WorldWideScience

Sample records for characterization study progress

  1. Site Characterization Progress Report Number 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-30

    This is the 21 st progress report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. This report provides a summary-level discussion of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project progress. Accomplishments this period are presented in a format that identifies important progress achieved and conveys how that progress supports the near-term objectives in the U.S. Department of Energy's schedule. Greater detail is documented in the cited references and in deliverables listed in Appendix A to this report. This document provides a discussion of recently completed and ongoing activities conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project during the six-month reporting period from April 1, 1999, through September 30, 1999. Some information presented herein is by necessity preliminary, because some deliverables and reports that support the discussions have not been finalized. Projected future deliverables and reports are listed in Appendix B and are noted in the text as works in progress. Appendix C lists the status of milestone reports referenced in previous progress reports commencing with Progress Report 17. A glossary of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project-specific terms used in this report is given in Appendix D.

  2. Characterization of Asian Summer Monsoon Transport from the Boundary Layer to Lower Stratosphere: Recent Progress from Model Studies and New Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Laura; Honomichl, Shawn; Kinnison, Doug; Bian, Jianchun

    2016-04-01

    The Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) system is a significant driver for transport between the boundary layer and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS). Satellite observations, although provide clear evidence of its global impact on seasonal scales, are unable to resolve the details of the transport process. This work summarizes recent progress in characterizing the transport behavior using global chemistry-climate models (CCMs) and in situ observations. NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model run in specified dynamics mode (WACCM-SD) is used to characterize the sub-seasonal scale dynamical variability of the monsoon system and the impact on transport of boundary layer tracers into lower stratosphere. The analysis focuses on three elements of the transport: uplifting from the boundary layer, transport to the regions outside of ASM at the UTLS level, and transport into stratosphere in association with the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In situ measurements from six years of sounding studies over the Tibetan plateau are analyzed to complement the model analyses. The profiles of ozone, water vapor, cirrus clouds, together with temperature from the soundings provide important insight into the ASM transport behaviors.

  3. Incorporating Disciplinary Practices Into Characterizations of Progress in Responsive Teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Jennifer; Gupta, Ayush

    2015-01-01

    Responsive teaching, in which teachers adapt instruction based on close attention to the substance of students' ideas, is typically characterized along two dimensions: the level of detail at which teachers attend and respond to students' ideas, and the stance teachers take toward what they hear - evaluating for correctness vs. interpreting meaning. We propose that characterizations of progress in responsive teaching should also consider the disciplinary centrality of the practices teachers notice and respond to within student thinking. To illustrate what this kind of progress can look like, we present a case study of a middle school science teacher who implemented the "same" lesson on the motion of freely falling objects in two subsequent years. We argue that his primary shift in responsiveness stemmed from a shift in which disciplinary practices he preferentially noticed and foregrounded. He moved from a focus on causal factors or variables to a more scientifically productive focus on causal stories or expla...

  4. Solvent refined coal studies: effects and characterization of treated solvent refined coal effluent. Progress report, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Woodfield, W.G.; Strand, J.A.

    1978-07-01

    The Freshwater Sciences Section of PNL has initiated biologically oriented studies at the P and M solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant on the Fort Lewis Reservation in western Washington. Essentially, the study objectives are to identify residual components in the treated SRC process and assess potential for adverse impact on water quality and aquatic biota. Since inception of research in mid-1976, six static toxicity tests with treated SRC process effluent have been conducted. Toxic components, not yet specifically identified, sometimes occur in the effluent. It is believed these components involve organic hydrocarbons of the phenol and cresol groups. Analyses have been obtained on inorganic and organic constituents in partially-treated and treated process effluent. Concentrations of inorganics identified in the effluent did not differ greatly from their concentrations in Lake Sequalitchew or SRC plant tap water, but the low concentrations may be due primarily to dilution with freshwater before discharge. Organics identified in the effluent are similar to those found in samples contaminated with petroleum, and involve many complex hydrocarbons.

  5. Recent progress on biosorption of Heavy metals from liquids using low cost biosorbents: characterization, biosorption parameters and mechanism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arief, Vicentius Ochie; Trilestari, Kiki; Indraswati, Nani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Surabaya (Indonesia); Sunarso, Jaka [Division of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Ismadji, Suryadi

    2008-12-15

    A significant number of biosorption studies on the removal of heavy metal from aqueous solutions have been conducted worldwide. Nearly all of them have been directed towards optimizing biosorption parameters to obtain the highest removal efficiency while the rest of them are concerned with the biosorption mechanism. Combinations of FTIR, SEM-EDX, TEM as well as classical methods such as titrations are extremely useful in determining the main processes on the surfaces of biosorbents. Diverse functional groups represented by carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfate and amino groups play significant roles in the biosorption process. Solution pH normally has a large impact on biosorption performance. In brief, ion exchange and complexation can be pointed out as the most prevalent mechanisms for the biosorption of most heavy metals. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Progress on HELIAS systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmer, Felix; Beidler, Craig D.; Dinklage, Andreas; Feng, Yuehe; Geiger, Joachim; Schauer, Felix; Turkin, Yuriy; Wolf, Robert; Xanthopoulos, Pavlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Kemp, Richard; Knight, Peter; Ward, David [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    In order to study and design next-step fusion devices such as DEMO, comprehensive systems codes are commonly employed. For the HELIAS-line, stellarator-specific models have been developed, implemented, and verified within the systems code PROCESS. This systems code ansatz is complemented by self-consistent modeling of plasma scenarios employing a predictive 1-D neoclassical transport code which has been augmented with a model for the edge anomalous transport based on 3-D ITG turbulence simulations. This approach is investigated to ultimately allow one to conduct stellarator system studies, develop design points of HELIAS burning plasma devices, and to facilitate a direct comparison between tokamak and stellarator DEMO and power plant designs. The work reports on the progress towards these goals.

  7. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Characterization of Retinal Disease Progression in a 1-Year Longitudinal Study of Eyes With Mild Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Diabetes Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Luisa; Bandello, Francesco; Tejerina, Amparo Navea

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify eyes of patients with diabetes type 2 that show progression of retinal disease within a 1-year period using noninvasive techniques. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-four type 2 diabetic patients with mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopat...

  9. Progress Report {number_sign}1 on the materials identification, characterization and evaluation activity: Acquisition of materials data from the Exploratory Studies Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the initial work within the Materials Identification, Characterization and Evaluation Sub-activity Integration Activity within the Introduced Materials Task (IMT) (WBS 1.2.3.12.5). The goals of this activity are twofold.: (1) to identify and characterize types and usage of materials that are most likely to be introduced into a potential High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a result of its construction and operation and (2) to provide tools for the Integration Activity to evaluate the chemical impact on the repository based on information gathered from sources external and internal to the Introduced Materials Task-by the Literature Survey Sub-activity (Integration Activity, IMT). Based on this information and assessment, the Integration Activity activates relevant activities within the Introduced Materials Task and provides information to other Tasks within the Yucca Mountain Project.

  10. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1990--March 31, 1991; Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113 (b) (3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. This report is the fourth in a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program, and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, Study Plans, and performance assessment.

  11. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  12. Progress in urban dispersion studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2006-01-01

    The present Study addresses recent achievements in better representation Of the urban area structure in meteorology and dispersion parameterisations. The setup and Main Outcome of several recent dispersion experiments in Urban areas and their use in model validation are discussed. The maximum con...... BUBBLE Tracer Experiment) the horizontal spread of the plume corresponds to a Lagrangian time scale bigger than the value for ground Sources. Turbulence measurements LIP to 3-5 times the building height Lire needed for direct use in dispersion Calculations.......The present Study addresses recent achievements in better representation Of the urban area structure in meteorology and dispersion parameterisations. The setup and Main Outcome of several recent dispersion experiments in Urban areas and their use in model validation are discussed. The maximum...... concentrations generally are predicted within a factor of two by the best models. If the plume is released down in a closely-packed set of obstacles, it is necessary to account for initial spread. If the plume is released above the obstacles, there is less of an initial spread. For roof level releases (the...

  13. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  14. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  15. Progress scored in forest pest studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with co-workers from State Forestry Administration (SFA), researchers of the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ)have scored encouraging progress in their studies of pheromones-based technology against the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte).

  16. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Progress report number 17, April 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), created with the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), is tasked to accept and dispose of the nation`s high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a deep geologic repository (high-level radioactive waste program). The report summarizes significant site characterization activities during the period from April 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997, in the evaluation of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. The progress report also cites technical reports and research products that provide the detailed information on these activities. Chapter 2 outlines technical and regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Project and planned work toward achieving future objectives concerning the viability assessment, the environmental impact statement, the site recommendation, and the license application. Chapter 3 describes technical progress in preclosure radiological safety analysis, postclosure performance assessment, and performance confirmation activities. Chapter 4 describes various aspects of repository and waste package design and construction. It also discusses the Exploration Studies Facility cross drift. Chapter 5 describes site characterization activities, and Chapter 6 contains a complete list of references.

  17. Effects of curriculum organisation on study progress in engineering studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, M.; Jansen, E.P.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Procrastination and time investment are important issues in the study of student performance and progress. Previous research on these issues has mainly concentrated upon individual differences between students in personality and time management skills. However, study progress depends not only on stu

  18. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1993--September 30, 1993, No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the U.S. Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. This report is the ninth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  19. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    In accordance with requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and 10 CFR 60.18(g), the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period October 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993. This report is the eighth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies.

