may be related to the post-mortem interval (PMI) or cause of death and a phenomenon caused by internal rigor mortis that may give further insights in the circumstances of death. The cardiac contraction grade was investigated in 71 post-mortem cardiac MR exams (mean age at death 52 y, range 12-89 y; 48 males, 23 females). In cardiac short axis images the left ventricular lumen volume as well as the left ventricular myocardial volume were assessed by manual segmentation. The quotient of both (LVQ) represents the grade of myocardial contraction. LVQ was correlated to the PMI, sex, age, cardiac weight, body mass and height, cause of death and pericardial tamponade when present. In cardiac causes of death a separate correlation was investigated for acute myocardial infarction cases and arrhythmic deaths. LVQ values ranged from 1.99 (maximum dilatation) to 42.91 (maximum contraction) with a mean of 15.13. LVQ decreased slightly with increasing PMI, however without significant correlation. Pericardial tamponade positively correlated with higher LVQ values. Variables such as sex, age, body mass and height, cardiac weight and cause of death did not correlate with LVQ values. There was no difference in LVQ values for myocardial infarction without tamponade and arrhythmic deaths. Based on the observation in our investigated cases, the phenomenon of post-mortem myocardial contraction cannot be explained by the influence of the investigated variables, except for pericardial tamponade cases. Further research addressing post-mortem myocardial contraction has to focus on other, less obvious factors, which may influence the early post-mortem phase too. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade in the management of retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Di Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the results of combined vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil (SO tamponade in treating primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD associated with choroidal detachment (CD.METHODS: A retrospective, consecutive and case series study of 21 subjects with concurrent RRD associated with CD was conducted. All subjects underwent a standard three-port 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Mean follow-up time was 8 months (rang from 4 to 19 months. The primary and final anatomic success rate, visual acuity and final intraocular pressure(IOP were recorded and analyzed.RESULTS: Of 21 subjects, 8 were women and 13 were men. Age at presentation ranged from 22 to 75 years (mean 57.4 years. The presenting vision ranged from light perception to 0.15. The initial IOP ranged from 3mmHg to 12mmHg (mean 6.2mmHg. All eyes were phakic except one pseudophakic. No intraocular lens was implanted during the primary surgical intervention. Fifteen of 21 (71.4% eyes had retina reattached after one operation. Six eyes had recurrent inferior retinal detachment due to proliferation. Five of them were successfully reattached after one or more additional operations. Mean IOP at final follow-up was 15.2mmHg (range from 8mmHg to 20mmHg. One case declined for further operation. The final reattachment rate was 95.2%. Visual acuity improved in 19 (90.5% eyes, was unchanged in 1 (4.8% eye and decreased in 1 (4.8% eye.CONCLUSION: Combination of vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone tamponade is an effective method in treating RRD associated with CD, reducing the incidence of postoperative hypotony.

  13. Effective salvage of acute massive uterine bleeding using intrauterine balloon tamponade in a uterine adenomyosis patient on dienogest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kimihiro; Hayashi, Kazumasa; Chaya, Jyunya; Kato, Noriko; Yamamuro, Osamu

    2013-03-01

    We present the case of a 37-year-old nulliparous woman in whom acute massive uterine bleeding during dienogest therapy was successfully treated using intrauterine balloon tamponade. Abnormal uterine bleeding and several cases of profuse bleeding causing severe anemia in association with dienogest therapy have been reported, but this is the first reported case involving hypovolemic shock. While successful control of postpartum hemorrhage with intrauterine balloon tamponade has been well described, applications for non-obstetric bleeding, particularly in the presence of underlying diseases, such as adenomyosis, have only rarely been reported. This procedure can be easily, promptly, and safely implemented without analgesia, anesthesia, or laparotomy; it can be used with a minimally dilated external cervical os or narrow uterine cavity; and it can preserve fertility. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models: Generation and Characterization of Cardiac Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Fabian; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-01-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes has been of utmost interest for the study of cardiac development, cardiac disease modeling, and evaluation of cardiotoxic effects of novel candidate drugs. Several protocols have been developed to guide human stem cells toward the cardiogenic path. Pioneering work used serum to promote cardiogenesis; however, low cardiogenic throughputs, lack of chemical definition, and batch-to-batch variability of serum lots constituted a considerable impediment to the implementation of those protocols to large-scale cell biology. Further work focused on the manipulation of pathways that mouse genetics indicated to be fundamental in cardiac development to promote cardiac differentiation in stem cells. Although extremely elegant, those serum-free protocols involved the use of human recombinant cytokines that tend to be quite costly and which can also be variable between lots. The latest generation of cardiogenic protocols aimed for a more cost-effective and reproducible definition of the conditions driving cardiac differentiation, using small molecules to manipulate cardiogenic pathways overriding the need for cytokines. This chapter details methods based on currently available cardiac differentiation protocols for the generation and characterization of robust numbers of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes under chemically defined conditions.

  15. Role of diclofenac in the prevention of postpericardiotomy syndrome after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevuk, Utkan; Baysal, Erkan; Altindag, Rojhat; Yaylak, Baris; Adiyaman, Mehmet Sahin; Ay, Nurettin; Alp, Vahhac; Beyazit, Unal

    2015-01-01

    Objective Postpericardiotomy syndrome (PPS), which is thought to be related to autoimmune phenomena, represents a common postoperative complication in cardiac surgery. Late pericardial effusions after cardiac surgery are usually related to PPS and can progress to cardiac tamponade. Preventive measures can reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality related to PPS. In a previous study, diclofenac was suggested to ameliorate autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative use of diclofenac is effective in preventing early PPS after cardiac surgery. Methods A total of 100 patients who were administered oral diclofenac for postoperative analgesia after cardiac surgery and until hospital discharge were included in this retrospective study. As well, 100 patients undergoing cardiac surgery who were not administered nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were included as the control group. The existence and severity of pericardial effusion were determined by echocardiography. The existence and severity of pleural effusion were determined by chest X-ray. Results PPS incidence was significantly lower in patients who received diclofenac (20% vs 43%) (Pdiclofenac had a significantly lower incidence of pericardial effusion (15% vs 30%) (P=0.01). Although not statistically significant, pericardial and pleural effusion was more severe in the control group than in the diclofenac group. The mean duration of diclofenac treatment was 5.11±0.47 days in patients with PPS and 5.27±0.61 days in patients who did not have PPS (P=0.07). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that diclofenac administration (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18–0.65, P=0.001) was independently associated with PPS occurrence. Conclusion Postoperative administration of diclofenac may have a protective role against the development of PPS after cardiac surgery. PMID:26170687

  16. How to diagnose cardiac tamponade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steijn, JHM; Sleijfer, DT; van der Graaf, WTA; van der Sluis, A; Nieboer, P

    Malignant pericardial effusion is a potentially fatal complication of malignancy unless recognised and treated promptly. Patients with this condition are often difficult to diagnose. Physical examination, chest radiography and electrocardiography have poor diagnostic values in identification of

  17. Outcome of 20-gauge transconjunctival cannulated sutureless vitrectomy using silicone oil or air tamponade

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Ahmed Abdel Alim; Abdrabbo, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Ahmed Abdel Alim Mohamed,1 Mohamed Abdrabbo21Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine, Ophthalmology Department, Cairo; 2Faculty of Medicine, Ophthalmology Department, Benha University, Benha, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of pars plana vitrectomy using a 20-gauge transconjunctival cannulated sutureless system with air or silicone oil tamponade in cases of retinal detachment of different etiologies.Methods: A prospective study was performed in 60 eyes f...

  18. Identification and functional characterization of cardiac pacemaker cells in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Tessadori

    Full Text Available In the mammalian heart a conduction system of nodes and conducting cells generates and transduces the electrical signals evoking myocardial contractions. Specialized pacemaker cells initiating and controlling cardiac contraction rhythmicity are localized in an anatomically identifiable structure of myocardial origin, the sinus node. We previously showed that in mammalian embryos sinus node cells originate from cardiac progenitors expressing the transcription factors T-box transcription factor 3 (Tbx3 and Islet-1 (Isl1. Although cardiac development and function are strikingly conserved amongst animal classes, in lower vertebrates neither structural nor molecular distinguishable components of a conduction system have been identified, questioning its evolutionary origin. Here we show that zebrafish embryos lacking the LIM/homeodomain-containing transcription factor Isl1 display heart rate defects related to pacemaker dysfunction. Moreover, 3D reconstructions of gene expression patterns in the embryonic and adult zebrafish heart led us to uncover a previously unidentified, Isl1-positive and Tbx2b-positive region in the myocardium at the junction of the sinus venosus and atrium. Through their long interconnecting cellular protrusions the identified Isl1-positive cells form a ring-shaped structure. In vivo labeling of the Isl1-positive cells by transgenic technology allowed their isolation and electrophysiological characterization, revealing their unique pacemaker activity. In conclusion we demonstrate that Isl1-expressing cells, organized as a ring-shaped structure around the venous pole, hold the pacemaker function in the adult zebrafish heart. We have thereby identified an evolutionary conserved, structural and molecular distinguishable component of the cardiac conduction system in a lower vertebrate.

  19. Cardiac tumors: optimal cardiac MR sequences and spectrum of imaging appearances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the optimal cardiac MRI sequences for and the spectrum of imaging appearances of cardiac tumors. CONCLUSION: Recent technologic advances in cardiac MRI have resulted in the rapid acquisition of images of the heart with high spatial and temporal resolution and excellent myocardial tissue characterization. Cardiac MRI provides optimal assessment of the location, functional characteristics, and soft-tissue features of cardiac tumors, allowing accurate differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.

  20. Balloon Tamponade Treatment of a Stent-graft Related Rupture with a Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Young Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    An arterial rupture resulting from stent-graft placement of a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm is a life-threatening complication and immediate endovascular or surgical treatment is indicated. We report a case of a stentgraft related splenic artery rupture treated solely with a prolonged balloon catheter tamponade, which resulted in preservation of vessel patency

  1. Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers

  2. Balloon Occlusion Types in the Treatment of Coronary Perforation during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery perforation is an uncommon complication in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, pericardial tamponade following coronary artery perforation may be lethal, and prompt treatment is crucial in managing such patients. Balloon occlusion and the reversal of anticoagulant activity are the common methods used to prevent cardiac tamponade by reducing the amount of bleeding. Herein, we discuss the pros and cons of currently used occlusion types for coronary perforation. Optimal balloon occlusion methods should reduce the amount of bleeding and ameliorate subsequent myocardial ischemia injury, even during cardiac surgery.

  3. Characterization of mitochondrial injury after cardiac arrest (COMICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W; Rittenberger, Jon C; Abella, Benjamin S; Gaieski, David F; Ornato, Joseph P; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Cocchi, Michael N; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton W

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48h after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0h. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0h cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher Ribonuclease P (RNaseP) (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and Beta-2microglobulin (B2M) (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Cytochrome c was increased in post- cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in the post-cardiac arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Intrauterine Balloon Tamponade Test to Determine the Feasibility of Dilation and Evacuation as a Treatment for Early Uterine Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcheng Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine artery embolization is the most common treatment for uterine vascular abnormalities. Herein, we report the successful use of dilation and evacuation as a treatment for uterine artery pseudoaneurysm. A 36-year-old woman complained of vaginal bleeding after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Ultrasonography showed a 12.8-mm anechoic area inside the uterus. Color Doppler revealed a to-and-fro sign, indicating an arteriovenous malformation. A blood test showed a low level of human chorionic gonadotropin. Therefore, a diagnosis of early uterine artery pseudoaneurysm following spontaneous delivery was suspected. Under monitoring with transabdominal color Doppler sonography, intrauterine balloon tamponade induced complete disappearance of abnormal blood flow. With bleeding determined to be under control with balloon tamponade, dilation and evacuation was performed. The patient had a favorable postoperative course.

  5. Ferimento puntiforme em tórax produzindo lesão cardíaca

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer Netto,Fernando Antônio Campelo; Vasconcelos,Paulo Ricardo Camelo; Pinto,Joma Magaly Cintra

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of a 17-year-old man with punctiforms thoracic and abdominal wounds. Clinical examination showed signs of cardiac tamponade. Roentgenogram demonstrated widened mediastinum and thoracotomy confirmed cardiac wound. We analyse the unusual trauma agent and prognostic factors in cardiac trauma. Wounds with "innocent" aspect can cause fatal lesions.

  6. Characterization of Mitochondrial Injury after Cardiac Arrest (COMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnino, Michael W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Andersen, Lars W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Gaieski, David F.; Ornato, Joseph P.; Gazmuri, Raúl J.; Grossestreur, Anne V.; Cocchi, Michaen N.; Abbate, Antonio; Uber, Amy; Clore, John; Peberdy, Mary Anne; Callaway, Clifton

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondrial injury post-cardiac arrest has been described in pre-clinical settings but the extent to which this injury occurs in humans remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased levels of mitochondrial biomarkers would be associated with mortality and neurological morbidity in post-cardiac arrest subjects. Methods We performed a prospective multicenter study of post-cardiac arrest subjects. Inclusion criteria were comatose adults who suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial biomarkers were measured at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as in healthy controls. Results Out of 111 subjects enrolled, 102 had evaluable samples at 0 hours. Cardiac arrest subjects had higher baseline cytochrome c levels compared to controls (2.18 ng/mL [0.74, 7.74] vs. 0.16 ng/mL [0.03, 0.91], p<0.001), and subjects who died had higher 0 hours cytochrome c levels compared to survivors (3.66 ng/mL [1.40, 14.9] vs. 1.27 ng/mL [0.16, 2.37], p<0.001). There were significantly higher RNAase P (3.3 [1.2, 5.7] vs. 1.2 [0.8, 1.2], p<0.001) and B2M (12.0 [1.0, 22.9], vs. 0.6 [0.6, 1.3], p<0.001) levels in cardiac arrest subjects at baseline compared to the control subjects. There were no differences between survivors and non-survivors for mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA. Conclusions Cytochrome C was increased in post-cardiac arrest subjects compared to controls, and in post-cardiac arrest non-survivors compared to survivors. Nuclear DNA and cell free DNA was increased in plasma of post-cardiac arrest subjects. There were no differences in mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, or cell free DNA between survivors and non-survivors. Mitochondrial injury markers showed mixed results in post-arrest period. Future research needs to investigate these differences. PMID:28126408

  7. Angiotensin antagonists in the dog with chronic pericardial tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.J.; Taub, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    Assessing the role played by angiotensin in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the renal function and perfusion abnormalities dogs with chronic pericardial tamponade were used in the experiment as a stable model of chronic low output heart failure. The heptapeptide and octapeptide antagonist were used. The results of the experiments suggest that there is a role for angiotensin in the pathologenesis of congestive heart failure. The renin-angiotensin system was activated in the model. Plasma renin activity was elevated and increased further in response to angiotensin blockade. Under the experiment condition there was no evidence for a role for angiotensin in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure. But there was angiotensin-mediated renal vasoconstriction and a reduction in renal blood flow. Both analogues of angiotensin were able to antagonize this effect in similar fashion. Failure to achieve a natriuresis in response to angiotensin blockade may reflect the redistribution of blood flow that occured and suggests that additional factors are operative in this model. (APR)

  8. Echocardiography-guided or "sided" pericardiocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karakus, Gultekin; Güvenc, Tolga Sinan; Pinhan, Osman; Sipahi, Ilke; Akyol, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Echocardiography-guided pericardiocentesis is the first choice method for relieving cardiac tamponade, but the exact role of the echocardiography at the moment of the puncture is still controversial. In this report, detailed echocardiographic evaluation was performed in 21 consecutive patients with cardiac tamponade just before the pericardiocentesis. Appropriate needle position was determined according to the probe position using imaginary x, y, and z axes. Pericardiocentesis was performed successfully using this technique without simultaneous echocardiography and no complications were observed. We concluded that bedside echocardiography with detailed evaluation of the puncture site and angle is enough for pericardiocentesis instead of real time guiding. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Large pericardial effusion induced by minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çilingiroğlu, Mehmet; Akkuş, Nuri; Sethi, Salil; Modi, Kalgi A

    2012-04-01

    A 53-year-old male admitted with increased shortness of breath. In the physical examination, he had dyspnea, tachycardia and tachypnea. An echocardiogram showed large pericardial effusion (PE) as well as significant pulmonary hypertension. He had been started recently on minoxidil for blood pressure control. PE was reported to occur with minoxidil treatment both in patients undergoing dialysis and those with normal renal function. Pulmonary hypertension has been reported to affect the cardiac tamponade physiology. Because of significant pulmonary hypertension in our patient, a right heart catheterization was also done, which prevented cardiac tamponade. He was treated conservatively without any intervention, and PE resolved spontaneously after discontinuation of minoxidil.

  10. The Relationship Between Preoperative Hemoglobin Concentration, Use of Hospital Resources, and Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallward, George; Balani, Nikhail; McCorkell, Stuart; Roxburgh, James; Cornelius, Victoria

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative anemia is an established risk factor associated with adverse perioperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. However, limited information exists regarding the relationship between preoperative hemoglobin concentration and outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate how outcomes are affected by preoperative hemoglobin concentration in a cohort of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A retrospective, observational cohort study. A single-center tertiary referral hospital. The study comprised 1,972 adult patients undergoing elective and nonelective cardiac surgery. The independent relationship of preoperative hemoglobin concentration was explored on blood transfusion rates, return to the operating room for bleeding and/or cardiac tamponade, postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) and in-hospital length of stay, and mortality. The overall prevalence of anemia was 32% (629/1,972 patients). For every 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), blood transfusion requirements were reduced by 11%, 8%, and 3% for red blood cell units, platelet pools, and fresh frozen plasma units, respectively (adjusted incident rate ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.87-0.91], 0.92 [0.88-0.97], and 0.97 [0.96-0.99]). For each 1-unit increase in hemoglobin (g/dL), the probability (over time) of discharge from the ICU and hospital increased (adjusted hazard ratio estimates 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and 1.12 [1.12-1.16], respectively). A lower preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased use of hospital resources after cardiac surgery. Each g/dL unit fall in preoperative hemoglobin concentration resulted in increased blood transfusion requirements and increased postoperative ICU and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes after peeling of idiopathic epiretinal membranes among patients randomized for balanced salt solution and air-tamponade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisser, Christoph; Hirnschall, Nino; Hackl, Christoph; Döller, Birgit; Varsits, Ralph; Ullrich, Marlies; Kefer, Katharina; Karl, Rigal; Findl, Oliver

    2018-02-20

    Epiretinal membranes (ERM) are macular disorders leading to loss of vision and metamorphopsia. Vitrectomy with membrane peeling displays the gold standard of care. Aim of this study was to assess risk factors for postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes in a study population randomized for balanced salt solution and air-tamponade at the end of surgery. A prospective randomized study, including 69 eyes with idiopathic ERM. Standard 23-gauge three-port pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling, using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT), was performed. Randomization for BSS and air-tamponade was performed prior to surgery. Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 32.9 letters to 45.1 letters 3 months after surgery. Presence of preoperative intraretinal cystoid changes was found to be the only risk factor for presence of postoperative intraretinal cystoid changes 3 months after surgery (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 8.0). Other possible risk factors such as combined phacoemulsification with 23G-ppv and membrane peeling (p = 0.16; odds ratio: 2.4), intraoperative subfoveal hyporeflective zones (p = 0.23; odds ratio: 2.6), age over 70 years (p = 0.29; odds ratio: 0.5) and air-tamponade (p = 0.59; odds ratio: 1.5) were not found to be significant. There is strong evidence that preoperative intraretinal cystoid changes lead to smaller benefit from surgery. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Characterization of respiratory and cardiac motion from electro-anatomical mapping data for improved fusion of MRI to left ventricular electrograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Roujol

    Full Text Available Accurate fusion of late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro-anatomical voltage mapping (EAM is required to evaluate the potential of MRI to identify the substrate of ventricular tachycardia. However, both datasets are not acquired at the same cardiac phase and EAM data is corrupted with respiratory motion limiting the accuracy of current rigid fusion techniques. Knowledge of cardiac and respiratory motion during EAM is thus required to enhance the fusion process. In this study, we propose a novel approach to characterize both cardiac and respiratory motion from EAM data using the temporal evolution of the 3D catheter location recorded from clinical EAM systems. Cardiac and respiratory motion components are extracted from the recorded catheter location using multi-band filters. Filters are calibrated for each EAM point using estimates of heart rate and respiratory rate. The method was first evaluated in numerical simulations using 3D models of cardiac and respiratory motions of the heart generated from real time MRI data acquired in 5 healthy subjects. An accuracy of 0.6-0.7 mm was found for both cardiac and respiratory motion estimates in numerical simulations. Cardiac and respiratory motions were then characterized in 27 patients who underwent LV mapping for treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Mean maximum amplitude of cardiac and respiratory motion was 10.2±2.7 mm (min = 5.5, max = 16.9 and 8.8±2.3 mm (min = 4.3, max = 14.8, respectively. 3D Cardiac and respiratory motions could be estimated from the recorded catheter location and the method does not rely on additional imaging modality such as X-ray fluoroscopy and can be used in conventional electrophysiology laboratory setting.

  13. Taponamiento cardíaco secundario a carcinoma papilar esclerosante difuso de tiroides Metastatic cardiac tamponade as initial manifestation of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Riva

    2011-12-01

    gland. At the time of diagnosis, patients present lymph node and lung metastasis. It affects mainly young women. This case report describes a cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of an unusual variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A 32 year-old woman was attended at the emergency room with epigastric pain and dry cough. Physical examination revealed hypotension, tachycardia and decreased heart sounds. An echocardiogram confirmed severe pericardial effusion. Pericardial fluid cytology was positive for malignancy. The patient evolved with recurrent pericardial effusion and a pleuropericardial window was performed. At this procedure, a subpleural nodular lesion was found, which histology corresponded to metastases of papillary carcinoma, probably from thyroid origin. Total thyroidectomy was performed. The final diagnosis was papillary carcinoma, diffuse sclerosing variant. This variant infiltrates the connective tissue of the interfollicular spaces, mimicking thyroiditis and it is associated with early vascular permeation. This tumor, compared to the classic variants of thyroid carcinoma, is more aggressive and it has higher risk of recurrence. Papillary thyroid carcinoma should be considered as differential diagnosis in our population, in all metastatic papillary lesions, and even more in young female patients.

  14. Diagnosis and management of pericardial effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagristà-Sauleda, Jaume; Mercé, Axel Sarrias; Soler-Soler, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial effusion is a common finding in everyday clinical practice. The first challenge to the clinician is to try to establish an etiologic diagnosis. Sometimes, the pericardial effusion can be easily related to a known underlying disease, such as acute myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, end-stage renal disease or widespread metastatic neoplasm. When no obvious cause is apparent, some clinical findings can be useful to establish a diagnosis of probability. The presence of acute inflammatory signs (chest pain, fever, pericardial friction rub) is predictive for acute idiopathic pericarditis irrespective of the size of the effusion or the presence or absence of tamponade. Severe effusion with absence of inflammatory signs and absence of tamponade is predictive for chronic idiopathic pericardial effusion, and tamponade without inflammatory signs for neoplastic pericardial effusion. Epidemiologic considerations are very important, as in developed countries acute idiopathic pericarditis and idiopathic pericardial effusion are the most common etiologies, but in some underdeveloped geographic areas tuberculous pericarditis is the leading cause of pericardial effusion. The second point is the evaluation of the hemodynamic compromise caused by pericardial fluid. Cardiac tamponade is not an “all or none” phenomenon, but a syndrome with a continuum of severity ranging from an asymptomatic elevation of intrapericardial pressure detectable only through hemodynamic methods to a clinical tamponade recognized by the presence of dyspnea, tachycardia, jugular venous distension, pulsus paradoxus and in the more severe cases arterial hypotension and shock. In the middle, echocardiographic tamponade is recognized by the presence of cardiac chamber collapses and characteristic alterations in respiratory variations of mitral and tricuspid flow. Medical treatment of pericardial effusion is mainly dictated by the presence of inflammatory signs and by the underlying disease if

  15. CLOSING MACULAR HOLES WITH "MACULAR PLUG" WITHOUT GAS TAMPONADE AND POSTOPERATIVE POSTURING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Meena; Benjamin, Preethi; Chakrabarti, Keya; Chakrabarti, Arup

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the surgical results of macular hole surgery without gas tamponade or postoperative posturing in patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes with ≥500 μm mean base diameter. Retrospective interventional case series. Twenty-six patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes. Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes and a mean base diameter of 892.8 ± 349 μm underwent pars plana 23-gauge vitrectomy with broad internal limiting membrane peel (ILM peel), inverted ILM flap repositioning (ILMR), and use of autologous gluconated blood clumps as a macular plug to close the macular hole. No fluid-air exchange, endotamponade, or postoperative posturing was used. The subjects were followed up for 12 months. The anatomical outcome of the procedure was evaluated by fundus examination and optical coherence tomography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography was used to study the restoration of the outer retinal layer integrity in the postoperative period. The preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuities in logMAR units were compared to evaluate functional outcome. Macular hole closure and best-corrected visual acuity before and after surgery. Twenty-six patients with mean age 62.8 ± 7.3 years, preoperative median best-corrected visual acuity 6/60 (1.0 logMAR units), and a mean base diameter of 892.8 ± 349 μm underwent surgery to close macular holes without gas tamponade or postoperative posturing. Twenty patients (76.9%) were phakic. Twenty eyes (76.92%) had Stage 3 macular holes and 6 eyes (23.10%) had Stage 4 macular holes. After a single surgery, hole closure was achieved in 100% of eyes. The median best-corrected visual acuity improved from 6/60 (1.0 logMAR units) to 6/18 (0.50 logMAR units) (P hole closure with statically significant functional improvement for large Stage 3 and Stage 4 macular holes.

  16. Short-Acting Gas Tamponade with Strict Face-Down Posturing for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzaridis, Stratos; Liazos, Efstathios; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF 6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF 6 and strict posturing for one week. All patients were followed up at one week, one month, three months, and nine months postoperatively. Biomicroscopy at day 1 and biomicroscopy and OCT at week 1, months 1, 3, and 9 were used to assess macular hole status postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative logMAR visual acuity was compared. The macular hole was closed in 102/106 eyes postoperatively (96.2%). Four eyes showed unclosed macular holes and underwent additional SF 6 intravitreal injection and strict posturing for 10 days. All macular holes were eventually closed without the need of a second surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.63 logMAR preoperatively to 0.39 logMAR postoperatively. One case of retinal toxicity was reported due to accidental intravitreal injection of antibiotic. 25-gauge vitrectomy, ILM peel, and short-acting gas tamponade are highly effective for the treatment of macular holes. Additional intravitreal gas injection followed by strict posturing seems to be a simple and effective treatment for unclosed holes.

  17. Isolated right atrial appendage rupture following blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rakesh; Lafayette, Nathan; Sywak, Michael; Ricketts, Gregory; Otero, Jorge; Kurtzman, Scott; Zhang, Zhongqiu

    2018-02-01

    Right sided tears or rupture are the most common injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. The majority of these injuries are to the thin walled atrium. Reports of localized right atrial appendage rupture are rare. The classical features of Beck's triad are unreliable in the trauma bay. With the advent of EFAST (Focused assessment with sonography for trauma extended to thorax), Beck's triad should be considered but not used as the primary clinical tool for diagnosis of cardiac tamponade [1]. EFAST aids in rapid diagnosis and definitive care [3]. Our patient was a 17 year old male who presented with hypotension after a rollover motor vehicle accident. He presented with a grossly negative physical exam and positive EFAST for pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. We performed an emergency pericardiocentesis and expedited transportation for operative exploration. A Right atrial appendage injury was identified and repaired and patient recovered uneventfully. EFAST examination aids in rapid diagnosis of cardiac tamponade in the trauma setting. Pericardiocentesis facilitates temporizing the hemodynamics in preparation for operative exploration.

  18. Retinal Layers Measurements following Silicone Oil Tamponade for Retinal Detachment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Darija; Geber, Mia Zorić; Ćavar, Ivan; Utrobičić, Dobrila Karlica

    2017-12-19

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of silicone oil on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment who underwent vitreoretinal surgery. The study included 47 patients (eyes), who underwent a pars plana vitrectomy with the silicone oil tamponade. The control group included unoperated eye of all participants. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used for the measurements of peripapilar and macular RNFL thickness. The average peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the silicone oil filled eyes during endotamponade and after its removal. The eyes with elevated IOP had less thickening of the RNFL in comparison to the eyes with normal IOP. Central macular thickness and macular volume were decreased in the silicone oil filled eyes in comparison to the control eyes. In conclusion, silicone oil caused peripapilar RNFL thickening in the vitrectomized eyes during endotamponade and after silicone oil removal.

  19. Benefits of cardiac sonography performed by a non-expert sonographer in patients with non-traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Suat; Yavuz, Erdal; Al, Behçet; Cindoruk, Şener; Altunbaş, Gökhan; Gümüşboğa, Hasan; Yıldırım, Cuma

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a rapid cardiac ultrasound assessment performed by trained non-expert sonographers integrated into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). This study was prospectively performed in 179 patients (104 males and 75 females) who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in an emergency department (ED) during two calendar years (2013 and 2014). Two senior doctors, who had received emergency cardiac ultrasonography training, performed cardiac ultrasound through the apical, subxiphoid, or parasternal windows. Ultrasound evaluation and pulse controls were performed simultaneously. SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 63.7% (114) of the cardiopulmonary arrest incidents occurred out of the hospital. Only 13 patients had a femoral pulse during the initial evaluation, while 166 showed no femoral pulse. Initial monitoring showed a regular rhythm in 53 patients, ventricular fibrillation in 18 patients, and no rhythms in 108 patients. The first evaluation with ultrasound detected an effective heart rate in 26 patients and ventricular fibrillation in 14 patients, while no effective heart rate was observed in 139 patients. In addition, ultrasound revealed pericardial tamponade in seven patients and right ventricular enlargement in four cases. Global hypokinesia was detected in four patients and hypovolemia was observed in another four patients. The use of real-time ultrasonography during resuscitation with real-time femoral pulse check can help facilitate the distinguishing of pea-type arrest, ascertain the cause of the arrest, infer a suitable treatment, and optimize medical management decisions regarding CPR termination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuromuscular diseases after cardiac transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateen, Farrah J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Kremers, Walter K.; Daly, Richard C.; Edwards, Brooks S.; McGregor, Christopher G. A.; Wijdicks, Eelco F. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac transplantation is a therapeutic option in end-stage heart failure. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease is known to occur in cardiac transplant recipients but has not been fully characterized. METHODS: This retrospective cohort review reports the PNS-related concerns of 313

  1. Experience with pericarditis at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is concerned with the aetiology, natural history ... dwellers. The Bantu, descendants of migrant tribes from Central ... cardiac catheterization or even exploratory thoracotomy may ... (tamponade), reflected in jugular venous distension,.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of bio-engineered cardiac pseudo tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tao; Boland, Thomas [Department of Bioengineering, 420 Rhodes Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baicu, Catalin; Aho, Michael; Zile, Michael, E-mail: tboland@clemson.ed [Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We report on fabricating functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the 'half heart' (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers of biocompatible alginate hydrogels and mammalian cardiac cells according to pre-designed 3D patterns. In this study, primary feline adult and H1 cardiomyocytes were used as model cardiac cells. Alginate hydrogels with controlled micro-shell structures were built by spraying cross-linkers in micro-drops onto un-gelled alginic acid. The cells remained viable in constructs as thick as 1 cm due to the programmed porosity. Microscopic and macroscopic contractile functions of these cardiomyocyte constructs were observed in vitro. These results suggest that the inkjet bio-prototyping method could be used for hierarchical design of functional cardiac pseudo tissues, balanced with porosity for mass transport and structural support.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of bio-engineered cardiac pseudo tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tao; Boland, Thomas; Baicu, Catalin; Aho, Michael; Zile, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report on fabricating functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the 'half heart' (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers of biocompatible alginate hydrogels and mammalian cardiac cells according to pre-designed 3D patterns. In this study, primary feline adult and H1 cardiomyocytes were used as model cardiac cells. Alginate hydrogels with controlled micro-shell structures were built by spraying cross-linkers in micro-drops onto un-gelled alginic acid. The cells remained viable in constructs as thick as 1 cm due to the programmed porosity. Microscopic and macroscopic contractile functions of these cardiomyocyte constructs were observed in vitro. These results suggest that the inkjet bio-prototyping method could be used for hierarchical design of functional cardiac pseudo tissues, balanced with porosity for mass transport and structural support.

  4. Surgical Management of Massive Pericardial Effusion and Predictors for Development of Constrictive Pericarditis in a Resource Limited Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokhere, Peter O.; Iruolagbe, Christopher Ojemiega; Odike, Angela; Owobu, Clifford; Akhigbe, Theophilus

    2016-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis and treatment of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade have evolved over the years with a tendency towards a more comprehensive diagnostic workup and less traumatic intervention. Method. We reviewed and analysed the data of 32 consecutive patients who underwent surgery on account of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a semiurban university hospital in Nigeria from February 2010 to February 2016. Results. The majority of patients (34.4%) were between 31 and 40 years. Fourteen patients (43.8%) presented with clinical and echocardiographic feature of cardiac tamponade. The majority of patients (59.4%) presented with haemorrhagic pericardial effusion and the average volume of fluid drained intraoperatively was 846 mL  ± 67 mL. Pericardium was thickened in 50% of cases. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy was performed under local anaesthesia in 28 cases. No postoperative recurrence was observed; however 5 patients developed features of constrictive pericarditis. The relationship between pericardial thickness and development of pericardial constriction was statistically significant (p = 0.004). Conclusion. Subxiphoid pericardiostomy is a very effective way of treating massive pericardial effusion. Removing tube after adequate drainage (50 mL/day) and treatment of primary pathology are key to preventing recurrence. There is also a need to follow up patients to detect pericardial constriction especially those with thickened pericardium. PMID:27517082

  5. Rare post-operative complications of large mediastinal tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some reports in the literature, which suggest that cardiac tamponade drainage may transiently affect systolic function and also cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We did not find any reports of acute ventricular failure and ARDS secondary to mediastinal tumor resection without tamponade. Case Report: Here we report a 48-year-old woman presenting with massive pericardial effusion without tamponade in whom tumor was resected through median sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. ARDS and acute heart failure were two rare complications that happened at the end of the operation secondary to a sudden decompression of the heart from tumor pressure. Conclusion: ARDS and acute heart failure are two rare complications, which can happen after large mediastinal tumor resection.

  6. [Comparative study of the effects of sterilized air and perfluoropropane gas tamponades on recovery after idiopathic full-thickness macular hole surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F; Zheng, L; Dong, F T

    2017-05-11

    Objective: To compare the effects of sterilized air and perfluoropropane (C(3)F(8)) tamponades on recovery after vitrectomy for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (IFTMH). Methods: Case control study. Seventy-three eyes of 69 consecutive cases underwent vitrectomy with air (53 eyes) or 10% C(3)F(8) gas (20 eyes) tamponade. Surgical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed between the two groups, including logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) and optical coherence tomography findings like the size of the macular hole and the photoreceptor layer defect. Results: Preoperatively, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was (0.10±0.49), the mean hole diameter was (777.9±320.7) μm, and the mean diameter of the photoreceptor layer defect was (1 709.3±516.0) μm in the sterilized air group, while in the C(3)F(8) group, the mean BCVA was (0.07±0.50), the mean hole diameter was (853.9±355.0) μm, and the mean defect diameter was (1 480.5±429.9) μm. The primary closure rate was 90.6% in the sterilized air group and 95.0% in the C(3)F(8) group. One month after surgery, the mean BCVA was (0.17±0.41), and the mean diameter of the photoreceptor layer defect was (820.5±598.0) μm in the sterilized air group, while in the C(3)F(8) group, the mean BCVA was 0.12±0.49, and the mean defect diameter was (762.5±658.0) μm. There was no statistically significant difference in the closure rate (χ(2)=0.019), BCVA ( t =-1.689), hole diameter ( t =0.837) and diameter of the photoreceptor layer defect ( t =0.338) between the two groups( P >0.05). Conclusions: Vitrectomy with sterilized air tamponade is safe and effective for the treatment of IFTMH and even cases with relatively large diameters. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 327 - 331) .