  20. Progress with vegetation studies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Scheepers

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation studies at various levels of detail and using various methods are briefly reviewed. The approach and procedures of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology as a standard methodology for regional studies has become increasingly recognized. Progress has been made in regional studies in the fynbos and woodland biomes. but grassland, forest and karoo vegetation have been much neglected. There have also been marked increases in activity over a wide range of additional vegetation studies including new fields of research, particularly ecosystem studies. However, there are still vast gaps in our knowledge of the basic vegetationa! resources of the country. A systematic regional-study programme is being launched to remedy these deficiencies in fundamental knowledge.

  1. Progress in glial cell studies in some laboratories in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Glial cells in the central nervous system(CNS) consist of a heterogeneous population of cell types,each characterized by distinct morphological features,physiological properties,and specific markers.In contrast to the previous view that glial cells were passive elements in the brain,accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells are active participants in various brain functions and brain disorders.This review summarizes recent progress of glial cell studies from several groups in China,ranging from studies about the mechanisms of neuron-glia crosstalking to investigations on the roles of glial cells in various CNS disorders.

  2. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  4. Progress of Solar Corona Study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xinhua; SONG Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    Solar corona study is an important aspect of space weather research.In recent years,great achieVements have been acquired on the solar corona study by the space physics group of China.This paper gives a brief outline of these progresses that have been made during 2006--2008.This kind of research includes observational study of the corona,theoretical investigations,statistical analysis based on a large number of data sets,numerical method for MHD modeling,numerical study of space weather events,and prediction methods for the complicated processes originating from the solar corona.Each is given as a separate part in the following.

  5. Characterization of Patients with Acinetobacter baumannii Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Progressive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maikel Gómez Carcassés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has become one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. Objective: to characterize the patients diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Acinetobacter baumannii in the Progressive Care Units. Methods: a case series study of patients diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Acinetobacter baumannii was conducted in the Progressive Care Units of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital of Cienfuegos from December 2013 through December 2014. The study variables included: age, sex, comorbid conditions, cause of admission, duration of ventilation, length of stay, antibiotic used, and status at discharge. Results: a total of 39 patients were studied, which accounted for 69.2% of the patients in Progressive Care Units. The mean age was 55.7 years. Males predominated. Sixty four point two percent of patients reported one or more past illnesses. Most admissions to emergency services were due to clinical reasons (51.3%. Sixty nine point two percent of patients received mechanical ventilation for 3 to 21 days. The average stay was 14.7 days. Seventy one point eight percent received a combined antimicrobial treatment and most of them were discharged alive (64.1%. Overall mortality was 35.9%. Conclusions: there was a predominance of males, patients over 60 years of age and clinical cases. The study patients needed mechanical ventilation for a medium length of time and combined antimicrobial treatment. Most patients were discharged alive, and mortality was within the range of that reported in the scientific literature.

  6. Progress in nanoparticles characterization:Sizing and zeta potential measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Xu

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of various nanoparticles is on the center stage in nanotechnology development. The subjects for nanoparticles characterization are focused on particle size and particle surface charge determinations. This article summarizes the latest development in particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering and surface charge determination using electrophoretic light scattering for nano- or even sub-nanoparticles in concentrated suspensions.

  7. Studies in developmental immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1976-05-26

    Progress is reported on studies of genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms, and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. Results are reported from studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms; cellular aspects of the immune system; the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems, primarily from an immunogenetic viewpoint and with particular reference to leukemias in the mouse; and the disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development.

  8. Progress on the CLIC Linear Collider Study

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    The CLIC study aims at a multi-TeV, high luminosity e+e- linear collider design. Beam acceleration uses high frequency (30 GHz), normal conducting structures operating at high accelerating gradients, in order to reduce the length and, in consequence, the cost of the linac. The cost-effective RF power production scheme, based on the so-called Two-beam Acceleration method, enables electrons and positrons to be collided at energies ranging from ~ 0.1 TeV up to a maximum of 5 TeV, in stages. A road map has been drawn up to indicate the research and development necessary to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a 3 TeV centre-of-mass collider with a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1. Considerable progress has been made in meeting the challenges associated with the CLIC technology and the present paper briefly reviews some of them. In particular, the status is given of the studies on the CLIC high-gradient structures, the dynamic time-dependent effects, the stabilisation of the vibration and the beam delivery system. T...

  9. Study of heavy flavored particles. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses progress on the following topics: time-of- flight system; charmed baryon production and decays; D decays to baryons; measurement of sigma plus particles magnetic moments; and strong interaction coupling. (LSP)

  10. Progress of Study on Chlamydial Pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全中; 傅宜志; 陈锦英

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia, a human pathogen that mediates chronic, persistent and repeated infection progress, is capable of inflicting permanent scar formation. A typical reticular body is found in persistent infections. Chlamydial Hsp 60, interferon(IFN) -gamma and other cytokines function in the course of repeated infection. Immunopathological factors mediate chronic infection.

  11. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), the Department has prepared the seventh in a series of reports on the progress of site characterization at the Yucca Mountain candidate site. The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program made significant progress during the reporting period at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Several important advances were made in the surface-based testing program including: initiation of borehole drilling utilizing the new, state-of-the-art LM-300 drill rig which employs dry drilling and coring techniques; neutron access borehole drilling to evaluate infiltration processes; excavations to aid geologic mapping; and trenching in Midway Valley to study Quaternary faulting. A Floodplain Assessment and Statement of Findings was published in the Federal Register which concluded there would be no significant impact nor cumulative impacts on floodplains resulting from Exploratory Studies Facility activities. The National Academy of Sciences` National Research Council released its report entitled ``Ground Water at Yucca Mountain: How High Can It Rise?`` which concluded that none of the evidence cited as proof of groundwater upwelling in and around Yucca Mountain could be reasonably attributed to that process and that significant water table excursions to the repository design level are not shown by the geologic record. The June 29, 1992, earthquake near Yucca Mountain provided scientists with a wealth of information relevant to understanding the neotectonics of the area and the geometry of faults at depth. Early findings suggest that accelerations recorded were well within proposed design limits for the surface waste handling facilities.

  12. Progress in the studies of photoelectrochemical sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical sensor is a new kind of developing analytical device based on the photoelectrochemical properties of materials.Because of its remarkable sensitivity,inherent miniaturization,portability and easy integration,photoelectrochemical analysis is becoming a promising analytical technique.This review focuses on the basic principles,classification,characteristics,and research progress of photoelectrochemical sensors with 94 references.The prospect of the development of photoelectrochemical sensors is also evaluated and discussed.

  13. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome : Clinical Characterization of Progressive Myoclonus Ataxia Caused by GOSR2 Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, Martje E.; Verschuuren - Bemelmans, Cornelia; Nibbeling, Esther A.; Elting, Jan Willem J.; Sival, Deborah A.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; de Vries, Jeroen J.; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sinke, Richard J.; Tijssen, Marina A.; de Koning, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ramsay Hunt syndrome (progressive myoclonus ataxia) is a descriptive diagnosis characterized by myoclonus, ataxia, and infrequent seizures. Often the etiology cannot be determined. Recently, a mutation in the GOSR2 gene (c.430G>T, p.Gly144Trp) was reported in 6 patients with childhood-on

  14. A descriptive study to characterize segmental vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod K Khaitan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Segmental vitiligo is a small but unique subset of vitiligo requiring due importance due to its lack of response to medical treatment but excellent response to surgical treatment. Characterization of the pattern of segmental vitiligo will also help to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. Aim: To characterize clinically the features of segmental vitiligo, a cross-sectional clinical study at dermatology outpatient department at AIIMS was carried out. Methods: Consecutive 188 patients were evaluated to characterize the clinical features of segmental vitiligo by detailed history, clinical examination, and photography. Frequency of each clinical feature was calculated. Results: Certain features such as early onset, initial progression of disease followed by stability, blaschkoid pattern, irregular margins, leucotrichia within and beyond the vitiligo lesion, and islands of pigmented macules within the vitiligo lesion were found to be characteristic of the disease. Conclusions: A combination of various features such as early onset of disease, blaschkoid pattern, irregular margins, leucotrichia, and islands of pigmented macules within the vitiligo lesion are helpful in diagnosis of the disease.

  15. Progresses in studies of nuclear actin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaojuan; ZENG Xianlu; SONG Zhaoxia; HAO Shui

    2004-01-01

    Actin is a protein abundant in cells. Recently, it has been proved to be universally existent in the nuclei of many cell types. Actin and actin-binding proteins, as well as actin-related proteins, are necessary for the mediation of the conformation and function of nuclear actin, including the transformation of actin between unpolymerized and polymerized, chroinatin remodeling, regulation of gene expression and RNA processing as well as RNA transportation. In this paper, we summarized the progresses in the research of nu clear actin.

  16. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July 1982. The study was initiated to: (1)...