  7. Comprehensive Characterization of Swine Cardiac Troponin T Proteoforms by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziqing; Guo, Fang; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Sun, Ruixiang; Zhang, Han; Hu, Yang; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Ge, Ying

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) regulates the Ca2+-mediated interaction between myosin thick filaments and actin thin filaments during cardiac contraction and relaxation. cTnT is released into the blood following injury, and increased serum levels of the protein are used clinically as a biomarker for myocardial infarction. Moreover, mutations in cTnT are causative in a number of familial cardiomyopathies. With the increasing use of large animal (swine) model to recapitulate human diseases, it is essential to characterize species-dependent protein sequence variants, alternative RNA splicing, and post-translational modifications (PTMs), but challenges remain due to the incomplete database and lack of validation of the predicted splicing isoforms. Herein, we integrated top-down mass spectrometry (MS) with online liquid chromatography (LC) and immunoaffinity purification to comprehensively characterize miniature swine cTnT proteoforms, including those arising from alternative RNA splicing and PTMs. A total of seven alternative splicing isoforms of cTnT were identified by LC/MS from swine left ventricular tissue, with each isoform containing un-phosphorylated and mono-phosphorylated proteoforms. The phosphorylation site was localized to Ser1 for the mono-phosphorylated proteoforms of cTnT1, 3, 4, and 6 by online MS/MS combining collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Offline MS/MS on Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer with CAD and electron capture dissociation (ECD) was then utilized to achieve deep sequencing of mono-phosphorylated cTnT1 (35.2 kDa) with a high sequence coverage of 87%. Taken together, this study demonstrated the unique advantage of top-down MS in the comprehensive characterization of protein alternative splicing isoforms together with PTMs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72; meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18 were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy.

  9. Can cardiovascular MRI be used to more definitively characterize cardiac masses initially identified using echocardiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Vikas K; Czajka, Anna T; Thompson, Diane V; Doyle, Mark; Tewatia, Tarun; Yamrozik, June; Williams, Ronald B; Biederman, Robert W W

    2018-05-01

    In diagnosing cardiac and paracardiac masses, cardiac MRI (CMR) has gained acceptance as the gold standard. CMR has been observed to be superior to echocardiography in characterizing soft-tissue structures and, specifically, in classifying cardiac masses. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between mortality and cardiac or paracardiac masses initially identified by echocardiography (ECHO) and confirmed by CMR. Between January 2002 and August 2007, a total of 158 patients underwent both ECHO and CMR for the evaluation of cardiac masses that were equivocal or undefined by ECHO. The primary study endpoints were 5-year all-cause mortality and 5-year cardiac mortality. Causes of death as of April 1, 2015 were obtained from medical records or the National Death Index. Patients were analyzed according to mass type determined by CMR using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. Over a mean duration of follow-up of 10.4 ± 2.9 years (range: 0.01-12 years) post-CMR, the overall all-cause mortality rate was 25.9% (41/158). Median age at death was 76 years and there were 21 females (51.2%). Mortality rates in the different classifications of cardiac masses by CMR were as follows: 20% (1/5) in patients with a Nondiagnostic CMR; 20% (1/5) in Other Diagnoses; 17.9% (7/39) in No Masses (includes Normal Anatomical Variants); 16.7% (3/18) in Benign Masses; 23.8% (15/63) in Fat; 50% (5/10) in Thrombus; and 61.5% (8/13) in Malignant Mass. The mean survival time in patients with No Mass (n = 39) was not significantly longer than patients with any type of cardiac mass (n = 114) (P = .16). No significant difference was found in age at death between patients when grouped by CMR classification (P = .40). However, among CMR-confirmed masses, there were some significant differences by mass classification type (P = .006). During the follow-up period, 26% (41/158) of patients died and 22% (9/41) of the deaths were cardiovascular

  10. Characterization of Cardiac Patients Based on the Synergy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavangar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiac patients need comprehensive support due to the adverse effects of this disease on different aspects of their lives. Synergy intervention is a model that focuses on patients' requirements. Objectives This study aimed to determine the eightfold characteristic of cardiac patients based on the synergy model that represent their clinical requirements. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 cardiac patients hospitalized at the cardiac care unit (CCU of Yazd Afshar Hospital were randomly selected. The data were collected by using a two-part check-list including demographic characteristics and also by studying eight characteristics of patients through interviewing and reviewing their records. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency (percentage and analytical statistics such as Spearman and Mann-Whitney test with the SPSS software, version 18. Results The results showed that among patients' internal characteristics, reversibility (70.6%, vulnerability (68.6%, and predictability (80.4% at level 1 (the minimum score had the highest frequency and stability (49% and complexity (54.9% were at level 3 (average score. Among external characteristics participation in decision-making (80.4% at level 1 had the highest frequency while care (62.7% and recourses (98% were at level 3. Conclusions Ignoring any of the eightfold characteristics based on the synergy model interferes with comprehensive support of cardiac patients. Therefore, it is necessary for professional health practitioners, especially nurses, to consider patients' eightfold characteristics in order to provide quality care.

  11. Characterization of human cardiac myosin heavy chain genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi-Takihara, K.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, J.; Ing, D.; Liew, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated and analyzed the structure of the genes coding for the α and β forms of the human cardiac myosin heavy chain (MYHC). Detailed analysis of four overlapping MYHC genomic clones shows that the α-MYHC and β-MYHC genes constitute a total length of 51 kilobases and are tandemly linked. The β-MYHC-encoding gene, predominantly expressed in the normal human ventricle and also in slow-twitch skeletal muscle, is located 4.5 kilobases upstream of the α-MYHC-encoding gene, which is predominantly expressed in normal human atrium. The authors have determined the nucleotide sequences of the β form of the MYHC gene, which is 100% homologous to the cardiac MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3). It is unlikely that the divergence of a few nucleotide sequences from the cardiac β-MYHC cDNA clone (pHMC3) reported in a MYHC cDNA clone (PSMHCZ) from skeletal muscle is due to a splicing mechanism. This finding suggests that the same β form of the cardiac MYHC gene is expressed in both ventricular and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The promoter regions of both α- and β-MYHC genes, as well as the first four coding regions in the respective genes, have also been sequenced. The sequences in the 5'-flanking region of the α- and β-MYHC-encoding genes diverge extensively from one another, suggesting that expression of the α- and β-MYHC genes is independently regulated

  12. Use of abdominal binder as anti-shock garment; an adjunct to uterine tamponade in uterine atony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallue, U.R.; Chughtai, F.; Chaudry, A.; Shamin, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the study was to control life threatening post partum haemorrhage (PPH) in women till blood and blood products were made available or the women transferred to a better equipped centre. Study Design: A prospective interventional consecutive case series. Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted in three hospitals; Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) hospital Apr 2005 to Sep 2010, Pakistan Ordinance Factories (POF) hospital Wah cantt Oct 2011 to Dec 2014 and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Tarbela Dec 2014 to Dec 2015. Material and Methods: Abdominal binder was used in 22 consecutive women, having moderate to severe primary PPH due to uterine atony, where despite uterotonics (i.v oxytocin, rectal misoprostol) and bimanual compression, uterine tamponade was performed but complete control of haemorrhage was not achieved. Protocols for the treatment of obstetric haemorrhage and hypotensive shock were observed, including administration of intravenous crystalloid fluids and blood transfusion. If required, surgery was performed in the form of uterine arteries ligation or B-Lynch sutures. Obstetric hysterectomy was performed to save the woman's life if conservative procedures failed. Results: Bleeding and hypotension were controlled successfully in 19 (86.4%) of these women. In 03 (14.6%) women, bleeding persisted and so hysterectomy had to be resorted to. There was no maternal mortality. At 06 weeks postnatal follow up, none of the patients were found to suffer from long term debility; physical or psychological. Conclusion: Abdominal binder was found to be very effective in controlling bleeding and hypotensive crisis due to significant PPH due to uterine atony, as an adjunct to uterine tamponade. (author)

  13. Dual energy cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gastón

    2017-06-01

    Conventional single energy CT suffers from technical limitations related to the polychromatic nature of X-rays. Dual energy cardiac CT (DECT) shows promise to attenuate and even overcome some of these limitations, and might broaden the scope of patients eligible for cardiac CT towards the inclusion of higher risk patients. This might be achieved as a result of both safety (contrast reduction) and physiopathological (myocardial perfusion and characterization) issues. In this article, we will review the main clinical cardiac applications of DECT, that can be summarized in two core aspects: coronary artery evaluation, and myocardial evaluation.

  14. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate seal-off technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Mei Jul; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Matt Chiung Yu [Dept. of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China)

    2013-01-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post

  15. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  16. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET A receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET A receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and β-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET A receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice

  17. The heart and hypothyroidism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... influenced by the thyroid disorder and vice versa. We recenrly ... hypothyroidism is a rare cause of heart failure other causes of heart failure must be excluded ... signs of cardiac tamponade and echocardiographic features of a.

  18. Causes and indications for reoperation in valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG in 915 patients in cardiac surgery department in Imam Khomeini Hospital, 1374-77

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmehr H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Valvular and coronary artery disease are among the most important causes of disability and death in the world and Iran as well. Every year, half a million death because of these diseases is reported in United State. The incidence of degenerative and valvular diseases of heart is increasing. Considering the industrialization of our country, the incidence of these kind of problems are increasing as well. In this study, there is an attempt to recognize the causes of cardiac surgery. We conducted a retrospective study in 915 cardiac surgery patients (630 CABG and 285 valve replacement from 1374 to 1377. In CABG patients, there were 46 cases of reoperation (78.3 percent male 21.7 percent female. The most reoperations for bleeding was less than 24 hours in 90.3 percent. In valvular patients the causes of reoperation were: A Valvular complications (female/male=3/1, B Non valvular complications (female/male=1/3. The most common nonvalvular complication was bleeding (66.6 percent. The most common valvular complication was bioprosthetic valve degeneration. The meantime between two operation in valvular complications was 11.8 years. In all cases (915 the incidence of bleeding was 3.8 percent, mediastinitis 0.8 percent, cardiac tamponade 0.8 percent and GI bleeding 0.5 percent.

  19. A Life-Threatening Bronchogenic Cyst

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    Sung Joon Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A bronchogenic cyst causing cardiac tamponade is a rare condition. We report an unusual case of a bronchogenic cyst that caused cardiac tamponade. A 49-year-old female patient presented at our emergency room with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath that had lasted for 5 days preceding the visit. Echocardiography revealed a v ery large cystic m ass compressing the left a trium posteriorly, and a l arge amount of pericardial effusion caused the diastolic collapse of the ventricles. Atrial fibrillation and aggravated dyspnea were o bserved, and t he p atient’s vital s igns w ere unstable a fter a dmission. We t herefore p erformed an emergency operation. The bronchogenic cyst was resected by thoracotomy and the patient was discharged 12 days after the operation without any complications over 5 years of follow-up.

  20. Electrophysiology Catheter-Facilitated coronary sinus cannulation and implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis S. Manolis, MD, FESC, FACC, FHRS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT device implantation is hampered by difficult placement of the left ventricular (LV lead. We have routinely used a steerable electrophysiology catheter to guide coronary sinus (CS cannulation and facilitate LV lead positioning. The aim of this prospective study is to present our results with this approach in 138 consecutive patients receiving a CRT device over 10 years. Methods: The study included 120 men and 18 women, aged 64.8±11.4 years, with coronary disease (n=63, cardiomyopathy (n=72, or other disease (n=3, and mean ejection fraction of 24.5±4.5%. Devices were implanted for refractory heart failure and dyssynchrony, all but 2 in the presence of left bundle branch block. Implanted devices included biventricular pacemakers (CRT-P (n=33 and cardioverter defibrillators (CRT-D (n=105. Results: Using the electrophysiology catheter, the CS could be engaged in 134 (97.1% patients. In 4 patients failing CS cannulation, a dual-chamber device was implanted in 2, and bifocal right ventricular pacing was effected in 2. Bifocal (n=2 or conventional (n=1 systems were implanted in another 3 patients, in whom the LV lead got dislodged (n=2 or removed because of local dissection (n=1. Thus, finally, a CRT system was successfully established in 131 (94.9% patients. There were 3 patients with CS dissection, of whom 1 was complicated by cardiac tamponade managed with pericardiocentesis. There were no perioperative deaths. During follow-up (31.0±21.2 months, clinical improvement was reported by 108 (82.4% patients. Conclusion: Routine use of an electrophysiology catheter greatly facilitated CS cannulation and successful LV lead placement in ∼95% of patients undergoing CRT system implantation. Keywords: heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary sinus, left ventricular lead

  1. Effect of indomethacin on regulation of juxta-articular bone blood-flow during joint tamponade. An experimental study in puppies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, Henrik Lykke; Holm, I E; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins are vasoactive substances which are assumed to play a major role in bone metabolism and bone repair. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of indomethacin on the control of epiphyseal bone blood-flow. By means of simultaneous intra-osseous pressure (IOP......) and regional blood flow (RBF) measurements in the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE), aspects of vascular control mechanisms in the distal femoral epiphysis were investigated during knee joint tamponade (50% of mean arterial pressure) before and after administration of indomethacin 7.5 mg/kg. Six dogs aged 3...

  2. Right ventricular rupture and tamponade caused by malposition of the Avalon cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Hitoshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Placement of the Avalon Elite bicaval dual lumen cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO via the internal jugular vein requires precise positioning of the cannula tip in the inferior vena cava with echocardiography or fluoroscopy guidance. Correct guidewire placement is clearly the key first step in assuring proper advancement of the cannula. We report a case of unexpected wire migration into the right ventricle at the time of final cannula advancement, resulting in right ventricular rupture and tamponade. Transesophageal echocardiography is an important monitoring modality for appropriate placement of the VV-ECMO guidewire and Avalon cannula, and in particular, for early identification of potential complications.

  3. Impact of delays to cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty and stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Mat; Mackie, Karen; Dzavik, Vladimir; Seidelin, Peter H

    2004-02-04

    This study was designed to determine the likelihood of harm in patients having additional delays before urgent coronary artery bypass graft (UCABG) surgery after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients who have PCI at hospitals without cardiac surgery have additional delays to surgery when UCABG is indicated. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients who had a failed PCI leading to UCABG at a large tertiary care hospital. A prespecified set of criteria (hemodynamic instability, coronary perforation with significant effusion or tamponade, or severe ischemia) was used to identify patients who would have an increased likelihood of harm with additional delays to surgery. From 1996 to 2000, 6,582 PCIs were performed. There were 45 patients (0.7%) identified to have UCABG. The demographic characteristics of the UCABG patients were similar to the rest of the patients in the PCI database, except for significantly more type C lesions (45.3% vs. 25.0%, p surgery. The absolute risk of harm is approximately one to two patients per 1,000 PCIs. Approximately one in four patients referred for UCABG would be placed at increased risk of harm if delays to surgery were encountered.

  4. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves; Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio; Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira; Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando

    2014-10-28

    Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.Fundamento: As urgências cardiovasculares são causas importantes de procura por atendimento médico, sendo fundamentais a rapidez e a precisão no diagnóstico para diminuir sua morbimortalidade. Objetivo: Avaliar o uso da ecocardiografia

  5. Good visual outcome in a longstanding macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade: case report. doi: 10.20513/2447-6595.2016v56n1p68-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optic disc pit is a congenital anomaly of the optic nerve frequently associated with macula detachment. It has a poor visual prognosis if left untreated. The treatment of the optic disc remains controversial and includes the use of laser along the edge of the optic nerve, vitrectomy with gas tamponade with or without removal of posterior hyaloid. We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a longstanding macula detachment due to optic disc pit who was treated with vitrectomy with removal of posterior hyaloid, gas tamponade, and laser. Despite longstanding macular detachment the final visual acuity was 20/25.

  6. Hjertetamponade hos et praematurt barn med perkutant anlagt centralt venekateter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Michael T; Nielsen, Peter Ehlert

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a premature girl born with a gestational age of 26 weeks who developed cardiac tamponade after displacement of a peripheral inserted central catheter. She recovered completely after an acutely performed pericardiocentesis. The pericardial fluid was consistent with parental...

  7. Characterization and classification of patients with different levels of cardiac death risk by using Poincaré plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Javier; Voss, Andreas; Caminal, Pere; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Giraldo, Beatriz F

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac death risk is still a big problem by an important part of the population, especially in elderly patients. In this study, we propose to characterize and analyze the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems using the Poincaré plot. A total of 46 cardiomyopathy patients and 36 healthy subjets were analyzed. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was used to stratify patients with low risk (LR: LVEF > 35%, 16 patients), and high risk (HR: LVEF ≤ 35%, 30 patients) of heart attack. RR, SBP and T Tot time series were extracted from the ECG, blood pressure and respiratory flow signals, respectively. Parameters that describe the scatterplott of Poincaré method, related to short- and long-term variabilities, acceleration and deceleration of the dynamic system, and the complex correlation index were extracted. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the support vector machines (SVM) classification methods were used to analyze the results of the extracted parameters. The results showed that cardiac parameters were the best to discriminate between HR and LR groups, especially the complex correlation index (p = 0.009). Analising the interaction, the best result was obtained with the relation between the difference of the standard deviation of the cardiac and respiratory system (p = 0.003). When comparing HR vs LR groups, the best classification was obtained applying SVM method, using an ANOVA kernel, with an accuracy of 98.12%. An accuracy of 97.01% was obtained by comparing patients versus healthy, with a SVM classifier and Laplacian kernel. The morphology of Poincaré plot introduces parameters that allow the characterization of the cardiorespiratory system dynamics.

  8. A Case of Low-Grade Primary Cardiac Lymphoma with Pericardial Effusion Diagnosed by Combined 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT) Imaging and Effusion Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Shimomura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Shuzo; Terao, Chiaki; Totsune, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Manabu; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2018-03-14

    BACKGROUND Primary cardiac lymphoma is rare and can be an aggressive disease, depending on the grade. A case is reported of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma associated with a pericardial effusion. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging was useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating the disease activity in this case. CASE REPORT A 72-year-old Japanese woman visited a general practitioner, complaining of dyspnea associated with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and Group V malignant cells were identified by cytology, suspicious for malignant lymphoma. Whole-body FDG-PET/CT scans showed no pleural effusion or lymph node metastasis supporting the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma diagnosed on pericardial effusion. The laboratory investigations showed that levels of serum soluble interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (sIL-2R), a diagnostic and prognostic marker for malignant lymphoma, were not elevated (258 U/ml). A six-month follow-up FDG-PET/CT scan showed an increased volume of the pericardial effusion and mild but abnormal uptake diffusely in the pericardial space, and the sIL-2R was slightly elevated (860 U/ml). No abnormal FDG accumulation outside the retained pericardial effusion was noted, which was compatible with a clinical picture of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma, and in a period of watchful waiting during the first two years later, the sIL-2R had reduced to 195 U/ml. CONCLUSIONS This is a rare case of low-grade primary cardiac lymphoma detected in a pericardial effusion, and highlights the utility of the FDG-PET/CT scan as a valuable diagnostic and follow-up modality.

  9. Acute and chronic dissection of pulmonary artery: new challenges in pulmonary arterial hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Michał; Wieteska, Maria; Kurzyna, Marcin; Gościniak, Piotr; Pepke-Żaba, Joanna; Biederman, Andrzej; Torbicki, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Right ventricular failure is a leading cause of mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, up to 25% of such patients die unexpectedly, without warning signs of hemodynamical decompensation. We previously documented that pulmonary artery (PA) dilatation significantly increases the risk of those deaths. Some of them may be due to dissection of PA resulting in cardiac tamponade. However, direct confirmation of this mechanism is difficult as most of such deaths occur outside hospitals. We present 4 patients with severe PAH and PA dilatation in whom PA dissection has been confirmed. Three patients had IPAH, one had PAH associated with congenital heart disease. All patients had mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 50 mmHg at diagnosis and dissection occurred late in the course of apparently well controlled disease (6 to 14 years). Several clinical elements were common to our patients - high systolic PAP, long lasting PH, progressive dilatation of PA to more than 50 mm with chest pain prior to dissection. However, clinical course followed three different patterns: sudden death due to cardiac tamponade, hemopericarditis caused by blood leaking from dissected aneurysm with imminent but not immediate cardiac tamponade, or chronic asymptomatic PA dissection. Indeed, two of our patients are alive and on lung transplantation waiting list for more than 2 years now. Further research is needed to suggest optimal management strategies for patients with stable PAH but significantly dilated proximal pulmonary arteries or confirmed PA dissection depending on the clinical presentation and expected outcome.

  10. Towards modeling of cardiac micro-structure with catheter-based confocal microscopy: a novel approach for dye delivery and tissue characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Richard A; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2009-08-01

    This work presents a methodology for modeling of cardiac tissue micro-structure. The approach is based on catheter-based confocal imaging systems, which are emerging as tools for diagnosis in various clinical disciplines. A limitation of these systems is that a fluorescent marker must be available in sufficient concentration in the imaged region. We introduce a novel method for the local delivery of fluorescent markers to cardiac tissue based on a hydro-gel carrier brought into contact with the tissue surface. The method was tested with living rabbit cardiac tissue and applied to acquire three-dimensional image stacks with a standard inverted confocal microscope and two-dimensional images with a catheter-based confocal microscope. We processed these image stacks to obtain spatial models and quantitative data on tissue microstructure. Volumes of atrial and ventricular myocytes were 4901 +/- 1713 and 10 299 +/-3598 mum (3) (mean+/-sd), respectively. Atrial and ventricular myocyte volume fractions were 72.4 +/-4.7% and 79.7 +/- 2.9% (mean +/-sd), respectively. Atrial and ventricular myocyte density was 165 571 +/- 55 836 and 86 957 +/- 32 280 cells/mm (3) (mean+/-sd), respectively. These statistical data and spatial descriptions of tissue microstructure provide important input for modeling studies of cardiac tissue function. We propose that the described methodology can also be used to characterize diseased tissue and allows for personalized modeling of cardiac tissue.

  11. Succinct history of Greek cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Koletsis, Efstratios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The development and evolution of Greek Cardiac Surgery (GCS) has followed the international cardiothoracic surgery after the invention of cardiopulmonary bypass machine by John Gibbon in 1953. Chronologically, the development of GCS could be divided in four periods: (a) the first or essay period (1950-1960) characterized by the lack of organization, the experimentation and hesitation from the surgeons' side, and the reluctance from the patients' side to have an operation in Greece. (b) The second or stabilization period (1960-1970) is the period during which several separate cardiovascular departments were organized and performed the first valve replacement in 1964. (c) The third or "strengthening" period (1970-1985), during which Greek surgeons were trained abroad and adopted new methods and techniques of surgical therapy. The first operations of coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic aneurysm were performed (1973-1975). Various purely Cardiothoracic Centers were founded in Athens and Thessalonica and cardiac surgery became a routine operation. However, these centers were numerically not enough to cover the demand of patients in need of cardiac surgery. (d) The fourth or maturity period (1985 till today). It is characterized by the creation of private cardiac surgery departments and the gradual establishment of new university centers at the periphery, which along with the Onassis Cardiac Center, eliminated any need for patients to leave the country.

  12. A unique and unexplained ricochet leak post PCI – Successfully treated with intra-coronary glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin K. Goel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a unique case of coronary artery perforation treated with covered stent with repeat cardiac tamponade resulting out of a fresh unexplained leak from a remote vessel (Ricochet and successfully treated with intra-coronary injection of sterile synthetic glue, cyanoacrylate.

  13. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Abstract. With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. One of the life-threatening complications is pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; however,.

  14. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  15. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  16. Polymer microfiber meshes facilitate cardiac differentiation of c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Lijuan [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Thayer, Patrick [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fan, Huimin [Research Institute of Heart Failure, Shanghai East Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Ledford, Benjamin; Chen, Miao [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Goldstein, Aaron [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Cao, Guohua [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); He, Jia-Qiang, E-mail: jiahe@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Electrospun microfiber meshes have been shown to support the proliferation and differentiation of many types of stem cells, but the phenotypic fate of c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) have not been explored. To this end, we utilized thin (~5 µm) elastomeric meshes consisting of aligned 1.7 µm diameter poly (ester-urethane urea) microfibers as substrates to examine their effect on hCSC viability, morphology, proliferation, and differentiation relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The results showed that cells on microfiber meshes displayed an elongated morphology aligned in the direction of fiber orientation, lower proliferation rates, but increased expressions of genes and proteins majorly associated with cardiomyocyte phenotype. The early (NK2 homeobox 5, Nkx2.5) and late (cardiac troponin I, cTnI) cardiomyocyte genes were significantly increased on meshes (Nkx=2.5 56.2±13.0, cTnl=2.9±0.56,) over TCPS (Nkx2.5=4.2±0.9, cTnl=1.6±0.5, n=9, p<0.05 for both groups) after differentiation. In contrast, expressions of smooth muscle markers, Gata6 and myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), were decreased on meshes. Immunocytochemical analysis with cardiac antibody exhibited the similar pattern of above cardiac differentiation. We conclude that aligned microfiber meshes are suitable for guiding cardiac differentiation of hCSCs and may facilitate stem cell-based therapies for treatment of cardiac diseases. - Highlights: • First study to characterize c-kit{sup +} human cardiac stem cells on microfiber meshes. • Microfiber meshes seem reducing cell proliferation, but no effect on cell viability. • Microfiber meshes facilitate the elongation of human cardiac stem cells in culture. • Cardiac but not smooth muscle differentiation were enhanced on microfiber meshes. • Microfiber meshes may be used as cardiac patches in cell-based cardiac therapy.

  17. The Effect of Altitude on Intraocular Pressure in Vitrectomized Eyes with Sulfur Hexafluoride Tamponade by the Friedenwald Method: Rabbit Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jans Fromow-Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the change in intraocular pressure after a road trip, in eyes with different levels of filling with gas tamponade. Five rabbit eyes were subject to pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade (filling percentage: 25%, 50%, and 100% of nonexpansile SF6, 100% saline solution, and 100% room air. A sixth eye was injected with 0.35 cc of undiluted SF6 without vitrectomy. Guided by global positioning system, they were driven to the highest point of the highway connecting Mexico City with Puebla city and back, stopping every 300 m to assess intraocular pressure. The rabbit’s scleral rigidity and estimation for human eyes were done by using the Friedenwald nomogram. Maximum altitude was 3209 m (Δ949 m. There were significant differences in intraocular pressure on the rabbit eyes filled with SF6 at 100%, 50%, 25%, and 100% room air. Per every 100 m of altitude rise, the intraocular pressure increased by 1.53, 1.0046, 0.971, and 0.97 mmHg, respectively. Using the human Friedenwald rigidity coefficient, the human eye estimate for intraocular pressure change was 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.1 mmHg per every 100 m of attitude rise. Altitude changes have a significant impact on intraocular pressure. The final effect depends on the percentage of vitreous cavity fill and scleral rigidity.

  18. A case of anti-Jo1 myositis with pleural effusions and pericardial tamponade developing after exposure to a fermented Kombucha beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk, Chris T; Sandorfi, Nora; Curtis, Mark T

    2004-08-01

    The pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been postulated to be an environmental trigger causing the expression of the disease in a genetically predisposed patient. We report a case of anti-Jo1 antibody-positive myositis which was associated with pleural effusions, pericardial effusion with tamponade, and 'mechanic's hands', probably related to the consumption of a fermented Kombucha beverage. Kombucha 'mushroom', a symbiosis of yeast and bacteria, is postulated to be the trigger for our patient's disease owing to the proximity of his symptoms to the consumption of the Kombucha beverage.

  19. Unexpected death caused by rupture of a dilated aorta in an adult male with aortic coarctation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2015-01-01

    Aortic coarctation (AC) is a congenital aortic narrowing. We describe for the first time the findings obtained by unenhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in a case where the death was caused by cardiac tamponade from a ruptured aneurysmal dilatation of the ascending aorta and the aortic...

  20. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilloniz, Catia; Torres, Antoni [Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica Agusti Pi i Sunyer, Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Rangel, Ernesto [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Barlascini, Cornelius [Servizio di Igiene e Sanita Pubblica, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy); Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Nicolini, Antonello, E-mail: antonellonicolini@gmail.com [Servizio di Pneumologia, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  2. Radiation-related pericarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.G.; Ruckdeschel, J.C.; Chang, P.; Byhardt, R.; Bouchard, R.J.; Wiernik, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    To determine the incidence of pericardial effusion in patients undergoing upper mantle radiation therapy, 81 patients with Hodgkin's disease, stages I to IIIB, were selected from a protocol series of 98 patients. Twenty-four patients (29.6 percent) met X-ray criteria for the presence of pericardial effusion. Eleven of the 24 also underwent right heart catheterization to confirm the presence of pericardial effusion and to define any hemodynamic abnormality. Fourteen patients were found to have transient effusion. Five of the 11 patients have had partial pericardiectomy for symptoms and signs of cardiac tamponade. There has been no evidence of recurrent Hodgkin's disease in these surgically treated patients. Ninety-two percent of the pericardial effusions occurred in the first 12 months after the end of radiation therapy. Therapeutic implications depend on elucidation of the natural history of this process. At present close follow-up is necessary with surgical intervention for signs or symptoms of cardiac tamponade

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilloniz, Catia; Torres, Antoni; Rangel, Ernesto; Barlascini, Cornelius; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Nicolini, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  4. Ischemic Stroke Due to Cardiac Involvement: Emery Dreifuss Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Kasım Ulusoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD is a hereditary disease. It is characterized by early-onset contractures, slowly progressive weakness, fatigue related to skapulo-humero-peroneal muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy which develops in adulthood and cardiac conduction system block. Cardiac involvement has a prognostic significance in patients with EDMD and even sudden cardiac death may be the first clinical presentation. In this article, an EDMD patient with ischemic stroke clinic who didn’t have regular cardiac follow-up was reported and the importance of the treatment of cardiac diseases which could play a role in ischemic stroke etiology and the implantation of pace-maker was mentioned.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Using Remote Magnetic Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Q I; Pehrson, Steen; Jacobsen, Peter Karl

    2016-01-01

    .0 minutes, PerAF, P = 0.17). The overall complication rate was 0.6%. One PAF patient experienced cardiac tamponade. AF repeat ablations by RMN significantly reduced the procedural and ablation times when compared with their first ablation times. CONCLUSIONS: AF ablation guided by RMN is safe as evidenced...

  6. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  7. Lifesaving pericardiocentesis due to purulent pericarditis with growth of Gram-negative rods in an immune-competent Inuit male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Carl Frederik Brandt; Malham, Mikkel; Kanstrup, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    by echocardiography but is not the case in rural areas in common. Change in the infectious aetiology indicates broad-spectrum antibiotics. We describe a case of purulent pericarditis causing cardiac tamponade due to haematogenous spread of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Proteus species in an immune-competent Inuit...

  8. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-15

    Jun 15, 2015 ... Abstract. While pleural effusion and ascites secondary to acute pancreatitis are common, clinically relevant pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade are observed rarely. In a study by Pezzilli et al., pleural effusion was noted in 7 of the 21 patients with acute pancreatitis whereas the authors detected.

  9. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  10. Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation under the guidance of three-dimensional mapping for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Lang; Wang Hong; Lai Hengli; Ying Qiulin; Chen Zhangqiang; Lu Linxiang; Qiu Yun; Xiao Chengwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter radiofrequency ablation guided by a three-dimensional mapping system (Ensite or Carto) for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: A cohort of 123 consecutive hospitalized inpatients during the period from February 2006 to December 2008 were selected for this study. These patients suffered from various arrhythmias, including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (n = 58), persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation (n = 10), atrial flutter (n = 13), atrial tachycardia (n = 12) and ventricular tachycardia or frequent ventricular premature beats (n = 30). Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias was performed under the guidance of an EnSite3000 / NavX or Array mapping system in 80 cases, and under the guidance of a CARTO mapping system in the remaining 43 cases. Results: Successful ablation of arrhythmias was obtained by single operation in 106 cases (86.18%), including 59 cases with atrial fibrillation, 11 cases with atrial flutter, 10 cases with atrial tachycardia, and 26 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.Ablation procedure was carried out and was successful in 10 cases with a successful rate of 94.31%, including 5 cases with atrial fibrillation, 1 case with recurred atrial flutter, 1 case with recurrent atrial tachycardia, and 3 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.After operation, complications occurred in 6 cases, including cardiac tamponade in 4 cases, distal embolism of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 1 case, and pulmonary embolism in 1 case. Conclusion: Three-dimensional mapping system can clearly and stereoscopically display the cardiac structures. Therefore, this technique is of great value in guiding the transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for complex arrhythmias, in improving the success rate of ablation and in increasing the safety of the procedure. (authors)

  11. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, A.

    2005-12-01

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  12. The left atrial catheter: its uses and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, B S; Naidich, D P; McGuinness, G; McCauley, D I

    1992-11-01

    The authors describe the radiographic appearance of the left atrial catheter, a widely used postsurgical intracardiac device. Recognition of the characteristic appearance of this catheter should be of value in detection of potential complications, including line fracture with resultant retention and/or embolization, infection, prosthetic valve dysfunction, and even cardiac tamponade.

  13. [Cardiac sarcoidosis: Diagnosis and therapeutic challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Aubart, F; Nunes, H; Mathian, A; Haroche, J; Hié, M; Le-Thi Huong Boutin, D; Cluzel, P; Soussan, M; Waintraub, X; Fouret, P; Valeyre, D; Amoura, Z

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma in young adults. Cardiac involvement is rare and range from 2 to 75% depending on diagnostic criteria. Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis may be asymptomatic or may manifest as rhythm/conduction troubles or congestive heart failure. The diagnosis and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis may be challenging. However, advances have come in recent years from the use of cardiac MRI and 18 FDG-TEP scanner, as well as from the stratification of the risk of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation. Due to the rarity of the disease, there is no reliable prospective large study to guide therapeutic strategy for cardiac sarcoidosis. Corticosteroids are probably efficacious, in particular in case of atrio-ventricular block or moderate heart failure. Immunosuppressive drugs have not been largely studied but methotrexate could be helpful. In refractory forms, TNF-α antagonists have been used with success. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  15. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/ critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  16. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  17. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  18. Bronchoscopic hemostatic tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose for major hemoptysis control: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Nogueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemoptysis is a common and alarming clinical problem. Acute massive hemoptysis is a life threatening condition. Different therapeutic strategies such as surgery, endovascular treatment and/or bronchoscopy have been applied. We report two cases of patients with severe hemoptysis who were treated by bronchoscopy guided topical hemostatic tamponade therapy with oxidized regenerated cellulose. Resumo: Hemoptises são um problema clinico comum e grave. Nalguns casos, como nas hemoptises maciças, podem causar mortalidade elevada. Para o seu controlo e/ou tratamento têm sido aplicadas diferentes estratégias como a cirurgia, embolização das artérias brônquicas e tratamentos broncoscópicos. Os autores descrevem dois casos clinicos de pacientes com hemoptises graves, cujo controlo foi efectuado por broncoscopia com aplicação de tamponamento hemostático com celulose oxidade regenerada (Surgicell®, Johnson and Johnson's, London. Keywords: Hemoptysis, Bronchoscopic hemostatic therapy, Oxidized regenerated cellulose, Palavras-chave: Hemoptises, Terapêutica broncoscópica hemostática, Celulose oxidada regenerada

  19. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, Carson A.; McClellan, James H. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arepalli, Chesnal D. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 3350-950 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E3 (Canada); Auffermann, William F.; Henry, Travis S. [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, 1364 Clifton Road Northeast, Suite 309, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Khosa, Faisal [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Emergency Radiology, 550 Peachtree Street Northeast, Atlanta, Georgia 30308 (United States); Coy, Adam M. [School of Medicine, Emory University, 100 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini, E-mail: stridan@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (P{sub AGG}) and IVS (P{sub IV} {sub S}) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (P{sub CT}). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for P{sub AGG} for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to P

  20. Multidimensional structure-function relationships in human β-cardiac myosin from population-scale genetic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburger, J.R. (Julian R.); Green, E.M. (Eric M.); Caleshu, C. (Colleen); Sunitha, M.S. (Margaret S.); Taylor, R.E. (Rebecca E.); Ruppel, K.M. (Kathleen M.); Metpally, R.P.R. (Raghu Prasad Rao); S.D. Colan (Steven); M. Michels (Michelle); Day, S.M. (Sharlene M.); I. Olivotto (Iacopo); Bustamante, C.D. (Carlos D.); Dewey, F.E. (Frederick E.); Ho, C.Y. (Carolyn Y.); Spudich, J.A. (James A.); Ashley, E.A. (Euan A.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMyosin motors are the fundamental force-generating elements of muscle contraction. Variation in the human β-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH7) can lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a heritable disease characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac

  1. Simultaneous characterization of metabolic, cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes of lean and obese SHHF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcef, Gina; Olivier, Arnaud; L'Huillier, Clément P J; Labat, Carlos; Fay, Renaud; Tabcheh, Lina; Toupance, Simon; Rodriguez-Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Bergerot, Damien; Jaisser, Frédéric; Lacolley, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Laurent Vallar; Pizard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are prone to develop heart failure (HF). However, the deleterious effects of MetS on the continuum of events leading to cardiac remodeling and subsequently to HF are not fully understood. This study characterized simultaneously MetS and cardiac, vascular and renal phenotypes in aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure lean (SHHF(+/?) regrouping (+/+) and (+/cp) rats) and obese (SHHF(cp/cp), "cp" defective mutant allele of the leptin receptor gene) rats. We aimed to refine the milestones and their onset during the progression from MetS to HF in this experimental model. We found that SHHF(cp/cp )but not SHHF(+/?) rats developed dyslipidemia, as early as 1.5 months of age. This early alteration in the lipidic profile was detectable concomitantly to impaired renal function (polyuria, proteinuria but no glycosuria) and reduced carotid distensibility as compared to SHHF(+/?) rats. By 3 months of age SHHFcp/cp animals developed severe obesity associated with dislipidemia and hypertension defining the onset of MetS. From 6 months of age, SHHF(+/?) rats developed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) while SHHF(cp/cp) rats developed eccentric LVH apparent from progressive dilation of the LV dimensions. By 14 months of age only SHHF(cp/cp) rats showed significantly higher central systolic blood pressure and a reduced ejection fraction resulting in systolic dysfunction as compared to SHHF(+/?). In summary, the metabolic and hemodynamic mechanisms participating in the faster decline of cardiac functions in SHHF(cp/cp) rats are established long before their physiological consequences are detectable. Our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms triggered within the first three months after birth of SHHF(cp/cp) rats should be targeted preferentially by therapeutic interventions in order to mitigate the later HF development.