  17. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polling, J.R.; Kok, R.G.; Tideman, J.W.; Meskat, B.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeRandomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a

  18. A Contrastive Study of Progressive Aspect in English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田中锋

    2015-01-01

    Aspect, which is different from tense, deals with the internal structure of an action and allows people to describe or understand how an event unfolds over time. This paper examines the similarities and differences between English and Chinese progressive aspect in terms of form, meaning and use. The main findings are that in the first place the progressive aspect in both English and Chinese expresses the same core meaning, which is to describe the incomplete or ongoing state of an event or action. Secondly, the progressive aspect in English must be realized by grammatical device with inflectional changes, whereas in Chinese, it can be realized without verbal inflections (only with aspect markers). Thirdly, there exist differences between the English and Chinese progressive aspect in some specific usages. This contrastive study aims to deepen the understanding of the two languages, and provide practical and effective pedagogical suggestions for Chinese learners of English studying the progressive aspect.

  19. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  20. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  1. Characterization of Micro-RNA Changes during the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delic, Denis; Eisele, Claudia; Schmid, Ramona; Luippold, Gerd; Mayoux, Eric; Grempler, Rolf

    2016-05-03

    The aim of the present pilot study was the identification of micro-RNA changes over time during the development and progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats). T2D is a complex metabolic disorder that is characterized, inter alia, by progressive failure of pancreatic β cells to produce insulin, but also by functional or morphological modifications of others organ, such as liver, adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system. Micro-RNAs are a novel class of biomarkers that have the potential to represent biomarkers of disease progression. In this study, the onset and progression of diabetes was followed in ZDF rats from six weeks until 17 weeks of age. After an initial phase of hyperinsulinemia, the animals developed T2D and lost the capacity to produce sufficient insulin. Circulating miRNAs were measured from plasma samples at four time points: pre-diabetes (six weeks of age), hyperinsulinemia (eight weeks), β cell failure (11 weeks) and late-stage diabetes (17 weeks) using TaqMan miRNA arrays. Bioinformatic analysis revealed distinct changes of circulating miRNAs over time. Several miRNAs were found to be increased over the course of the disease progression, such as miR-122, miR-133, miR-210 and miR-375. The most significantly decreased miRNAs were miR-140, miR-151-3p, miR-185, miR-203, miR-434-3p and miR-450a. Some of the miRNAs have also been identified in type 2 diabetic patients recently and, therefore, may have the potential to be useful biomarkers for the disease progression of T2D and/or the treatment response for anti-diabetic medications.

  2. Progress of Gas Hydrate Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊栓狮; 汪集旸

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview is given on the gas hydrate-related research activities carried out by Chinese researchers in the past 15 years. The content involves: (1) Historical review. Introducing the gas hydrate research history in China; (2) Gas hydrate research groups in China. There are nearly 20 groups engaged in gas hydrate research now; (3) Present studies.Including fundamental studies, status of the exploration of natural gas hydrate resources in the South China Sea region, and development of hydrate-based new techniques; (4) Future development.

  3. Studies on Moss Flora Make Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A research group led by Prof. Gao Qian (Chien Gao) from the CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology was recently awarded a first prize in natural science by Liaoning Province in recognition of its many years of bryophyte studies. The award was conferred by S&T authorities of the northeast China province.

  4. ICPP water inventory study progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, B.T.

    1993-05-01

    Recent data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) indicate that water is entering the sumps located in the bottom of Tank Firm Vaults in quantities that exceed expected levels. In addition, perched water body(s) exist beneath the northern portion of the ICPP. Questions have been raised concerning the origin of water entering the Tank Farm sumps and the recharge sources for the perched water bodies. Therefore, in an effort to determine the source of water, a project has been initiated to identify the source of water for Tank Farm sumps and the perched water bodies. In addition, an accurate water balance for the ICPP will be developed. The purpose of this report is to present the specific results and conclusions for the ICPP water balance portion of the study. In addition, the status of the other activities being conducted as part of study, along with the associated action plans, is provided.

  5. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions.

  6. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and {gamma}-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics.

  7. Progress in the study of tectophysicochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Tectophysicochemistry is a research area that deals with the interrelations between physical and chemical changes of crustal materials caused by tectonism. A given tectonic force may be resolved into two parts: homogeneous stress and differential stress. Homogeneous stress refers to isotopic pressure, which is superimposed on the original pressure and affects the equilibrium of various chemical reactions. It is also a factor that influences petrogenesis, metallogenesis and metamorphism. Differential stress is commonly produced when external forces act on a given solid body. It may cause deformation of crustal materials and generate various kinds of structural features. Tectophysicochemistry pays special attention to pressure, temperature and other physicochemical conditions produced or induced by tectonism and studies the influences of additional tectonic parameters on various chemical equilibria, so it gradually develops into an independent area of science.

  8. Studies in development immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1975-03-26

    This contract provides the research support for a group concerned with a relatively large range of problems. The integrating thread that runs through it is that of an interest in development and its genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. It includes studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms, and cellular aspects of the immune system. It extends into the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems, primarily from an immunogenetic viewpoint and with particular reference to leukemias in the mouse, and to disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development.

  9. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. October 1, 1996--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report is the sixteenth in a series issued approximately every six months to report progress and results of site characterization activities being conducted to evaluate Yucca Mountain as a possible geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report highlights work started, in progress, and completed during the reporting period. In addition, this report documents and discusses changes to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Site Characterization Program (Program) resulting from the ongoing collection and evaluation of site information, systems analyses, development of repository and waste package designs, and results of performance assessment activities. Details on the activities summarized can be found in the numerous technical reports cited throughout the progress report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) activities this period focused on implementing the near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan issued last period. Near-term objectives of the revised Program Plan include updating the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) repository siting guidelines to be consistent with a more focused performance-driven program; supporting an assessment in 1998 of the viability of continuing with actions leading to the licensing of a repository; and if the site is suitable, submittal of a Secretarial site recommendation to the President in 2001 and license application the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2002. During this reporting period, the Project developed and baselined its long-range plan in December 1996. That revision reflected the detailed fiscal year (FY) 1997 work scope and funding plan previously baselined at the end of FY 1996. Site characterization activities have been focused to answer the major open technical issues and to support the viability assessment.

  10. Studies in developmental immunogenetics. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R D

    1977-06-29

    This contract provides the research support for a group concerned with a relatively large range of problems. The integrating thread that runs through it is that of an interest in development and its genetic regulation, mainly in complex organisms and with an emphasis on the immune system as a model for developmental analysis and as a tool for following the development of other systems, especially the brain. It includes studies of biochemical genetics, primarily from a developmental viewpoint and with particular regard to defense mechanisms, and cellular aspects of the immune system. It extends into the area of cancer immunology and cell specificities as related to tumor systems and to disruptions of genetic control mechanisms in tumor development, especially as approached through the reappearance of fetal antigens associated with tumor development. During the past year, our attention has turned increasingly to genetic factors predisposing to autoimmune disease, and to factors that have been claimed to transfer specific cellular immunity from immune to nonimmune animals.

  11. Social Studies Progress Monitoring and Intervention for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…

  12. Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Progress report, July 1989--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessler, S.

    1990-12-31

    This progress report contains information concerning the characterization of the Maize regulatory gene. The findings of this research program have immediate significance. Firstly, it provides support for the notion that R proteins, produced by the regulatory gene, are functionally equivalent. Secondly, the success of these experiments provides a simple transient assay for either natural or constructed R protein mutations. The relative ease of this assay coupled with overnight results are important prerequisites to the proposed experiments involving a structure-function analysis of the R protein.

  13. Progression of diabetic retinopathy: the Beijing Eye Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Ying; XU Liang; WEI Wen-bin; WANG Shuang; WANG Ya-xing; Jost B Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has emerged as a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in the working-aged population worldwide.This study aimed to assess frequency and associated factors of progression of DR in subjects with known diabetes in a population-based setting.Methods The Beijing Eye Study is a population based study performed in Greater Beijing in 2001 and 2006.The present investigation included all subjects with known diabetes mellitus in 2001,who participated in the follow-up examination in 2006.Fundus photographs were assessed.Results The study included 170 subjects; 51 (30%) subjects showed signs of DR in 2001 and were re-examined in 2006,36 (21.2%) subjects (18 subjects with DR present at baseline,18 subjects with newly diagnosed DR in 2006)showed a progression of DR during follow-up.Progression of DR was associated with rural region (odds ratio (OR):5.43,P=0.001) and self-reported arterial hypertension (OR:3.85,P=0.023).In the non-progressive subgroup,presence of DR was associated with different levels of education (<middle school,middle school,college or higher,OR:0.30,P=0.023),treatment modes of diabetes mellitus (OR:10.24,P=0.003) and cataract surgery (OR:9.14,P=0.007).Conclusions In a population-based setting in Greater Beijing,progression of DR occurred in 35% of subjects with pre-existing DR and overall in 21% of subjects with known diabetes within a 5-year period.Progression of DR was significantly associated with rural region and self-reported arterial hypertension.In the stable subjects,presence of DR was significantly associated with poor educational level,insulin treatment of diabetes and cataract surgery.

  14. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengwu Wang; Xiaoyi Zhang; Jiwei Hu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies o...

  15. Site characterization progress report, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Number 19, April 1, 1998--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-06-01

    The nineteenth semiannual report of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) summarizes activities during the period from April 1, 1998, through September 30, 1998. Project activities are aimed at evaluating Yucca Mountain as a potential location for permanent geologic disposal of nuclear materials, as directed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA). The progress report documents activities this period that contribute to completing the Project`s near-term programmatic and statutory objectives. These objectives include completing the Viability Assessment, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), a possible US Department of Energy (DOE) Secretarial Site Recommendation to the President, and, if the site is suitable, submittal of a license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Project work this period continued to be concentrated in three integrated activities: site characterization, engineering design and construction, and performance assessment. Accomplishments this period and their relation to near-term objectives are briefly summarized.

  16. Increased fundus autofluorescence and progression of geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The GAIN study.

    OpenAIRE

    Biarnés Pérez, Marc, 1973-; Arias, Luis; Alonso Caballero, Jordi; García, Míriam; Hijano, Míriam; Rodríguez, Anabel; Serrano, Anna; Badal, Josep; Muhtaseb, Hussein; Verdaguer, Paula; Monés, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define the role of increased fundus autofluorescence (FAF), a surrogate for lipofuscin content, as a risk factor for progression of geographic atrophy (GA). DESIGN: Prospective natural history cohort study, the GAIN (Characterization of geographic atrophy progression in patients with age-related macular degeneration). METHODS: setting: Single-center study conducted in Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: After screening of 211 patients, 109 eyes of 82 patients with GA secondary to age-rela...

  17. Business Studies within Design and Technology: Continuity and Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maggie; Swainston, David

    1992-01-01

    Explores the placement of business studies courses within design and technology education programs in the United Kingdom. Reports the sense of isolation felt by business educators. Suggests a progression by which economic concepts could be taught on the various grade levels. Calls for further discussion of the proposal. (SG)

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY UNDER PROGRESSIVELY FIRST FAILURE CENSORED RAYLEIGH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyan Prakash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study presented in this article for two different asymmetric loss functions is based on simulation. Two-parameter Rayleigh model is considered here as the underline model for evaluating the properties of Bayes estimators under progressive first failure censored data. Known and unknown both cases of location parameter are considered here for Bayes estimation of scale parameter.

  19. Preface: Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Wayne K.; Lehmann, Volker; Singer, Werner; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere by radar, application of networks, and multi-instrument studies have grown significantly in recent years, and have covered a wide range of areas in technology, fundamental research, and application. This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics on "Recent progress from networked studies based around MST radar" focuses primarily on selected papers presented at the 13th International Workshops on Scientific and Technical Aspects of MST Radar (MST13).

  20. Immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and mutational characterization of cell lines derived from myelodysplastic syndrome patients after progression to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Anna; Mallo, Mar; Palomo, Laura; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ines; Diesch, Jeannine; Campos, Diana; Granada, Isabel; Juncà, Jordi; Drexler, Hans G; Solé, Francesc; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2017-03-01

    Leukemia cell lines have been widely used in the hematology field to unravel mechanistic insights and to test new therapeutic strategies. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and frequent progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A few cell lines have been established from MDS patients after progression to AML but their characterization is incomplete. Here we provide a detailed description of the immunophenotypic profile of the MDS-derived cell lines SKK-1, SKM-1, F-36P; and MOLM-13. Specifically, we analyzed a comprehensive panel of markers that are currently applied in the diagnostic routine for myeloid disorders. To provide high-resolution genetic data comprising copy number alterations and losses of heterozygosity we performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism-based arrays and included the cell line OHN-GM that harbors the frequent chromosome arm 5q deletion. Furthermore, we assessed the mutational status of 83 disease-relevant genes. Our results provide a resource to the MDS and AML field that allows researchers to choose the best-matching cell line for their functional studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990, Number 3; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of Section 113(b)(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, the US Department of Energy has prepared this report on the progress of site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the period April 1 through September 30, 1990. This report is the third of a series of reports that are issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization. The report covers a number of new initiatives to improve the effectiveness of the site characterization program and covers continued efforts related to preparatory activities, study plans, and performance assessment. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Characterization of Machine Variability and Progressive Heat Treatment in Selective Laser Melting of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Tilson, Will; Jones, Zack

    2015-01-01

    The absence of an economy of scale in spaceflight hardware makes additive manufacturing an immensely attractive option for propulsion components. As additive manufacturing techniques are increasingly adopted by government and industry to produce propulsion hardware in human-rated systems, significant development efforts are needed to establish these methods as reliable alternatives to conventional subtractive manufacturing. One of the critical challenges facing powder bed fusion techniques in this application is variability between machines used to perform builds. Even with implementation of robust process controls, it is possible for two machines operating at identical parameters with equivalent base materials to produce specimens with slightly different material properties. The machine variability study presented here evaluates 60 specimens of identical geometry built using the same parameters. 30 samples were produced on machine 1 (M1) and the other 30 samples were built on machine 2 (M2). Each of the 30-sample sets were further subdivided into three subsets (with 10 specimens in each subset) to assess the effect of progressive heat treatment on machine variability. The three categories for post-processing were: stress relief, stress relief followed by hot isostatic press (HIP), and stress relief followed by HIP followed by heat treatment per AMS 5664. Each specimen (a round, smooth tensile) was mechanically tested per ASTM E8. Two formal statistical techniques, hypothesis testing for equivalency of means and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), were applied to characterize the impact of machine variability and heat treatment on six material properties: tensile stress, yield stress, modulus of elasticity, fracture elongation, and reduction of area. This work represents the type of development effort that is critical as NASA, academia, and the industrial base work collaboratively to establish a path to certification for additively manufactured parts. For future

  3. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc and surface tension (γ of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants, biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated .

  4. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  5. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  6. Progress in Studies of Geomagnetic Navigation of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Lanxiang; Pan Yongxin; Lin Wei; Wang Yinan; Zhang Shuyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ The geomagnetic field may play a key role in orientation and navigation of many long-distance migratory animals. Taking homing and migrating birds as examples, this paper reviews recent progress in studies of geomagnetic "compass" of animals.Moreover, we propose to address two aspects in future geomagnetic orientation research: ( 1 ) what are the true components of the "map"? (2) What are the magneto-receptors and which brain areas acquire and process the geomagnetic field information ?

  7. Vibrating-Wire, Supercooled Liquid Water Content Sensor Calibration and Characterization Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael C.; Bognar, John A.; Guest, Daniel; Bunt, Fred

    2016-01-01

    NASA conducted a winter 2015 field campaign using weather balloons at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate a validation database for the NASA Icing Remote Sensing System. The weather balloons carried a specialized, disposable, vibrating-wire sensor to determine supercooled liquid water content aloft. Significant progress has been made to calibrate and characterize these sensors. Calibration testing of the vibrating-wire sensors was carried out in a specially developed, low-speed, icing wind tunnel, and the results were analyzed. The sensor ice accretion behavior was also documented and analyzed. Finally, post-campaign evaluation of the balloon soundings revealed a gradual drift in the sensor data with increasing altitude. This behavior was analyzed and a method to correct for the drift in the data was developed.

  8. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    SCFILE cue ESL-TR-86-22 HERBICIDE ORANGE SITE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY EGLIN AFB 10 A.B. CROCKETT, A. PROPP , T. KIMES EG&G IDAHO, INC O I P.O. BOX...Orange Site Characterization Study.4lin AFB 12- PERSONAL AIITHOS(S) Crockett, A.B. , Propp , A., Kinies T. / \\ 4 Final FROM APX 84/TO Sen 86 1 ... I

  9. Evaluation of geometric features as biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy for characterizing the retinal vascular changes during the progression of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Georgios; Al-Diri, Bashir; Wigdahl, Jeffrey; Hunter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been widely studied and characterized. However, until now, it is unclear how different features, extracted from the retinal vasculature, can be associated with the progression of diabetes and therefore become biomarkers of DR. In this study, a comprehensive analysis is presented, in which four groups were created, using eighty fundus images from twenty patients, who have progressed to DR and they had no history of any other diseases (e.g. hypertension or glaucoma). The significance of the following features was evaluated: widths, angles, branching coefficient (BC), angle-to-BC ratio, standard deviations, means and medians of widths and angles, fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and FD-to-lacunarity ratio, using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) design. All the features were measured from the same junctions of each patient, using an automated tool. The discriminative power of these features was evaluated, using decision trees and random forests classifiers. Cross validation and out-of-bag error were used to evaluate the classifiers' performance, calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the classification error. Widths, FD and FD-to-Lacunarity ratio were found to differ significantly. Random forests had a superior performance of 0.768 and 0.737 in the AUC for the two cases of classification, namely three-years-pre-DR/post-DR and two-years-pre-DR/post-DR respectively.

  10. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  11. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  12. Characterization of caries progression on dentin after irradiation with Nd:YAG laser by FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana, P. A.; Brito, A. M. M.; Zezell, D. M.; Lins, E. C. C. C.