  2. Immunohistochemical characterization of glandular elements in glandular cardiac myxoma: Study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devajit Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Glandular cardiac myxoma has varying clinical presentation with uncertain histogenesis and debatable immunohistochemical profile. Glandular epithelial differentiations are rare phenomenon known to be present as an intrinsic component of the tumor. The origin of the glands has been attributed to epithelial differentiation of a totipotent cardiomyogenic precursor cells or the entrapped foregut rests in the tumor. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study includes six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma collected over a perior of 4 years. Sections were examined to define the histogenesis, histological and immunohistochemical profile of the glandular elements. Results: Incidence of glandular cardiac myxoma was 6.6% with a male to female ratio of 1:2.Mean age was 49.9 years. Left atrium was the commonest site. Five were sporadic and one was familial. Chest pain and dyspnea were the commonest clinical symptoms. Histologically all myxoma showed well formed glandular structures with typical myxomatous area. No atypia, mitosis or necrosis was identified in the glandular elements. Markers in six cases of glandular cardiac myxoma were immunopositive for CK7, CK 19, EMA, CEA, focally for E-cadherin while immunonegative for CK20, Chromogranin, Synaptophysin, calretenin, vimentin, B-catenin, TTF-1 and GCDFP-15 favoring enteric differentiation. Conclusion: Glandular cardiac myxoma is a rare entity which shows characteristics similar to those of classical cardiac myxoma with benign glandular elements showing enteric differentiation. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice with good prognosis. It is important to recognize this entity to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  4. Cardiac and pericardial tumors: A potential application of positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathala, Ahmed; Abouzied, Mohei; AlSugair, Abdul-Aziz

    2017-07-26

    Cardiac and pericardial masses may be neoplastic, benign and malignant, non-neoplastic such as thrombus or simple pericardial cysts, or normal variants cardiac structure can also be a diagnostic challenge. Currently, there are several imaging modalities for diagnosis of cardiac masses; each technique has its inherent advantages and disadvantages. Echocardiography, is typically the initial test utilizes in such cases, Echocardiography is considered the test of choice for evaluation and detection of cardiac mass, it is widely available, portable, with no ionizing radiation and provides comprehensive evaluation of cardiac function and valves, however, echocardiography is not very helpful in many cases such as evaluation of extracardiac extension of mass, poor tissue characterization, and it is non diagnostic in some cases. Cross sectional imaging with cardiac computed tomography provides a three dimensional data set with excellent spatial resolution but utilizes ionizing radiation, intravenous iodinated contrast and relatively limited functional evaluation of the heart. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has excellent contrast resolution that allows superior soft tissue characterization. CMR offers comprehensive evaluation of morphology, function, tissue characterization. The great benefits of CMR make CMR a highly useful tool in the assessment of cardiac masses. (Fluorine 18) fluorodeoxygluocse (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has become a corner stone in several oncological application such as tumor staging, restaging, treatment efficiency, FDG is a very useful imaging modality in evaluation of cardiac masses. A recent advance in the imaging technology has been the development of integrated PET-MRI system that utilizes the advantages of PET and MRI in a single examination. FDG PET-MRI provides complementary information on evaluation of cardiac masses. The purpose of this review is to provide several clinical scenarios on the incremental value of PET

  5. Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.

    2018-03-01

    The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.

  6. Pancreaticopericardial Fistula: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad S. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pancreaticopericardial fistula (PPF is an extremely rare complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis. This paper presents a rare case of PPF and provides systematic review of existing cases from 1970 to 2014. Methods. A PubMed search using key words was performed for all the cases of PPF from January 1970 to December 2014. Fourteen cases were included in the study. The cases were reviewed for demographic characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and treatment. Descriptive analysis of these variables was performed. Results. Median age was 43 years. 78% were known alcoholics and 73.3% had chronic pancreatitis. Dyspnea was present in 78%. Cardiac tamponade was present in 53%; 75% of patients had known chronic pancreatitis (RR = 0.74. Surgery was associated with best treatment outcomes and 50% of patients who underwent endoscopic treatment survived. Conclusion. PPF is a rare disease. This paper indicates that acute cardiac tamponade in patients with history of alcoholism and chronic pancreatitis could be a sign of an existing pancreaticopericardial fistula and early surgical intervention could be life-saving.

  7. Directed fusion of cardiac spheroids into larger heterocellular microtissues enables investigation of cardiac action potential propagation via cardiac fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markes, Alexander R.; Okundaye, Amenawon O.; Qu, Zhilin; Mende, Ulrike; Choi, Bum-Rak

    2018-01-01

    Multicellular spheroids generated through cellular self-assembly provide cytoarchitectural complexities of native tissue including three-dimensionality, extensive cell-cell contacts, and appropriate cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are increasingly suggested as building blocks for larger engineered tissues to achieve shapes, organization, heterogeneity, and other biomimetic complexities. Application of these tissue culture platforms is of particular importance in cardiac research as the myocardium is comprised of distinct but intermingled cell types. Here, we generated scaffold-free 3D cardiac microtissue spheroids comprised of cardiac myocytes (CMs) and/or cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and used them as building blocks to form larger microtissues with different spatial distributions of CMs and CFs. Characterization of fusing homotypic and heterotypic spheroid pairs revealed an important influence of CFs on fusion kinetics, but most strikingly showed rapid fusion kinetics between heterotypic pairs consisting of one CF and one CM spheroid, indicating that CMs and CFs self-sort in vitro into the intermixed morphology found in the healthy myocardium. We then examined electrophysiological integration of fused homotypic and heterotypic microtissues by mapping action potential propagation. Heterocellular elongated microtissues which recapitulate the disproportionate CF spatial distribution seen in the infarcted myocardium showed that action potentials propagate through CF volumes albeit with significant delay. Complementary computational modeling revealed an important role of CF sodium currents and the spatial distribution of the CM-CF boundary in action potential conduction through CF volumes. Taken together, this study provides useful insights for the development of complex, heterocellular engineered 3D tissue constructs and their engraftment via tissue fusion and has implications for arrhythmogenesis in cardiac disease and repair. PMID:29715271

  8. Directed fusion of cardiac spheroids into larger heterocellular microtissues enables investigation of cardiac action potential propagation via cardiac fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Yun Kim

    Full Text Available Multicellular spheroids generated through cellular self-assembly provide cytoarchitectural complexities of native tissue including three-dimensionality, extensive cell-cell contacts, and appropriate cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are increasingly suggested as building blocks for larger engineered tissues to achieve shapes, organization, heterogeneity, and other biomimetic complexities. Application of these tissue culture platforms is of particular importance in cardiac research as the myocardium is comprised of distinct but intermingled cell types. Here, we generated scaffold-free 3D cardiac microtissue spheroids comprised of cardiac myocytes (CMs and/or cardiac fibroblasts (CFs and used them as building blocks to form larger microtissues with different spatial distributions of CMs and CFs. Characterization of fusing homotypic and heterotypic spheroid pairs revealed an important influence of CFs on fusion kinetics, but most strikingly showed rapid fusion kinetics between heterotypic pairs consisting of one CF and one CM spheroid, indicating that CMs and CFs self-sort in vitro into the intermixed morphology found in the healthy myocardium. We then examined electrophysiological integration of fused homotypic and heterotypic microtissues by mapping action potential propagation. Heterocellular elongated microtissues which recapitulate the disproportionate CF spatial distribution seen in the infarcted myocardium showed that action potentials propagate through CF volumes albeit with significant delay. Complementary computational modeling revealed an important role of CF sodium currents and the spatial distribution of the CM-CF boundary in action potential conduction through CF volumes. Taken together, this study provides useful insights for the development of complex, heterocellular engineered 3D tissue constructs and their engraftment via tissue fusion and has implications for arrhythmogenesis in cardiac disease and repair.

  9. Consequences of delirium after cardiac operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogen-Koster, S.; Hensens, A.G.; Schuurmans, M.J.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium is a transient mental syndrome characterized by disturbances in consciousness, cognition, and perception. The risk that delirium will develop is increased in patients who undergo cardiac operations, especially the elderly. Generally, delirium during hospital admission is

  10. MRI-based morphological modeling, synthesis and characterization of cardiac tissue-mimicking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossivas, Fotis; Angeli, S; Kafouris, D; Patrickios, C S; Tzagarakis, V; Constantinides, C

    2012-06-01

    This study uses standard synthetic methodologies to produce tissue-mimicking materials that match the morphology and emulate the in vivo murine and human cardiac mechanical and imaging characteristics, with dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic resonance imaging. In accordance with such aims, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomeric materials were synthesized (at two different glycerol (G)-sebacic (S) acid molar ratios; the first was synthesized using a G:S molar ratio of 2:2, while the second from a 2:5 G:S molar ratio, resulting in PGS2:2 and PGS2:5 elastomers, respectively). Unlike the synthesized PGS2:2 elastomers, the PGS2:5 materials were characterized by an overall mechanical instability in their loading behavior under the three successive loading conditions tested. An oscillatory response in the mechanical properties of the synthesized elastomers was observed throughout the loading cycles, with measured increased storage modulus values at the first loading cycle, stabilizing to lower values at subsequent cycles. These elastomers were characterized at 4 °C and were found to have storage modulus values of 850 and 1430 kPa at the third loading cycle, respectively, in agreement with previously reported values of the rat and human myocardium. SEM of surface topology indicated minor degradation of synthesized materials at 10 and 20 d post-immersion in the PBS buffer solution, with a noted cluster formation on the PGS2:5 elastomers. AFM nanoindentation experiments were also conducted for the measurement of the Young modulus of the sample surface (no bulk contribution). Correspondingly, the PGS2:2 elastomer indicated significantly decreased surface Young's modulus values 20 d post-PBS immersion, compared to dry conditions (Young's modulus = 1160 ± 290 kPa (dry) and 200 ± 120 kPa (20 d)). In addition to the two-dimensional (2D) elastomers, an integrative platform for accurate construction of

  11. MRI-based morphological modeling, synthesis and characterization of cardiac tissue-mimicking materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossivas, Fotis; Angeli, S; Constantinides, C; Kafouris, D; Patrickios, C S; Tzagarakis, V

    2012-01-01

    This study uses standard synthetic methodologies to produce tissue-mimicking materials that match the morphology and emulate the in vivo murine and human cardiac mechanical and imaging characteristics, with dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic resonance imaging. In accordance with such aims, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomeric materials were synthesized (at two different glycerol (G)–sebacic (S) acid molar ratios; the first was synthesized using a G:S molar ratio of 2:2, while the second from a 2:5 G:S molar ratio, resulting in PGS2:2 and PGS2:5 elastomers, respectively). Unlike the synthesized PGS2:2 elastomers, the PGS2:5 materials were characterized by an overall mechanical instability in their loading behavior under the three successive loading conditions tested. An oscillatory response in the mechanical properties of the synthesized elastomers was observed throughout the loading cycles, with measured increased storage modulus values at the first loading cycle, stabilizing to lower values at subsequent cycles. These elastomers were characterized at 4 °C and were found to have storage modulus values of 850 and 1430 kPa at the third loading cycle, respectively, in agreement with previously reported values of the rat and human myocardium. SEM of surface topology indicated minor degradation of synthesized materials at 10 and 20 d post-immersion in the PBS buffer solution, with a noted cluster formation on the PGS2:5 elastomers. AFM nanoindentation experiments were also conducted for the measurement of the Young modulus of the sample surface (no bulk contribution). Correspondingly, the PGS2:2 elastomer indicated significantly decreased surface Young's modulus values 20 d post-PBS immersion, compared to dry conditions (Young's modulus = 1160 ± 290 kPa (dry) and 200 ± 120 kPa (20 d)). In addition to the two-dimensional (2D) elastomers, an integrative platform for accurate construction of

  12. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, Jirí

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy allows the heart to adapt to workload, but persistent or unphysiological stimulus can result in pump failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in the size of differentiated cardiac myocytes. At the molecular level, growth of cells is linked to intensive transcription and translation. Several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been identified as principal regulators of transcription, and among these CDK9 is directly associated with cardiac hypertrophy. CDK9 phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and thus stimulates the elongation phase of transcription. Chronic activation of CDK9 causes not only cardiac myocyte enlargement but also confers predisposition to heart failure. Due to the long interest of molecular oncologists and medicinal chemists in CDKs as potential targets of anticancer drugs, a portfolio of small-molecule inhibitors of CDK9 is available. Recent determination of CDK9's crystal structure now allows the development of selective inhibitors and their further optimization in terms of biochemical potency and selectivity. CDK9 may therefore constitute a novel target for drugs against cardiac hypertrophy.

  13. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  14. Biomarkers for cardiac cachexia: reality or utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ferreira, Rita

    2014-09-25

    Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure, characterized by significant weight loss and body wasting. Chronic heart failure-related muscle wasting results from a chronic imbalance in the activation of anabolic or catabolic pathways, caused by a series of immunological, metabolic, and neurohormonal processes. In spite of the high morbidity and mortality associated to this condition, there is no universally accepted definition or specific biomarkers for cardiac cachexia, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. Several hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress molecules have been proposed as serological markers of prognosis in cardiac cachexia but with doubtful success. As individual biomarkers may have limited sensitivity and specificity, multimarker strategies involving mediators of the biological processes modulated by cardiac cachexia will strongly contribute for the diagnosis and management of the disease, as well as for the establishment of new therapeutic targets. An integrated analysis of the biomarkers proposed so far for cardiac cachexia is made in the present review, highlighting the biological processes to which they are related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prognostic value of depressed midwall systolic function in cardiac light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlini, Stefano; Salinaro, Francesco; Musca, Francesco; Mussinelli, Roberta; Boldrini, Michele; Raimondi, Ambra; Milani, Paolo; Foli, Andrea; Cappelli, Francesco; Perfetto, Federico; Palladini, Giovanni; Rapezzi, Claudio; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis represents an archetypal form of restrictive heart disease, characterized by profound diastolic dysfunction. As ejection fraction is preserved until the late stage of the disease, the majority of patients do fulfill the definition of diastolic heart failure, that is, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In another clinical model of HFpEF, that is, pressure-overload hypertrophy, depressed midwall fractional shortening (mFS) has been shown to be a powerful prognostic factor. To assess the potential prognostic role of mFS in cardiac light-chain amyloidosis with preserved ejection fraction, we enrolled 221 consecutive untreated patients, in whom a first diagnosis of cardiac light-chain amyloidosis was concluded between 2008 and 2010. HFpEF was present in 181 patients. Patients in whom cardiac involvement was excluded served as controls (n = 121). Prognosis was assessed after a median follow-up of 561 days. When compared with light-chain amyloidosis patients without myocardial involvement, cardiac light-chain amyloidosis was characterized by increased wall thickness (P model. In cardiac light-chain amyloidosis with normal ejection fraction, depressed circumferential mFS, a marker of myocardial contractile dysfunction, is a powerful predictor of survival.

  16. Ebstein’s Anomaly, Left Ventricular Noncompaction, and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McGee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebstein’s anomaly is a congenital disorder characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Ebstein’s anomaly may be seen in association with other cardiac conditions, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC. LVNC is characterized by increased trabeculation within the left ventricular apex. Echocardiography is often used to diagnose LVNC; however, magnetic resonance (MR imaging offers superior characterization of the myocardium. We report a case of sudden cardiac death in a patient with Ebstein’s anomaly with unrecognized LVNC noted on post mortem examination with screening documenting the presence of LVNC in one of the patient’s twin sons.

  17. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years...... in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431...... autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought...

  18. Histomorphologic and Immunohistochemical Characterization of a Cardiac Purkinjeoma in a Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krafsur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cardiac tumors of heart muscle are rhabdomyomas, solitary or multiple benign tumors of striated muscle origin. While cardiac rhabdomyomas are well described in human medical literature, limited information depicting the occurrence of cardiac rhabdomyomas in veterinary species exists. A case of multiple firm white nonencapsulated nodules in the heart of a bearded seal is described. Microscopic findings included cytoplasmic vacuolization with formation of spider cells, glycogen vacuoles, and striated myofibrils. These cells expressed immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase and protein gene product 9.5, a marker for neuronal tissue and Purkinje fiber cells. Immunoreactivity for protein gene product 9.5 along with other microscopic findings substantiates Purkinje fiber cell origin of the cardiac rhabdomyoma in the bearded seal and use of the term purkinjeoma to describe this lesion.

  19. Clinical, echocardiographic, and radiographic findings of peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in two dogs and a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, W.H.; Woodfield, J.A.; Moon, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was diagnosed in 2 dogs and a cat. One dog was referred because of clinical signs of cardiac tamponade and acute decompensation from liver entrapment within the hernia. Surgical correction of the hernia alleviated clinical signs in all 3 animals. Echocardiography was used in combination with radiography to provide a rapid and accurate diagnosis

  20. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf

  1. Cardiac tamponade due to hypothyroidism: a case cluster report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    venous pressure (JVP), soft heart sounds and lower limb pitting oedema. There were no clinical ... and a swollen left leg she was investigated for a possible pulmonary embolism, but this was .... retention of salt and water.11. Drainage of large ...

  2. Cardiac molecular-acclimation mechanisms in response to swimming-induced exercise in Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castro

    Full Text Available Cardiac muscle is a principal target organ for exercise-induced acclimation mechanisms in fish and mammals, given that sustained aerobic exercise training improves cardiac output. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying such cardiac acclimation have been scarcely investigated in teleosts. Consequently, we studied mechanisms related to cardiac growth, contractility, vascularization, energy metabolism and myokine production in Atlantic salmon pre-smolts resulting from 10 weeks exercise-training at three different swimming intensities: 0.32 (control, 0.65 (medium intensity and 1.31 (high intensity body lengths s(-1. Cardiac responses were characterized using growth, immunofluorescence and qPCR analysis of a large number of target genes encoding proteins with significant and well-characterized function. The overall stimulatory effect of exercise on cardiac muscle was dependent on training intensity, with changes elicited by high intensity training being of greater magnitude than either medium intensity or control. Higher protein levels of PCNA were indicative of cardiac growth being driven by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia, while elevated cardiac mRNA levels of MEF2C, GATA4 and ACTA1 suggested cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In addition, up-regulation of EC coupling-related genes suggested that exercised hearts may have improved contractile function, while higher mRNA levels of EPO and VEGF were suggestive of a more efficient oxygen supply network. Furthermore, higher mRNA levels of PPARα, PGC1α and CPT1 all suggested a higher capacity for lipid oxidation, which along with a significant enlargement of mitochondrial size in cardiac myocytes of the compact layer of fish exercised at high intensity, suggested an enhanced energetic support system. Training also elevated transcription of a set of myokines and other gene products related to the inflammatory process, such as TNFα, NFκB, COX2, IL1RA and TNF decoy receptor. This study provides the first

  3. 47. A cardiac center experience with Brugada syndrome who survived sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Suliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brugada syndrome is a heritable arrhythmia syndrome that is characterized by an electrocardiographic pattern consisting of coved-type ST-segment elevation (2 mm followed by a negative T wave in the right precordial leads, V1 through V3 (often referred to as type 1 Brugada electrocardiographic pattern, here we describe 3 cases of Brugada who survived sudden cardiac death (SCD cardiac center experience with survived Brugada syndrome patients – case series. First Case: The Father 45 years old male, presented in 2005 after involvement in unprovoked motor vehicle accident, the patient was the driver who lost consciousness and rushed to the hospital. On arrival to our ER and putting the patient on the bed, the ER doctor observed a brief episode of VF on the monitor. The patient was taken to the catheterization Lab , his coronaries were normal. The diagnosis of Brugada was established and the patient received a defibrillator. At That Time all family members were screened and were negative. Second Case: The Son of the first patient 5 years later his 23 years old male rushed to our ER after he lost consciousness, he was passenger in the car of his friend. Third Case: The pilot A military pilot aged a male 35 years old was in very good health when he lost consciousness and brought to the hospital after resuscitation in 2005. He had full invasive cardiac evaluation, subsequently he received a defibrillator in the same admission period, till 2015 he is doing fine. Brugada syndrome is associated with high tendency for sudden cardiac death. In our three cases the first clinical presentation was survived sudden cardiac death (SCD and all three male patients survived. We did not encounter a female patient who survived sudden cardiac death.

  4. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses of cardiac troponin T during cardiac development in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Pietras, K M; Sferrazza, G F; Jia, P; Athauda, G; Rueda-de-Leon, E; Rveda-de-Leon, E; Maier, J A; Dube, D K; Lemanski, S L; Lemanski, L F

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, is an excellent animal model for studying heart development because it carries a naturally occurring recessive genetic mutation, designated gene c, for cardiac nonfunction. The double recessive mutants (c/c) fail to form organized myofibrils in the cardiac myoblasts resulting in hearts that fail to beat. Tropomyosin expression patterns have been studied in detail and show dramatically decreased expression in the hearts of homozygous mutant embryos. Because of the direct interaction between tropomyosin and troponin T (TnT), and the crucial functions of TnT in the regulation of striated muscle contraction, we have expanded our studies on this animal model to characterize the expression of the TnT gene in cardiac muscle throughout normal axolotl development as well as in mutant axolotls. In addition, we have succeeded in cloning the full-length cardiac troponin T (cTnT) cDNA from axolotl hearts. Confocal microscopy has shown a substantial, but reduced, expression of TnT protein in the mutant hearts when compared to normal during embryonic development. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Role of Nuclear Medicine in the cardiac resinchronization therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Giorgi, Maria Clementina Pinto; D' Orio, Silvana Angelina; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) emerged as one of the most promising approaches in the treatment of cardiac dyssynchrony in heart failure patients' refractory to medical treatment. However, despite very promising clinical and functional results, individual response analyses show that a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. The role of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in the selection of CRT candidates by the assessment of cardiac dyssynchrony, myocardial viability, myocardial perfusion and blood flow and sympathetic cardiac activity has been discussed in this review. The potential utilization of this tool to improve the comprehension of detrimental effects of dyssynchrony on cardiac function and the evaluation and monitoring of the response to CRT were also considered. Other molecular targets that characterize glucose and fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis, angiotensin converting enzyme activity and angiogenesis that can be evaluated with this technique were described. (author)

  6. Role of Nuclear Medicine in the cardiac resinchronization therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Giorgi, Maria Clementina Pinto; D' Orio, Silvana Angelina; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio [Instituto do Coracao (InCor/FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) emerged as one of the most promising approaches in the treatment of cardiac dyssynchrony in heart failure patients' refractory to medical treatment. However, despite very promising clinical and functional results, individual response analyses show that a significant number of patients do not respond to treatment. The role of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in the selection of CRT candidates by the assessment of cardiac dyssynchrony, myocardial viability, myocardial perfusion and blood flow and sympathetic cardiac activity has been discussed in this review. The potential utilization of this tool to improve the comprehension of detrimental effects of dyssynchrony on cardiac function and the evaluation and monitoring of the response to CRT were also considered. Other molecular targets that characterize glucose and fatty acid metabolism, apoptosis, angiotensin converting enzyme activity and angiogenesis that can be evaluated with this technique were described. (author)

  7. Oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug em pacientes com fibrilação atrial Left atrial appendage closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio Eduardo Guérios

    2012-06-01

    immediate results and short- to medium-term clinical follow-up (FU of patients that underwent LAAC with Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP implantation in a single reference center. METHODS: Eighty-six consecutive patients with NVAF, contraindication to OA, and CHADS2 score=2.6±1.2 underwent LAAC with ACP implantation. Clinical and echocardiographic FU was performed at least four months after the procedure. RESULTS: All implants were guided by angiography alone. Procedural success was 99% (one patient suffered a cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, and the procedure was waived. There were four major complications (the already mentioned cardiac tamponade, two transient ischemic attacks and one device embolization with percutaneous retrieval and two minor complications (one pericardial effusion without clinical significance and one non-significant ASD evidenced at FU. There was one in-hospital death after six days, unrelated to the procedure. All other patients were discharged without OA. After 25.9 patient-years of FU (69 patients, there were no strokes and no late device embolization. The LAA was completely closed in 97% of the cases. Six patients showed evidence of thrombus formation on the device, which resolved after three months of OA. CONCLUSION: LAAC is associated with high success, acceptable complication rates, and promising FU results, and may be considered a valuable alternative or complement to OA for stroke prevention in patients with NVAF.

  8. Usefulness of cardiac resonance imaging in Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Pierre L; Kumar, Andreas; O'Connor, Kim; Couture, Christian Y; Bourgault, Christine; Dubois, Michelle; Sénéchal, Mario

    2016-12-01

    : Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare entity that is characterized by widespread vasculitis, which affects both small and medium-sized blood vessels of nearly all organs. More than 50% of these cases have cardiac involvement, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a patient with cardiac biopsy proven CSS, and we discuss the usefulness of cardiovascular MRI for its diagnosis.

  9. Re-exploration after open heart surgery at the madras medical mission, chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Ke; Rajan, S

    2011-04-01

    Re-explorations after open-heart surgery is a necessity in this Cardiac Center when a patient is obviously bleeding or shows features of cardiovascular instability. Timely intervention may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study aims to correlate the indications with the operative findings for re-explorations after open-heart surgeries as a way of justifying early surgical intervention. Between May2005 and April2011, 10,083 open-heart surgeries were performed in the Adult Cardiac Surgical Unit of the department of cardiac surgery, Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Madras Medical Mission, Chennai, India. The demographic data, the initial diagnoses, the types of surgery, the indications for re-exploration, the intraoperative findings, the timing, the estimated blood loss and treatment for the 362 patients who had reexploration were analysed using the Predictive Analysis Soft -ware(PASW)18. Out of the 10,083 patients who had cardiac operation within the period of study, three hundred and sixty two (3.6%) patients had re-exploration shortly after the operation. Males were 311(85.9%) while 51(14.1%) were female patients with mean age of 56.7+12.5years .The mean time interval between the primary surgery and the re-exploratory operation was 2.31+1.47hours and the mean chest tube drainage before re-exploration was 770.9+28.8ml. Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD) was the initial diagnosis 258 (71.3%) patients and Coronary Artery Bypass(CABG) operation was the initial surgery in 254(70.2%)patients, CABG and valve in 12(3.3%)patients, Valve surgery alone in 70(19.3%) patients, Bentall procedure(homograft aortic root replacement)in 13(3.6%) patients, others such as off-pump coronary artery bypass, Dor procedure(patch restoration of left ventricle by incising the aneurysm without excising it), pericardiectomy and thromboembelectomy in 13(3.6%). The indications for re-exploration were post operative haemorrhage in 283(78.2%) patients, Cardiac tamponade in 41(11.3%)patients

  10. Cardiac regeneration therapy: connections to cardiac physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Naofumi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2011-12-01

    Without heart transplantation, a large number of patients with failing hearts worldwide face poor outcomes. By means of cardiomyocyte regeneration, cardiac regeneration therapy is emerging with great promise as a means for restoring loss of cardiac function. However, the limited success of clinical trials using bone marrow-derived cells and myoblasts with heterogeneous constituents, transplanted at a wide range of cell doses, has led to disagreement on the efficacy of cell therapy. It is therefore essential to reevaluate the evidence for the efficacy of cell-based cardiac regeneration therapy, focusing on targets, materials, and methodologies. Meanwhile, the revolutionary innovation of cardiac regeneration therapy is sorely needed to help the millions of people who suffer heart failure from acquired loss of cardiomyocytes. Cardiac regeneration has been used only in limited species or as a developing process in the rodent heart; now, the possibility of cardiomyocyte turnover in the human heart is being revisited. In the pursuit of this concept, the use of cardiac stem/progenitor stem cells in the cardiac niche must be focused to usher in a second era of cardiac regeneration therapy for the severely injured heart. In addition, tissue engineering and cellular reprogramming will advance the next era of treatment that will enable current cell-based therapy to progress to "real" cardiac regeneration therapy. Although many barriers remain, the prevention of refractory heart failure through cardiac regeneration is now becoming a realistic possibility.

  11. Electrospun biocomposite nanofibrous patch for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Health Care and Energy Materials Laboratory, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kai, Dan [NUS Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh, E-mail: nnimpp@nus.edu.s [Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A bioengineered construct that matches the chemical, mechanical, biological properties and extracellular matrix morphology of native tissue could be suitable as a cardiac patch for supporting the heart after myocardial infarction. The potential of utilizing a composite nanofibrous scaffold of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide)/gelatin (PLGA/Gel) as a biomimetic cardiac patch is studied by culturing a population of cardiomyocyte containing cells on the electrospun scaffolds. The chemical characterization and mechanical properties of the electrospun PLGA and PLGA/Gel nanofibers were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile measurements. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was also studied and the cardiomyocytes seeded on PLGA/Gel nanofibers were found to express the typical functional cardiac proteins such as alpha-actinin and troponin I, showing the easy integration of cardiomyocytes on PLGA/Gel scaffolds. Our studies strengthen the application of electrospun PLGA/Gel nanofibers as a bio-mechanical support for injured myocardium and as a potential substrate for induction of endogenous cardiomyocyte proliferation, ultimately reducing the cardiac dysfunction and improving cardiac remodeling.

  12. Pericardial effusion following cardiac surgery. A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Sinh; Nguyen, Hung Doan-Thai; Vu, Thang Duc

    2018-01-01

    Background Pericardial effusion is still a common postoperative complication after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Pericardial effusion significantly prolongs the hospital stay and associated costs as well as affecting overall outcomes after open heart surgery in Hanoi Heart Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Vietnam with an annual volume of 1000 patients. This study aimed to investigate the clinical presentation, incidence, and risk factors of postoperative pericardial effusion, which may ensure better prevention of pericardial effusion and improvement in surgical outcomes after open heart surgery. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 1127 patients undergoing open heart surgery from January 2015 to December 2015. Results Thirty-six (3.19%) patients developed pericardial effusion. Of these, 16 (44.4%) had cardiac tamponade. Pericardial effusion occurred after valve procedures in 77.8% of cases. Pericardial effusion was detected after discharge in 47.2% of cases at a mean time of 18.1 ± 13.7 days. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age > 25 years, body surface area ≥ 1.28 m 2 , preoperative liver dysfunction, New York Heart Association class III/IV, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter z score ≥ 0.55, and postoperative anticoagulant use were associated with postoperative pericardial effusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that left ventricular end-diastolic diameter z score ≥ 0.55 was an independent risk factor for postoperative pericardial effusion. Conclusions Routine postoperative echocardiography is necessary to detect postoperative pericardial effusion. Increased left ventricular end-diastolic dimension is an independent predictor of postoperative pericardial effusion.

  13. Selectivity verification of cardiac troponin monoclonal antibodies for cardiac troponin detection by using conventional ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Adzhri, R.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents preparation and characterization of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cardiac troponin detection to determine the selectivity of the cardiac troponin monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, used to capture and bind the targets in this experiment, are cTnI monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnI) and cTnT monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnT), while both cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) are used as targets. ELISA is performed inside two microtiter plates for MAb-cTnI and MAb-cTnT. For each plate, monoclonal antibodies are tested by various concentrations of cTnI and cTnT ranging from 0-6400 µg/l. The binding selectivity and level of detection between monoclonal antibodies and antigen are determined through visual observation based on the color change inside each well on the plate. ELISA reader is further used to quantitatively measured the optical density of the color changes, thus produced more accurate reading. The results from this experiment are utilized to justify the use of these monoclonal antibodies as bio-receptors for cardiac troponin detection by using field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors coupled with substrate-gate in the future.

  14. [Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Antonio; Maestroni, Silvia; Masciocco, Gabriella; Ammirati, Enrico; Bonacina, Edgardo; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome, recently renamed eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), is a rare form of systemic vasculitis, characterized by disseminated necrotizing vasculitis with extravascular granulomas occurring among patients with asthma and tissue eosinophilia. EGPA is classified as a small and medium-sized vessel vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Typical clinical features include asthma, sinusitis, transient pulmonary infiltrates and neuropathy. Blood eosinophils are often >1500/µl or more than 10% on the differential leukocyte count. Blood eosinophils should always be tested in unexplained cardiac disorders, and may normalize even after low doses of corticosteroids. ANCA are positive in 40-60% of cases, mainly anti-myeloperoxidase. Heart involvement occurs in approximately 15-60% of EGPA patients, especially those who are ANCA negative. Any cardiac structure can be involved, and patients present with myocarditis, heart failure, pericarditis, arrhythmia, coronary arteritis, valvulopathy, intracavitary cardiac thrombosis. Although cardiovascular involvement is usually an early manifestation, it can also occur later in the course of the disease. A significant proportion of patients with cardiac involvement is asymptomatic. In the absence of symptoms and major ECG abnormalities, cardiac involvement may be detected in nearly 40% of the patients. All patients with EGPA should be studied not only with a detailed history of cardiac symptoms and ECG, but also with echocardiography; if abnormalities are detected, a cardiac magnetic resonance study should be performed. Coronary angiography and endomyocardial biopsy should be reserved to selected cases. Heart involvement carries a poor prognosis and causes 50% of the deaths of these patients. It is often insidious and underestimated. Optimal therapy is therefore important and based on high-dose corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive

  15. The cervix as a natural tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gelany, Saad A A; Abdelraheim, Ahmed R; Mohammed, Mo'men M; Gad El-Rab, Mohammed T; Yousef, Ayman M; Ibrahim, Emad M; Khalifa, Eissa M

    2015-11-11

    Placenta previa and placenta accreta carry significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Several techniques have been described in the literature for controlling massive bleeding associated with placenta previa cesarean sections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the use of the cervix as a natural tamponade in controlling postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta. This prospective study was conducted on 40 pregnant women admitted to our hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. All participating women had one or more previous cesarean deliveries and were diagnosed with placenta previa and/or placenta previa accreta. Significant bleeding from the placental bed during cesarean section was managed by inverting the cervix into the uterine cavity and suturing the anterior and/or the posterior cervical lips into the anterior and/or posterior walls of the lower uterine segment. The technique of cervical inversion described above was successful in stopping the bleeding in 38 out of 40 patients; yielding a success rate of 95%. We resorted to hysterectomy in only two cases (5%). The mean intra-operative blood loss was 1572.5 mL, and the mean number of blood units transfused was 3.1. The mean time needed to perform the technique was 5.4 ± 0.6 min. The complications encountered were as follows: bladder injury in the two patients who underwent hysterectomy and wound infection in one patient. Postoperative fever that responded to antibiotics occurred in 1 patient. The mean duration of the postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 days This technique of using the cervix as a natural tamponade appears to be safe, simple, time-saving and potentially effective method for controlling the severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) caused by placenta previa/placenta previa accreta. This technique deserves to be one of the tools in the hands of obstetricians who face the life-threatening hemorrhage of placenta

  16. Impact of malnutrition on cardiac autonomic modulation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Siqueira Carvalho Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Malnourished children present changes in cardiac autonomic modulation, characterized by reductions in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, as well as increased heart rate and decreased blood pressure.

  17. Halogenated anaesthetics and cardiac protection in cardiac and non-cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landoni Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile anaesthetic agents have direct protective properties against ischemic myocardial damage. The implementation of these properties during clinical anaesthesia can provide an additional tool in the treatment or prevention, or both, of ischemic cardiac dysfunction in the perioperative period. A recent meta-analysis showed that desflurane and sevoflurane reduce postoperative mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction following cardiac surgery, with significant advantages in terms of postoperative cardiac troponin release, need for inotrope support, time on mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Multicentre, randomised clinical trials had previously demonstrated that the use of desflurane can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalisation following coronary artery bypass graft surgery either with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines recommend volatile anaesthetic agents during non-cardiac surgery for the maintenance of general anaesthesia in patients at risk for myocardial infarction. Nonetheless, e vidence in non-coronary surgical settings is contradictory and will be reviewed in this paper together with the mechanisms of cardiac protection by volatile agents.

  18. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  19. Biatrial Cardiac Metastases in a Patient with Uterine Cervix Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglayan Geredeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanomas of uterine cervix are quite rarely seen neoplasms, and long-life prognosis of patients with this disease is poor. Immunohistochemical methods and exclusion of other primary melanoma sites are used to confirm the diagnosis. As with other melanomas, cervix malignant melanomas may also cause cardiac metastases. Cardiac metastases are among rarely seen but more commonly encountered cases, compared to primary cardiac tumors. Here, we present a case of biatrial cardiac metastases in a 73-year-old patient with uterine cervix malignant melanomas. The patient underwent echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. Our report shows the importance of advanced diagnostic techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance, not only for the detection of cardiac masses, but for a better anatomic definition and tissue characterization. Although the cases of malignant melanomas leading to multiple cardiac metastasis were reported in literature, the metastatic concurrence of malignant melanomas in both right and left atriums is quite rarely encountered as metastatic malignant melanomas. Also, another intriguing point in our case is that the primary lesion of our case was stemmed from uterine cervix, but not skin.

  20. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2017-01-29

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  1. F6H8 as an Intraoperative Tool and F6H8/Silicone Oil as a Postoperative Tamponade in Inferior Retinal Detachment with Inferior PVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Tosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8 for intraoperative flattening of the retina and of F6H8/silicone oil (SO 1000 cSt as a postoperative tamponade for inferior retinal detachment with inferior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Methods. This is a retrospective review of 22 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy using F6H8 as an intraoperative tool to flatten the retina. At the end of the surgery a direct partial exchange between F6H8 and SO 1000 cSt was performed, tamponing the eye with different ratios of F6H8/SO (70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/30, and 30/70. Anatomical and functional results and complications were evaluated over the follow-up period (mean 22.63 months. Results. F6H8 was efficacious for intraoperative flattening of the retina. Twenty-one of the 22 patients achieved a complete retinal reattachment. Postoperative visual acuity (VA ranged from light perception to 20/70, with 72% of patients obtaining VA better than 20/400. No emulsification/inflammation was observed whatever the ratio of F6H8/SO used. With higher ratios of F6H8/SO (70/30 and 60/40 cloudiness of the tamponade was observed. A transparent mixture was present with all the other ratios. Conclusions. The surgical technique adopted is very simple and safe. The optimal F6H8/SO ratio seems to be between 50/50 and 30/70.

  2. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  3. Keeping the Rhythm : Cardiac Pacemaker Cell Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhard, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The heart is the first organ to form and function in the developing vertebrate embryo. Its proper morphogenesis and function is crucial for survival. Here we focus on the development and characterization of a highly specialized subset of cardiac cells, the pacemaker cells. In the mammalian heart,

  4. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J.; Sanchez, Leon D.; Wolfe, Richard E.; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47–63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p < 0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. Conclusion In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:28460805

  5. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Galectin-3 and post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Wouter C.; van der Velde, A. Rogier; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the current literature regarding the involvement and the putative role(s) of galectin-3 in post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling. Post-myocardial infarction remodeling is characterized by acute loss of myocardium, which leads to structural and biomechanical changes in

  7. The pathogenesis and treatment of cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate T

    2016-02-15

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass associated with significant functional impairment. In addition to a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, many patients with cancer cachexia also experience cardiac atrophy, remodeling, and dysfunction, which in the field of cancer cachexia is described as cardiac cachexia. The cardiac alterations may be due to underlying heart disease, the cancer itself, or problems initiated by the cancer treatment and, unfortunately, remains largely underappreciated by clinicians and basic scientists. Despite recent major advances in the treatment of cancer, little progress has been made in the treatment of cardiac cachexia in cancer, and much of this is due to lack of information regarding the mechanisms. This review focuses on the cardiac atrophy associated with cancer cachexia, describing some of the known mechanisms and discussing the current and future therapeutic strategies to treat this condition. Above all else, improved awareness of the condition and an increased focus on identification of mechanisms and therapeutic targets will facilitate the eventual development of an effective treatment for cardiac atrophy in cancer cachexia. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sahadev T.; Biederman, Robert W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:27293911

  9. Indirect imaging of cardiac-specific transgene expression using a bidirectional two-step transcriptional amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, I Y; Gheysens, O; Ray, S

    2010-01-01

    in a cardiac cell line and the myocardium, while minimizing expression in non-cardiac cell lines and the liver. In vitro, the TSTA system significantly enhanced cTnT-mediated reporter gene expression with moderate preservation of cardiac specificity. After intramyocardial and hydrodynamic tail vein delivery...... genes, firefly luciferase (fluc) and Renilla luciferase (hrluc), driven by the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter. The vector was characterized in vitro and in living mice using luminometry and bioluminescence imaging to assess its ability to mediate strong, correlated reporter gene expression...

  10. A novel tamponade agent for management of post partum hemorrhage: adaptation of the Xstat mini-sponge applicator for obstetric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Gregory, Kenton; Bullard, Mary; Longo, Paul; Heidel, Jerry; Edelman, Alison

    2017-06-13

    Although uterine tamponade is an effective treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), current methods have key limitations in their use, particularly in low resource settings. The XStat™ Mini Sponge Dressing (MSD) is approved for the management of non-compressible wounds in the battlefield/trauma setting. The MSD applies highly compressed medical sponges capable of stopping high-flow arterial bleeding within seconds. The objective of our study was to adopt the MSD for use in managing PPH. We performed desktop testing using a uterine model with pressure sensors to compare key design elements of the obstetrical prototype MSD (fundal pressure achieved, reduction in fluid loss, time to deploy, and time to remove) with alternativetechniques (uterine packing, balloon tamponade). To evaluate safety, we delivered the fetus of pregnant ewes by cesarean section and used the prototype to deliver the MSD into one uterine horn, and closed the hysterotomy. We followed the clinical recovery of animals (n = 3) over 24 h, and then removed the reproductive tract for histologic evaluation. To evaluate late effects, we surgically removed the MSDs after 24 h, and followed the clinical recovery of animals (n = 6) for an additional seven days before tissue removal. The obstetrical prototype has a long tapered delivery system designed to be deployed during vaginal examination, and administers three times the volume of the approved MSD trauma bandage. The MSD are deployed within a mesh bag to facilitate removal by vaginaltraction. On desktop testing, the MSD resulted in the highest average fundal pressure (113 mmHg), followed by the MSD bag device (85.8 mmHg), gauze packing (15.5 mmHg), and the uterine balloon (8.2 mmHg). The MSD bag test group achieved the largest fluid flow reduction of -74%, followed by gauze packing (-55%), MSD (-35%), and uterine balloon (-19%). Animal testing demonstrated good uterine fill with no evidence of adverse clinical recovery, uterine trauma or

  11. Delayed contrast-enhanced MRI: use in myocardial viability assessment and other cardiac pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaert, J.; Dymarkowski, S.

    2005-01-01

    As in other organs, tissue characterization is important for many cardiac diseases. For example, in ischemic heart disease, differentiation between reversibly and irreversibly damaged myocardium in patients with a prior myocardial infarction is crucial in determining disease severity, functional recovery and patient outcome. With the recent advent of the single inversion-recovery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence (delayed contrast-enhanced MRI), contrast between normal and abnormal tissues could be significantly enhanced compared with the conventional cardiac MRI sequences, enabling even subtle abnormalities to be visualized. Together with other advances in cardiac MRI (e.g. functional imaging, coronary artery imaging), MRI has become one of the preferred non-invasive modalities to study cardiac diseases. In this paper an overview of the versatility of delayed contrast-enhanced MRI for investigating cardiac diseases is given. (orig.)

  12. Living cardiac patch: the elixir for cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Rajesh; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2012-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the cellular and muscle fiber orientation in left ventricular cardiac tissue is of paramount importance for the generation of artificial cardiac patches to treat the ischemic myocardium. The major challenge faced during cardiac patch engineering is to choose a perfect combination of three entities; cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules comprising the tissue engineering triad for repair and regeneration. This review provides an overview of various scaffold materials, their mechanical properties and fabrication methods utilized in cardiac patch engineering. Stem cell therapies in clinical trials and the commercially available cardiac patch materials were summarized in an attempt to provide a recent perspective in the treatment of heart failure. Various tissue engineering strategies employed thus far to construct viable thick cardiac patches is schematically illustrated. Though many strategies have been proposed for fabrication of various cardiac scaffold materials, the stage and severity of the disease condition demands the incorporation of additional cues in a suitable scaffold material. The scaffold may be nanofibrous patch, hydrogel or custom designed films. Integration of stem cells and biomolecular cues along with the scaffold may provide the right microenvironment for the repair of unhealthy left ventricular tissue as well as promote its regeneration.

  13. Regulation of cardiac remodeling by cardiac Na/K-ATPase isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Catherine Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na+/K+-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1-3. The expression of the α subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1 the distribution and function of isoform specific Na+/K+-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2 the role of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

  14. Initial Efficacy of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Transition Program: Cardiac TRUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, Melissa; Boxer, Rebecca; Moore, Shirley M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients recovering from cardiac events are increasingly using postacute care, such as home health care and skilled nursing facility services. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the initial efficacy, feasibility, and safety of a specially designed postacute care transitional rehabilitation intervention for cardiac patients. Cardiac Transitional Rehabilitation Using Self- Management Techniques (Cardiac TRUST) is a family-focused intervention that includes progressive low-intensity walking and education in self-management skills to facilitate recovery following a cardiac event. Using a randomized two-group design, exercise self-efficacy, steps walked, and participation in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program were compared in a sample of 38 older adults; 17 who received the Cardiac TRUST program and 21 who received usual care only. At discharge from postacute care, the intervention group had a trend for higher levels of self-efficacy for exercise outcomes (X=39.1, SD=7.4) than the usual care group (X=34.5; SD=7.0) (t-test 1.9, p=.06). During the 6 weeks following discharge, compared with the usual care group, the intervention group had more attendance in out-patient cardiac rehabilitation (33% compared to 11.8%, F=7.1, p=.03) and a trend toward more steps walked during the first week (X=1,307, SD=652 compared to X=782, SD=544, t-test 1.8, p=.07). The feasibility of the intervention was better for the home health participants than for those in the skilled nursing facility and there were no safety concerns. The provision of cardiac-focused rehabilitation during postacute care has the potential to bridge the gap in transitional services from hospitalization to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation for these patients at high risk for future cardiac events. Further evidence of the efficacy of Cardiac TRUST is warranted. PMID:22084960

  15. A Benign Cardiac Growth but Not So Indolent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil S. Wani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac lipomatous hypertrophy is a rare benign condition that usually involves the interatrial septum. Due to its benign nature it rarely requires intervention. Its presence outside the interatrial septum is reported infrequently. We present a case of lipomatous hypertrophy in the intraventricular septum that was complicated by a severe, symptomatic, and disabling dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The symptoms significantly improved following the excision of the mass. In our case transthoracic echocardiogram was used to visualize the mass and measure the severity of the obstruction; Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to characterize the mass and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis.

  16. Development of post-pericardiotomy syndrome is preceded by an increase in pro-inflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory serological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snefjellå Nora

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS is a common complication after cardiac surgery, occuring in 10-40% of patients. PPS may prolong hospitalization, and even serious complications like tamponade and constrictive pericarditis may occur. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce morbidity. In 50 patients transferred to our hospital after cardiac surgery we found an increase in pro-inflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines at admission in the patients later developing PPS compared to the patients who did not develop PPS. If confirmed in larger studies, these findings may prove useful in early identification of and targeted treatment in patients developing PPS.

  17. Gastropericardial Fistula and Candida albicans Pericarditis: A Rare Complication of Gastric Adenocarcinoma Treated with Radiation and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Tang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastropericardial fistula is generally associated with benign gastric diseases and is an uncommon complication of gastric adenocarcinoma. Pericarditis and cardiac tamponade are the ultimate outcome, with extremely high mortality rates. We report a 47-year-old man with gastric adenocarcinoma who had completed radiotherapy and was on scheduled chemotherapy, who presented with fever and chest pain. Gastric adenocarcinoma complicated with gastropericardial fistula and Candida albicans pericarditis were diagnosed and treated successfully with conservative management. Initial chest radiography and computed tomography (CT revealed no evident pericardial air or fluid. However, follow-up panendoscopy 2 weeks later revealed a malignant ulcer with a fistula opening over the lesser curvature of the high body of the stomach. Subsequent chest radiography and CT revealed pneumopericardium with fluid accumulation. Emergent CT-guided pericardial drainage was performed. The fluid was positive for Candida albicans. Total parenteral nutrition and antifungal therapy were administered. The patient refused surgical intervention and survived with medical management alone. This case demonstrates that first, panendoscopy may be safely performed in patients with gastropericardial fistula without significant risk of cardiac tamponade; second, although early diagnosis of gastropericardial fistula is generally important, delayed recognition may not lead to devastating outcomes even in the absence of surgical intervention.

  18. An update on technical and methodological aspects for cardiac PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRESOTTO, Luca; BUSNARDO, Elena; GIANOLLI, Luigi; BETTINARDI, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is indicated for a large number of cardiac diseases: perfusion and viability studies are commonly used to evaluate coronary artery disease; PET can also be used to assess sarcoidosis and endocarditis, as well as to investigate amyloidosis. Furthermore, a hot topic for research is plaque characterization. Most of these studies are technically very challenging. High count rates and short acquisition times characterize perfusion scans while very small targets have to be imaged in inflammation/infection and plaques examinations. Furthermore, cardiac PET suffers from respiratory and cardiac motion blur. Each type of studies has specific requirements from the technical and methodological point of view, thus PET systems with overall high performances are required. Furthermore, in the era of hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems, the combination of complementary functional and anatomical information can be used to improve diagnosis and prognosis. Moreover, PET images can be qualitatively and quantitatively improved exploiting information from the other modality, using advanced algorithms. In this review we will report the latest technological and methodological innovations for PET cardiac applications, with particular reference to the state of the art of the hybrid PET/CT and PET/MRI. We will also report the most recent advancements in software, from reconstruction algorithms to image processing and analysis programs.

  19. Cardiac gated ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.W. III; Hoffman, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart

  20. Successful displacement of a traumatic submacular hemorrhage in a 13-year-old boy treated by vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and intravitreal air tamponade: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Shinichiro; Kimura, Shuhei; Morizane, Yuki; Shiode, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Mio; Hirano, Masayuki; Hosogi, Mika; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-08-07

    The natural course of submacular hemorrhage resulting from traumatic choroidal rupture generally has a poor outcome unless treated. The intravitreal injection of gas only or gas with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) has been reported to be effective, but has also been reported to induce severe complications such as retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage. Recently, we reported a safe and effective procedure for treating submacular hemorrhage due to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with a low dose of rt-PA. Here we report the application of this procedure to a case of traumatic submacular hemorrhage in a 13-year-old boy, which achieved a good visual outcome. A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with a thick submacular hemorrhage in his left eye as a result of blunt trauma from being hit by a sinker. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was assessed as only able to perceive hand motions. We carried out a vitrectomy, subretinal injection of 4,000 IU rt-PA (6.9 μg) and air tamponade. The day after surgery, most of the submacular hemorrhage had moved to the inferior periphery. One month after the surgery, we observed cataract formation, thin remnants of the submacular hemorrhage and juxtafoveal choroidal rupture. We carried out cataract surgery and injected bevacizumab intravitreally to prevent the development of choroidal neovascularization. Two months after the second surgery, the submacular hemorrhage had totally disappeared and the patient had a BCVA of 20/40. Vitrectomy, subretinal injection of rt-PA, and intravitreal air tamponade may be a promising strategy for treating traumatic submacular hemorrhage in young patients.

  1. Characterization and validation of new tools for measuring site-specific cardiac troponin I phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Stephen F; Stutzke, Crystal A; Du, Yanmei; Browning, Michael D; Buttrick, Peter M; Walker, Lori A

    2014-01-31

    Phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I is a well established mechanism by which cardiac contractility is modulated. However, there are a number of phosphorylation sites on TnI which contribute singly or in combination to influence cardiac function. Accordingly, methods for accurately measuring site-specific TnI phosphorylation are needed. Currently, two strategies are employed: mass spectrometry, which is costly, difficult and has a low throughput; and Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies, which is limited by the availability of reagents. In this report, we describe a cohort of new site-specific TnI phosphoantibodies, generated against physiologically relevant phosphorylation sites, that are superior to the current commercially available antibodies: to phospho-serine 22/23 which shows a >5-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; to phospho-serine 43, which has >3-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI; and phospho-serine 150 which has >2-fold phospho-specificity for phosphorylated TnI. These new antibodies demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity for the phosphorylated TnI than the most widely used commercially available reagents. For example, at a protein load of 20 μg of total cardiac extract, a commercially available antibody recognized both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated TnI to the same degree. At the same protein load our phospho-serine 22/23 antibody exhibited no cross-reactivity with dephosphorylated TnI. These new tools should allow a more accurate assessment and a better understanding of the role of TnI phosphorylation in the response of the heart to pathologic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Aly, Mohamed F A; Vuijk, Pieter J; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older cardiac patients remains unknown. An older (≥70 years) heterogeneous group of 117 community-dwelling cardiac patients under medical supervision by a cardiologist underwent thorough echocardiographic assessment including left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac index, left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, left ventricular diastolic function, and valvular calcification. During a home visit, a neuropsychological assessment was performed within 7.1 ± 3.8 months after echocardiographic assessment; the neuropsychological assessment included three subtests of a word-learning test (encoding, recall, recognition) to examine one memory function domain and three executive function tests, including digit span backwards, Trail Making Test B minus A, and the Stroop colour-word test. Regression analyses showed no significant linear or quadratic associations between any of the echocardiographic functions and the cognitive function measures. None of the echocardiographic measures as representative of cardiac function was correlated with memory or executive function in this group of community-dwelling older cardiac patients. These findings contrast with those of previous studies. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Cardiac function and cognition in older community-dwelling cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, Laura H.P.; Aly, Mohamed F.A.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; de Boer, Karin; Kamp, Otto; van Rossum, Albert C.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitive deficits have been reported in older cardiac patients. An underlying mechanism for these findings may be reduced cardiac function. The relationship between cardiac function as represented by different echocardiographic measures and different cognitive function domains in older

  4. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

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    Radenkova-Saeva J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  5. Giant right atrial myxoma: characterization with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of dyspnoea and chest pain. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed to exclude acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This demonstrated a large right atrial mass and no evidence of PE. Transthoracic echocardiography followed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a mobile right atrial mass. Surgical resection was then performed confirming a giant right atrial myxoma. We describe the typical clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of right atrial myxoma.

  6. Assessment of inpatient multimodal cardiac imaging appropriateness at large academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remfry, Andrew; Abrams, Howard; Dudzinski, David M; Weiner, Rory B; Bhatia, R Sacha

    2015-11-14

    Responding to concerns regarding the growth of cardiac testing, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) published Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for various cardiac imaging modalities. Single modality cardiac imaging appropriateness has been reported but there have been no studies assessing the appropriateness of multiple imaging modalities in an inpatient environment. A retrospective study of the appropriateness of cardiac tests ordered by the inpatient General Internal Medicine (GIM) and Cardiology services at three Canadian academic hospitals was conducted over two one-month periods. Cardiac tests characterized were transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT), and diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Overall, 553 tests were assessed, of which 99.8% were classifiable by AUC. 91% of all studies were categorized as appropriate, 4% may be appropriate and 5% were rarely appropriate. There were high rates of appropriate use of all modalities by GIM and Cardiology throughout. Significantly more appropriate diagnostic catheterizations were ordered by Cardiology than GIM (93% vs. 82%, p = imaging modalities in this multi-centered study on Cardiology and GIM inpatients in the acute care setting. The rate of appropriate ordering was high across all imaging modalities. We recommend further work towards improving appropriate utilization of cardiac imaging resources focus on the out-patient setting.

  7. Pregestational type 2 diabetes mellitus induces cardiac hypertrophy in the murine embryo through cardiac remodeling and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Yang, Penghua; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study revealed that maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces structural heart defects in their offspring. This study aims to determine whether maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy. The type 2 diabetes mellitus embryopathy model was established by feeding 4-week-old female C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy in embryos at embryonic day 17.5 was characterized by measuring heart size and thickness of the right and left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum, as well as the expression of β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, desmin, and adrenomedullin. Cardiac remodeling was determined by collagen synthesis and fibronectin synthesis. Fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining and determining the expression of connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, and galectin-3 genes. Cell apoptosis also was measured in the developing heart. The thicknesses of the left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum of embryonic hearts exposed to maternal diabetes were significantly thicker than those in the nondiabetic group. Maternal diabetes significantly increased β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, and desmin expression, but decreased expression of adrenomedullin. Moreover, collagen synthesis was significantly elevated, whereas fibronectin synthesis was suppressed, in embryonic hearts from diabetic dams, suggesting that cardiac remodeling is a contributing factor to cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac fibrosis marker, galectin-3, was induced by maternal diabetes. Furthermore, maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus

  8. Intramyocardial strain estimation from cardiac cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakib, Ahmed; Beache, Garth M; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2015-08-01

    Functional strain is one of the important clinical indicators for the quantification of heart performance and the early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and functional strain parameters are used to aid therapeutic decisions and follow-up evaluations after cardiac surgery. A comprehensive framework for deriving functional strain parameters at the endocardium, epicardium, and mid-wall of the left ventricle (LV) from conventional cine MRI data was developed and tested. Cine data were collected using short TR-/TE-balanced steady-state free precession acquisitions on a 1.5T Siemens Espree scanner. The LV wall borders are segmented using a level set-based deformable model guided by a stochastic force derived from a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field model that accounts for the object shape and appearance features. Then, the mid-wall of the segmented LV is determined based on estimating the centerline between the endocardium and epicardium of the LV. Finally, a geometrical Laplace-based method is proposed to track corresponding points on successive myocardial contours throughout the cardiac cycle in order to characterize the strain evolutions. The method was tested using simulated phantom images with predefined point locations of the LV wall throughout the cardiac cycle. The method was tested on 30 in vivo datasets to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed framework to index functional strain parameters. The cine MRI-based model agreed with the ground truth for functional metrics to within 0.30 % for indexing the peak systolic strain change and 0.29 % (per unit time) for indexing systolic and diastolic strain rates. The method was feasible for in vivo extraction of functional strain parameters. Strain indexes of the endocardium, mid-wall, and epicardium can be derived from routine cine images using automated techniques, thereby improving the utility of cine MRI data for characterization of myocardial function. Unlike traditional texture-based tracking, the

  9. Spatiotemporal representation of cardiac vectorcardiogram (VCG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vectorcardiogram (VCG signals monitor both spatial and temporal cardiac electrical activities along three orthogonal planes of the body. However, the absence of spatiotemporal resolution in conventional VCG representations is a major impediment for medical interpretation and clinical usage of VCG. This is especially so because time-domain features of 12-lead ECG, instead of both spatial and temporal characteristics of VCG, are widely used for the automatic assessment of cardiac pathological patterns. Materials and methods We present a novel representation approach that captures critical spatiotemporal heart dynamics by displaying the real time motion of VCG cardiac vectors in a 3D space. Such a dynamic display can also be realized with only one lead ECG signal (e.g., ambulatory ECG through an alternative lag-reconstructed ECG representation from nonlinear dynamics principles. Furthermore, the trajectories are color coded with additional dynamical properties of space-time VCG signals, e.g., the curvature, speed, octant and phase angles to enhance the information visibility. Results In this investigation, spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is used to characterize various spatiotemporal pathological patterns for healthy control (HC, myocardial infarction (MI, atrial fibrillation (AF and bundle branch block (BBB. The proposed color coding scheme revealed that the spatial locations of the peak of T waves are in the Octant 6 for the majority (i.e., 74 out of 80 of healthy recordings in the PhysioNet PTB database. In contrast, the peak of T waves from 31.79% (117/368 of MI subjects are found to remain in Octant 6 and the rest (68.21% spread over all other octants. The spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to capture the same important heart characteristics as the 12-lead ECG plots and more. Conclusions Spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to facilitate the characterization of space-time cardiac

  10. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  11. Cardiovascular effects of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose A.G.; Leiva, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic mediastinal irradiation can induce heart disease with variable degree of cardiac engagement. Heart disease manifestations depend on the grade of involvement of the different cardiac structures. During the first two years following irradiation, pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion is the most common manifestation of toxicity related to radiation therapy. Later on, after a latency period of five to ten years, a constrictive pericarditis may develop. Other type of late cardiac toxicities due to irradiation are restrictive cardiomyopathy, multiple valvular disease, coronary artery disease and different atrioventricular conduction disturbances. The therapeutic approach to this kind of heart disease has to be focused on its progressive course and in the possibility of a global involvement of all the cardiac structures. Pericardiectomy is strongly recommended for recurrent pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Cardiac surgery for myocardial revascularization or valvular disease can be performed with variable results; the presence of myocardial fibrosis can significantly affect perioperative management and long-term results. Cardiac transplantation is a promissory option for those patients with end-stage cardiac failure. Immunosuppressive regimens are not associated with recurrence of malignancy. (author) [es

  12. Detecting early cardiac dysfunction with radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kegui; Chen Daguang; Lin Haoxue

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac function was measured by radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging in 15 normal persons, 19 cases of hypertension, 32 cases of coronary heart disease, 35 cases of coronary heart disease combined with hypertension and 44 cases of myocardial infarction. Significant differences have been found in indices of cardiac function between normal subjects and patients with coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease combined with hypertension, even though the patients were without any clinical sin of cardiac failure. Lowered regional EF and decreased ventricular was motion were found in 38.8% of patients, while 65.7%of patients revealed marked abnormality in MFR. The results indicate that latent cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with coronary heart disease. The earliest change is diastolic function abnormalities

  13. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  15. Current role of cardiac and extra-cardiac pathologies in clinically indicated cardiac computed tomography with emphasis on status before pulmonary vein isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohns, J.M.; Lotz, J. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Goettingen (Germany); Menke, J.; Staab, W.; Fasshauer, M.; Kowallick, J.T.; Zwaka, P.A.; Schwarz, A. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Spiro, J. [Koeln University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bergau, L.; Unterberg-Buchwald, C. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Cardiology and Pneumology

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cardiac and significant extra-cardiac findings in clinical computed tomography of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Materials and Methods: 224 patients (64 ± 10 years; male 63%) with atrial fibrillation were examined by cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT before PVI. Extra-cardiac findings were classified as 'significant' if they were recommended to additional diagnostics or therapy, and otherwise as 'non-significant'. Additionally, cardiac findings were documented in detail. Results: A total of 724 cardiac findings were identified in 203 patients (91% of patients). Additionally, a total of 619 extra-cardiac findings were identified in 179 patients (80% of patients). Among these extra-cardiac findings 196 (32%) were 'significant', and 423 (68%) were 'non-significant'. In 2 patients (1%) a previously unknown malignancy was detected (esophageal cancer and lung cancer, local stage, no metastasis). 203 additional imaging diagnostics followed to clarify the 'significant' findings (124 additional CT, costs 38,314.69 US dollars). Overall, there were 3.2 cardiac and 2.8 extra-cardiac findings per patient. Extra-cardiac findings appear significantly more frequently in patients over 60 years old, in smokers and in patients with a history of cardiac findings (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardiac CT scans before PVI should be screened for extracardiac incidental findings that could have important clinical implications for each patient. (orig.)

  16. Primary Cardiac Burkitt Lymphoma Presenting with Abdominal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tzachanis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman with primary Burkitt lymphoma of the heart who presented with abdominal bloating and epigastric discomfort secondary to tamponade physiology caused by a large pericardial effusion. The pericardial fluid contained a large number of highly atypical lymphocytes with moderate basophilic cytoplasm, rare punched-out vacuoles, a vesicular nuclear chromatin, large nucleolus, and marginated chromatin that by FISH were positive for the 8;14 translocation. She had no other sites of disease. She was treated with four alternating cycles of modified CODOX-M and IVAC in combination with rituximab and remains in remission more than 5 years since diagnosis.

  17. Evans syndrome with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction complicated by hemopericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Kizilirmak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is a rare hematological disease characterized by autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and/or neutropenia, all of which may be seen simultaneously or subsequently. Thrombotic events in ES are uncommon. Furthermore, non-ST segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI during ES is a very rare condition. Here, we describe a case of a 69-year-old female patient presenting with NSTEMI and ES. Revascularization via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was scheduled and performed. Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade occurred 5 h after PCI, and urgent pericardiocentesis was performed. Follow-up was uneventful, and the patient was safely discharged. Early recognition and appropriate management of NSTEMI is crucial to prevent morbidity and mortality. Coexistence of NSTEMI and ES, which is associated with increased bleeding risk, is a challenging scenario and these patients should be closely monitored in order to achieve early recognition and treatment of complications.

  18. The Role of Focused Echocardiography in Pediatric Intensive Care: A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Heloisa Amaral; Morhy, Samira Saady

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is a key tool for hemodynamic assessment in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Focused echocardiography performed by nonspecialist physicians has a limited scope, and the most relevant parameters assessed by focused echocardiography in Pediatric ICU are left ventricular systolic function, fluid responsiveness, cardiac tamponade and pulmonary hypertension. Proper ability building of pediatric emergency care physicians and intensivists to perform focused echocardiography is feasible and provides improved care of severely ill children and thus should be encouraged. PMID:26605333

  19. Epidemiology and Outcomes After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Punkaj; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Pasquali, Sara K.; Hill, Kevin D.; Gaynor, J. William; O’Brien, Sean M.; He, Max; Sheng, Shubin; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Imamura, Michiaki; Jacobs, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicenter data regarding cardiac arrest in children undergoing heart operations are limited. We describe epidemiology and outcomes associated with postoperative cardiac arrest in a large multiinstitutional cohort. Methods Patients younger than 18 years in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2007 through 2012) were included. Patient factors, operative characteristics, and outcomes were described for patients with and without postoperative cardiac arrest. Multivariable models were used to evaluate the association of center volume with cardiac arrest rate and mortality after cardiac arrest, adjusting for patient and procedural factors. Results Of 70,270 patients (97 centers), 1,843 (2.6%) had postoperative cardiac arrest. Younger age, lower weight, and presence of preoperative morbidities (all p < 0.0001) were associated with cardiac arrest. Arrest rate increased with procedural complexity across common benchmark operations, ranging from 0.7% (ventricular septal defect repair) to 12.7% (Norwood operation). Cardiac arrest was associated with significant mortality risk across procedures, ranging from 15.4% to 62.3% (all p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, arrest rate was not associated with center volume (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.57 in low- versus high-volume centers). However, mortality after cardiac arrest was higher in low-volume centers (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 2.63). This association was present for both high- and low-complexity operations. Conclusions Cardiac arrest carries a significant mortality risk across the stratum of procedural complexity. Although arrest rates are not associated with center volume, lower-volume centers have increased mortality after cardiac arrest. Further study of mechanisms to prevent cardiac arrest and to reduce mortality in those with an arrest is warranted. PMID:25443018

  20. Commonly asked questions: thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, H Steven; Biller, José

    2013-02-01

    Questions about thrombolytic management arise frequently, often with the intent of ascertaining safety and efficacy in specific situations. Thrombolytic therapy is generally safe, even if a nonruptured intracranial aneurysm is present. The risk of cardiac rupture with tamponade is low, except for the first 7 weeks following myocardial infarction. Over this duration, there is an increased risk of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in specific patient groups. Stroke infrequently occurs during cardiac catheterization. Its infrequent occurrence has limited large treatment trials. Basilar artery occlusion management will be reviewed. Thrombolytic therapy is generally safe in the context of pre-existing cerebral microhemorrhages and cervical artery dissections. Additionally, the role of multimodal penumbral imaging in planning stroke therapy will be reviewed.

  1. Cardiac pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenik, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of a cardiac pacemaker is described which is characterized by particularly small dimensions, small weight and long life duration. The weight is under 100g, the specific weight under 1.7. Mass inertia forces which occur through acceleration and retardation processes, thus remain below the threshold values, above which one would have to reckon with considerable damaging of the surrounding body tissue. The maintaining of small size and slight weight is achieved by using an oscillator on COSMOS basis, where by considerably lower energy consumption, amongst others the lifetimes of the batteries used - a lithium anode with thionyl chloride electrolyte - is extended to over 5 years. The reliability can be increased by the use of 2 or more batteries. The designed dimension are 20x60x60 mm 3 . (ORU/LH) [de

  2. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  3. Technical note: subclavian artery misplacement of a 12F Shaldon catheter: percutaneous repair with a local closure device under temporary balloon tamponade; Technische Mitteilung: Entfernung eines fehlplatzierten 12F Shaldon Katheters aus der A. subclavia und Abdichtung mittels Verschlusssystem bei temporaerer Ballonblockade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, J.E.; Katoh, M.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Fussen, R. [Anaesthesiologische Klinik, Medizinisches Zentrum Kreis Aachen GmbH (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    A case of subsequent percutaneous repair using a local closure device with a collagen block (VasoSeal {sup registered}) and temporary balloon tamponade after inadvertent subclavian artery misplacement of a 12F Shaldon catheter is reported. Balloon occlusion safely prevented displacement of collagen into the vascular lumen by occluding the 12F entry site. Furthermore, collagen-induced coagulation was facilitated. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rehab; Heart failure - cardiac rehab References Anderson L, Taylor RS. Cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart disease: ... of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  5. Preparation of human cardiac anti-myosin: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.; Souza, I.T.T.

    1990-01-01

    The present communication is a review of the physicochemical characterization and immunological properties of myosin isolated from the cardiac muscle, the production of monoclonal antibody anti-myosin, the radiolabeling of this antibody and its applications as radiopharmaceuticals to imaging myocardial infarcts. The classical example of radioimmunologic diagnosis of non malignant tissues is the detection of myocardial infarction by radiolabeled antibodies to myosin. (author)

  6. Stem Cells for Cardiac Regeneration by Cell Therapy and Myocardial Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zeng, Faquan; Weisel, Richard D.; Li, Ren-Ke

    Congestive heart failure, which often occurs progressively following a myocardial infarction, is characterized by impaired myocardial perfusion, ventricular dilatation, and cardiac dysfunction. Novel treatments are required to reverse these effects - especially in older patients whose endogenous regenerative responses to currently available therapies are limited by age. This review explores the current state of research for two related approaches to cardiac regeneration: cell therapy and tissue engineering. First, to evaluate cell therapy, we review the effectiveness of various cell types for their ability to limit ventricular dilatation and promote functional recovery following implantation into a damaged heart. Next, to assess tissue engineering, we discuss the characteristics of several biomaterials for their potential to physically support the infarcted myocardium and promote implanted cell survival following cardiac injury. Finally, looking ahead, we present recent findings suggesting that hybrid constructs combining a biomaterial with stem and supporting cells may be the most effective approaches to cardiac regeneration.