    2015-06-01

    Considering the use of high intensity lasers for preventing dental caries, this blind in vitro study evaluated the compositional and fluorescence effects promoted by Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) when applied for prevention of progression of dentin caries, in association or not with topical application of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). Sixty bovine root dentin slabs were prepared and demineralized by 32h in order to create early caries lesions. After, the slabs were distributed into six experimental groups: G1- untreated and not submitted to a pH-cycling model; G2- untreated and submitted to a pH-cycling model; G3- acidulated phosphate fluoride application (APF); G4- Nd:YAG irradiation (84.9 J/cm2, 60 mJ/pulse); G5- treated with Nd:YAG+APF; G6- treated with APF+Nd:YAG. After treatments, the samples of groups G2 to G6 were submitted to a 4-day pH-cycling model in order to simulate the progression of early caries lesions. All samples were characterized by the micro-attenuated total reflection technique of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (μATR-FTIR), using a diamond crystal, and by a fluorescence imaging system (FIS), in which it was used an illuminating system at λ= 405±30 nm. Demineralization promoted reduction in carbonate and phosphate contents, exposing the organic matter; as well, it was observed a significant reduction of fluorescence intensity. Nd:YAG laser promoted additional chemical changes, and increased the fluorescence intensity even with the development of caries lesions. It was concluded that the compositional changes promoted by Nd:YAG, when associated to APF, are responsible for the reduction of demineralization progression observed on root dentin.

  13. Progress in the synthesis and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guomei; XIA Haiping; JIA Guocheng

    2004-01-01

    Metallabenzenes are metallacyclohexatriene complexes that are derived by replacement of one of the CH groups in benzene with a transition-metal fragment. Their synthesis and aromatic properties have recently attracted considerable attention. This paper summarizes the progress in the synthesis, aromatic property, and reactivity studies of metallabenzenes. We will describe the synthesis and reactivity of typical metallabenzenes with various metals (e.g. osmium, iridium, and ruthenium, etc.), the synthesis and structure of a recent reported example of metallanaphthalene and several rare examples of novel and stable metallabenzynes. Finally, the possible future developments in this field have also been suggested.

  14. On Arithmetic Progressions in Recurrences - A new characterization of the Fibonacci sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Pinter, Akos

    2010-01-01

    We show that essentially the Fibonacci sequence is the unique binary recurrence which contains infinitely many three-term arithmetic progressions. A criterion for general linear recurrences having infinitely many three-term arithmetic progressions is also given.

  15. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1993--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This report is the tenth in a series issued at intervals of approximately six months during site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Also included in this report are descriptions of activities such as public outreach and international programs that are not formally part of the site characterization process. Information on these activities is provided to report on all aspects of the Yucca Mountain studies. The Executive Summary is intended to provide a summary of major decisions, activities, accomplishments, and issues of interest during the reporting period. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides background information to assist the reader in understanding the current status of the program. Chapter 2 provides specific detailed discussions of activities conducted during the current reporting period and has two major divisions. Section 2.1, Preparatory Activities, provides information on select preparatory activities necessary to conduct site characterization and design activities. Sections 2.2 through 2.8 provide specific details on studies and activities conducted during the reporting period and follow the original structure of the Department`s 1988 Site Characterization Plan. Chapter 3 contains the current summary schedule, while Chapter 4 provides a description of the program outreach, including activities during the reporting period, in both the international program and public outreach. Chapter 5 presents an epilogue of significant events that occurred after the end of the reporting period.

  16. Polymer based flapping-wing robotic insect: Progress in design, fabrication, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, A.; Vanneste, T.; Soyer, C.; Paquet, J. B.; Grondel, S.; Cattan, E.

    2014-03-01

    In the last decade, many researchers pursued the development of tiny flying robots inspired by natural flyers destined for the exploration of confined spaces, for example. Within this context, our main objective is to devise a flying robot bioinspired from insect in terms of size and wing kinematics using MEMS technologies. For this purpose, an original design has been developed around resonant thorax and wings by the way of an indirect actuation and a concise transmission whereas the all-polymer prototypes are obtained using a micromachining SU-8 photoresist process. This paper reports our recent progress on the design of a flapping-wing robotic insect as well as on the characterization of its performance. Prototypes with a wingspan of 3 cm and a mass of 22 mg are achieved. Due to the introduction of an innovative compliant link, large and symmetrical bending angles of 70° are obtained at a flapping frequency of 30 Hz along with passive wing torsion while minimizing its energy expenditure. Furthermore, it leads to a mean lift force representing up to 75 % of the prototype weight as measured by an in-house force sensor. Different improvements are currently underway to increase the power-to-weight ratio of the prototype and to obtain an airborne prototype.

  17. Progress in characterization of the Photomultiplier Tubes for XENON1T Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lyashenko, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    We report on the progress in characterization of the Hamamatsu model R11410-21 Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for XENON1T dark matter experiment. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the PMT was measured at low temperatures down to -110 $^0$C (a typical the PMT operation temperature in liquid xenon detectors) in a spectral range from 154.5 nm to 400 nm. At -110 $^0$C the absolute QE increased by 10-15\\% at 175 nm compared to that measured at room temperature. A new low power consumption, low radioactivity voltage divider for the PMTs is being developed. The measurement results showed that the PMT with the current version of the divider demonstrated a linear response (within 5\\%) down to 5$\\cdot$10$^4$ photoelectrons at a rate of 200 Hz. The radioactive contamination induced by the PMT and the PMT voltage divider materials satisfies the requirements for XENON1T detector not to exceed a total radioactive contamination in the detector of 0.5 evts/year/1tonn. Most of the PMTs received from the manufacturer showe...

  18. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D. G.

    1980-02-01

    Progress on each of the following topics is outlined: (1) rotating target neutron source, (2) fusion materials irradiation test facility, (3) environmental characterization, (4) damage production, and (5) damage microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior. (MOW)

  19. progress and prospects for studies on chinese amphibians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    this work summarizes the history and progress of the studies on chinese amphibians since they first appeared in the chinese literature.a wide range of research has been carried out,including the history of the definition of amphibians,faunal surveys,systematic research,ecological research,biochemical research (isozyme and other proteins or peptides,chromosomes,dna),anatomical research,embryological research,phylogenetic and zoogeographical research,and many others such as ultrastructure of organs,crossbreeding test,regeneration of organs,abnormality survey,acoustics,fossils,sperm ultrastructure and parasites.in addition,the prospects for studies on chinese amphibians in future are proposed in this paper.

  20. Growth, characterization, and properties of metastable and modulated semiconductor structures - Prospects for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The general field of preparation and study of metastable and modulated semiconductor structures has progressed rapidly in recent years. This short overview offers an assessment of the progress and current understanding in the areas of fabrication, characterization, and utilization of these new material systems. The discussion includes the more prominent growth techniques, theoretical and experimental analysis of growth kinetics, and an overview of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical characterization. The probable application of these structures for the technological development of new device structures and concepts is considered. The discussion particularly emphasizes the prospects for future studies in view of the specific current understanding.

  1. Study Progress and Trends of Strategic Environmental Assessment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Chunmiao; Shang Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in China has developed rapidly since it was introduced into China in the 1990s.Chinese government promulgated the Environmental Impact As-sessment Law of China (hereinafter referred to as the EIA Law) in 2002.In this law, it is stipulated clearly that regional and sector plans should be assessed.Through investigating materials and ana-lyzing literatures, this article analyses the practical and academic study achievements of SEA in China that have been achieved since the EIA Law was implemented, probes into the current situation of the main level of SEA in China--plan EIA, then summarizes the development characteristics, and eventually, puts forward the development trends of SEA in China.The research conclusions can offer the foundations for comprehending systematically the progress of SEA in China.

  2. Characterization of LEDGF/p75 genetic variants and association with HIV-1 disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Messiaen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75 is an important co-factor involved in HIV-1 integration, the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction is a promising target for the new class of allosteric HIV integrase inhibitors (LEDGINs. Few data are available on the genetic variability of LEDGF/p75 and the influence on HIV disease in vivo. This study evaluated the relation between LEDGF/p75 genetic variation, mRNA expression and HIV-1 disease progression in order to guide future clinical use of LEDGINs. METHODS: Samples were derived from a therapy-naïve cohort at Ghent University Hospital and a Spanish long-term-non-progressor cohort. High-resolution melting curve analysis and Sanger sequencing were used to identify all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region, flanking intronic regions and full 3'UTR of LEDGF/p75. In addition, two intronic tagSNPs were screened based on previous indication of influencing HIV disease. LEDGF/p75 mRNA was quantified in patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: 325 samples were investigated from patients of Caucasian (n = 291 and African (n = 34 origin, including Elite (n = 49 and Viremic controllers (n = 62. 21 SNPs were identified, comprising five in the coding region and 16 in the non-coding regions and 3'UTR. The variants in the coding region were infrequent and had no major impact on protein structure according to SIFT and PolyPhen score. One intronic SNP (rs2737828 was significantly under-represented in Caucasian patients (P<0.0001 compared to healthy controls (HapMap. Two SNPs showed a non-significant trend towards association with slower disease progression but not with LEDGF/p75 expression. The observed variation in LEDGF/p75 expression was not correlated with disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: LEDGF/p75 is a highly conserved protein. Two non-coding polymorphisms were identified indicating a correlation with disease outcome, but further

  3. 21 CFR 601.70 - Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provide useful information. Each annual progress report shall be accompanied by a completed transmittal... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual progress reports of postmarketing studies... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS LICENSING Postmarketing Studies § 601.70 Annual progress reports...