  7. Characterization of Cardiac Time Intervals in Healthy Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata) by Using an Electronic Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Pushilin, Sergei; Kumar, Paraag; Carter, John; Kuo, John; Novotney, Carol; Lazar, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are used frequently in cardiovascular research. Cardiac time intervals derived by phonocardiography have long been used to assess left ventricular function. Electronic stethoscopes are simple low-cost systems that display heart sound signals. We assessed the use of an electronic stethoscope to measure cardiac time intervals in 48 healthy bonnet macaques (age, 8 ± 5 y) based on recorded heart sounds. Technically adequate recordings were obtained from all animals and required 1.5 ± 1.3 min. The following cardiac time intervals were determined by simultaneously recording acoustic and single-lead electrocardiographic data: electromechanical activation time (QS1), electromechanical systole (QS2), the time interval between the first and second heart sounds (S1S2), and the time interval between the second and first sounds (S2S1). QS2 was correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time determined by using echocardiography. S1S2 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection time, and age. S2S1 correlated with heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular ejection time. QS1 did not correlate with any anthropometric or echocardiographic parameter. The relation S1S2/S2S1 correlated with systolic blood pressure. On multivariate analyses, heart rate was the only independent predictor of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1. In conclusion, determination of cardiac time intervals is feasible and reproducible by using an electrical stethoscope in nonhuman primates. Heart rate is a major determinant of QS2, S1S2, and S2S1 but not QS1; regression equations for reference values for cardiac time intervals in bonnet macaques are provided. PMID:21439218

  8. Defining the Intrinsic Cardiac Risks of Operations to Improve Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jason B; Liu, Yaoming; Cohen, Mark E; Ko, Clifford Y; Sweitzer, Bobbie J

    2018-02-01

    Current preoperative cardiac risk stratification practices group operations into broad categories, which might inadequately consider the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations. We sought to define the intrinsic cardiac risks of individual operations and to demonstrate how grouping operations might lead to imprecise estimates of perioperative cardiac risk. Elective operations (based on Common Procedural Terminology codes) performed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were studied. A composite measure of perioperative adverse cardiac events was defined as either cardiac arrest requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation or acute myocardial infarction. Operations' intrinsic cardiac risks were derived from mixed-effects models while controlling for patient mix. Resultant risks were sorted into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk categories, and the most commonly performed operations within each category were identified. Intrinsic operative risks were also examined using a representative grouping of operations to portray within-group variation. Sixty-six low, 30 intermediate, and 106 high intrinsic cardiac risk operations were identified. Excisional breast biopsy had the lowest intrinsic cardiac risk (overall rate, 0.01%; odds ratio, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.25) relative to the average, whereas aorto-bifemoral bypass grafting had the highest (overall rate, 4.1%; odds ratio, 6.61; 95% CI, 5.54 to 7.90). There was wide variation in the intrinsic cardiac risks of operations within the representative grouping (median odds ratio, 1.40; interquartile range, 0.88 to 2.17). A continuum of intrinsic cardiac risk exists among operations. Grouping operations into broad categories inadequately accounts for the intrinsic cardiac risk of individual operations.

  9. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Narimatsu, Motoharu

    1997-08-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA{>=}5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=}1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA{>=} that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  10. Stanford type A aortic dissection with closed false lumen: Analysis of prognostic factors at initial CT or MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yohji; Sueyoshi, Eijun; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Takagi, Masatake; Narimatsu, Motoharu.

    1997-01-01

    Nineteen patients with Stanford type A acute aortic dissection with closed false lumen were reviewed. In the follow-up examinations, ulcerlike projection (ULP) in the ascending aorta (AA) or aortic arch (AR) was identified in 8 of 19 patients. In 5 of these 8 patients, acute cardiac tamponade occurred and 3 of them died. In the other 11 patients, there was no mortality, and only one patient underwent elective surgery. The appearance of ULP in the AA/AR is considered an indication for urgent surgery because it is regarded as a precursor of lethal complications such as cardiac tamponade. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR with early imagings (CT or MRI) before the appearance of ULP. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with ULP in the AA/AR (8 patients) and others (11 patients). Initial CT or MRI findings of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively statistically analyzed in each group. Three predictive factors were statistically significant for the appearance of ULP in the AA/AR (diameter of the AA≥5 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥1 cm, thickness of the false lumen of the AA≥ that of the descending aorta). Close attention should be paid, if any of these 3 factors is observed at initial CT or MRI. (author)

  11. The Correlation of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Dysfunction in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Andrew D; Soslow, Jonathan H; Burnette, W Bryan; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Sawyer, Douglas B; Markham, Larry W

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle and cardiac dysfunction. While skeletal muscle dysfunction precedes cardiomyopathy, the relationship between the progressive decline in skeletal and cardiac muscle function is unclear. This relationship is especially important given that the myocardial effects of many developing DMD therapies are largely unknown. Our objective was to assess the relationship between progression of skeletal muscle weakness and onset of cardiac dysfunction in DMD. A total of 77 DMD subjects treated at a single referral center were included. Demographic information, quantitative muscle testing (QMT), subjective muscle strength, cardiac function, and current and retrospective medications were collected. A Spearman rank correlation was used to evaluate for an association between subjective strength and fractional shortening. The effects of total QMT and arm QMT on fractional shortening were examined in generalized least square with and without adjustments for age, ambulatory status, and duration of corticosteroids and cardiac specific medications. We found a significant correlation between maintained subjective skeletal muscle arm and leg strength and maintained cardiac function as defined by fractional shortening (rho=0.47, p=0.004 and rho=0.48, p=0.003, respectively). We also found a significant association between QMT and fractional shortening among non-ambulatory DMD subjects (p=0.03), while this association was not significant in ambulatory subjects. Our findings allow us to conclude that in this population, there exists a significant relationship between skeletal muscle and cardiac function in non-ambulatory DMD patients. While this does not imply a causal relationship, a possible association between skeletal and cardiac muscle function suggests that researchers should carefully monitor cardiac function, even when the primary outcome measures are not cardiac in nature.

  12. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Role of imaging in evaluation of sudden cardiac death risk in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R

    2015-09-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heritable cardiomyopathy and is associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) - an uncommon but devastating clinical outcome. This review is designed to assess the role of imaging in established risk factor assessment and its role in emerging SCD risk stratification. Recent publications have highlighted the crucial role of imaging in HCM SCD risk stratification. Left ventricular hypertrophy assessment remains the key imaging determinant of risk. Data continue to emerge on the role of systolic dysfunction, apical aneurysms, left atrial enlargement and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction as markers of risk. Quantitative assessment of delayed myocardial enhancement and T1 mapping on cardiac MRI continue to evolve. Recent multicenter trials have allowed multivariate SCD risk assessment in large HCM cohorts. Given aggregate risk with presence of multiple risk factors, a single parameter should not be used in isolation to determine implantable cardiac defibrillator candidacy. Use of all available imaging data, including cardiac magnetic resonance tissue characterization, allows a comprehensive approach to SCD stratification and implantable cardiac defibrillator decision-making.

  14. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, Mieke M.P. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN) - Netherlands Heart Institute, PO Box 19258, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breur, Johannes M.P.J. [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Oorschot, Joep W.M. van; Leiner, Tim [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kimmenade, Roland R.J. van; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijboom, Folkert J. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. (orig.)

  15. Personality predictors of mortality in cardiac transplant candidates and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwin, M; Trask, P C; Schwartz, S M; Clifford, M

    2000-08-01

    Emotional factors are generally recognized as impacting the care of end-stage heart disease and mortality following cardiac transplants. Equally important, however, are predictors of pretransplant mortality. The current study examined the utility of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI) as a predictor of pre- and posttransplant mortality. A total of 103 cardiac transplant candidates were assessed with the MBHI as part of a pretransplant evaluation that included baseline demographic variables and cardiac status. Time to transplant and mortality status at 1 and 5 years was also obtained. Cluster analysis of MBHI response scores elicited two clusters characterized by high and low distress. Cluster membership predicted survival status at 1-year and 5-year follow-up, with high distress cluster patients having significantly higher mortality in both the total sample and a subgroup of patients who did receive a heart transplant. These results support the value of the MBHI for assessing personality attributes that may dispose toward unfavorable outcome in heart transplant candidates. Further understanding of psychosocial contributions to illness course and outcome may enable more effective selection of treatment interventions with cardiac patients.

  16. The specific case: cardiac amyloidosis as differential diagnosis in case of restricted cardiac pump function; Der besondere Fall. Amyloidose des Herzens als Differenzialdiagnose bei eingeschraenkter kardialer Pumpfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, L. [Universitaetsspital Basel (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Zellweger, M.; Niemann, T.

    2014-03-15

    The NMR imaging data in combination with clinical characterization and echocardiography are consistent with the diagnosis of a cardiac amyloidosis. The article describes disease pattern and diagnosis based on contrast agent accumulation and diastolic functional disturbances. CT was performed to exclude pulmonary embolism.

  17. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  18. Analysis of agreement between cardiac risk stratification protocols applied to participants of a center for cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana A. S. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Cardiac risk stratification is related to the risk of the occurrence of events induced by exercise. Despite the existence of several protocols to calculate risk stratification, studies indicating that there is similarity between these protocols are still unknown. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the existing protocols on cardiac risk rating in cardiac patients. Method The records of 50 patients from a cardiac rehabilitation program were analyzed, from which the following information was extracted: age, sex, weight, height, clinical diagnosis, medical history, risk factors, associated diseases, and the results from the most recent laboratory and complementary tests performed. This information was used for risk stratification of the patients in the protocols of the American College of Sports Medicine, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the protocol designed by Frederic J. Pashkow, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the Société Française de Cardiologie, and the Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and the analysis of agreement between the protocols was calculated using the Kappa coefficient. Differences were considered with a significance level of 5%. Results Of the 21 analyses of agreement, 12 were considered significant between the protocols used for risk classification, with nine classified as moderate and three as low. No agreements were classified as excellent. Different proportions were observed in each risk category, with significant differences between the protocols for all risk categories. Conclusion The agreements between the protocols were considered low and moderate and the risk proportions differed between protocols.

  19. Purulent pericarditis in a dog administered immune-suppressing drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, T.; Takashima, K.; Yamane, T.; Sato, H.; Yamane, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A 5-year-old castrated mongrel dog was brought to our hospital with anorexia and vomiting. Laboratory testing revealed immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), and so treatment was initiated with multiple immune-suppressing drugs, achieving partial remission from IMHA. However, cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis was identified as a secondary disease. Culture of pericardial fluid yielded numerous Candida albicans and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter sp. Pericardiocentesis was performed, and the condition of the dog improved. However, the dog died the next day

  20. Conservative Management of an Epicardial Collateral Perforation During Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Christian; Christopoulos, George; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation is a highly feared complication of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and can lead to pericardial effusion, tamponade, and, rarely, emergent cardiac surgery. Perforation of epicardial collaterals during retrograde CTO-PCI may be particularly challenging to treat, as embolization from both sides of the perforation may be required to control the bleeding. However, conservative measures can occasionally be effective. We present a case of epicardial collateral vessel perforation that was managed conservatively with anticoagulation reversal.

  1. Methyl-CpG binding-protein 2 function in cholinergic neurons mediates cardiac arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-15

    Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability. Death was associated with spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and complete conduction block. Atropine treatment reduced cardiac arrhythmias in mutant mice, implicating overactive parasympathetic tone. To explore the role of MeCP2 within the parasympathetic neurons, we selectively removed MeCP2 function from cholinergic neurons (MeCP2 ChAT KO), which recapitulated the cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypothermia, and early death seen in RTT male mice. Conversely, restoring MeCP2 only in cholinergic neurons rescued these phenotypes. Thus, MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons is necessary and sufficient for autonomic cardiac control, thermoregulation, and survival, and targeting the overactive parasympathetic system may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent sudden unexpected death in RTT.

  2. Association between dental caries and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yasunori; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Ogawa, Masahiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Ken; Kimura, Takeshi; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-04-01

    Oral infection contributes to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that dental caries may be associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) of cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin. We compared the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (785,591 cases of OHCA: 55.4% of cardiac origin and 44.6% of non-cardiac origin) to the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries between 2005 and 2011 in the 47 prefectures of Japan. In both the total population and males over 65 years, the number of cases of dental caries was significantly associated with the number of OHCA of total and cardiac origin from 2005 to 2011, but not those of non-cardiac origin. In the total population, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was not significantly associated with the age-adjusted incidence of OHCA (total OHCA: r correlation coefficient=0.22, p=0.14; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.25, p=0.09; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=-0.002, p=0.99). Among male patients over 65 years, the age-adjusted prevalence of dental caries was significantly associated with OHCA of total and cardiac origin, but not non-cardiac origin (total OHCA: r=0.47, p<0.001; OHCA of cardiac origin: r=0.37, p=0.01; OHCA of non-cardiac origin: r=0.28, p=0.054). While oral hygiene is important in all age groups, it may be particularly associated with OHCAs of cardiac origin in males over 65 years. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Exercise-related cardiac arrest in cardiac rehabilitation - The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescribed physical activity plays a major role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease, and as with any other form of treatment its benefits must be weighed against its possible risks. This study attempted to establish the safety of cardiac rehabilitation as a medical intervention at the Johannesburg Cardiac ...

  4. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  5. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Izaki, M.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Soares Junior, J; Meneghetti, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. It may affect virtually any system, preferably heart, kidneys and liver. The cardiac involvement produces a spectrum of clinical features, usually with progressive dysfunction. Early diagnosis is important for institution of appropriate therapy. Case report: Male patient, 75 years old, with diagnosed congestive heart failure functional class III and Mobitz II second-degree atrial-ventricular block, was hospitalized for implantation of definitive cardiac pacemaker. Patient mentioned history of worsening effort dyspnoea over a one-month period, progressing to minimum effort, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and paroxysms of dry cough, and swelling of lower limbs. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypertrophy of left ventricle (LV), with systolic dysfunction due to diffuse hypokinesia and hyperrefringent aspect in the septum. It was questioned a cardiac infiltrating process. Cardiac amyloidosis was considered as a diagnostic hypothesis. The patient underwent a pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy, which showed abnormal tracer uptake in the heart projection, with diffuse pattern on the left ventricle walls, compatible with the clinical suspicion cardiac amyloidosis, which was later confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Discussion: In this case report, the patient had clinical and other auxiliary examinations, such as electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, compatible with cardiac amyloidosis, which led to implementation with pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy and later endomyocardial biopsy. Cardiac amyloidosis occurs in about half the cases of primary amyloidosis (AL) and is rare in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Its clinical presentation is polymorphic and it can be classified into four distinctive types: restrictive cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, postural hypotension and conduction disorders

  6. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Izaki, M.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Soares Junior, J; Meneghetti, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. It may affect virtually any system, preferably heart, kidneys and liver. The cardiac involvement produces a spectrum of clinical features, usually with progressive dysfunction. Early diagnosis is important for institution of appropriate therapy. Case report: Male patient, 75 years old, with diagnosed congestive heart failure functional class III and Mobitz II second-degree atrial-ventricular block, was hospitalized for implantation of definitive cardiac pacemaker. Patient mentioned history of worsening effort dyspnoea over a one-month period, progressing to minimum effort, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and paroxysms of dry cough, and swelling of lower limbs. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypertrophy of left ventricle (LV), with systolic dysfunction due to diffuse hypokinesia and hyperrefringent aspect in the septum. It was questioned a cardiac infiltrating process. Cardiac amyloidosis was considered as a diagnostic hypothesis. The patient underwent a pyrophosphate- 99m Tc scintigraphy, which showed abnormal tracer uptake in the heart projection, with diffuse pattern on the left ventricle walls, compatible with the clinical suspicion cardiac amyloidosis, which was later confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Discussion: In this case report, the patient had clinical and other auxiliary examinations, such as electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, compatible with cardiac amyloidosis, which led to implementation with pyrophosphate- 99m Tc scintigraphy and later endomyocardial biopsy. Cardiac amyloidosis occurs in about half the cases of primary amyloidosis (AL) and is rare in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Its clinical presentation is polymorphic and it can be classified into four distinctive types: restrictive cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, postural hypotension and conduction disorders. Cardiac

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Cardiac Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggion-Santos, Maria Fernanda; Koenigkam-Santos, Marcel; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Volpe, Gustavo Jardim; Trad, Henrique Simão; Schmidt, André

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are extremely rare; however, when there is clinical suspicion, proper diagnostic evaluation is necessary to plan the most appropriate treatment. In this context, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) plays an important role, allowing a comprehensive characterization of such lesions. To review cases referred to a CMRI Department for investigation of cardiac and paracardiac masses. To describe the positive case series with a brief review of the literature for each type of lesion and the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation. Between August 2008 and December 2011, all cases referred for CMRI with suspicion of tumor involving the heart were reviewed. Cases with positive histopathological diagnosis, clinical evolution or therapeutic response compatible with the clinical suspicion and imaging findings were selected. Among the 13 cases included in our study, eight (62%) had histopathological confirmation. We describe five benign tumors (myxomas, rhabdomyoma and fibromas), five malignancies (sarcoma, lymphoma, Richter syndrome involving the heart and metastatic disease) and three non-neoplastic lesions (pericardial cyst, intracardiac thrombus and infectious vegetation). CMRI plays an important role in the evaluation of cardiac masses of non-neoplastic and neoplastic origin, contributing to a more accurate diagnosis in a noninvasive manner and assisting in treatment planning, allowing safe clinical follow-up with good reproducibility

  8. Cytology of cardiac myxomas: presence of Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin by immunoperoxidase staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwa, N; Yutani, C

    1993-12-01

    Cytological findings are presented of seven cases of cardiac myxomas. Avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method was employed to demonstrate Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin in imprint smears as well as in paraffin-embedded tissue sections in cardiac myxomas. The cytology was characterized by tumor cells with polyhedral or stellate and mucinous background with lymphocytes, neutrophils, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. In smears as well as tissue sections, UEA-I lectin was detected throughout the cytoplasm of myxoma cells. This study established the applicability of the immunoperoxidase staining for cardiac myxoma as an aid in cytopathological diagnosis.

  9. Elevated Cardiac Troponin T in Patients With Skeletal Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Johannes; Liesinger, Laura; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Scharnagl, Hubert; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Asslaber, Martin; Radl, Roman; Beer, Meinrad; Polacin, Malgorzata; Mair, Johannes; Szolar, Dieter; Berghold, Andrea; Quasthoff, Stefan; Binder, Josepha S; Rainer, Peter P

    2018-04-10

    Cardiac troponins are often elevated in patients with skeletal muscle disease who have no evidence of cardiac disease. The goal of this study was to characterize cardiac troponin concentrations in patients with myopathies and derive insights regarding the source of elevated troponin T measurements. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations were determined by using high sensitivity assays in 74 patients with hereditary and acquired skeletal myopathies. Patients underwent comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24-h electrocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and coronary artery computed tomography. cTnT and cTnI protein expression was determined in skeletal muscle samples of 9 patients and in control tissues derived from autopsy using antibodies that are used in commercial assays. Relevant Western blot bands were subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification. Levels of cTnT (median: 24 ng/l; interquartile range: 11 to 54 ng/l) were elevated (>14 ng/l) in 68.9% of patients; cTnI was elevated (>26 ng/l) in 4.1% of patients. Serum cTnT levels significantly correlated with creatine kinase and myoglobin (r = 0.679 and 0.786, respectively; both p < 0.001). Based on cTnT serial testing, 30.1% would have fulfilled current rule-in criteria for myocardial infarction. Noncoronary cardiac disease was present in 23%. Using cTnT antibodies, positive bands were found in both diseased and healthy skeletal muscle at molecular weights approximately 5 kDa below cTnT. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified the presence of skeletal troponin T isoforms in these bands. Measured cTnT concentrations were chronically elevated in the majority of patients with skeletal myopathies, whereas cTnI elevation was rare. Our data indicate that cross-reaction of the cTnT immunoassay with skeletal muscle troponin isoforms was the likely cause. Copyright © 2018 The

  10. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from cardiac progenitor cells: effects of selective ion channel blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Claudia; Pianezzi, Enea; Cervio, Elisabetta; Bolis, Sara; Biemmi, Vanessa; Benzoni, Patrizia; Camici, Giovanni G; Moccetti, Tiziano; Barile, Lucio; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes are likely to revolutionize electrophysiological approaches to arrhythmias. Recent evidence suggests the somatic cell origin of hiPSCs may influence their differentiation potential. Owing to their cardiomyogenic potential, cardiac-stromal progenitor cells (CPCs) are an interesting cellular source for generation of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. The effect of ionic current blockade in hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes generated from CPCs has not been characterized yet. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were generated from adult CPCs and skin fibroblasts from the same individuals. The effect of selective ionic current blockade on spontaneously beating hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes was assessed using multi-electrode arrays. Cardiac-stromal progenitor cells could be reprogrammed into hiPSCs, then differentiated into hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes of cardiac origin showed higher upregulation of cardiac-specific genes compared with those of fibroblastic origin. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes of both somatic cell origins exhibited sensitivity to tetrodotoxin, a blocker of Na +  current (I Na ), nifedipine, a blocker of L-type Ca 2+  current (I CaL ), and E4031, a blocker of the rapid component of delayed rectifier K +  current (I Kr ). Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes of cardiac origin exhibited sensitivity to JNJ303, a blocker of the slow component of delayed rectifier K +  current (I Ks ). In hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes of cardiac origin, I Na , I CaL , I Kr , and I Ks were present as tetrodotoxin-, nifedipine-, E4031-, and JNJ303-sensitive currents, respectively. Although cardiac differentiation efficiency was improved in hiPSCs of cardiac vs. non-cardiac origin, no major functional differences were observed between hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes of different somatic

  11. Proteomics-based network analysis characterizes biological processes and pathways activated by preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells in cardiac repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Silvestre, Dario; Brambilla, Francesca; Scardoni, Giovanni; Brunetti, Pietro; Motta, Sara; Matteucci, Marco; Laudanna, Carlo; Recchia, Fabio A; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Mauri, Pierluigi

    2017-05-01

    We have demonstrated that intramyocardial delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (MSCp + ) is more effective in preventing the decay of regional myocardial contractility in a swine model of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the understanding of the role of MSCp + in proteomic remodeling of cardiac infarcted tissue is not complete. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive analysis of the proteome of infarct remote (RZ) and border zone (BZ) of pigs treated with MSCp + or unconditioned stem cells. Heart tissues were analyzed by MudPIT and differentially expressed proteins were selected by a label-free approach based on spectral counting. Protein profiles were evaluated by using PPI networks and their topological analysis. The proteomic remodeling was largely prevented in MSCp + group. Extracellular proteins involved in fibrosis were down-regulated, while energetic pathways were globally up-regulated. Cardioprotectant pathways involved in the production of keto acid metabolites were also activated. Additionally, we found that new hub proteins support the cardioprotective phenotype characterizing the left ventricular BZ treated with MSCp + . In fact, the up-regulation of angiogenic proteins NCL and RAC1 can be explained by the increase of capillary density induced by MSCp + . Our results show that angiogenic pathways appear to be uniquely positioned to integrate signaling with energetic pathways involving cardiac repair. Our findings prompt the use of proteomics-based network analysis to optimize new approaches preventing the post-ischemic proteomic remodeling that may underlie the limited self-repair ability of adult heart. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility of late gadolinium enhancement in pediatric cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etesami, Maryam; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is increasingly used in the evaluation of pediatric cardiovascular disorders, and although LGE might be a normal feature at the sites of previous surgeries, it is pathologically seen as a result of extracellular space expansion, either from acute cell damage or chronic scarring or fibrosis. LGE is broadly divided into ischemic and non-ischemic patterns. LGE caused by myocardial infarction occurs in a vascular distribution and always involves the subendocardial portion, progressively involving the outer regions in a waveform pattern. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can have a mid-myocardial (either linear or patchy), subepicardial or diffuse subendocardial distribution. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can have a linear mid-myocardial pattern, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have fine, patchy enhancement in hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments as well as right ventricular insertion points. Myocarditis and sarcoidosis have a mid-myocardial or subepicardial pattern of LGE. Fabry disease typically affects the basal inferolateral segment while Danon disease typically spares the septum. Pericarditis is characterized by diffuse or focal pericardial thickening and enhancement. Thrombus, the most common non-neoplastic cardiac mass, is characterized by absence of enhancement in all sequences, while neoplastic masses show at least some contrast enhancement, depending on the pathology. Regardless of the etiology, presence of LGE is associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we describe the technical modifications required for performing LGE cardiac MR sequence in children, review and illustrate the patterns of LGE in children, and discuss their clinical significance. (orig.)

  13. Utility of late gadolinium enhancement in pediatric cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, Maryam; Gilkeson, Robert C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-07-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence is increasingly used in the evaluation of pediatric cardiovascular disorders, and although LGE might be a normal feature at the sites of previous surgeries, it is pathologically seen as a result of extracellular space expansion, either from acute cell damage or chronic scarring or fibrosis. LGE is broadly divided into ischemic and non-ischemic patterns. LGE caused by myocardial infarction occurs in a vascular distribution and always involves the subendocardial portion, progressively involving the outer regions in a waveform pattern. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathies can have a mid-myocardial (either linear or patchy), subepicardial or diffuse subendocardial distribution. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy can have a linear mid-myocardial pattern, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can have fine, patchy enhancement in hypertrophied and non-hypertrophied segments as well as right ventricular insertion points. Myocarditis and sarcoidosis have a mid-myocardial or subepicardial pattern of LGE. Fabry disease typically affects the basal inferolateral segment while Danon disease typically spares the septum. Pericarditis is characterized by diffuse or focal pericardial thickening and enhancement. Thrombus, the most common non-neoplastic cardiac mass, is characterized by absence of enhancement in all sequences, while neoplastic masses show at least some contrast enhancement, depending on the pathology. Regardless of the etiology, presence of LGE is associated with a poor prognosis. In this review, we describe the technical modifications required for performing LGE cardiac MR sequence in children, review and illustrate the patterns of LGE in children, and discuss their clinical significance.

  14. Small cardiac lesions: fibrosis of papillary muscles and focal cardiac myocytolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A [Hijiyanna Park, Hiroshima JP; Nakashima, N; Kawashima, T; Lee, K K; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Dock, D S

    1977-11-01

    Three types of small cardiac lesions were described and illustrated: (1) focal type of papillary muscle fibrosis, evidently a healed infarct of the papillary muscle present in 13% of the autopsies, is a histologically characteristic lesion associated with coronary artery disease and healed myocardial infarction; (2) diffuse type of papillary muscle fibrosis, probably an aging change present in almost half of the autopsies, is associated with sclerosis of the arteries in the papillary muscle, is identifiable histologically; and apparently is not associated with any cardiac abnormality; and (3) focal cardiac myocytolysis, a unique histologic lesion, usually multifocal without predilection for any area of the heart, is associated with ischemic heart disease, death due to cancer complicated by non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and microthrombi in small cardiac arteries as well as with other diseases. Differentiation of the 2 types of papillary muscle fibrosis is important in the study of papillary muscle and mitral valve dysfunction. Focal cardiac myocytolysis may contribute to the fatal extension of myocardial infarcts.

  15. Small cardiac lesions: fibrosis of papillary muscles and focal cardiac myocytolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A; Nakashima, T; Kawashima, T; Lee, K K; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Dock, D S

    1977-11-01

    Three types of small cardiac lesions were described and illustrated: (1) focal type of papillary muscle fibrosis, evidently a healed infarct of the papillary muscle present in 13% of the autopsies, is a histologically characteristic lesion associated with coronary artery disease and healed myocardial infarction, (2) diffuse type of papillary muscle fibrosis, probably an aging change present in almost half of the autopsies, is associated with sclerosis of the arteries in the papillary muscle, is identifiable histologically, and apparently is not associated with any cardiac abnormality, and (3) focal cardiac myochtolysis, a unique histologic lesion, usually multifocal without predilection for any area of the heart, is associated with ischemic heart disease, death due to cancer complicated by nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and microthrombi in small cardiac arteries as well as with other diseases. Differentiation of the 2 types of papillary muscle fibrosis is important in the study of papillary muscle and mitral valve dysfunction. Focal cardiac myocytolysis may contribute to the fatal extension of myocardial infarcts.

  16. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  17. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Yow Keat; Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    The onset of heart failure is typically preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, a response of the heart to increased workload, a cardiac insult such as a heart attack or genetic mutation. Cardiac hypertrophy is usually characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte size and thickening of ventricular walls. Initially, such growth is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, in settings of sustained stress and as time progresses, these changes become maladaptive and the heart ultimately fails. In this review, we discuss the key features of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and the numerous mediators that have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy affecting gene transcription, calcium handling, protein synthesis, metabolism, autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss new mediators including signaling proteins, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and new findings related to the role of calcineurin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. We also highlight mediators and processes which contribute to the transition from adaptive cardiac remodeling to maladaptive remodeling and heart failure. Treatment strategies for heart failure commonly include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β-blockers; however, mortality rates remain high. Here, we discuss new therapeutic approaches (e.g., RNA-based therapies, dietary supplementation, small molecules) either entering clinical trials or in preclinical development. Finally, we address the challenges that remain in translating these discoveries to new and approved therapies for heart failure.

  19. Matrix cross-linking lysyl oxidases are induced in response to myocardial infarction and promote cardiac dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Santamaría, José; Villalba, María; Busnadiego, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by extensive deposition of collagen and also by increased stiffness as a consequence of enhanced collagen cross-linking. Members of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of enzymes are responsible for the formation of collagen cross......-links. This study investigates the contribution of LOX family members to the heart response to MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Experimental MI was induced in C57BL/6 mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The expression of LOX isoforms (LOX and LOXL1-4) was strongly increased upon MI...... resulted in reduced ventricular dilatation and improved cardiac function. CONCLUSION: LOX family members contribute significantly to the detrimental effects of cardiac remodelling, highlighting LOX inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for post-infarction recovery....

  20. Cardiac angioscintigraphy in patients with arrhytmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Bontemps, L.; Philippe, L.; Casset-Senon, D.; Cosnay, P.; Fauchier, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The time course of ventricular activation can be characterized by the Fourier analysis of a dynamic series of cardiac images. Bi-ventricular activation mapping and quantitative phase histogram analysis may be useful for evaluation of patients with arrhythmias. Three clinical problems can benefit from the method: localization of the site of pre-excitation in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrom, assessment of an ectopic activation focus responsible for premature contraction in patients with ventricular tachycardia and diagnosis of an underlying organic disease when arrhytmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is suspected [fr

  1. Mediastinal involvement in adults with lymphoblastic lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.E.; Conroy, J.F.; Bonner, H.; Hahnemann Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA; Hahnemann Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA; Chester County Hospital, West Chester, PA

    1987-01-01

    Radiologic, clinical, and pathologic findings are described in 6 young adults with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), an aggressive tumor which has recently become recognized as a serious threat to adults as well as to children. Each patient presented with a mediastinal mass, three of them developing cardiac tamponade and one a superior vena cava syndrome. CT scanning and echocardiography were particularly helpful in defining the lesions. The rapid dissemination of LBL, and its early progression to a leukemic phase call for promt diagnosis and treatment. (orig.)

  2. A case of tuberculous pericardial effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjari K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis accounts for up to 4% of acute pericarditis and 7% cases of cardiac tamponade. Prompt treatment can be life saving but requires accurate diagnosis. We report a case of 30-year-old male who presented with fever, chills, and dry nonproductive cough since one month. The case was diagnosed by radiological findings, which were suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis, followed by acid fast staining and culture of the aspirated pericardial fluid. The patient was responding to antitubercular treatment at the last follow up.

  3. Mediastinal involvement in adults with lymphoblastic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, E.E.; Conroy, J.F.; Bonner, H.

    Radiologic, clinical, and pathologic findings are described in 6 young adults with lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL), an aggressive tumor which has recently become recognized as a serious threat to adults as well as to children. Each patient presented with a mediastinal mass, three of them developing cardiac tamponade and one a superior vena cava syndrome. CT scanning and echocardiography were particularly helpful in defining the lesions. The rapid dissemination of LBL, and its early progression to a leukemic phase call for promt diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Assessment of cardiac risk before non-cardiac surgery: brain natriuretic peptide in 1590 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernellis, J; Panaretou, M

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) for assessment of cardiac risk before non-cardiac surgery. Consecutively treated patients (947 men, 643 women) whose BNP was measured before non-cardiac surgery were studied. Clinical and ECG variables were evaluated to identify predictors of postoperative cardiac events. Events occurred in 6% of patients: 21 cardiac deaths, 20 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 41 episodes of pulmonary oedema and 14 patients with ventricular tachycardia. All of these patients had raised plasma BNP concentrations (best cut-off point 189 pg/ml). The only independent predictor of postoperative events was BNP (odds ratio 34.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.08 to 68.62, p 300 pg/ml); postoperative event rates were 0%, 5%, 12% and 81%, respectively. In this population of patients evaluated before non-cardiac surgery, BNP is an independent predictor of postoperative cardiac events. BNP > 189 pg/ml identified patients at highest risk.

  5. 123I-MIBG imaging detects cardiac involvement and predicts cardiac events in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Yoriko; Morita, Yukiko; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    In Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) it is important to detect cardiac involvement, which predicts poor prognosis. This study evaluated whether 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy could detect cardiac damage and predict cardiac events in CSS. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 28 patients with CSS, 12 of whom had cardiac involvement. The early and delayed heart to mediastinum ratio (early H/M and delayed H/M) and washout rate were calculated by using 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy and compared with those in control subjects. Early H/M and delayed H/M were significantly lower and the washout rate was significantly higher in patients with cardiac involvement than in those without and in controls (early H/M, p = 0.0024, p = 0.0001; delayed H/M, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0001; washout rate, p = 0.0012, p = 0.0052 vs those without and vs controls, respectively). Accuracy for detecting cardiac involvement was 86% for delayed H/M and washout rate and 79% for early H/M and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower cardiac event-free rates in patients with early H/M ≤ 2.18 and BNP > 21.8 pg/ml than those with early H/M > 2.18 and BNP ≤ 21.8 pg/ml (log-rank test p = 0.006). Cardiac sympathetic nerve function was damaged in CSS patients with cardiac involvement. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was useful in detecting cardiac involvement and in predicting cardiac events. (orig.)

  6. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level.

  7. CARDIAC LYMPHOMA IN DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a lymphoid tumor that originates in hematopoietic organs such as lymph node, spleen or liver. In dogs, the overall prevalence of cardiac tumors was estimated to be only 0.19% based on the results of the survey of a large database, and lymphomas accounts for approximately 2% of all cardiac tumors. In general, the involvement of the myocardium is rarely described in canine lymphoma. Currently, there is no evidence of a viral association with primary cardiac lymphoma in dogs, but other types of immunosuppression may contribute to abnormal events, such as involvement primary cardiac. The aim of this study was to analyze a case of sudden death of a bitch, SRD, aged 10, who had the final diagnosis of cardiac lymphoma.

  8. Cardiac cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzke, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This doctoral thesis addresses imaging of the heart with retrospectively gated helical cone-beam computed tomography (CT). A thorough review of the CT reconstruction literature is presented in combination with a historic overview of cardiac CT imaging and a brief introduction to other cardiac imaging modalities. The thesis includes a comprehensive chapter about the theory of CT reconstruction, familiarizing the reader with the problem of cone-beam reconstruction. The anatomic and dynamic properties of the heart are outlined and techniques to derive the gating information are reviewed. With the extended cardiac reconstruction (ECR) framework, a new approach is presented for the heart-rate-adaptive gated helical cardiac cone-beam CT reconstruction. Reconstruction assessment criteria such as the temporal resolution, the homogeneity in terms of the cardiac phase, and the smoothness at cycle-to-cycle transitions are developed. Several reconstruction optimization approaches are described: An approach for the heart-rate-adaptive optimization of the temporal resolution is presented. Streak artifacts at cycle-to-cycle transitions can be minimized by using an improved cardiac weighting scheme. The optimal quiescent cardiac phase for the reconstruction can be determined automatically with the motion map technique. Results for all optimization procedures applied to ECR are presented and discussed based on patient and phantom data. The ECR algorithm is analyzed for larger detector arrays of future cone-beam systems throughout an extensive simulation study based on a four-dimensional cardiac CT phantom. The results of the scientific work are summarized and an outlook proposing future directions is given. The presented thesis is available for public download at www.cardiac-ct.net

  9. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  10. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  11. Direct Cardiac Reprogramming: Advances in Cardiac Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is one of the lead causes of death worldwide. Many forms of heart disease, including myocardial infarction and pressure-loading cardiomyopathies, result in irreversible cardiomyocyte death. Activated fibroblasts respond to cardiac injury by forming scar tissue, but ultimately this response fails to restore cardiac function. Unfortunately, the human heart has little regenerative ability and long-term outcomes following acute coronary events often include chronic and end-stage heart failure. Building upon years of research aimed at restoring functional cardiomyocytes, recent advances have been made in the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts toward a cardiomyocyte cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. Several experiments show functional improvements in mouse models of myocardial infarction following in situ generation of cardiomyocyte-like cells from endogenous fibroblasts. Though many of these studies are in an early stage, this nascent technology holds promise for future applications in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the history, progress, methods, challenges, and future directions of direct cardiac reprogramming.

  12. A systemic evaluation of cardiac differentiation from mRNA reprogrammed human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mehta

    Full Text Available Genetically unmodified cardiomyocytes mandated for cardiac regenerative therapy is conceivable by "foot-print free" reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. In this study, we report generation of foot-print free hiPSC through messenger RNA (mRNA based reprograming. Subsequently, we characterize cardiomyocytes derived from these hiPSC using molecular and electrophysiological methods to characterize their applicability for regenerative medicine. Our results demonstrate that mRNA-iPSCs differentiate ontogenetically into cardiomyocytes with increased expression of early commitment markers of mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, followed by cardiac specific transcriptional and sarcomeric structural and ion channel genes. Furthermore, these cardiomyocytes stained positively for sarcomeric and ion channel proteins. Based on multi-electrode array (MEA recordings, these mRNA-hiPSC derived cardiomyocytes responded predictably to various pharmacologically active drugs that target adrenergic, sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The cardiomyocytes responded chronotropically to isoproterenol in a dose dependent manner, inotropic activity of nifidipine decreased spontaneous contractions. Moreover, Sotalol and E-4031 prolonged QT intervals, while TTX reduced sodium influx. Our results for the first time show a systemic evaluation based on molecular, structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes differentiated from mRNA-iPSC. These results, coupled with feasibility of generating patient-specific iPSCs hold great promise for the development of large-scale generation of clinical grade cardiomyocytes for cardiac regenerative medicine.

  13. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  14. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  15. ECG scaling properties of cardiac arrhythmias using detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, E; Echeverria, J C; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Lerma, C

    2008-01-01

    We applied detrended fluctuation analysis to characterize at very short time scales during episodes of cardiac arrhythmias the raw electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, aiming to get a global insight into its dynamical behaviour in patients who experienced sudden death. We found that in 15 recordings involving different types of arrhythmias (taken from PhysioNet's Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database), the ECG waveform, besides showing a less-random dynamics, becomes more regular during bigeminy, ventricular tachycardia or even atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation. The ECG waveform scaling properties thus suggest that reduced complexity dominates the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias. Among other explanations, this may result from shorted or restricted (i.e. less diverse) pathways of conduction of the electrical activity within ventricles

  16. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Petrashevskaya, Natalia; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2016-01-15

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/- mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2-4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6-14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS.

  17. Preoperative Anemia in Cardiac Operation: Does Hemoglobin Tell the Whole Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Mick, Stephanie L; McCrae, Keith R; Houghtaling, Penny L; Sabik, Joseph F; Blackstone, Eugene H; Koch, Colleen G

    2018-01-01

    Preoperative anemia, defined by hemoglobin level, is associated with elevated risk after cardiac operation. Better understanding of anemia requires characterization beyond this. This investigation focuses on red cell size and its association with patient characteristics and outcomes after cardiac operation. From January 2010 to January 2014, 10,589 patients underwent elective cardiac operations at Cleveland Clinic. Anemia was characterized as normocytic, microcytic, or macrocytic based on mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Models for hospital complications were developed using multivariable logistic regression. Other outcomes were postoperative transfusion and intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative hospital lengths of stay. A total of 2,715 patients (26%) were anemic. Of these, 2,365 (87%) had normocytic, 219 (8.1%) microcytic, and 131 (4.8%) macrocytic anemia. Non-anemic patients (n = 2,041, 26%) received transfusions compared with 1,553 (66%) normocytic, 148 (68%) microcytic, and 97 (74%) macrocytic anemia patients. Patients with normocytic or macrocytic anemia had more renal failure (normocytic: odds ratio (OR) 1.9, macrocytic: OR 3.5), other complications (normocytic: OR 1.3, macrocytic: OR 2.2) and death (normocytic: OR 2.0, macrocytic: OR 6.2) than non-anemic patients; patients with microcytic anemia had fewer reoperations (OR 0.35) and less postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR 0.50). Anemic patients experienced longer ICU (27 versus 48 hours, p < 0.001) and postoperative hospital (6.1 versus 7.4 days, p < 0.001) length of stay than non-anemic patients. Cardiac surgical patients are often anemic. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes are dissimilar according to red cell size. Patients with microcytic anemia had the lowest hemoglobin levels, yet the best clinical outcomes among anemic patients. MCV from the standard complete blood count adds additional information beyond hemoglobin for targeted intervention. Copyright © 2018 The Society

  18. Gene expression in cardiac tissues from infants with idiopathic conotruncal defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofland Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is the most commonly observed conotruncal congenital heart defect. Treatment of these patients has evolved dramatically in the last few decades, yet a genetic explanation is lacking for the failure of cardiac development for the majority of children with TOF. Our goal was to perform genome wide analyses and characterize expression patterns in cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with tetralogy of Fallot. Methods We employed genome wide gene expression microarrays to characterize cardiovascular tissue (right ventricle, pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery obtained at the time of reconstructive surgery from 19 children with TOF (16 idiopathic and three with 22q11.2 deletions and compared gene expression patterns to normally developing subjects. Results We detected a signal from approximately 26,000 probes reflecting expression from about half of all genes, ranging from 35% to 49% of array probes in the three tissues. More than 1,000 genes had a 2-fold change in expression in the right ventricle (RV of children with TOF as compared to the RV from matched control infants. Most of these genes were involved in compensatory functions (e.g., hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dilation. However, two canonical pathways involved in spatial and temporal cell differentiation (WNT, p = 0.017 and Notch, p = 0.003 appeared to be generally suppressed. Conclusions The suppression of developmental networks may represent a remnant of a broad malfunction of regulatory pathways leading to inaccurate boundary formation and improper structural development in the embryonic heart. We suggest that small tissue specific genomic and/or epigenetic fluctuations could be cumulative, leading to regulatory network disruption and failure of proper cardiac development.

  19. Cardiac tumours: non invasive detection and assessment by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, D.; Wainwright, R.; Brennand-Roper, D.; Deverall, P.; Sowton, E.; Maisey, M.

    1980-01-01

    Four patients with cardiac tumours were investigated by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging and echocardiography. Contrast angiocardiography was performed in three of the cases. Two left atrial tumours were detected by all three techniques. In one of these cases echocardiography alone showed additional mitral valve stenosis, but isotope imaging indicated tumour size more accurately. A large septal mass was detected by all three methods. In this patient echocardiography showed evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction, confirmed at cardiac catheterisation, but gated isotope imaging provided a more detailed assessment of the abnormal cardiac anatomy. In the fourth case gated isotope imaging detected a large right ventricular tumour which had not been identified by echocardiography. Gated cardiac blood pool isotope imaging is a complementary technique to echocardiography for the non-invasive detection and assessment of cardiac tumours. (author)

  20. Shock progression and survival after use of a condom uterine balloon tamponade package in women with uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Thomas F; Danso-Bamfo, Sandra; Guha, Moytrayee; Oguttu, Monica; Tarimo, Vincent; Nelson, Brett D

    2017-10-01

    To examine the outcomes of women in advanced shock from uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) who underwent placement of an Every Second Matters for Mothers and Babies Uterine Balloon Tamponade (ESM-UBT) device. In a prospective case series, data were collected for women who received an ESM-UBT device at healthcare facilities in Kenya, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania between September 1, 2012, and September 30, 2016. Shock class was assigned on the basis of recorded blood pressures and mental status at the time of UBT placement. Data for 306 women with uncontrolled PPH from uterine atony across 117 facilities were analyzed. Normal vital signs or class I/II shock were reported for 166 (54.2%). In this group, one death occurred and was attributed to PPH (survival rate 99.4%). There were no cases of shock progression. One hundred and eleven (36.3%) were in class III shock and 29 (9.5%) in class IV shock; the respective survival rates were 97.3% (n=108) and 86.2% (n=25). The ESM-UBT device arrests hemorrhage, prevents shock progression, and is associated with high survival rates among women with uncontrolled PPH from uterine atony. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Guadall, Anna; Orriols, Mar; Navas, Miquel; Aguiló, Silvia; de Diego, Alicia; Navarro, María A; García-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls matrix remodeling, a key process that underlies cardiovascular diseases and heart failure; however, a lack of suitable animal models has limited our knowledge with regard to the contribution of LOX to cardiac dysfunction. Here, we assessed the impact of LOX overexpression on ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in a transgenic LOX (TgLOX) mouse model with a strong cardiac expression of human LOX. TgLOX mice exhibited high expression of the transgene in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts, which are associated with enhanced LOX activity and H 2 O 2 production and with cardiofibroblast reprogramming. LOX overexpression promoted an age-associated concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and impaired diastolic function. Furthermore, LOX transgenesis aggravated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which triggered a greater fibrotic response that was characterized by stronger collagen deposition and cross-linking and high expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, LOX transgenesis increased the Ang II-induced myocardial inflammatory infiltrate, exacerbated expression of proinflammatory markers, and decreased that of cardioprotective factors. Mechanistically, LOX overexpression enhanced oxidative stress and potentiated the Ang II-mediated cardiac activation of p38 MAPK while reducing AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that LOX induces an age-dependent disturbance of diastolic function and aggravates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, which provides novel insights into the role of LOX in cardiac performance.-Galán, M., Varona, S., Guadall, A., Orriols, M., Navas, M., Aguiló, S., de Diego, A., Navarro, M. A., García-Dorado, D., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Martínez-González, J., Rodriguez, C. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. © FASEB.

  2. Pregnancy as a cardiac stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs during pregnancy as a consequence of both volume overload and hormonal changes. Both pregnancy- and exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy are generally thought to be similar and physiological. Despite the fact that there are shared transcriptional responses in both forms of cardiac adaptation, pregnancy results in a distinct signature of gene expression in the heart. In some cases, however, pregnancy can induce adverse cardiac events in previously healthy women without any known cardiovascular disease. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of non-obstetric mortality during pregnancy. To understand how pregnancy can cause heart disease, it is first important to understand cardiac adaptation during normal pregnancy. This review provides an overview of the cardiac consequences of pregnancy, including haemodynamic, functional, structural, and morphological adaptations, as well as molecular phenotypes. In addition, this review describes the signalling pathways responsible for pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis. We also compare and contrast cardiac adaptation in response to disease, exercise, and pregnancy. The comparisons of these settings of cardiac hypertrophy provide insight into pregnancy-associated cardiac adaptation. PMID:24448313

  3. Human technology after cardiac epigenesis. Artificial heart versus cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losman, J G

    1977-09-24

    Cardiovascular disease is the chief cause of death in technologically advanced countries and accounts for more than 50% of all deaths in the USA. For a patient with end-stage cardiac failure the only treatment presently available is organ replacement, either by transplantation or by the use of a mechanical heart. Transplantation has demonstrated its value: survival of more than 8 years and restoration of a normal quality of life to patients who were in end-stage cardiac decompensation. However, the prospect of routine clinical application of an artificial heart remains distant. The development of a totally implantable artificial heart still presents a series of challenging engineering problems with regard to strict constraints of size, weight, blood-material compatibility, adaptability of output to demand, efficiency and reliability of the power supply, and safety if nuclear fuel is used. The totally artificial heart is presently not an alternative to the cardiac allograft, but could provide short-term support for patients awaiting cardiac transplantation.

  4. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  5. Longstanding Hyperthyroidism Is Associated with Normal or Enhanced Intrinsic Cardiomyocyte Function despite Decline in Global Cardiac Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redetzke, Rebecca A.; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV) contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH). LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function. PMID:23056390

  6. Longstanding hyperthyroidism is associated with normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function despite decline in global cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Y Weltman

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH. LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function.

  7. Coffin-Siris syndrome and cardiac anomaly with a novel SOX11 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Ehara, Eiji; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2017-08-08

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is characterized by growth deficiency, intellectual disability, microcephaly, dysmorphic features, and hypoplastic nails of the fifth fingers and/or toes. Variants in the genes encoding subunits of the BAF complex as well as in SOX11 encoding the transcriptional factor under the control of BAF complex are associated with CSS. We report a new patient with a novel SOX11 mutation. He showed the CSS phenotype and coarctation of the aorta. Sox11 is known to be associated with cardiac outflow development in mouse studies. Therefore, cardiac anomalies might be an important complication in patients with SOX11 mutations. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  8. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Genetic Dissection of Cardiac Remodeling in an Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jen-Chu Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to understand the genetic control of cardiac remodeling using an isoproterenol-induced heart failure model in mice, which allowed control of confounding factors in an experimental setting. We characterized the changes in cardiac structure and function in response to chronic isoproterenol infusion using echocardiography in a panel of 104 inbred mouse strains. We showed that cardiac structure and function, whether under normal or stress conditions, has a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates of left ventricular mass between 61% and 81%. Association analyses of cardiac remodeling traits, corrected for population structure, body size and heart rate, revealed 17 genome-wide significant loci, including several loci containing previously implicated genes. Cardiac tissue gene expression profiling, expression quantitative trait loci, expression-phenotype correlation, and coding sequence variation analyses were performed to prioritize candidate genes and to generate hypotheses for downstream mechanistic studies. Using this approach, we have validated a novel gene, Myh14, as a negative regulator of ISO-induced left ventricular mass hypertrophy in an in vivo mouse model and demonstrated the up-regulation of immediate early gene Myc, fetal gene Nppb, and fibrosis gene Lgals3 in ISO-treated Myh14 deficient hearts compared to controls.

  10. Integrating light-sheet imaging with virtual reality to recapitulate developmental cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichen; Abiri, Arash; Abiri, Parinaz; Li, Shuoran; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Baek, Kyung In; Hsu, Jeffrey J; Sideris, Elias; Li, Yilei; Lee, Juhyun; Segura, Tatiana; Nguyen, Thao P; Bui, Alexander; Sevag Packard, René R; Fei, Peng; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2017-11-16

    Currently, there is a limited ability to interactively study developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology. We therefore combined light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) with virtual reality (VR) to provide a hybrid platform for 3D architecture and time-dependent cardiac contractile function characterization. By taking advantage of the rapid acquisition, high axial resolution, low phototoxicity, and high fidelity in 3D and 4D (3D spatial + 1D time or spectra), this VR-LSFM hybrid methodology enables interactive visualization and quantification otherwise not available by conventional methods, such as routine optical microscopes. We hereby demonstrate multiscale applicability of VR-LSFM to (a) interrogate skin fibroblasts interacting with a hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel, (b) navigate through the endocardial trabecular network during zebrafish development, and (c) localize gene therapy-mediated potassium channel expression in adult murine hearts. We further combined our batch intensity normalized segmentation algorithm with deformable image registration to interface a VR environment with imaging computation for the analysis of cardiac contraction. Thus, the VR-LSFM hybrid platform demonstrates an efficient and robust framework for creating a user-directed microenvironment in which we uncovered developmental cardiac mechanics and physiology with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  11. Development of ocular hypertension secondary to tamponade with light versus heavy silicone oil: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Romano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponades used in the treatment of retinal detachment (RD have been associated with a difference ocular hypertension (OH rate. To clarify, if this complication was associated to use of standard SO (SSO versus heavy SO (HSO, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative study between two kind of SO (standard or light vs. heavy for the treatment of RD and macular hole, without restriction to study design. Materials and Methods: The methodological quality of two randomized clinical trials (RCTs were evaluated using the criteria given in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention, while three non-RCTs were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. The primary outcome was the rate of patients with OH treated with SSO compared to HSO. Results: There were a higher number of rates of OH in HSO compared to SSO. This difference was statistically significant with the fixed effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.28; P = 0.02 while there was not significative difference with the random effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.51; 95% CI, 0.98-2.33; P = 0.06. Conclusion: We noted a trend that points out a higher OH rate in HSO group compared to SSO, but this finding, due to the small size and variable design of studies, needs to be confirmed in well-designed and large size RCTs.

  12. Milrinone ameliorates cardiac mechanical dysfunction after hypothermia in an intact rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrichs, Erik Sveberg; Kondratiev, Timofei; Tveita, Torkjel

    2014-12-01

    Rewarming from hypothermia is often complicated by cardiac dysfunction, characterized by substantial reduction in stroke volume. Previously we have reported that inotropic agents, working via cardiac β-receptor agonism may exert serious side effects when applied to treat cardiac contractile dysfunction during rewarming. In this study we tested whether Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, is able to ameliorate such dysfunction when given during rewarming. A rat model designed for circulatory studies during experimental hypothermia with cooling to a core temperature of 15°C, stable hypothermia at this temperature for 3h and subsequent rewarming was used, with a total of 3 groups: (1) a normothermic group receiving Milrinone, (2) a hypothermic group receiving Milrinone the last hour of hypothermia and during rewarming, and (3) a hypothermic saline control group. Hemodynamic function was monitored using a conductance catheter introduced to the left ventricle. After rewarming from 15°C, stroke volume and cardiac output returned to within baseline values in Milrinone treated animals, while these variables were significantly reduced in saline controls. Milrinone ameliorated cardiac dysfunction during rewarming from 15°C. The present results suggest that at low core temperatures and during rewarming from such temperatures, pharmacologic efforts to support cardiovascular function is better achieved by substances preventing cyclic AMP breakdown rather than increasing its formation via β-receptor stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Vhl gene inactivation induces cardiac HIF-dependent erythropoietin gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Miró-Murillo

    Full Text Available Von Hippel Lindau (Vhl gene inactivation results in embryonic lethality. The consequences of its inactivation in adult mice, and of the ensuing activation of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs, have been explored mainly in a tissue-specific manner. This mid-gestation lethality can be also circumvented by using a floxed Vhl allele in combination with an ubiquitous tamoxifen-inducible recombinase Cre-ER(T2. Here, we characterize a widespread reduction in Vhl gene expression in Vhl(floxed-UBC-Cre-ER(T2 adult mice after dietary tamoxifen administration, a convenient route of administration that has yet to be fully characterized for global gene inactivation. Vhl gene inactivation rapidly resulted in a marked splenomegaly and skin erythema, accompanied by renal and hepatic induction of the erythropoietin (Epo gene, indicative of the in vivo activation of the oxygen sensing HIF pathway. We show that acute Vhl gene inactivation also induced Epo gene expression in the heart, revealing cardiac tissue to be an extra-renal source of EPO. Indeed, primary cardiomyocytes and HL-1 cardiac cells both induce Epo gene expression when exposed to low O(2 tension in a HIF-dependent manner. Thus, as well as demonstrating the potential of dietary tamoxifen administration for gene inactivation studies in UBC-Cre-ER(T2 mouse lines, this data provides evidence of a cardiac oxygen-sensing VHL/HIF/EPO pathway in adult mice.

  14. Cardiac CT and cardiac MRI - competitive or complementary for nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshage, W.

    2004-01-01

    In summary, cardiac computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) are two different technologies with distinct imaging properties that gain increasing importance in clinical cardiology. Even though images may look similar, the areas of application of CT and MR are quite different. Clinical applications of cardiac CT focus on on-invasive imaging of the coronary arteries. In this respect, the higher spatial resolution of cardiac CT constitutes a significant advantage as compared to MR and clinical results are superior. Clinical applications of cardiac MR, next to morphologic imaging of the heart, are most frequently found in the context of intra-and pericardial masses, complex congenital anomalies, and the assessment of left ventricular function (dobutamine) and perfusion (adenosine) under stress. The evaluation of the size and localization of myocardial necrosis, scars, and fibrosis gains increasing importance, for example in the workup of myocardial infarction, but also myocarditis and cardiomyopathies. In this respect, magnetic resonance imaging partly constitutes an alternative to nuclear medicine methods. Due to the lack of ionizing radiation and a relatively high spatial resolution, an increase of MR diagnostic procedures at the expense of nuclear medicine can be expected. (orig.)

  15. Medulla oblongata damage and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatigorskaya, Nadya; Mongin, Marie; Valabregue, Romain; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Ewenczyk, Claire; Poupon, Cyril; Debellemaniere, Eden; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stephane

    2016-12-13

    To characterize medulla oblongata damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in Parkinson disease (PD) and correlate it with dysfunction of the cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance. Fifty-two patients with PD and 24 healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical examination and 3T MRI using 3D T1-weighted imaging and DTI. DTI metrics were calculated within manually drawn regions of interest. Heart rate variability was evaluated using spectral analysis of the R-R cardiac interval during REM and slow-wave sleep based on continuous overnight electrocardiographic monitoring. Respiratory frequency was measured in 30-second contiguous epochs of REM and slow-wave sleep. The relationships between imaging and cardiac variables were calculated using partial correlations followed by the multiple comparisons permutation approach. The changes in heart rate and respiratory frequency variability from slow-wave sleep to REM sleep in healthy controls were no longer detectable in patients with PD. There were significant increases in the mean (p = 0.006), axial (p = 0.006), and radial diffusivities (p = 0.005) in the medulla oblongata of patients with PD. In PD, diffusion changes were specifically correlated with a lower heart rate and respiratory frequency variability during REM sleep. This study provides evidence that medulla oblongata damage underlies cardiac sympathetic/vagal balance and respiratory dysfunction in patients with PD. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Relationship between cardiac output and effective renal plasma flow in patients with cardiac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGriffin, D; Tauxe, W N; Lewis, C; Karp, R; Mantle, J

    1984-12-01

    The relationship between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and cardiac output was examined in 46 patients (22 with congestive heart failure and 24 following cardiac surgical procedures) by simultaneously measuring the global ERPF by the single-injection method and cardiac output by the thermodilution method. Of the patients in the heart-failure group, 21 also had pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure (PAEDP) recorded at the same time. ERPF and cardiac output were found to be related by the regression equations: cardiac output = 2.08 + 0.0065 ERPF (r, 080), with a SE of estimate of 0.81 l/min. ERPF and PAEDP were related by the regression equation: PAEDP = 42.02 - 0.0675 ERPF (r, 0.86), with a SE of estimate of 5.5 mm Hg. ERPF may be a useful noninvasive method of estimating cardiac output if it is known that no intrinsic kidney disease is present, and if the error of 0.81 l/min (1 SE of estimate) is within the range of clinical usefulness. The error is principally attributable to the determination of cardiac output by the thermodilution method.

  17. Post-cardiac injury syndrome: an atypical case following percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiardi, Silvia; Cannata, Francesco; Ciccarelli, Michele; Voza, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Post-cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) is a syndrome characterized by pericardial and/or pleural effusion, triggered by a cardiac injury, usually a myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery, rarely a minor cardiovascular percutaneous procedure. Nowadays, the post-cardiac injury syndrome, is regaining importance and interest as an emerging cause of pericarditis, especially in developed countries, due to a great and continuous increase in the number and complexity of percutaneous cardiologic procedures. The etiopathogenesis seems mediated by the immunitary system producing immune complexes, which deposit in the pericardium and pleura and trigger an inflammatory response. We present the atypical case of a 76-year-old man presenting with a hydro-pneumothorax, low-grade fever and elevated inflammation markers, after two complex percutaneous coronary interventions, executed 30 and 75 days prior. The clinical features of our case are consistent with the diagnostic criteria of PCIS: prior injury of the pericardium and/or myocardium, fever, leucocytosis, elevated inflammatory markers, remarkable steroid responsiveness and latency period. Only one element does not fit with this diagnosis and does not find any further explanation: the air accompanying the pleural effusion, determining a hydro-pneumothorax and requiring a pleural drainage catheter positioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid options for treating cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Zhao, David X; Gallion, Anna H; Mishra, Prabodh C; Byrne, John G

    2011-01-01

    The options for treating heart disease have greatly expanded during the course of the last 2 1/2 decades with the advent of hybrid technology. The hybrid option for treating cardiac disease implies using the technology of both interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery to treat cardiac disease. This rapidly developing technology has given rise to new and creative techniques to treat cardiac disease involving coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease and cardiac valve disease, and atrial fibrillation. It has also led to the establishment of new procedural suites called hybrid operating rooms that facilitate the integration of technologies of interventional cardiology catheterization laboratories with those of cardiac surgery operating rooms. The development of hybrid options for treating cardiac disease has also greatly augmented teamwork and collaboration between interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  1. Subacute right ventricle perforation by pacemaker lead presenting with left hemothorax and shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Julianne; Berger, Natalie; Joseph, Praveen; Datta, Debapriya

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac perforation by pacemaker is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Acute perforations occurring within twenty-four hours of insertion of pacemaker can lead to hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, and death. Hemothorax occurring as an acute complication of pacemaker insertion is reported but extremely rare. Previously, hemothorax and shock as a subacute complication following pacemaker insertion have not been reported. We report the case of an 85-year-old patient who presented with shock from hemothorax caused by pacemaker perforation, two weeks after insertion. Device interrogation showed normal function. Chest X-ray and echocardiogram missed lead dislocation and the diagnosis was made on computed tomogram (CT) of the chest. Following surgical repair, a new ventricular pacemaker was placed transvenously in the right ventricular septum. This case illustrates that CT scan of the chest should be performed in all patients in whom cardiac perforation by pacemaker is suspected but not diagnosed on chest X-ray and echocardiogram. Normal functioning of pacemaker on device interrogation does not exclude perforation.

  2. Surgical repair of right atrial wall rupture after blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Reardon, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Right atrial wall rupture after blunt chest trauma is a catastrophic event associated with high mortality rates. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was ejected 40 feet during a motor vehicle accident. Upon presentation, she was awake and alert, with a systolic blood pressure of 100 mmHg. Chest computed tomography disclosed a large pericardial effusion; transthoracic echocardiography confirmed this finding and also found right ventricular diastolic collapse. A diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with probable cardiac injury was made; the patient was taken to the operating room, where median sternotomy revealed a 1-cm laceration of the right atrial appendage. This lesion was directly repaired with 4-0 polypropylene suture. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she continued to recover from injuries to the musculoskeletal system. This case highlights the need for a high degree of suspicion of cardiac injuries after blunt chest trauma. An algorithm is proposed for rapid recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions.

  3. Atypical presentation and transabdominal treatment of chylothorax complicating esophagectomy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rottoli Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chylotorax is a relatively uncommon and difficult to treat complication after esophagectomy for cancer. We report a case of a young adult male who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiationtherapy followed by Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for a squamous-cell carcinoma of the distal esophagus. During the postoperative course the patient presented recurrent episodes of hemodynamic instability mimicking cardiac tamponade, secondary to compression of the left pulmonary vein and the left atrium by a mediastinal chylocele. Mediastinal drainage and ligation of the cisterna chyli and the thoracic duct was successfully performed through a transhiatal approach.

  4. Untying the Gordian knot of pericardial diseases: A pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lazaros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pericardial disorders constitute a relatively common cause of heart disease. Although acute pericarditis, especially the idiopathic forms that are the most prevalent, is considered a benign disease overall, its short- and long-term complications, namely, recurrent pericarditis, cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis, constitute a matter of concern in the medical community. In recent years, several clinical trials contributed to redefining our traditional approach to pericardial diseases. In this review, we provide the most recent evidence concerning diagnosis, treatment modalities and short- and long-term prognosis of the most common pericardial disorders.

  5. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  6. Emergency Anaesthetic Management of Extensive Thoracic Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Chandola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed vehicles, drug abuse, alcohol and easy availability of handguns are the main reasons of increasing number of trauma especially thoracic trauma. Anaesthesiologist plays an important role in the management of extensive thoracic trauma. Thoracic trauma, penetrating or blunt, may cause damage to organs suspended in thorax viz. pleura, lungs, heart, great vessels, trachea and oesophagus. It may lead to pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade or life threatening haemorrhage. With aggressive care and management of these factors, majority of patients can survive and return to normal life.

  7. CT imaging of complications of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shroff, G.S.; Guirguis, M.S.; Ferguson, E.C.; Oldham, S.A.A.; Kantharia, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    The complication rate following radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation is low (<5%). Complications include pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, pulmonary vein stenosis, oesophageal ulceration or perforation, atrio-oesophageal fistula formation, stroke/transient ischaemic attack, phrenic nerve injury, haematoma at the puncture site, and femoral arteriovenous fistula. Among available imaging tools, computed tomography (CT) can be very useful in diagnosing complications of the procedure, particularly in the subacute and delayed stages after ablation. This review illustrates CT imaging of several of the common and uncommon complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation

  8. Cardiac function in acute hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghue, K.; Hales, I.; Allwright, S.; Cooper, R.; Edwards, A.; Grant, S.; Morrow, A.; Wilmshurst, E.; Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that chronic hypothyroidism may affect cardiac function by several mechanisms. It is not known how long the patient has to be hypothyroid for cardiac involvement to develop. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a short period of hypothyroidism (10 days) on cardiac function. Nine patients who had had total tyroidectomy, had received ablative radioiodine for thyroid cancer and were euthyroid on replacement therapy were studied while both euthyroid and hypothyroid. Cardiac assessment was performed by X-ray, ECG, echocardiography and gated blood-pool scans. After 10 days of hypothyroidisms, the left-ventricular ejection fraction failed to rise after exercise in 4 of the 9 patients studied, which was significant (P<0.002). No significant changes in cardiac size or function at rest were detected. This functional abnormality in the absence of any demonstrable change in cardiac size and the absence of pericardial effussion with normal basal function suggest that short periods of hypothyroidism may reduce cardiac reserve, mostly because of alterations in metabolic function. (orig.)

  9. Nitrates for the prevention of cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Jin; Singh, Balwinder; Yu, Xuerong; Wu, Taixiang; Huang, Yuguang

    2016-08-04

    Cardiac complications are not uncommon in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or at high risk of CAD. Perioperative cardiac complications can lead to mortality and morbidity, as well as higher costs for patient care. Nitrates, which are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs, perform the function of decreasing cardiac preload while improving cardiac blood perfusion. Sometimes, nitrates are administered to patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery to reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, especially for patients with CAD. However, their effects on patients' relevant outcomes remain controversial. • To assess effects of nitrates as compared with other interventions or placebo in reducing cardiac risk (such as death caused by cardiac factors, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.• To identify the influence of different routes and dosages of nitrates on patient outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese BioMedical Database until June 2014. We also searched relevant conference abstracts of important anaesthesiology or cardiology scientific meetings, the database of ongoing trials and Google Scholar.We reran the search in January 2016. We added three potential new studies of interest to the list of 'Studies awaiting classification' and will incorporate them into our formal review findings for the review update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nitrates versus no treatment, placebo or other pharmacological interventions in participants (15 years of age and older) undergoing non-cardiac surgery under any type of anaesthesia. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Two review authors selected trials, extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. We

  10. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David E; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop; Sussman, Mark A

    2018-06-22

    Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathological injury remain unresolved because of varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. The main objectives of this study are as follows: demonstrating c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells; advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models; and providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein; H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline-inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than that from our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart

  11. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  12. {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging detects cardiac involvement and predicts cardiac events in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Yoriko; Morita, Yukiko [National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan); Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Akiyama, Kazuo [National Hospital Organization Sagamihara National Hospital, Clinical Research Centre for Allergy and Rheumatology, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    In Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) it is important to detect cardiac involvement, which predicts poor prognosis. This study evaluated whether {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy could detect cardiac damage and predict cardiac events in CSS. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 28 patients with CSS, 12 of whom had cardiac involvement. The early and delayed heart to mediastinum ratio (early H/M and delayed H/M) and washout rate were calculated by using {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy and compared with those in control subjects. Early H/M and delayed H/M were significantly lower and the washout rate was significantly higher in patients with cardiac involvement than in those without and in controls (early H/M, p = 0.0024, p = 0.0001; delayed H/M, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0001; washout rate, p = 0.0012, p = 0.0052 vs those without and vs controls, respectively). Accuracy for detecting cardiac involvement was 86% for delayed H/M and washout rate and 79% for early H/M and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower cardiac event-free rates in patients with early H/M {<=} 2.18 and BNP > 21.8 pg/ml than those with early H/M > 2.18 and BNP {<=} 21.8 pg/ml (log-rank test p = 0.006). Cardiac sympathetic nerve function was damaged in CSS patients with cardiac involvement. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was useful in detecting cardiac involvement and in predicting cardiac events. (orig.)

  13. Cardiac carcinoid: tricuspid delayed hyperenhancement on cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT and magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martos, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare condition in adults. Its diagnosis can be easily missed in a patient presenting to a primary care setting. We revised the advantages of using coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid heart disease and right heart failure using transthoracic Doppler-echocardiogram, cardiac MDCT and MRI. Cardiac echocardiogram revealed marked thickening and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with dilated right atrium and ventricle. Cardiac MDCT and MRI demonstrated fixation and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with delayed contrast hyperenhancement of the tricuspid annulus. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates fascinating imaging findings of cardiac carcinoid disease and highlights the increasing utility of contrast-enhanced MRI and cardiac MDCT in the diagnosis of this interesting condition.

  14. UCP3 Ablation Exacerbates High-Salt Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Lang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive salt intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH are both critical for the development of hypertension and heart failure. The uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 plays a cardio-protective role in early heart failure development. However, the potential role for UCP3 in salt intake and LVH is unclear. Methods: UCP3-/- and C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal-salt (NS, 0.5% or a high-salt (HS, 8% diet for 24 weeks. The cardiac function, endurance capacity, energy expenditure, and mitochondrial functional capacity were measured in each group. Results: Elevated blood pressure was only observed in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. High salt induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction were observed in both C57BL/6 and UCP3-/- mice. However, the cardiac lesions were more profound in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. Furthermore, HS-fed UCP3-/-mice experienced more severe mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction compared with HS-fed C57BL/6 mice, represented by the decreased volume of oxygen consumption and heat production at the whole-body level. Conclusion: UCP3 protein was involved in the incidence of high-salt induced hypertension and the progression of cardiac dysfunction in the early stages of heart failure. UCP3 ablation exacerbated high-salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Cardiac retransplantation is an efficacious therapy for primary cardiac allograft failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acker Michael A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although orthotopic heart transplantation has been an effective treatment for end-stage heart failure, the incidence of allograft failure has increased, necessitating treatment options. Cardiac retransplantation remains the only viable long-term solution for end-stage cardiac allograft failure. Given the limited number of available donor hearts, the long term results of this treatment option need to be evaluated. Methods 709 heart transplants were performed over a 20 year period at our institution. Repeat cardiac transplantation was performed in 15 patients (2.1%. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of cardiac retransplantation. Variables investigated included: 1 yr and 5 yr survival, length of hospitalization, post-operative complications, allograft failure, recipient and donor demographics, renal function, allograft ischemic time, UNOS listing status, blood group, allograft rejection, and hemodynamic function. Results Etiology of primary graft failure included transplant arteriopathy (n = 10, acute rejection (n = 3, hyperacute rejection (n = 1, and a post-transplant diagnosis of metastatic melanoma in the donor (n = 1. Mean age at retransplantation was 45.5 ± 9.7 years. 1 and 5 year survival for retransplantation were 86.6% and 71.4% respectively, as compared to 90.9% and 79.1% for primary transplantation. Mean ejection fraction was 67.3 ± 12.2% at a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.5 mos post-retransplant; follow-up biopsy demonstrated either ISHLT grade 1A or 0 rejection (77.5 ± 95.7 mos post-transplant. Conclusion Cardiac retransplantation is an efficacious treatment strategy for cardiac allograft failure.

  16. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  17. Reactivation of the Nkx2.5 cardiac enhancer after myocardial infarction does not presage myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Marcus-André; Doppler, Stefanie A; Li, Xinghai; Lahm, Harald; Santamaria, Gianluca; Cuda, Giovanni; Eichhorn, Stefan; Ratschiller, Thomas; Dzilic, Elda; Dreßen, Martina; Eckart, Annekathrin; Stark, Konstantin; Massberg, Steffen; Bartels, Anna; Rischpler, Christoph; Gilsbach, Ralf; Hein, Lutz; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Wu, Sean M; Lange, Rüdiger; Krane, Markus

    2018-03-20

    The contribution of resident stem or progenitor cells to cardiomyocyte renewal after injury in adult mammalian hearts remains a matter of considerable debate. We evaluated a cell population in the adult mouse heart induced by myocardial infarction (MI) and characterized by an activated Nkx2.5 enhancer element that is specific for multipotent cardiac progenitor cells during embryonic development. We hypothesized that these MI induced cells (MICs) harbor cardiomyogenic properties similar to their embryonic counterparts. MICs reside in the heart and mainly localize to the infarction area and border zone. Interestingly, gene expression profiling of purified MICs one week after infarction revealed increased expression of stem cell markers and embryonic cardiac transcription factors in these cells as compared to the non-mycoyte cell fraction of adult hearts. A subsequent global transcriptome comparison with embryonic cardiac progenitor cells and fibroblasts and in vitro culture of MICs unveiled that (myo-) fibroblastic features predominated and that cardiac transcription factors were only expressed at background levels. Adult injury induced reactivation of a cardiac-specific Nkx2.5 enhancer element known to specifically mark myocardial progenitor cells during embryonic development does not reflect hypothesized embryonic cardiomyogenic properties. Our data suggest a decreasing plasticity of cardiac progenitor (-like) cell populations with increasing age. A re-expression of embryonic, stem or progenitor cell features in the adult heart must be interpreted very carefully with respect to the definition of cardiac resident progenitor cells. Albeit, the abundance of scar formation after cardiac injury suggests a potential to target predestinated activated profibrotic cells to push them towards cardiomyogenic differentiation to improve regeneration.

  18. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  19. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  20. Optimal Technique in Cardiac Anesthesia Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Svircevic, V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate fast-track cardiac anesthesia techniques and investigate their impact on postoperative mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The following topics will be discussed in the thesis. (1.) Is fast track cardiac anesthesia a safe technique for cardiac surgery? (2.) Does thoracic epidural anesthesia have an effect on mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery? (3.) Does thoracic epidural anesthesia have an effect on quality of life after cardiac surgery? ...