  4. Speech Therapy in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Farrajota

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA is a neurodegenerative disorder with no effective pharmacological treatment. Cognition-based interventions are adequate alternatives, but their benefit has not been thoroughly explored. Our aim was to study the effect of speech and language therapy (SLT on naming ability in PPA. Methods: An open parallel prospective longitudinal study involving two centers was designed to compare patients with PPA submitted to SLT (1 h/week for 11 months with patients receiving no therapy. Twenty patients were enrolled and undertook baseline language and neuropsychological assessments; among them, 10 received SLT and 10 constituted an age- and education-matched historical control group. The primary outcome measure was the change in group mean performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test between baseline and follow-up assessments. Results: Intervention and control groups did not significantly differ on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. A mixed repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of therapy (F(1,18 = 10.763; p = 0.005 on the performance on the Snodgrass and Vanderwart naming test. Conclusion: Although limited by a non-randomized open study design with a historical control group, the present study suggests that SLT may have a benefit in PPA, and it should prompt a randomized, controlled, rater-blind clinical trial.

  5. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  6. Genome-wide association studies in asthma: progress and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    March ME

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael E March,1 Patrick MA Sleiman,1,2 Hakon Hakonarson1,2 1Center for Applied Genomics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Genetic studies of asthma have revealed that there is considerable heritability to the phenotype. An extensive history of candidate-gene studies has identified a long list of genes associated with immune function that are potentially involved in asthma pathogenesis. However, many of the results of candidate-gene studies have failed to be replicated, leaving in question the true impact of the implicated biological pathways on asthma. With the advent of genome-wide association studies, geneticists are able to examine the association of hundreds of thousands of genetic markers with a phenotype, allowing the hypothesis-free identification of variants associated with disease. Many such studies examining asthma or related phenotypes have been published, and several themes have begun to emerge regarding the biological pathways underpinning asthma. The results of many genome-wide association studies have currently not been replicated, and the large sample sizes required for this experimental strategy invoke difficulties with sample stratification and phenotypic heterogeneity. Recently, large collaborative groups of researchers have formed consortia focused on asthma, with the goals of sharing material and data and standardizing diagnosis and experimental methods. Additionally, research has begun to focus on genetic variants that affect the response to asthma medications and on the biology that generates the heterogeneity in the asthma phenotype. As this work progresses, it will move asthma patients closer to more specific, personalized medicine. Keywords: asthma, genetics, GWAS, pharmacogenetics, biomarkers

  7. The Progress of Metabolomics Study in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Qiuhong; Yang, Bingyou; Zhao, Shan; Kuang, Haixue

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played important roles in health protection and disease treatment for thousands of years in China and has gained the gradual acceptance of the international community. However, many intricate issues, which cannot be explained by traditional methods, still remain, thus, new ideas and technologies are needed. As an emerging system biology technology, the holistic view adopted by metabolomics is similar to that of TCM, which allows us to investigate TCM with complicated conditions and multiple factors in depth. In this paper, we tried to give a timely and comprehensive update about the methodology progression of metabolomics, as well as its applications, in different fields of TCM studies including quality control, processing, safety and efficacy evaluation. The herbs investigated by metabolomics were selected for detailed examination, including Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, Atractylodes macrocephala Kidd, Pinellia ternate, etc.; furthermore, some valuable results have been obtained and summarized. In conclusion, although the study of metabolomics is at the early phase and requires further scrutiny and validation, it still provides bright prospects to dissect the synergistic action of multiple components from TCM. Overall, with the further development of analytical techniques, especially multi-analysis techniques, we expect that metabolomics will greatly promote TCM research and the establishment of international standards, which is beneficial to TCM modernization.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Lancet, M.S.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-11-01

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Major topics reported are: (1) The results of a study designed to determine the effects of the conditions employed at the Wilsonville slurry preheater vessel on coal conversion is described. (2) Stable carbon isotope ratios were determined and used to source the carbon of three product samples from Period 49 of UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 37. The results from this coprocessing run agree with the general trends observed in other coprocessing runs that we have studied. (3) Microautoclave tests and chemical analyses were performed to ``calibrate`` the reactivity of the standard coal used for determining donor solvent quality of process oils in this contract. (4) Several aspects of Wilsonville Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) resid conversion kinetics were investigated; results are presented. Error limits associated with calculations of deactivation rate constants previously reported for Runs 258 and 261 are revised and discussed. A new procedure is described that relates the conversions of 850{degrees}F{sup +} , 1050{degrees}F{sup +}, and 850 {times} 1050{degrees}F material. Resid conversions and kinetic constants previously reported for Run 260 were incorrect; corrected data and discussion are found in Appendix I of this report.

  9. Progress report no. 1 : Prairie grouse population and habitat studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report on the wildlife management of prairie grouse. A census of sharp-tailed grouse dancing grounds was again made to determine the population for the...

  10. Progress in studies of natural gas conversion in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changchun; Shen Shikong

    2008-01-01

    Progress in natural gas conversion in China is presented in this paper, including processes of natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas), syngas to liquid hydrocarbons, oxygenates synthesis, methanol to olefins (MTO), methane to aromatics and oxidative coupling of methane (OCM).

  11. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration on minerals. Progress report, June 1992--November, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R. II.

    1993-12-31

    Progress is reported towards elucidating electron transport components of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans involved in the metabolic oxidation of iron. Also included are results of an investigation into the molecular principles whereby the bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble substrates

  12. Study of progressive depigmentation of dog′s muzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A new animal model is developed using dog′s muzzle to demonstrate progressive depigmen-tation after birth. Dog′s muzzle is heavily pigmented with pigment melanin and looks black in colour. Progressive depigmentation was observed two months after birth in a pup born with a depigmented mucous membrane of the mouth and lips. This resembles the vitiligo of humans.

  13. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-08-01

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Progress Report under DOE Contract DE-AC22-89PC89883. Process oils from Wilsonville Run 262 were analyzed to provide information on process performance. Run 262 was operated from July 10 through September 30, 1991, in the thermal/catalytic Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (CC-ITSL) configuration with ash recycle. The feed coal was Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal. The high/low temperature sequence was used. Each reactor was operated at 50% of the available reactor volume. The interstage separator was in use throughout the run. The second-stage reactor was charged with aged Criterion 324 catalyst (Ni/Mo on 1/16 inch alumina extrudate support). Slurry catalysts and sulfiding agent were fed to the first-stage reactor. Molyvan L is an organometallic compound which contains 8.1% Mo, and is commercially available as an oil-soluble lubricant additive. It was used in Run 262 as a dispersed hydrogenation catalyst precursor, primarily to alleviate deposition problems which plagued past runs with Black Thunder coal. One test was made with little supported catalyst in the second stage. The role of phenolic groups in donor solvent properties was examined. In this study, four samples from direct liquefaction process oils were subjected to O-methylation of the phenolic groups, followed by chemical analysis and solvent quality testing.

  15. Progress in preliminary studies at Ottana Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, V.; Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The fast increasing share of distributed generation from non-programmable renewable energy sources, such as the strong penetration of photovoltaic technology in the distribution networks, has generated several problems for the management and security of the whole power grid. In order to meet the challenge of a significant share of solar energy in the electricity mix, several actions aimed at increasing the grid flexibility and its hosting capacity, as well as at improving the generation programmability, need to be investigated. This paper focuses on the ongoing preliminary studies at the Ottana Solar Facility, a new experimental power plant located in Sardinia (Italy) currently under construction, which will offer the possibility to progress in the study of solar plants integration in the power grid. The facility integrates a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, including a thermal energy storage system and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) unit, with a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) plant and an electrical energy storage system. The facility has the main goal to assess in real operating conditions the small scale concentrating solar power technology and to study the integration of the two technologies and the storage systems to produce programmable and controllable power profiles. A model for the CSP plant yield was developed to assess different operational strategies that significantly influence the plant yearly yield and its global economic effectiveness. In particular, precise assumptions for the ORC module start-up operation behavior, based on discussions with the manufacturers and technical datasheets, will be described. Finally, the results of the analysis of the: "solar driven", "weather forecasts" and "combined storage state of charge (SOC)/ weather forecasts" operational strategies will be presented.

  16. Recent Progress in Nanoelectrical Characterizations of CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; To, Bobby; Glynn, Stephen; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Barnes, Teresa; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2016-11-21

    We report two recent nanoelectrical characterizations of CdTe and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells by developing atomic force microscopy-based nanoelectrical probes. Charges trapped at defects at the CdS/CdTe interface were probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) potential mapping and by ion-milling the CdTe superstrate device in a bevel glancing angle of ~0.5 degrees. The results show randomly distributed donor-like defects at the interface. The effect of K post-deposition treatment on the near-surface region of the CIGS film was studied by KPFM potential and scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) resistivity mapping, which shows passivation of grain-boundary potential and improvement of resistivity uniformity by the K treatment.

  17. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Sebastiano; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; Wilson, Stephen M; Henry, Maya L; Filippi, Massimo; Agosta, Federica; Dronkers, Nina F; Henry, Roland G; Ogar, Jennifer M; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome that encompasses three major phenotypes: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. These clinical entities have been associated with characteristic patterns of focal grey matter atrophy in left posterior frontoinsular, anterior temporal and left temporoparietal regions, respectively. Recently, network-level dysfunction has been hypothesized but research to date has focused largely on studying grey matter damage. The aim of this study was to assess the integrity of white matter tracts in the different primary progressive aphasia subtypes. We used diffusion tensor imaging in 48 individuals: nine non-fluent, nine semantic, nine logopenic and 21 age-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to identify bilateral inferior longitudinal (anterior, middle, posterior) and uncinate fasciculi (referred to as the ventral pathway); and the superior longitudinal fasciculus segmented into its frontosupramarginal, frontoangular, frontotemporal and temporoparietal components, (referred to as the dorsal pathway). We compared the tracts' mean fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities for each tract in the different diagnostic categories. The most prominent white matter changes were found in the dorsal pathways in non-fluent patients, in the two ventral pathways and the temporal components of the dorsal pathways in semantic variant, and in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal bundles in logopenic patients. Each of the primary progressive aphasia variants showed different patterns of diffusion tensor metrics alterations: non-fluent patients showed the greatest changes in fractional anisotropy and radial and mean diffusivities; semantic variant patients had severe changes in all metrics; and logopenic patients had the least white matter damage, mainly involving diffusivity, with fractional anisotropy altered only in the temporoparietal component of the dorsal pathway. This study demonstrates

  18. Progress in studies of gene therapy for Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Fan-ying

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a kind of inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by movement problems, cognitive decline and psychiatry disturbance. HD is caused by mutation in gene IT -15 involving the expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG repeat encoding glutamine, which leads to abnormal conformation of huntingtin (Htt protein and finally emerge cytotoxic functions. Currently, HD remains a fatal untreatable disease. Gene therapy for HD discussed in this review is under preclinical studies. Silencing of mutant IT-15 via RNA interference (RNAi or antisense oligonucleotide (ASO has shown some effectiveness in mouse model studies. Increasing the clearance of mutant Htt protein could be achieved by viral-mediated delivery of anti-Htt intrabodies (iAbs or induction of autophagy, and beneficial results have been observed. Ectopic expression of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, mediated either by viral vectors or transplantation of genetically modified cells, has also been proved to be effective. Other gene-modifying methods aiming at correction of transcriptional dysregulation by histone modification, activation of endogenous neural stem cells, and normalization of calcium signaling and mitochondrial function, are also under intensive research. Gene therapy for Huntington's disease is promising, yet a long way remains from preclinical studies to clinical trials.

  19. [Characterization and modification of phage T7 DNA polymerase for use in DNA sequencing]: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This project focuses on the DNA polymerase and accessory proteins of phage T7 for use in DNA sequence analysis. T7 DNA polymerase (gene 5 protein) interacts with accessory proteins for the acquisition of properties such as processivity that are necessary for DNA replication. One goal is to understand these interactions in order to modify the proteins to increase their usefulness with DNA sequence analysis. Using a genetically modified gene 5 protein lacking 3' to 5' exonuclease activity we have found that in the presence of manganese there is no discrimination against dideoxynucleotides, a property that enables novel approaches to DNA sequencing using automated technology. Pyrophosphorolysis can create problems in DNA sequence determination, a problem that can be eliminated by the addition of pyrophosphatase. Crystals of the gene 5 protein/thioredoxin complex have now been obtained and X-ray diffraction analysis will be undertaken once their quality has been improved. Amino acid changes in gene 5 protein have been identified that alter its interaction with thioredoxin. Characterization of these proteins should help determine how thioredoxin confers processivity on polymerization. We have characterized the 17 DNA binding protein, the gene 2.5 protein, and shown that it interacts with gene 5 protein and gene 4 protein. The gene 2.5 protein mediates homologous base pairing and strand uptake. Gene 5.5 protein interacts with E. coli Hl protein and affects gene expression. Biochemical and genetic studies on the T7 56-kDa gene 4 protein, the helicase, are focused on its physical interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and the mechanism by which the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates fuels its unidirectional translocation on DNA.

  20. [Characterization and modification of phage T7 DNA polymerase for use in DNA sequencing]: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This project focuses on the DNA polymerase and accessory proteins of phage T7 for use in DNA sequence analysis. T7 DNA polymerase (gene 5 protein) interacts with accessory proteins for the acquisition of properties such as processivity that are necessary for DNA replication. One goal is to understand these interactions in order to modify the proteins to increase their usefulness with DNA sequence analysis. Using a genetically modified gene 5 protein lacking 3` to 5` exonuclease activity we have found that in the presence of manganese there is no discrimination against dideoxynucleotides, a property that enables novel approaches to DNA sequencing using automated technology. Pyrophosphorolysis can create problems in DNA sequence determination, a problem that can be eliminated by the addition of pyrophosphatase. Crystals of the gene 5 protein/thioredoxin complex have now been obtained and X-ray diffraction analysis will be undertaken once their quality has been improved. Amino acid changes in gene 5 protein have been identified that alter its interaction with thioredoxin. Characterization of these proteins should help determine how thioredoxin confers processivity on polymerization. We have characterized the 17 DNA binding protein, the gene 2.5 protein, and shown that it interacts with gene 5 protein and gene 4 protein. The gene 2.5 protein mediates homologous base pairing and strand uptake. Gene 5.5 protein interacts with E. coli Hl protein and affects gene expression. Biochemical and genetic studies on the T7 56-kDa gene 4 protein, the helicase, are focused on its physical interaction with T7 DNA polymerase and the mechanism by which the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates fuels its unidirectional translocation on DNA.

  1. Progress in Predictability Studies in China(2003-2006)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the last International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics General Assembly(2003),predictability studies in China have made significant progress.For dynamic forecasts,two novel approaches of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and nonlinear local Lyapunov exponents were proposed to cope with the predictability problems of weather and climate,which are superior to the corresponding linear theory.A (ENSO)Was provided based on a theoretical model.To improve the forecast skill of an intermediate coupled ENSO model,a new initialization scheme was developed,and its applicability was illustrated by hindcast experiments.Using the reconstruction phase space theory and the spatio-temporal series predictive method,Chinese scientists also proposed a new approach to improve dynamical extended range(monthly) prediction and successfully applied it to the monthly-scale predictability of short-term climate variations.In statistical forecasts,it Was found that the effects of sea surface temperature on precipitation in China have obvious spatial and temporal distribution features,and that summer precipitation patterns over east China are closely related to the northern atmospheric circulation.For ensemble forecasts,a new initial perturbation method was used to forecast heavy rain in Guangdong and Fujian Provinces on 8 June 1998.Additionally,the ensemble forecast approach was also used for the prediction of a tropical typhoons.A new dowuscaling model consisting of dynamical and statistical methods was provided to improve the prediction of the monthly mean precipitation.This new downscaling model showed a relatively higher score than the issued operational forecast.

  2. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  3. Novel Progress in One-Dimensional Carbon Nanotubes Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNT) have received considerable attention from researchers worldwide. It is not only because of their unique physical properties, but also their potential applications. Recently, researchers of the CAS Institute of Physics have made new progress in the field.

  4. Studies on GaN-based laser devices make progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research team led by YANG Hui and CHEN Lianghui with the CAS Institute of Semiconductors (ISCAS) has made breakthrough progress in addressing key technological problems for the GaN-based laser diodes development. The research results were spoken highly at a panel meeting of experts held on 26 November, 2007 in Beijing.

  5. Recent progress of fuel layering study for FIREX cryogenic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The collaboration research of ILE and NIFS has made progress on the FIREX target developments. We have two fuel layering strategies: a foam shell method and a conical laser guide heating technique. To date, preliminary and principle demonstration stages on both fuel layering methods have been reached. This paper describes the present status of the target developments.

  6. Damage analysis and fundamantal studies. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1979-05-01

    This report is the second in a series of Quarterly Technical Progress Reports on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) which is one element of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program, conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. This report is organized along typical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title (to be published) so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. Chapters 1 and 2 report topics which are generic to all of the DAFS Program: DAFS Task Group Activities and Irradiation Test Facilities, respectively. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 report the work that is specific to each of the subtasks around which the program is structured: A) Environmental Characterization, B) Damage Production, and C) Damage Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior.

  7. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1979-05-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of Quarterly Technical Progress Reports on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) which is one element of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program, conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title (to be published) so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. Chapters 1 and 2 report topics which are generic to all of the DAFS Program: DAFS Task Group Activities and Irradiation Test Facilities, respectively. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 report the work that is specific to each of the subtasks around which the program is structured: A) Environmental Characterization, B) Damage Production, and C) Damage Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior.

  8. The efficacy of the modified Atkins diet in North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy : an observational prospective open-label study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, Martje E; Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet E; Elting, Jan Willem J; Gelauff, Jeannette M; Zutt, Rodi; Sival, Deborah A; Lambrechts, Roald A; Tijssen, Marina A J; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Koning, Tom J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: North Sea Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy is a rare and severe disorder caused by mutations in the GOSR2 gene. It is clinically characterized by progressive myoclonus, seizures, early-onset ataxia and areflexia. As in other progressive myoclonus epilepsies, the efficacy of antiepileptic d

  9. Molecular studies of functional aspects of plant mitochondria. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siedow, J.N.