  1. Optimal algorithm switching for the estimation of systole period from cardiac microacceleration signals (SonR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgis, L; Frogerais, P; Amblard, A; Donal, E; Mabo, P; Senhadji, L; Hernández, A I

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that cardiac microacceleration signals, recorded either cutaneously, or embedded into the tip of an endocardial pacing lead, provide meaningful information to characterize the cardiac mechanical function. This information may be useful to personalize and optimize the cardiac resynchronization therapy, delivered by a biventricular pacemaker, for patients suffering from chronic heart failure (HF). This paper focuses on the improvement of a previously proposed method for the estimation of the systole period from a signal acquired with a cardiac microaccelerometer (SonR sensor, Sorin CRM SAS, France). We propose an optimal algorithm switching approach, to dynamically select the best configuration of the estimation method, as a function of different control variables, such as the signal-to-noise ratio or heart rate. This method was evaluated on a database containing recordings from 31 patients suffering from chronic HF and implanted with a biventricular pacemaker, for which various cardiac pacing configurations were tested. Ultrasound measurements of the systole period were used as a reference and the improved method was compared with the original estimator. A reduction of 11% on the absolute estimation error was obtained for the systole period with the proposed algorithm switching approach.

  2. Mechanisms underlying the cardiac pacemaker: the role of SK4 calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, David; Khun, Shiraz Haron; Bueno, Hanna; Peretz, Asher; Attali, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The proper expression and function of the cardiac pacemaker is a critical feature of heart physiology. The sinoatrial node (SAN) in human right atrium generates an electrical stimulation approximately 70 times per minute, which propagates from a conductive network to the myocardium leading to chamber contractions during the systoles. Although the SAN and other nodal conductive structures were identified more than a century ago, the mechanisms involved in the generation of cardiac automaticity remain highly debated. In this short review, we survey the current data related to the development of the human cardiac conduction system and the various mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie the pacemaker activity. We also present the human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte system, which is used as a model for studying the pacemaker. Finally, we describe our latest characterization of the previously unrecognized role of the SK4 Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel conductance in pacemaker cells. By exquisitely balancing the inward currents during the diastolic depolarization, the SK4 channels appear to play a crucial role in human cardiac automaticity.

  3. Effect of Low Amphetamine Doses on Cardiac Responses to Emotional Stress in Aged Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In young Wistar rats conditioned emotional stress can be characterized by a learned bradycardiac response to an inescapable footshock. In aged rats this bradycardiac response is attenuated and accompanied by suppressed behavioral arousal in response to novelty. In the present study, cardiac

  4. The dynamics of fibroblasts/ECM in neonatal cardiac injury

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Vasco Miguel Sampaio, 1991-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2014 Cardiac diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This is the ground for an increasing number of studies on the characterization of the heart’s response to injury and on the development of new therapies to functionally restore the damaged myocardium. Recently, several reports show that the mammalian heart, when injured in a shortperiod after ...

  5. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Schwaiger, Markus; Vauhkonen, Marko; Hakulinen, Mikko A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes. (paper)

  6. A high-sugar and high-fat diet impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Salvatore; Mauro, Adolfo G; Mezzaroma, Eleonora; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Marchetti, Carlo; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Abbate, Antonio; Toldo, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea, fatigue, exercise intolerance and cardiac dysfunction. Unhealthy diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and heart disease, but whether it directly affects cardiac function, and promotes the development and progression of HF is unknown. We fed 8-week old male or female CD-1 mice with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in saturated fat and sugar, resembling a "Western" diet (WD). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was measured at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks by Doppler echocardiography, and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by cardiac catheterization prior to sacrifice. An additional group of mice received WD for 4 weeks followed by SD (wash-out) for 8 weeks. WD-fed mice experienced a significant decreased in LV ejection fraction (LVEF), reflecting impaired systolic function, and a significant increase in isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), myocardial performance index (MPI), and LVEDP, showing impaired diastolic function, without any sex-related differences. Switching to a SD after 4 weeks of WD partially reversed the cardiac systolic and diastolic dysfunction. A diet rich in saturated fat and sugars (WD) impairs cardiac systolic and diastolic function in the mouse. Further studies are required to define the mechanism through which diet affects cardiac function, and whether dietary interventions can be used in patients with, or at risk for, HF. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Glutaredoxin-2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and energetics in mice, and protects against human cardiac pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges N. Kanaan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2, a mitochondrial glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase, is central to glutathione homeostasis and mitochondrial redox, which is crucial in highly metabolic tissues like the heart. Previous research showed that absence of Grx2, leads to impaired mitochondrial complex I function, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice but the impact on mitochondrial structure and function in intact cardiomyocytes and in humans has not been explored. We hypothesized that Grx2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and function in cellular and mouse models, and that low expression is associated with human cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that Grx2 absence impairs mitochondrial fusion, ultrastructure and energetics in primary cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue. Moreover, provision of the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC to Grx2-/- mice did not restore glutathione redox or prevent impairments. Using genetic and histopathological data from the human Genotype-Tissue Expression consortium we demonstrate that low GRX2 is associated with fibrosis, hypertrophy, and infarct in the left ventricle. Altogether, GRX2 is important in the control of cardiac mitochondrial structure and function, and protects against human cardiac pathologies. Keywords: Human heart, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress, Redox, Cardiac metabolism, Cardiac hypertrophy

  8. Induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes as models for cardiac arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike eHoekstra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrhythmias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In younger patients, the majority of sudden cardiac deaths have an underlying Mendelian genetic cause. Over the last 15 years, enormous progress has been made in identifying the distinct clinical phenotypes and in studying the basic cellular and genetic mechanisms associated with the primary Mendelian (monogenic arrhythmia syndromes. Investigation of the electrophysiological consequences of an ion channel mutation is ideally done in the native cardiomyocyte environment. However, the majority of such studies so far have relied on heterologous expression systems in which single ion channel genes are expressed in non-cardiac cells. In some cases, transgenic mouse models haven been generated, but these also have significant shortcomings, primarily related to species differences.The discovery that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotency as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC has generated much interest since it presents an opportunity to generate patient- and disease-specific cell lines from which normal and diseased human cardiomyocytes can be obtained These genetically diverse human model systems can be studied in vitro and used to decipher mechanisms of disease and identify strategies and reagents for new therapies. Here we review the present state of the art with respect to cardiac disease models already generated using IPSC technology and which have been (partially characterized.Human iPSC (hiPSC models have been described for the cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including LQT1, LQT2, LQT3-Brugada Syndrome, LQT8/Timothy syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. In most cases, the hiPSC-derived cardiomyoctes recapitulate the disease phenotype and have already provided opportunities for novel insight into cardiac pathophysiology. It is expected that the lines will be useful in the development of pharmacological agents for the management of these

  9. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  10. Cardiac-specific overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 exacerbates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload

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    Sujith Dassanayaka

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2. An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC for 12 weeks developed myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, which were associated with diminished ALDH2 expression and activity. Cardiac-specific expression of the human ALDH2 gene in mice augmented myocardial ALDH2 activity but did not improve cardiac function in response to pressure overload. After 12 weeks of TAC, ALDH2 transgenic mice had larger hearts than their wild-type littermates and lower capillary density. These findings show that overexpression of ALDH2 augments the hypertrophic response to pressure overload and imply that downregulation of ALDH2 may be an adaptive response to certain forms of cardiac pathology. Keywords: Heart failure, Hypertrophy, Oxidative stress, Aldehydes, Cardiac remodeling, Hormesis

  11. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... peptides has only been elucidated during the last decade. The cellular synthesis including amino acid modifications and proteolytic cleavages has proven considerably more complex than initially perceived. Consequently, the elimination phase of the peptide products in circulation is not yet well....... An inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  12. Preconditioned augmented Lagrangian formulation for nearly incompressible cardiac mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joventino Oliveira; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Sundnes, Joakim; Rocha, Bernardo Martins

    2018-04-01

    Computational modeling of the heart is a subject of substantial medical and scientific interest, which may contribute to increase the understanding of several phenomena associated with cardiac physiological and pathological states. Modeling the mechanics of the heart have led to considerable insights, but it still represents a complex and a demanding computational problem, especially in a strongly coupled electromechanical setting. Passive cardiac tissue is commonly modeled as hyperelastic and is characterized by quasi-incompressible, orthotropic, and nonlinear material behavior. These factors are known to be very challenging for the numerical solution of the model. The near-incompressibility is known to cause numerical issues such as the well-known locking phenomenon and ill-conditioning of the stiffness matrix. In this work, the augmented Lagrangian method is used to handle the nearly incompressible condition. This approach can potentially improve computational performance by reducing the condition number of the stiffness matrix and thereby improving the convergence of iterative solvers. We also improve the performance of iterative solvers by the use of an algebraic multigrid preconditioner. Numerical results of the augmented Lagrangian method combined with a preconditioned iterative solver for a cardiac mechanics benchmark suite are presented to show its improved performance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. SD OCT Features of Macula and Silicon Oil–Retinal Interface in Eyes Status Post Vitrectomy for RRD

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    Manish Nagpal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To objectively document findings at the Silicon oil-Retinal interface, macular status and tamponade effect in Silicon Oil (SO filled eyes using SD OCT. Methods: 104 eyes of 104 patients underwent SD OCT examination, horizontal and vertical macular scans, in silicone oil filled eyes which underwent silicone oil injection post vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Findings were divided into 3 Groups; Group A: Findings at silicon oil retinal interface, Group B: Macular pathology and Group C: Tamponade effect. Group C was further divided into two groups; Group 1: Complete tamponade and Group 2: Incomplete tamponade. Results: Group A: subsilicon epiretinal membranes N = 17 (16.3%, emulsified silicon oil N = 16 (15.4% Group B: foveal thickening N = 22 (21.2%, foveal thinning N = 6 (5.7%, subfoveal fluid N = 8 (7.6%, macular hole N = 2 (1.9%; Group C: Incomplete tamponade was noted in N = 12 (11.5%, complete tamponade N = 92 (88.5%.10 out of 104 eyes (9.6% had recurrent retinal detachment post silicon oil removal. 8 of these eyes had complete tamponade and 2 had incomplete tamponade. Conclusion: SD OCT is a useful tool to assess the SO–Retina interface, tamponade effect and macular pathology in SO filled eyes. There is lesser incidence of redetachment with incomplete tamponade in OCT.

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Improves Cardiac Function in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; York, Sam; Natov, Peter S; Paruchuri, Vikram; Zhang, Yali; Aronovitz, Mark J; Karas, Richard H; Kapur, Navin K

    2018-02-27

    Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity. Methods -We examined BMP9 expression and signaling in human cardiac fibroblasts and human subjects with heart failure. We utilized the thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) induced model of heart failure to evaluate the functional effect of BMP9 signaling on cardiac remodeling. Results -BMP9 expression is increased in the circulation and left ventricle (LV) of human subjects with heart failure and is expressed by cardiac fibroblasts. Next, we observed that BMP9 attenuates Type I collagen synthesis in human cardiac fibroblasts using recombinant human BMP9 and an siRNA approach. In BMP9 -/- mice subjected to TAC, loss of BMP9 activity promotes cardiac fibrosis, impairs LV function, and increases LV levels of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3), not pSmad1. In contrast, treatment of wild-type mice subjected to TAC with recombinant BMP9 limits progression of cardiac fibrosis, improves LV function, enhances myocardial capillary density, and increases LV levels of pSmad1, not pSmad3 compared to vehicle treated controls. Since endoglin binds BMP9 with high affinity, we explored the effect of reduced endoglin activity on BMP9 activity. Neutralizing endoglin activity in human cardiac fibroblasts or in wild-type mice subjected to TAC induced heart failure limits collagen production, increases BMP9 protein levels, and increases

  15. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr; Fernandez, P. [Univ. Bordeaux, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux (France); Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29609 Brest (France); Dawood, M.; Schäfers, K. P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Mendelstr. 11, 48149 Münster (Germany); Rimoldi, O. E. [Vita-Salute University and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy and CNR Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare, Milan (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Cardiac imaging suffers from both respiratory and cardiac motion. One of the proposed solutions involves double gated acquisitions. Although such an approach may lead to both respiratory and cardiac motion compensation there are issues associated with (a) the combination of data from cardiac and respiratory motion bins, and (b) poor statistical quality images as a result of using only part of the acquired data. The main objective of this work was to evaluate different schemes of combining binned data in order to identify the best strategy to reconstruct motion free cardiac images from dual gated positron emission tomography (PET) acquisitions. Methods: A digital phantom study as well as seven human studies were used in this evaluation. PET data were acquired in list mode (LM). A real-time position management system and an electrocardiogram device were used to provide the respiratory and cardiac motion triggers registered within the LM file. Acquired data were subsequently binned considering four and six cardiac gates, or the diastole only in combination with eight respiratory amplitude gates. PET images were corrected for attenuation, but no randoms nor scatter corrections were included. Reconstructed images from each of the bins considered above were subsequently used in combination with an affine or an elastic registration algorithm to derive transformation parameters allowing the combination of all acquired data in a particular position in the cardiac and respiratory cycles. Images were assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, image profile, coefficient-of-variation (COV), and relative difference of the recovered activity concentration. Results: Regardless of the considered motion compensation strategy, the nonrigid motion model performed better than the affine model, leading to higher SNR and contrast combined with a lower COV. Nevertheless, when compensating for respiration only, no statistically significant differences were

  16. Protective Effect of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract on Hyperglycaemia-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razif Abas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diabetes mellitus, cardiac fibrosis is characterized by increase in the deposition of collagen fibers. The present study aimed to observe the effect of Momordica charantia (MC fruit extract on hyperglycaemia-induced cardiac fibrosis. Diabetes was induced in the male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the rats were subdivided (n = 6 into control group (Ctrl, control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC, diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl, diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC, and diabetic group treated with 150 mg/kg of metformin (DM-Met. Administration of MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg body weight in diabetic rats for 28 days showed significant increase in the body weight and decrease in the fasting blood glucose level. Significant increase in cardiac tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione contents (GSH, and catalase (CAT was observed following MC treatment. Hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced and associated morphological damages reverted to normal. The decreased expression of type III and type IV collagens was observed under immunohistochemical staining. It is concluded that MC fruit extract possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and cardioprotective properties which may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic cardiac fibrosis.

  17. Effects of local cardiac denervation on cardiac innervation and ventricular arrhythmia after chronic myocardial infarction.

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    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI.Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs. The ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT and the incidence of inducible VPCs were measured with electrophysiological protocol. Cardiac innervation was determined with immunohistochemical staining of growth associated protein-43 (GAP43 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. The global cardiac and regional ventricular function was evaluated with doppler echocardiography in this study.Four weeks after operation, the incidence of inducible VPC and VF in MI-ablation group were significantly reduced compared to the MI dogs (p<0.05. Moreover, local cardiac denervation significantly improved VFT in the infarcted border zone (p<0.05. The densities of GAP43 and TH-positive nerve fibers in the infarcted border zone in the MI-ablation group were lower than those in the MI group (p<0.05. However, the local cardiac denervation did not significantly improve cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI, determined by the left ventricle diameter (LV, left atrial diameter (LA, ejection fraction (EF.Summarily, in the chronic phase of MI, local cardiac denervation reduces the ventricular electrical instability, and attenuates spatial heterogeneity of sympathetic nerve reconstruction. Our study suggests that this methodology might decrease malignant ventricular arrhythmia in chronic MI, and has a great potential for clinical application.

  18. Differential gene expression of cardiac ion channels in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Micaela Molina-Navarro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by idiopathic dilation and systolic contractile dysfunction of the cardiac chambers. The present work aimed to study the alterations in gene expression of ion channels involved in cardiomyocyte function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microarray profiling using the Affymetrix Human Gene® 1.0 ST array was performed using 17 RNA samples, 12 from DCM patients undergoing cardiac transplantation and 5 control donors (CNT. The analysis focused on 7 cardiac ion channel genes, since this category has not been previously studied in human DCM. SCN2B was upregulated, while KCNJ5, KCNJ8, CLIC2, CLCN3, CACNB2, and CACNA1C were downregulated. The RT-qPCR (21 DCM and 8 CNT samples validated the gene expression of SCN2B (p < 0.0001, KCNJ5 (p < 0.05, KCNJ8 (p < 0.05, CLIC2 (p < 0.05, and CACNB2 (p < 0.05. Furthermore, we performed an IPA analysis and we found a functional relationship between the different ion channels studied in this work. CONCLUSION: This study shows a differential expression of ion channel genes involved in cardiac contraction in DCM that might partly underlie the changes in left ventricular function observed in these patients. These results could be the basis for new genetic therapeutic approaches.

  19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

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    Quan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  20. Boosters and barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkhabi, Mahmood; Zonooz, Elmira Rezaei; Baharvand, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Heart disease is currently the most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, which accounts for approximately 33% of all deaths. Recently, a promising and alchemy-like strategy has been developed called direct cardiac reprogramming, which directly converts somatic cells such as fibroblasts to cardiac lineage cells such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), termed induced CMs or iCMs. The first in vitro cardiac reprogramming study, mediated by cardiac transcription factors (TFs)-Gata4, Tbx5 and Mef2C-, was not enough efficient to produce an adequate number of fully reprogrammed, functional iCMs. As a result, numerous combinations of cardiac TFs exist for direct cardiac reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming remains low. Recently, a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified to increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and the quality of iCMs. For example, microgrooved substrate, cardiogenic growth factors [VEGF, FGF, BMP4 and Activin A], and an appropriate stoichiometry of TFs boost the direct cardiac reprogramming. On the other hand, serum, TGFβ signaling, activators of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and some epigenetic factors (Bmi1 and Ezh2) are barriers for direct cardiac reprogramming. Manipulating these mechanisms by the application of boosters and removing barriers can increase the efficiency of direct cardiac reprogramming and possibly make iCMs reliable for cell-based therapy or other potential applications. In this review, we summarize the latest trends in cardiac TF- or miRNA-based direct cardiac reprogramming and comprehensively discuses all molecular and cellular boosters and barriers affecting direct cardiac reprogramming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Nagai-Okatani

    Full Text Available Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  2. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V.

    1992-01-01

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author)

  3. INTRAOCULAR LENS POSITION IN COMBINED PHACOEMULSIFICATION AND VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozates, Serdar; Kiziltoprak, Hasan; Koc, Mustafa; Uzel, Mehmet Murat; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

    2017-10-09

    To assess the decentration and angle of tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) according to the intravitreal tamponade types used in combined phacoemulsification and vitreoretinal surgery. This prospective and randomized clinical study involved 73 eyes of 69 patients who underwent combined vitreoretinal surgery. Eyes with intravitreal tamponades formed the study group and eyes without intravitreal tamponades formed the control group. The study group was further divided into silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups. Cross-sectional IOL images were captured using a Pentacam HR (Oculus, Germany) and tilt and decentration were calculated with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA). The mean angle of tilt and decentration at the vertical meridian were significantly higher in both tamponade groups than in the control group (P 0.05). When comparing the silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups, no significant differences were noted on the position of IOL at both meridians (P > 0.05 for all). Intravitreal tamponades have an important effect on the position of IOL in combined vitreoretinal surgery. Silicone oil and gas tamponades may induce postoperative tilt and decentration of one-piece acrylic IOLs.

  4. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela K Lella

    Full Text Available The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery.From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered 30 days outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months.Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25% and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50% (p<0.001. Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30% and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59% (p<0.001. Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05. Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03. Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization.Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  5. The Influence of Cardiac Risk Factor Burden on Cardiac Stress Test Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Jon W; Li, Morgan; Orazulike, Chidubem; Emerman, Charles L

    2011-06-01

    Chest pain is the most common admission diagnosis for observation unit patients. These patients often undergo cardiac stress testing to further risk stratify for coronary artery disease (CAD). The decision of whom to stress is currently based on clinical judgment. We sought to determine the influence of cardiac risk factor burden on cardiac stress test outcome for patients tested from an observation unit, inpatient or outpatient setting. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study for all patients undergoing stress testing in our institution from June 2006 through July 2007. Cardiac risk factors were collected at the time of stress testing. Risk factors were evaluated in a summative fashion using multivariate regression adjusting for age and known coronary artery disease. The model was tested for goodness of fit and collinearity and the c statistic was calculated using the receiver operating curve. A total of 4026 subjects were included for analysis of which 22% had known CAD. The rates of positive outcome were 89 (12.0%), 95 (12.6%), and 343 (16.9%) for the OU, outpatients, and hospitalized patients respectively. While the odds of a positive test outcome increased for additional cardiac risk factors, ROC curve analysis indicates that simply adding the number of risk factors does not add significant diagnostic value. Hospitalized patients were more likely to have a positive stress test, OR 1.41 (1.10 - 1.81). Our study does not support basing the decision to perform a stress test on the number of cardiac risk factors.

  6. High frequency of cardiac and behavioral complaints as presenting symptoms of hyperthyroidism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba-Albrecht, Lindsey A; Bremer, Andrew A; Styne, Dennis M; Glaser, Nicole S

    2011-01-01

    Descriptive data characterizing the frequency of various chief complaints and presenting symptomatology in children with hyperthyroidism are lacking. Furthermore, difficulties in recognizing atypical presentations may delay diagnosis and increase morbidity. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of 76 children with hyperthyroidism to characterize their chief complaints at initial presentation to care and document other presenting symptomatology. Cardiac symptoms were the most frequent chief complaint, accounting for 23% of presenting complaints. Major mood and behavior disturbances were also frequently present (21%), but were infrequently cited as the chief complaint (6%). This study is the first to describe chief complaints separately from the other signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism noted at the time of presentation to medical attention. Cardiac complaints were the most common: however, complaints associated with behavioral and mood disorders also occurred frequently. Clinicians should be aware of these presentations so that hyperthyroidism is diagnosed promptly to avoid morbidity associated with delayed diagnosis.

  7. Time series analysis as input for clinical predictive modeling: modeling cardiac arrest in a pediatric ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Curtis E; Turley, James P

    2011-10-24

    Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1) selecting candidate variables; 2) specifying measurement parameters; 3) defining data format; 4) defining time window duration and resolution; 5) calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6) calculating time series features as latent variables; 7) creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8) reducing the number of candidate features; 9

  8. Hyperpolarized metabolic MR in the study of cardiac function and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M. H.; Søgaard, L. V.; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Several diseases of the heart have been linked to an insufficient ability to generate enough energy (ATP) to sustain proper heart function. Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) is a novel technique that can visualize and quantify myocardial energy metabolism. Hyperpolarization enhances the MR...... signal from a biological molecule of interest by more than 10,000 times, making it possible to measure its cellular uptake and conversion in specific enzymatic pathways in real time. We review the role of hyperpolarized MR in identifying changes in cardiac metabolism in vivo, and present the extensive...... literature on hyperpolarized pyruvate that has been used to characterize cardiac disease in various in vivo models, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and heart failure. The technical aspects of the technique are presented as well as the challenges of translating...

  9. Cardiac Arrest: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Cardiac arrest (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Cardiac Arrest updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Cardiac arrest Related Health Topics Arrhythmia CPR Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators National Institutes ...

  10. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  11. A dynamic approach to identifying desired physiological phases for cardiac imaging using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vembar, M.; Garcia, M.J.; Heuscher, D.J.; Haberl, R.; Matthews, D.; Boehme, G.E.; Greenberg, N.L.

    2003-01-01

    demonstrated as an example of how anatomic-specific information can be used in a knowledge-based cardiac CT algorithm. Using these estimates in characterizing cardiac motion also provides realistic simulation models for higher heart rates and also in optimizing volume reconstructions for individual segments of the cardiac anatomy

  12. The impact of obesity in the cardiac lipidome and its consequences in the cardiac damage observed in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Royo, Gema; Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Gutiérrez, Beatriz; Jurado-López, Raquel; Gallardo, Isabel; Montero, Olimpio; Bartolomé, Mª Visitación; Román, José Alberto San; Salaices, Mercedes; Nieto, María Luisa; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    To explore the impact of obesity on the cardiac lipid profile in rats with diet-induced obesity, as well as to evaluate whether or not the specific changes in lipid species are associated with cardiac fibrosis. Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD, 35% fat) or standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. Cardiac lipids were analyzed using by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. HFD rats showed cardiac fibrosis and enhanced levels of cardiac superoxide anion (O 2 ), HOMA index, adiposity, and plasma leptin, as well as a reduction in those of cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT 4), compared with control animals. Cardiac lipid profile analysis showed a significant increase in triglycerides, especially those enriched with palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acid. An increase in levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) was also observed. No changes in cardiac levels of diacyl phosphatidylcholine, or even a reduction in total levels of diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine, diacyl phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelins (SM) was observed in HFD, as compared with control animals. After adjustment for other variables (oxidative stress, HOMA, cardiac hypertrophy), total levels of DAG were independent predictors of cardiac fibrosis while the levels of total SM were independent predictors of the cardiac levels of GLUT 4. These data suggest that obesity has a significant impact on cardiac lipid composition, although it does not modulate the different species in a similar manner. Nonetheless, these changes are likely to participate in the cardiac damage in the context of obesity, since total DAG levels can facilitate the development of cardiac fibrosis, and SM levels predict GLUT4 levels. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cardiac cachexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miján, Alberto; Martín, Elvira; de Mateo, Beatriz

    2006-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), especially affecting the right heart, frequently leads to malnutrition. If the latter is severe and is combined to other factors, it may lead to cardiac cachexia. This one is associated to increased mortality and lower survival of patients suffering from it. The causes of cardiac cachexia are diverse, generally associated to maintenance of a negative energy balance, with increasing evidence of its multifactorial origin. Neurohumoral, inflammatory, immunological, and metabolic factors, among others, are superimposed in the patient with CHF, leading to involvement and deterioration of several organs and systems, since this condition affects both lean (or active cellular) mass and adipose and bone tissue osteoporosis. Among all, the most pronounced deterioration may be seen at skeletal muscle tissue, at both structural and functional levels, the heart not being spared. As for treatment, it should be based on available scientific evidence. Assessment of nutritional status of any patient with CHF is a must, with the requirement of nutritional intervention in case of malnutrition. In this situation, especially if accompanied by cardiac cachexia, it is required to modify energy intake and oral diet quality, and to consider the indication of specific complementary or alternative artificial nutrition. Besides, the causal relationship of the beneficial role of moderate physical exertion is increasing, as well as modulation of metabolic and inflammatory impairments observed in cardiac cachexia with several drugs, leading to a favorable functional and structural response in CHF patients.

  14. Does overprotection cause cardiac invalidism after acute myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, B J; Dracup, K A

    1992-01-01

    To determine if overprotection on the part of the patient's family and friends contributes to the development of cardiac invalidism after acute myocardial infarction. Longitudinal survey. Nine hospitals in the southwestern United States. One hundred eleven patients who had experienced a first acute myocardial infarction. Subjects were predominantly male, older-aged, married, caucasian, and in functional class I. Eighty-one patients characterized themselves as being overprotected (i.e., receiving more social support from family and friends than desired), and 28 reported receiving inadequate support. Only two patients reported receiving as much support as they desired. Self-esteem, emotional distress, health perceptions, interpersonal dependency, return to work. Overprotected patients experienced less anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, more vigor, and higher self-esteem than inadequately supported patients 1 month after myocardial infarction (p Overprotection on the part of family and friends may facilitate psychosocial adjustment in the early months after an acute myocardial infarction rather than lead to cardiac invalidism.

  15. Pericardial effusion in patients with cancer: outcome with contemporary management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laham, R. J.; Cohen, D. J.; Kuntz, R. E.; Baim, D. S.; Lorell, B. H.; Simons, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the clinical presentation and current management strategies of pericardial effusion in patients with malignancy. DESIGN--Retrospective single centre, consecutive observational study. SETTING--University hospital. PATIENTS--93 consecutive patients with a past or present diagnosis of cancer and a pericardial effusion, including 50 with a pericardial effusion > 1 cm. RESULTS--Of the 50 patients with pericardial effusions > 1 cm, most had stage 4 cancer (64%), were symptomatic at the time of presentation (74%), and had right atrial collapse (74%). Twenty patients were treated conservatively (without pericardiocentesis) and were less symptomatic (55% v 87%, P = 0.012), had smaller pericardial effusions (1.5 (0.4) v 1.8 (0.5), P = 0.02), and less frequent clinical (10% v 40%, P = 0.02) and echocardiographic evidence of tamponade (40% v 97%, P < 0.001) than the 30 patients treated invasively with initial pericardiocentesis (n = 29) or pericardial window placement (n = 1). Pericardial tamponade requiring repeat pericardiocentesis occurred in 18 (62%) of 29 patients after a median of 7 days. In contrast, only four (20%) of 20 patients in the conservative group progressed to frank clinical tamponade and required pericardiocentesis (P = 0.005 v invasive group). The overall median survival was 2 months with a survival rate at 48 months of 26%. Survival, duration of hospital stay, and hospital charges were similar with both strategies. By multivariable analysis, the absence of symptoms was the only independent predictor of long-term survival (relative hazards ratio = 3.2, P = 0.05). Survival was similar in the 43 patients with cancer and pericardial effusions of < or = 1 cm. CONCLUSION--Asymptomatic patients with cancer and pericardial effusion can be managed conservatively with close follow up. In patients with symptoms or clinical cardiac tamponade, pericardiocentesis provides relief of symptoms but does not improve survival and has a high recurrence

  16. Acute intramural hematoma of ascending aorta. CT findings and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Toshio; Sakuyama, Keiko; Hiekata, Tomizou; Yamanaka, Ikuo [St. Marianna Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Yokohama Seibu Hospital; Kuroki, Kazunori; Ohyama, Yukio; Ishikawa, Tohru; Kawada, Tadanori; Akashi, Katsuya

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the CT findings and clinical outcomes of nineteen patients with acute intramural hematoma (IMH) of the ascending aorta. Six patients underwent surgery on the emergency basis (3 patients) due to cardiac tamponade (n=2) and dilated aorta (n=1), and on the elective basis (3 patients) due to patent and enlarging false lumen. Among the 13 patients with medical management, four patients died from complications of IMH during the follow-up period (2 days-2.5 years). Transition to aortic dissection or enlargement of an intimal tear was noted in 5 patients (31%) in 1 to 6 weeks after onset. Three patients died of causes not related to IMH. Six patients had been alive 2 to 9 years after onset. Retrospective review revealed 10 patients (53%) as possible surgical candidates, and the other 9 patients as medically treated patients in the long-term follow-up. The surgical group showed cardiac tamponade or shock in 6 patients on admission and had pericardial effusion in all the patients on the initial CT scan. In the patients with acute IMH of the ascending aorta, surgery should be considered for severe clinical symptoms, pericardial effusion and large size of the ascending aorta (more than 4 cm) on CT scan, and for converting to a typical type A aortic dissection. CT scan had a major role in making an early diagnosis, in depicting a dangerous sign, and in monitoring its progression or resolution of IMH. (author)

  17. Cardiac Catheterization (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Educators Search English Español Cardiac Catheterization KidsHealth / For Kids / Cardiac Catheterization What's in this article? What Is ...

  18. Imaging in blunt cardiac injury: Computed tomographic findings in cardiac contusion and associated injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Mark M; Raptis, Demetrios A; Cummings, Kristopher W; Mellnick, Vincent M; Bhalla, Sanjeev; Schuerer, Douglas J; Raptis, Constantine A

    2016-05-01

    Blunt cardiac injury (BCI) may manifest as cardiac contusion or, more rarely, as pericardial or myocardial rupture. Computed tomography (CT) is performed in the vast majority of blunt trauma patients, but the imaging features of cardiac contusion are not well described. To evaluate CT findings and associated injuries in patients with clinically diagnosed BCI. We identified 42 patients with blunt cardiac injury from our institution's electronic medical record. Clinical parameters, echocardiography results, and laboratory tests were recorded. Two blinded reviewers analyzed chest CTs performed in these patients for myocardial hypoenhancement and associated injuries. CT findings of severe thoracic trauma are commonly present in patients with severe BCI; 82% of patients with ECG, cardiac enzyme, and echocardiographic evidence of BCI had abnormalities of the heart or pericardium on CT; 73% had anterior rib fractures, and 64% had pulmonary contusions. Sternal fractures were only seen in 36% of such patients. However, myocardial hypoenhancement on CT is poorly sensitive for those patients with cardiac contusion: 0% of right ventricular contusions and 22% of left ventricular contusions seen on echocardiography were identified on CT. CT signs of severe thoracic trauma are frequently present in patients with severe BCI and should be regarded as indirect evidence of potential BCI. Direct CT findings of myocardial contusion, i.e. myocardial hypoenhancement, are poorly sensitive and should not be used as a screening tool. However, some left ventricular contusions can be seen on CT, and these patients could undergo echocardiography or cardiac MRI to evaluate for wall motion abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac changes in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding-Barclay, Michael A; Stern, Jessica; Mehler, Philip S

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder, which is associated with many different medical complications as a result of the weight loss and malnutrition that characterise this illness. It has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. A large portion of deaths are attributable to the cardiac abnormalities that ensue as a result of the malnutrition associated with anorexia nervosa. In this review, the cardiac complications of anorexia nervosa will be discussed. A comprehensive literature review on cardiac changes in anorexia nervosa was carried out. There are structural, functional, and rhythm-type changes that occur in patients with anorexia nervosa. These become progressively significant as ongoing weight loss occurs. Cardiac changes are inherent to anorexia nervosa and they become more life-threatening and serious as the anorexia nervosa becomes increasingly severe. Weight restoration and attention to these cardiac changes are crucial for a successful treatment outcome.

  20. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Pathological adaption of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Lin, H Y; Chen, Y W; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days. AL hens exhibited increased bodyweight, adiposity, absolute and relative heart weight, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac protein/DNA ratio by d 21 (P hens (P Hens allowed AL feeding for 70 d exhibited a higher incidence of mortality (40% vs. 10%) in association with ascites, pericardial effusion, and ventricle dilation. A higher incidence of irregular ECG patterns and rhythmicity consistent with persistently elevated systolic blood pressure and ventricle fibrosis were observed in AL hens (P feeding in broiler hens results in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy that progresses to overt pathogenesis in contractility and thereby increases mortality. Feed restriction provides clear physiological benefit to heart function of adult broiler hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Brazilian Portuguese Validated Version of the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named 'Fear and Hypervigilance' (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and 'Avoidance', (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, 'Cardiac with panic' patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings

  2. Brazilian Portuguese Validated Version of the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardinha, Aline, E-mail: alinesardinhapsi@gmail.com; Nardi, Antonio Egidio [Laboratório de Pânico e Respiração do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psiquiatria e Saúde Mental do Instituto de Psiquiatria da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Translational Medicine (INCT-TM, CNPq), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte da Universidade Gama Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); CLINIMEX - Clínica de Medicina do Exercício, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ferreira, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Salgado de Oliveira, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Eifert, Georg H. [Schmid College of Science and Technology Psychology, Crean School of Health and Life Sciences -Chapman University (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named 'Fear and Hypervigilance' (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and 'Avoidance', (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, 'Cardiac with panic' patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings.

  3. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  4. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Carlo, E-mail: c.liguori@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Pitocco, Francesca, E-mail: f.pitocco@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Di Giampietro, Ilenia, E-mail: i.digiampietro@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Vivo, Aldo Eros de, E-mail: devivoeros@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Schena, Emiliano, E-mail: e.schena@unicampus.it [Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Cianciulli, Paolo, E-mail: CIANCIULLI.PAOLO@aslrmc.it [Thalassemia Unit, Ospedale Sant Eugenio, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00143 Rome (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients.

  5. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, Carlo; Pitocco, Francesca; Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Vivo, Aldo Eros de; Schena, Emiliano; Cianciulli, Paolo; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients

  6. Scoring of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can predict cardiac events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Ayumi; Hongo, Kenichi; Kawai, Makoto; Komukai, Kimiaki; Sakuma, Toru; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2011-01-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents myocardial fibrosis and may be related to the clinical outcome of various heart diseases. This study evaluated the relationship between LGE and cardiac events in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using a new scoring method. This study retrospectively followed 46 HCM patients without heart failure symptoms for 3.8±1.8 years. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI was performed in all patients. Cardiac events including newly developed heart failure or ventricular tachyarrhythmia were evaluated during the follow-up period. We evaluated the predictive factors to identify the patients with cardiac events. None of the risk factors reported to be related to poor outcome or the existence of LGE alone could predict cardiac events, which might be due to the small number of subjects investigated in this study. A new scoring method for LGE-positive areas (LGE score) was applied and higher LGE score can predict cardiac events in this study population. The proposed LGE score for cardiac MRI is considered to be a potentially valid method for assessing cardiac events in HCM patients. (author)

  7. Type A dissection following endovascular repair of type B dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszkat, R.; Zabicki, M.; Jemielity, M.; Buczkowski, P.; Urbanowicz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We present a patient, who was treated with thoracic stentgraft implantation, because of acute type B aortic dissection (according to Stanford classification). The endovascular procedure was performed without any complications. Case Report: The patient was discharged in the 3 rd postprocedural day and was transferred to another hospital for further recovery. Nine days after the procedure, the patient was readmitted in cardiogenic shock to the Cardiac Surgery Department. The patient was immediately operated on, after dissection of the ascending aorta and pericardial tamponade had been diagnosed in transthoracic echocardiography. Conclusions: Total replacement of the aortic arch and its ascending part was performed successfully. The surgery was carried out in deep hypothermia with temporary circulatory arrest. The patient was discharged from the Cardiac Surgery Unit 15 days after the surgery, and transferred to another unit for further recovery. (authors)

  8. Safety in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for

  9. Fetal Primary Cardiac Tumors During Perinatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal primary cardiac tumors are rare, but they may cause complications, which are sometimes life threatening, including arrhythmias, hydrops fetalis, ventricular outflow/inflow obstruction, cardiac failure, and even sudden death. Among fetal primary cardiac tumors, rhabdomyomas are most common, followed by teratomas, fibromas, hemangiomas, and myxomas. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been reported to be an effective drug to cause tumor remission in three neonates with multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas. Neonatal cardiac surgery for the resection of primary cardiac tumors found by fetal echocardiography has been reported sporadically. However, open fetal surgery for pericardial teratoma resection, which was performed successfully via a fetal median sternotomy in one case report, could be a promising intervention to rescue these patients with large pericardial effusions. These recent achievements undoubtedly encourage further development in early management of fetal cardiac tumors. Owing to the rarity of fetal primary cardiac tumors, relevant information in terms of prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis remains to be clarified.

  10. Glucose ingestion causes cardiac repolarization disturbances in type 1 long QT syndrome patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltén-Cavallius, Louise; Iepsen, Eva W; Christiansen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia constitute known risk factors for cardiac repolarization changes potentially leading to malignant arrhythmias. Patients with loss of function mutations in KCNQ1 are characterized by long QT syndrome (LQTS) and may be at increased risk...

  11. Cardiac Morphology and Function, and Blood Gas Transport in Aquaporin-1 Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer eAl-Samir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have studied cardiac and respiratory functions of aquaporin- 1-deficient mice by the Pressure-Volume-loop technique and by blood gas analysis. In addition, the morphological properties of the animals’ hearts were analysed. In anesthesia under maximal dobutamine stimulation, the mice exhibit a moderately elevated heart rate of < 600 min-1 and an O2 consumption of ~0.6 ml/min/g, which is about twice the basal rate. In this state, which is similar to the resting state of the conscious animal, all cardiac functions including stroke volume and cardiac output exhibited resting values and were identical between deficient and wildtype animals. Likewise, pulmonary and peripheral exchange of O2 and CO2 were normal. In contrast, several morphological parameters of the heart tissue of deficient mice were altered: 1 left ventricular wall thickness was reduced by 12%, 2 left ventricular mass, normalized to tibia length, was reduced by 10-20%, 3 cardiac muscle fiber cross sectional area was decreased by 17%, and 4 capillary density was diminished by 10%. As the P-V-loop technique yielded normal end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes, the deficient hearts are characterized by thin ventricular walls in combination with normal intraventricular volumes. The aquaporin-1-deficient heart thus seems to be at a disadvantage compared to the wildtype heart by a reduced left-ventricular wall thickness and an increased diffusion distance between blood capillaries and muscle mitochondria. While under the present quasi-resting conditions these morphological alterations have no consequences for cardiac function, we expect that the deficient hearts will show a reduced maximal cardiac output.

  12. Structural, Nursing, and Physician Characteristics and 30-Day Mortality for Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Ramaswamy, Tara S; Brown, Sydney E S; He, Xu; Gutsche, Jacob T; Fleisher, Lee A; Neuman, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac surgery ICU characteristics and clinician staffing patterns have not been well characterized. We sought to describe Pennsylvania cardiac ICUs and to determine whether ICU characteristics are associated with mortality in the 30 days after cardiac surgery. From 2012 to 2013, we conducted a survey of cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania to assess ICU structure, care practices, and clinician staffing patterns. ICU data were linked to an administrative database of cardiac surgery patient discharges. We used logistic regression to measure the association between ICU variables and death in 30 days. Cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania. Patients having coronary artery bypass grafting and/or cardiac valve repair or replacement from 2009 to 2011. None. Of the 57 cardiac surgical ICUs in Pennsylvania, 43 (75.4%) responded to the facility survey. Rounds included respiratory therapists in 26 of 43 (60.5%) and pharmacists in 23 of 43 (53.5%). Eleven of 41 (26.8%) reported that at least 2/3 of their nurses had a bachelor's degree in nursing. Advanced practice providers were present in most of the ICUs (37/43; 86.0%) but residents (8/42; 18.6%) and fellows (7/43; 16.3%) were not. Daytime intensivists were present in 21 of 43 (48.8%) responding ICUs; eight of 43 (18.6%) had nighttime intensivists. Among 29,449 patients, there was no relationship between mortality and nurse ICU experience, presence of any intensivist, or absence of residents after risk adjustment. To exclude patients who may have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement, we conducted a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing only coronary artery bypass grafting, and results were similar. Pennsylvania cardiac surgery ICUs have variable structures, care practices, and clinician staffing, although none of these are statistically significantly associated with mortality in the 30 days following surgery after adjustment.

  13. Focused cardiac ultrasound is feasible in the general practice setting and alters diagnosis and management of cardiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yates

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasound-assisted examination of the cardiovascular system with focused cardiac ultrasound by the treating physician is non-invasive and changes diagnosis and management of patient’s with suspected cardiac disease. This has not been reported in a general practice setting. Aim: To determine whether focused cardiac ultrasound performed on patients aged over 50 years changes the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease by a general practitioner. Design and setting: A prospective observational study of 80 patients aged over 50 years and who had not received echocardiography or chest CT within 12 months presenting to a general practice. Method: Clinical assessment and management of significant cardiac disorders in patients presenting to general practitioners were recorded before and after focused cardiac ultrasound. Echocardiography was performed by a medical student with sufficient training, which was verified by an expert. Differences in diagnosis and management between conventional and ultrasound-assisted assessment were recorded. Results and conclusion: Echocardiography and interpretation were acceptable in all patients. Significant cardiac disease was detected in 16 (20% patients, including aortic stenosis in 9 (11% and cardiac failure in 7 (9%, which were missed by clinical examination in 10 (62.5% of these patients. Changes in management occurred in 12 patients (15% overall and 75% of those found to have significant cardiac disease including referral for diagnostic echocardiography in 8 (10%, commencement of heart failure treatment in 3 (4% and referral to a cardiologist in 1 patient (1%. Routine focused cardiac ultrasound is feasible and frequently alters the diagnosis and management of cardiac disease in patients aged over 50 years presenting to a general practice.

  14. Predictors of cardiogenic shock in cardiac surgery patients receiving intra-aortic balloon pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Amit; Kwon, Oh Jin; Bailey, Katherine L; Ashfaq, Adeel; Abdelkarim, Ayman; Shemin, Richard J; Benharash, Peyman

    2018-02-01

    Cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery leads to severely increased mortality. Intra-aortic balloon pumps may be used during the preoperative period to increase coronary perfusion. The purpose of this study was to characterize predictors of postoperative cardiogenic shock in cardiac surgery patients with and without intra-aortic balloon pumps support. We performed a retrospective analysis of our institutional database of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons for patients operated between January 2008 to July 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model postoperative cardiogenic shock in both the intra-aortic balloon pumps and matched control cohorts. Overall, 4,741 cardiac surgery patients were identified during the study period, of whom 192 (4%) received a preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump. Intra-aortic balloon pumps patients had a greater prevalence of diabetes, previous cardiac surgery, congestive heart failure, and an urgent/emergent status (P pumps patients also had greater 30-day mortality and more postoperative cardiogenic shock (9% vs 3%, P pumps cohort, only sex, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and preoperative arrhythmia remained significant on multivariable analysis (all P pumps and those who do not. Further analysis of the effects of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pumps support is warranted. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiac integrins the ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D G; Reaves, T A; Shih, D T; Burgess, W; Borg, T K; Terracio, L

    1998-01-01

    An elaborate series of morphogenetic events must be precisely coordinated during development to promote the formation of the elaborate three-dimensional structure of the normal heart. In this study we focus on discussing how interconnections between the cardiac myocyte and its surrounding environment regulate cardiac form and function. In vitro experiments from our laboratories provide direct evidence that cardiac cell shape is regulated by a dynamic interaction between constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and by specific members of the integrin family of matrix receptors. Our data indicates that phenotypic information is stored in the tertiary structure and chemical identity of the ECM. This information appears to be actively communicated and transduced by the α1β1 integrin molecule into an intracellular signal that regulates cardiac cell shape and myofibrillar organization. In this study we have assessed the phenotypic consequences of suppressing the expression and accumulation of the α1 integrin molecule in aligned cultures of cardiac myocytes. In related experiments we have examined how the overexpression of α2 and α5 integrin, integrins normally not present or present at very low copy number on the cell surface of neonatal cardiac myocytes, affect cardiac protein metabolism. We also consider how biochemical signals and the mechanical signals mediated by the integrins may converge on common intracellular signaling pathways in the heart. Experiments with the whole embryo culture system indicate that angiotensin II, a peptide that carries information concerning cardiac load, plays a role in controling cardiac looping and the proliferation of myofibrils during development.

  16. Cardiac fluid dynamics meets deformation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ferro, Matteo; Stolfo, Davide; De Paris, Valerio; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Korcova, Renata; Collia, Dario; Tonti, Giovanni; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pedrizzetti, Gianni

    2018-02-20

    Cardiac function is about creating and sustaining blood in motion. This is achieved through a proper sequence of myocardial deformation whose final goal is that of creating flow. Deformation imaging provided valuable contributions to understanding cardiac mechanics; more recently, several studies evidenced the existence of an intimate relationship between cardiac function and intra-ventricular fluid dynamics. This paper summarizes the recent advances in cardiac flow evaluations, highlighting its relationship with heart wall mechanics assessed through the newest techniques of deformation imaging and finally providing an opinion of the most promising clinical perspectives of this emerging field. It will be shown how fluid dynamics can integrate volumetric and deformation assessments to provide a further level of knowledge of cardiac mechanics.

  17. PGC-1α accelerates cytosolic Ca2+ clearance without disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-01-01

    Energy metabolism and Ca 2+ handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1α in cardiac Ca 2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1α via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1α improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca 2+ transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca 2+ increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca 2+ transients and Ca 2+ waves accelerated in PGC-1α-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca 2+ transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1α-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1α induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1α did not disturb cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, because SR Ca 2+ load and the propensity for Ca 2+ waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1α can ameliorate cardiac Ca 2+ cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1α-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1α in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  18. Contemporary management of pericardial effusion: practical aspects for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazio, Massimo; Gaido, Luca; Battaglia, Alberto; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-03-01

    A pericardial effusion (PE) is a relatively common finding in clinical practice. It may be either isolated or associated with pericarditis with or without an underlying disease. The aetiology is varied and may be either infectious (especially tuberculosis as the most common cause in developing countries) or non-infectious (cancer, systemic inflammatory diseases). The management is essentially guided by the hemodynamic effect (presence or absence of cardiac tamponade), the presence of concomitant pericarditis or underlying disease, and its size and duration. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on the aetiology, classification, diagnosis, management, therapy, and prognosis of PE in clinical practice.

  19. Right ventricular perforation by a passive-fixation pacemaker lead two weeks after implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem S. Sheikh, BSc, MBBS, FCPS, MRCP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial perforation is a rare complication of permanent pacemaker implantation. While most of the perforations occur at the time of implantation or within the first 24 h, delayed myocardial perforations are very rare. The clinical course is extremely variable with some patients presenting completely asymptomatic, while others can develop cardiac tamponade and haemodynamic instability. We report an unusual case of a subacute ventricular perforation caused by a passive-fixation lead two weeks after implantation and we successfully managed to extract the lead under local anaesthesia, without the patient undergoing surgery, as recommended in the previously published reports.

  20. Giant right coronary artery aneurysm with unusual physiology: Role of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman presented with a history of dyspnea and atypical chest pain. She was diagnosed with a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction due to a giant right coronary artery aneurysm. After a failed percutaneous embolization, she was scheduled for right coronary artery aneurysm resection, posterior descending artery revascularization and mitral valve repair. During the induction of anesthesia and institution of mechanical ventilation, the patient suffered cardiovascular collapse. The transesophageal echocardiographic examination revealed tamponade physiology owing to compression of the cardiac chambers by the unruptured aneurysm, which resolved with the sternotomy. The surgery was carried out uneventfully.

  1. Morganella morganii Pericarditis in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Nakao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purulent pericarditis caused by Morganella morganii is extremely rare. We report herein a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with chest pain and dyspnea fourteen days after chemotherapy for multiple myeloma. Echocardiogram and computed tomography revealed a massive pericardial effusion and associated cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was performed. Pericardial fluid was found to be purulent, and Morganella morganii was isolated from the fluid. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage of the fluid. Morganella morganii should be considered a possible pathogen when immunocompromised patients develop purulent pericarditis.

  2. Percutaneous atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher; Yan, Tristan D

    2012-01-01

    databases. Fourteen studies were identified for evaluation. Overall, implantation was successful in 93% of all cases. Periprocedural mortality and stroke rates were 1.1% and 0.6%, respectively. The incidences of pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade and device embolisation were 4% and 0.7%, respectively....... At the time of the latest follow-up (up to 40 months), the overall incidence of stroke among all studies was 1.4% per annum. Existing evidence suggests that PLAAO is a relatively safe treatment for patients with AF. However, there is a need for further evaluation of its efficacy in the form of large and well...

  3. Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Newell-Fugate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250mℓ of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade.

  4. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandie, S; Hellenberg, D; Hellig, F; Ntsekhe, M

    2016-03-01

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax. On history, the mnemonic SOCRATES (Site Onset Character Radiation Association Time Exacerbating/relieving factor and Severity) helps differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac pain. On examination, evaluation of vital signs, evidence of murmurs, rubs, heart failure, tension pneumothoraces and chest infections are important. A 12-lead ECG should be interpreted within 10 minutes of first medical contact, specifically to identify ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). High-sensitivity troponins improve the rapid rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) and confirmation of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI). ACS (STEMI and NSTEMI/unstable anginapectoris (UAP)) result from acute destabilisation of coronary atheroma with resultant complete (STEMI) or subtotal (NSTEMI/UAP) thrombotic coronary occlusion. The management of STEMI patients includes providing urgent reperfusion: primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI) if available, deliverable within 60 - 120 minutes, and fibrinolysis if PPCI is not available. Essential adjunctive therapies include antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors), anticoagulation (heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin) and cardiac monitoring.

  5. Role of Myofibril-Inducing RNA in cardiac TnT expression in developing Mexican axolotl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrazza, Gian-Franco; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Lemanski, Sharon L.; Athauda, Gagani; Stassi, Alyssa; Halager, Kristine; Maier, Jennifer A.; Rueda-de-Leon, Elena; Gupta, Amit; Dube, Syamalima; Huang, Xupei; Prentice, Howard M.; Dube, Dipak K.; Lemanski, Larry F.

    2007-01-01

    The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been a useful animal model to study heart development and cardiac myofibrillogenesis. A naturally-occurring recessive mutant, gene “c”, for cardiac non-function in the Mexican axolotl causes a failure of myofibrillogenesis due to a lack of tropomyosin expression in homozygous mutant (c/c) embryonic hearts.. Myofibril-Inducing RNA (MIR) rescues mutant hearts in vitro by promoting tropomyosin expression and myofibril formation thereafter. We have studied the effect of MIR on the expression of various isoforms of cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT), a component of the thin filament that binds with tropomyosin. Four alternatively spliced cTnT isoforms have been characterized from developing axolotl heart. The expression of various cTnT isoforms in normal, mutant, and mutant hearts corrected with MIR, is evaluated by real-time RT-PCR using isoform specific primer pairs; MIR affects the total transcription as well as the splicing of the cTnT in axolotl heart PMID:17408593

  6. The cardiac sonography workforce in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Steve; Poppe, Katrina; Whalley, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The aim of this paper is to investigate the cardiac sonography workforce characteristics and registration requirements in New Zealand (NZ), with a comparison to similar workforces internationally. Methods: The Survey of Clinical Echocardiography in New Zealand 2 (SCANZ2) audit was performed in December 2010. All of NZ's public‐funded District Health Board (DHB) centers providing echocardiography services responded to questions relating to staff, equipment, procedure types and patient statistics. The Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB), Clinical Physiologists Registration Board (CPRB) and Australian Sonographers Association Registry (ASAR) websites were reviewed in March 2012 for registered sonographers with a cardiac scope of practice. The cardiac sonography workforces in Australia, the UK, the USA and Canada were investigated for comparison. Results: There are 84 cardiac sonographers (60.3 full‐time equivalent) working in DHBs: 71% from a cardiac technical background; 40% have post‐graduate qualifications; a further 17% are undertaking post‐graduate qualifications; and 59 cardiac sonographers have registration with professional bodies in NZ and/or Australia. Cardiac sonographers in NZ do not undergo compulsory registration, but other sonographers in NZ have compulsory registration with the MRTB. Sonographers are predominantly not licensed internationally. Discussion: Disparity exists between registration of cardiac and non‐cardiac sonographers in NZ. Many cardiac sonographers have voluntary registration but few are registered with the MRTB. Reasons for this include professional alignment, educational qualifications and representation. International trends show increased pressure from governments and professional bodies to regulate sonographers. Conclusion: This study provides a snapshot of the cardiac sonography workforce in NZ for the first time. PMID:28191178

  7. Uhl’s anomaly: A one and a half ventricular repair in a patient presenting with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Chounoune

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uhl’s anomaly, first reported in 1952, is an extremely rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by partial or complete loss of the right ventricular myocardium and unknown etiology. Fewer than 100 cases have been described. The response to medical management is poor and there is no known ideal surgical approach or timing for treatment. We report the case of a previously active adolescent male presenting with cardiac arrest, who underwent successful bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (“Glenn” anastomosis with right atrial reduction and right ventricular free wall plication.

  8. Optimal Technique in Cardiac Anesthesia Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svircevic, V.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate fast-track cardiac anesthesia techniques and investigate their impact on postoperative mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The following topics will be discussed in the thesis. (1.) Is fast track cardiac anesthesia a safe technique for cardiac surgery?

  9. Patient with Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Suspected Right Upper Lobe Abscess Presenting with a Purulent Pericardial Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Khushboo; Ateeli, Huthayfa; Ampel, Neil M; L'heureux, Dena

    2016-07-22

    BACKGROUND Cardiac tamponade caused by pericardial effusion has a high mortality rate; thus, it is important to diagnose and treat this condition immediately. Specifically, bacterial pericarditis, although now very rare, is often fatal because of its fulminant process. CASE REPORT We present a case of a 61-year-old man with metastatic small cell lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy who presented with fatigue, poor appetite, and altered mental status. He was found to have a large-volume pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. He underwent emergent pericardiocentesis. The pericardial effusion was nonmalignant, with cultures growing Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was only after his emergent pericardiocentesis that previous imaging from one month prior was able to be reviewed, which showed possible right upper lobe abscess. CONCLUSIONS Most pericardial effusions in cancer patients are related to their malignancy, either due to direct metastasis or secondary physiologic effects. This case is a unique example of a lung cancer patient presenting with a pneumococcal pericardial effusion, which in itself is a rare phenomenon. This case report demonstrates the importance of considering early antibiotic therapy in patients presenting with pericardial effusion, especially given the high mortality rates of infectious pericardial effusions.

  10. Motivational factors of adherence to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Hooman; Shahriari, Mohsen; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah

    2012-05-01

    Main suggested theories about patients' adherence to treatment regimens recognize the importance of motivation in positive changes in behaviors. Since cardiac diseases are chronic and common, cardiac rehabilitation as an effective prevention program is crucial in management of these diseases. There is always concern about the patients' adherence to cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe the motivational factors affecting the patients' participation and compliance to cardiac rehabilitation by recognizing and understanding the nature of patients' experiences. The participants were selected among the patients with cardiac diseases who were referred to cardiac rehabilitation in Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used and data saturation achieved after 8 semi-structured interviews. The three main concepts obtained from this study are "beliefs", "supporters" and "group cohesion". In cardiac rehabilitation programs, emphasis on motivational factors affects the patient's adherence. It is suggested that in cardiac rehabilitation programs more attention should be paid to patients' beliefs, the role of patients' supporters and the role of group-based rehabilitation.

  11. Cardiac Limited Ultrasound Examination Techniques to Augment the Bedside Cardiac Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Bruce J; Shaw, David J; Amundson, Stan A; Phan, James N; Blanchard, Daniel G; DeMaria, Anthony N

    2015-09-01

    The current practice of physical diagnosis is dependent on physician skills and biases, inductive reasoning, and time efficiency. Although the clinical utility of echocardiography is well known, few data exist on how to integrate 2-dimensional screening "quick-look" ultrasound applications into a novel, modernized cardiac physical examination. We discuss the evidence basis behind ultrasound "signs" pertinent to the cardiovascular system and elemental in synthesis of bedside diagnoses and propose the application of a brief cardiac limited ultrasound examination based on these signs. An ultrasound-augmented cardiac physical examination can be taught in traditional medical education and has the potential to improve bedside diagnosis and patient care. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Long-term increase in coherence between the basal ganglia and motor cortex after asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamuthan, Bhooma R; Shoykhet, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The basal ganglia are vulnerable to injury during cardiac arrest. Movement disorders are a common morbidity in survivors. Yet, neuronal motor network changes post-arrest remain poorly understood. We compared function of the motor network in adult rats that, during postnatal week 3, underwent 9.5 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest (n = 9) or sham intervention (n = 8). Six months after injury, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the primary motor cortex (MCx) and single neuron firing and LFP from the rat entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which corresponds to the primate globus pallidus pars interna. Data were analyzed for firing rates, power, and coherence between MCx and EPN spike and LFP activity. Cardiac arrest survivors display chronic motor deficits. EPN firing rate is lower in cardiac arrest survivors (19.5 ± 2.4 Hz) compared with controls (27.4 ± 2.7 Hz; P motor network after cardiac arrest. Increased motor network synchrony is thought to be antikinetic in primary movement disorders. Characterization of motor network synchrony after cardiac arrest may help guide management of post-hypoxic movement disorders.

  13. Valveless pumping mechanics of the embryonic heart during cardiac looping: Pressure and flow through micro-PIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, D L; Johnson, B; Garrity, D; Dasi, L P

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular development is influenced by the flow-induced stress environment originating from cardiac biomechanics. To characterize the stress environment, it is necessary to quantify flow and pressure. Here, we quantify the flow field in a developing zebrafish heart during the looping stage through micro-particle imaging velocimetry and by analyzing spatiotemporal plots. We further build upon previous methods to noninvasively quantify the pressure field at a low Reynolds number using flow field data for the first time, while also comparing the impact of viscosity models. Through this method, we show that the atrium builds up pressure to ~0.25mmHg relative to the ventricle during atrial systole and that atrial expansion creates a pressure difference of ~0.15mmHg across the atrium, resulting in efficient cardiac pumping. With these techniques, it is possible to noninvasively fully characterize hemodynamics during heart development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crisis management during anaesthesia: cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, W B; Morris, R W; Watterson, L M; Williamson, J A; Paix, A D

    2005-06-01

    Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and the consistency of appropriate management varies considerably. To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD-A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a sub-algorithm for cardiac arrest, in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with anaesthesia. The potential performance of this structured approach for each the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. There were 129 reports of cardiac arrest associated with anaesthesia among the first 4000 AIMS incident reports. Identified aetiological factors were grouped into five categories: (1) anaesthetic technique (11 cases with this category alone; 32 with this and one or more of the other categories, representing 25% of all 129 cardiac arrests); (2) drug related (16; 32, 25%); (3) associated with surgical procedure (9; 29, 22%); (4) associated with pre-existing medical or surgical disease (30; 82, 64%); (5) unknown (8; 14, 11%). The "real life" presentation and management of cardiac arrest in association with anaesthesia differs substantially from that detailed in general published guidelines. Cardiac rhythms at the time were sinus bradycardia (23%); asystole (22%); tachycardia/ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (14%); and normal (7%), with a further third unknown. Details of treatment were recorded in 110 reports; modalities employed included cardiac compression (72%); adrenaline (61%); 100% oxygen (58%); atropine (38%); intravenous fluids (25%), and electrical defibrillation (17%). There

  15. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  16. Cardiac and Metabolic Effects of Dietary Selenomethionine Exposure in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettem, Connor M; Weber, Lynn P; Janz, David M

    2017-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient involved in important metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities. Recent studies have reported that elevated dietary exposure of fish to selenomethionine (Se-Met) can alter aerobic metabolic capacity, energetics and swimming performance. This study aims to further investigate mechanisms of sublethal Se-Met toxicity, particularly potential underlying cardiovascular implications of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dietary Se-Met in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were fed either control food (1.1 μg Se/g dry mass [d.m.]) or Se-Met spiked food (10.3 or 28.8 μg Se/g d.m.) for 90 d at 5% body weight per day. Following exposure, ultrahigh resolution B-mode and Doppler ultrasound was used to characterize cardiac function. Chronic dietary exposure to elevated Se-Met significantly reduced ventricular contractile rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Exposure to Se-Met significantly decreased mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1 alpha and glutathione-S-transferase pi class in liver, and a key cardiac remodelling enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 2, in adult zebrafish heart. Se-Met significantly increased echodensity at the junction between atrium and ventricle, and these results combined with increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression are consistent with cardiac remodelling and fibrosis. The results of this study suggest that chronic exposure to dietary Se-Met can negatively impact cardiac function, and such physiological consequences could reduce the aerobic capacity and survivability of fish. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Role of Clinical Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in China: Current Status and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases. The state-of-the-art CMR imaging has many advantages in cardiac imaging, including excellent spatial and temporal resolution, unrestricted imaging field, no exposure to ionizing radiation, excellent tissue contrast, and unique myocardial tissue characterization. Clinical CMR imaging is used during the cardiovascular diagnostic workup in the United States and some European countries. Use of CMR imaging is emerging in hospitals in China and has a promising future. This review briefly describes the real-world clinical application of CMR imaging in China and discuss obstacles for its future development.

  18. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Ergül

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  19. Cardiac arrest after anesthetic management in a patient with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Yakup; Ekici, Bariş; Keskin, Sabiha

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.

  20. Cardiac pacemaker. [electric-battery powered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolenik, S A

    1976-01-02

    The construction of a cardiac pacemaker is described which is characterized by particularly small dimensions, small weight and long life duration. The weight is under 100g, the specific weight under 1.7. Mass inertia forces which occur through acceleration and retardation processes, thus remain below the threshold values, above which one would have to reckon with considerable damaging of the surrounding body tissue. The maintaining of small size and slight weight is achieved by using an oscillator on COSMOS basis, where by considerably lower energy consumption, among others the lifetimes of the batteries used - a lithium anode with thionyl chloride electrolyte - is extended to over 5 years. The reliability can be increased by the use of 2 or more batteries. The designed dimension are 20x60x60 mm/sup 3/.

  1. Pre-transplantation specification of stem cells to cardiac lineage for regeneration of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Maritza; Finan, Amanda; Penn, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a lead cause of mortality in the Western world. Treatment of acute MI is focused on restoration of antegrade flow which inhibits further tissue loss, but does not restore function to damaged tissue. Chronic therapy for injured myocardial tissue involves medical therapy that attempts to minimize pathologic remodeling of the heart. End stage therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF) involves inotropic therapy to increase surviving cardiac myocyte function or mechanical augmentation of cardiac performance. Not until the point of heart transplantation, a limited resource at best, does therapy focus on the fundamental problem of needing to replace injured tissue with new contractile tissue. In this setting, the potential for stem cell therapy has garnered significant interest for its potential to regenerate or create new contractile cardiac tissue. While to date adult stem cell therapy in clinical trials has suggested potential benefit, there is waning belief that the approaches used to date lead to regeneration of cardiac tissue. As the literature has better defined the pathways involved in cardiac differentiation, preclinical studies have suggested that stem cell pretreatment to direct stem cell differentiation prior to stem cell transplantation may be a more efficacious strategy for inducing cardiac regeneration. Here we review the available literature on pre-transplantation conditioning of stem cells in an attempt to better understand stem cell behavior and their readiness in cell-based therapy for myocardial regeneration.

  2. Zebrafish chemical screening reveals the impairment of dopaminergic neuronal survival by cardiac glycosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Sun

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na(+/K(+ ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na(+/K(+ ATPase α3 subunit (ATP1A3. Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications.

  3. [Role of cardiac magnetic resonance in cardiac involvement of Fabry disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Viviana M; Barba, Miguel Angel; Torrá, Roser; Pérez De Isla, Leopoldo; López, Mónica; Calli, Andrea; Feltes, Gisela; Torras, Joan; Valverde, Victor; Zamorano, José L

    2010-09-04

    Fabry disease is a hereditary disorder. Clinical manifestations are multisystemic. The majority of the patients remain undiagnosed until late in life, when alterations could be irreversible. Early detection of cardiac symptoms is of major interest in Fabry's disease (FD) in order to gain access to enzyme replacement therapy. Echo-Doppler tissular imaging (TDI) has been used as a cardiologic early marker in FD. This study is intended to determine whether the cardiac magnetic resonance is as useful tool as TDI for the early detection of cardiac affectation in FD. Echocardiography, tissue Doppler and Cardio magnetic resonance was performed in 20 patients with confirmed Fabry Disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as septum and left ventricular posterior wall thickness ≥12 mm. An abnormal TDI velocity was defined as (Sa), (Ea) and/or (Aa) velocities gadolinium-enhanced images sequences were obtained using magnetic resonance. Twenty patients included in the study were divided into three groups: 1. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy nor tissue Doppler impairment 2. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy and tissue Doppler impairment 3. Those with left ventricular hypertrophy and Tissue Doppler impairment. Late gadolinium enhancement was found in only one patient, who has already altered DTI and LVH. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is the only diagnostic tool able to provide early detection of cardiac affectation in patients with FD. Magnetic resonance provides information of the disease severity in patients with LVH, but can not be used as an early marker of cardiac disease in patients with FD. However MRI could be of great value for diagnostic stratification. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Mathematical Models of Cardiac Pacemaking Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lines, Glenn T.; Maleckar, Mary M.; Tveito, Aslak

    2013-10-01

    Over the past half century, there has been intense and fruitful interaction between experimental and computational investigations of cardiac function. This interaction has, for example, led to deep understanding of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling; how it works, as well as how it fails. However, many lines of inquiry remain unresolved, among them the initiation of each heartbeat. The sinoatrial node, a cluster of specialized pacemaking cells in the right atrium of the heart, spontaneously generates an electro-chemical wave that spreads through the atria and through the cardiac conduction system to the ventricles, initiating the contraction of cardiac muscle essential for pumping blood to the body. Despite the fundamental importance of this primary pacemaker, this process is still not fully understood, and ionic mechanisms underlying cardiac pacemaking function are currently under heated debate. Several mathematical models of sinoatrial node cell membrane electrophysiology have been constructed as based on different experimental data sets and hypotheses. As could be expected, these differing models offer diverse predictions about cardiac pacemaking activities. This paper aims to present the current state of debate over the origins of the pacemaking function of the sinoatrial node. Here, we will specifically review the state-of-the-art of cardiac pacemaker modeling, with a special emphasis on current discrepancies, limitations, and future challenges.

  5. Contribution of cardiac and extra-cardiac disease burden to risk of cardiovascular outcomes varies by ejection fraction in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Claggett, Brian; Køber, Lars

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) often have multiple co-morbidities that contribute to the risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) and non-CV outcomes. We assessed the relative contribution of cardiac and extra-cardiac disease burden and demographic factors to CV outcomes in HF patients...... Association class, systolic blood pressure, time since HF diagnosis, HF medication use), extra-cardiac (body mass index, creatinine, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoker), and demographic (age, gender) categories, and calculated subscores for each patient representing the burden......EF patients (PAR: 76% cardiac disease vs. 58% extra-cardiac disease, P vs. 49% extra-cardiac disease, P

  6. Update on the slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Ks)): role in modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2012-01-01

    The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) is the slow component of cardiac delayed rectifier current and is critical for the late phase repolarization of cardiac action potential. This current is also an important target for Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to regulate the cardiac electivity to accommodate to heart rate alterations in response to exercise or emotional stress and can be up-regulated by β- adrenergic or other signal molecules. I(Ks) channel is originated by the co-assembly of pore-forming KCNQ1 α-subunit and accessory KCNE1 β-subunit. Mutations in any subunit can bring about severe long QT syndrome (LQT-1, LQT-5) as characterized by deliquium, seizures and sudden death. This review summarizes the normal physiological functions and molecular basis of I(Ks) channels, as well as illustrates up-to-date development on its blockers and activators. Therefore, the current extensive survey should generate fundamental understanding of the role of I(Ks) channel in modulating cardiac function and donate some instructions to the progression of I(Ks) blockers and activators as potential antiarrhythmic agents or pharmacological tools to determine the physiological and pathological function of I(Ks).

  7. Subacute Right Ventricle Perforation by Pacemaker Lead Presenting with Left Hemothorax and Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac perforation by pacemaker is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Acute perforations occurring within twenty-four hours of insertion of pacemaker can lead to hemopericardium, cardiac tamponade, and death. Hemothorax occurring as an acute complication of pacemaker insertion is reported but extremely rare. Previously, hemothorax and shock as a subacute complication following pacemaker insertion have not been reported. We report the case of an 85-year-old patient who presented with shock from hemothorax caused by pacemaker perforation, two weeks after insertion. Device interrogation showed normal function. Chest X-ray and echocardiogram missed lead dislocation and the diagnosis was made on computed tomogram (CT of the chest. Following surgical repair, a new ventricular pacemaker was placed transvenously in the right ventricular septum. This case illustrates that CT scan of the chest should be performed in all patients in whom cardiac perforation by pacemaker is suspected but not diagnosed on chest X-ray and echocardiogram. Normal functioning of pacemaker on device interrogation does not exclude perforation.

  8. Emergency bypass post percutaneous atrial ablation: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2010-11-01

    A 34-year-old male undergoing percutaneous atrial ablation procedure for paroxysmal fibrillation required emergency sternotomy for cardiac tamponade. The patient had been anticoagulated and had received plavix and aspirin prior to and during the ablation procedure. Seven units of red cell concentrate had been transfused in the cardiac catherisation laboratory. On arrival in theatre, the patient was hypotensive, but was awake on induction of anaesthesia. No recordable blood pressure with non-invasive monitoring was observed. A sternotomy was immediately performed and, on evacuation of the pericardium, a bleeding site was not visible. The patient was commenced on cardiopulmonary bypass. Bleeding site was identified and the defect closed. The patient was weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with minimal inotropic support and made an uneventful recovery. Bypass time was 38 minutes. A literature review showed a 1% incidence of post-ablation bleeding(1). The incidence of reverting to bypass for such an event has not been reported previously. During these procedures, it might be wise to have the cardiothoracic team notified while atrial ablation procedures are being performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

  9. Brazilian Portuguese Validated Version of the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391

  10. Cardiac and metabolic changes in long-term high fructose-fat fed rats with severe obesity and extensive intramyocardial lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Lademann, Jacob B; Petersen, Jørgen S; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara; Pedersen, Henrik D; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2010-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related diseases are affecting more and more people in the Western world. The basis for an effective treatment of these patients is a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Here, we characterize fructose- and fat-fed rats (FFFRs) as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 60 kcal/100 kcal fat diet with 10% fructose in the drinking water. After 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 wk of feeding, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, glucose, and lipid levels were measured. Cardiac function was examined by in vivo pressure volume measurements, and intramyocardial lipid accumulation was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Cardiac AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) levels were measured by Western blotting. Finally, an ischemia-reperfusion study was performed after 56 wk of feeding. FFFRs developed severe obesity, decreased glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin and triglyceride levels, and an initial increased fasting glucose, which returned to control levels after 24 wk of feeding. The diet had no effect on blood pressure but decreased hepatic PEPCK levels. FFFRs showed significant intramyocardial lipid accumulation, and cardiac hypertrophy became pronounced between 24 and 36 wk of feeding. FFFRs showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction during unstressed conditions, but their hearts were much more vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion and had a decreased level of phosphorylated AMPK at 6 wk of feeding. This study characterizes a new animal model of the metabolic syndrome that could be beneficial in future studies of metabolic syndrome and cardiac complications.