    1992-03-03

    The goal of this research is to characterize the mechanism by which a protein encoded by mitochondrial genome of cms-T maize (URF13) interacts with a family of the compounds produced by certain fungi (T-toxins) to permeabilize biological membranes. The research carried out during the current funding period has focused on the structure of URF13, and the results support the validity of the three-helix model of URF13 and provide direct evidence for the oligomeric nature of at least some of the URF13 molecules in the membrane. In addition, the toxin binding studies have provided insight into the dynamic nature of the T-toxin:URF13 interaction and the extent to which Asp-39 is crucial to the interaction that leads to membrane pore formation. Additional knowledge of the structure of URF13 is needed if the nature of the interaction between URF13 and T-toxin to produce a hydrophilic pore within the membrane is to ultimately be understood.

  10. Progressive Failure Studies of Composite Panels with and without Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunky, Navin; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davila, Carlos G.; Hilburger, Mark; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Progressive failure analyses results are presented for composite panels with and without a cutout and subjected to in-plane shear loading and compression loading well into their postbuckling regime. Ply damage modes such as matrix cracking, fiber-matrix shear, and fiber failure are modeled by degrading the material properties. Results from finite element analyses are compared with experimental data. Good agreement between experimental data and numerical results are observed for most structural configurations when initial geometric imperfections are appropriately modeled.

  11. Characterization of a Novel 12(S)-HETE Receptor and its Role in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    progression (5). This eicosanoid stimulates several steps of tumor invasion and motility by inducing alterations in the cancer cell cytoskeleton (6...which fall into group A (rhodopsin-like) sub-family. Based on this information, we hypothesize that eicosanoids (such as leukotrienes, prostaglandins...inhibition abilities that various eicosanoids of [3H]-12(S)- HETE binding to the membrane fraction of CHO cells transfected with pcDNA3.1/GPR31. The

  12. Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weibin; Xu, Chunguang; Cho, Younho

    2016-01-01

    Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates.

  13. Characterization of Degradation Progressive in Composite Laminates Subjected to Thermal Fatigue and Moisture Diffusion by Lamb Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Laminate composites which are widely used in the aeronautical industry, are usually subjected to frequency variation of environmental temperature and excessive humidity in the in-service environment. The thermal fatigue and moisture absorption in composites may induce material degradation. There is a demand to investigate the coupling damages mechanism and characterize the degradation evolution of composite laminates for the particular application. In this paper, the degradation evolution in unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite laminates subjected to thermal fatigue and moisture absorption is characterized by Lamb waves. The decrease rate of Lamb wave velocity is used to track the degradation evolution in the specimens. The results show that there are two stages for the progressive degradation of composites under the coupling effect of thermal cyclic loading and moisture diffusion. The present work provides an alternative to monitoring the degradation evolution of in-service aircraft composite Laminates.

  14. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1979 - Study of plutonium oxide leak rates from shipping containers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Madia, W.J.; Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Owzarski, P.C.; Bander, T.J.; Schmidt, E.W.; Yesso, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The study was initiated in October 1976, as outlined in the 189 research proposal submitted previously. Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks. Progress during the reporting period is briefly described on the following tasks: review of the literature and theoretical work relating to transmission of particles through channels; investigation of the relationship of gas flow rates, leak geometries, pressure and temperatures; measurement of the transmission of a well-characterized simulant (UO/sub 2/ powder) through leaks characterized in Task B; measurement of the fuel grade PuO/sub 2/ leaks through a standard leak incorporated into a suitable container; and investigation of PuO/sub 2/ leaks through simulated defected containers. (TFD)

  15. Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    demanding environments in which they work and the excessive lifting and reaching involved in AE tasks. This study characterized the ergonomic risks in...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0014 Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study ...March 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study 5a

  16. 40 CFR 792.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical and chemical characterization... A Study § 792.135 Physical and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLPs shall apply to physical and chemical characterization studies designed to determine...

  17. Recent progress of the characterization of oppositely charged polymer/surfactant complex in dilution deposition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, M

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of oppositely charged polymer and surfactants changes the solubilized state, having a complex precipitation region at the composition of electric neutralization. This complex behavior has been applied to surface modification in the fields of health care and cosmetic products such as conditioning shampoos, as a dilution-deposition system in which the polymer/surfactant mixture at the higher surfactant concentration precipitates the insoluble complex by dilution. A large number of studies over many years have revealed the basic coacervation behavior and physicochemical properties of complexes. However, the mechanism by which a precipitated complex performs surface modification is not well understood. The precipitation region and the morphology of precipitated complex that are changed by molecular structure and additives affect the performance. Hydrophilic groups such as the EO unit in polymers and surfactants, the mixing of nonionic or amphoteric surfactant and nonionic polymer, and the addition of low polar solvent influence the complex precipitation region. Furthermore, the morphology of precipitated complex is formed by crosslinking and aggregating among polymers in the dilution process, and characterizes the performance of products. The polymer chain density in precipitated complex is determined by the charges of both the polymer and surfactant micelle and the conformation of polymer. As a result, the morphology of precipitated complexes is changed from a closely packed film to looser meshes, and/or to small particles, and it is possible for the morphology to control the rheological properties and the amount of adsorbed silicone. In the future, further investigation of the relationships between the morphology and performance is needed.

  18. Study of private enterprise development on the Raft River KGRA. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.J.; Brown, W.S.; Meldrum, P.D.

    1977-07-01

    Information, analysis, and conclusions based on the small for-profit venture business model are presented. The necessary tasks are described and progress is reviewed. Water availability and business analysis problems are described. Included in the appendix are materials on land availability, characterization of geothermal resources under Idaho law, and greenhouse analysis and geothermal applications. (MHR)

  19. Progress in spondylarthritis. Progress in studies of the genetics of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew A

    2009-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput SNP genotyping methods has advanced research into the genetics of common complex genetic diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) rapidly in recent times. The identification of associations with the genes IL23R and ERAP1 have been robustly replicated, and advances have been made in studies of the major histocompatibility complex genetics of AS, and of KIR gene variants and the disease. The findings are already being translated into increased understanding of the immunological pathways involved in AS, and raising novel potential therapies. The current studies in AS remain underpowered, and no full genomewide association study has yet been reported in AS; such studies are likely to add to the significant advances that have already been made.

  20. Microsensors for in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological characterization of mixed waste. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, T.G.; Warmack, R.J.; Dabestani, R.; Britt, P.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Brown, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    'A widespread need exists for portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for characterization of mixed wastes, groundwater, contaminated solids, and process streams. None of the currently available technologies offer a clear path to the development of sensors that are miniature, cost-effective, selective, highly sensitive with a wide dynamic range, and have the ability to work in air or liquid while providing chemical, physical, and radiological information. The objective of this research program is to conduct the fundamental research necessary to develop microcantilever-based micromechanical sensors for in-situ characterization of groundwater, sediments, and mixed wastes. Chemical selectivity will be achieved by coupling surface modification chemistry with molecular recognition agents. Physical measurements of adsorption (absorption) induced deflection (bending) and resonance frequency variation of microcantilevers can be achieved with extreme precision resulting in ppb-ppt sensitivity. Good progress has been made in the first nine months of this project. Progress has been made in three focus areas: radiation detection, detection of heavy metals in water, modification of microcantilever surfaces for chemical selectivity, and pH measurement.'

  1. Progress study of the cardiac damage in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a fatal muscular disease with rapid progression in children. Most patients die of respiratory and circulatory failure before the age of 20 if there is no systematic treatment. Now the heart problem in this disease has become increasingly prominent, and is thought to be closely associated with certain dystrophin exon deletion. We would like to review the epidemiology, relevance of dystrophin, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and pathological features, as well as early prevention and treatment of DMD.

  2. Recent Progress in Studies of Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyu; DING Yihui; ZHAO Zongci; ZHENG Jingyun; WU Tongwen; TANG Guoli; XU Ying

    2012-01-01

    An overview of basic research on climate change in recent years in China is presented. In the past 100 years in China,average annual mean surface air temperature (SAT) has increased at a rate ranging from 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 to 0.12℃ (10 yr)-1.This warming is more evident in northern China and is more significant in winter and spring.In the past 50 years in China,at least 27% of the average annual warming has been caused by urbanization.Overall,no significant trends have been detected in annual and/or summer precipitation in China on a whole for the past 100 years or 50 years. Both increases and decreases in frequencies of major extreme climate events have been observed for the past 50 years. The frequencies of extreme temperature events have generally displayed a consistent pattern of change across the country,while the frequencies of extreme precipitation events have shown only regionally and seasonally significant trends.The frequency of tropical cyclone landfall decreased slightly,but the frequency of sand/dust storms decreased significantly.Proxy records indicate that the annual mean SAT in the past a few decades is the highest in the past 400-500 years in China,but it may not have exceeded the highest level of the Medieval Warm Period (1000-1300 AD).Proxy records also indicate that droughts and floods in eastern China have been characterized by continuously abnormal rainfall periods,with the frequencies of extreme droughts and floods in the 20th century most likely being near the average levels of the past 2000 years.The attribution studies suggest that increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to be a main factor for the observed surface warming nationwide.The Yangtze River and Huaihe River basins underwent a cooling trend in summer over the past 50 years,which might have been caused by increased aerosol concentrations and cloud cover.However,natural climate variability might have been a main driver for the mean and

  3. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report updates the progress of a bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July, 1982. The study objectives are: (1) to determine and compare...

  4. 1984 Pacific walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Little Diomede Island, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a progress update on the Pacific walrus harvest study that has been conducted in Diomede, Alaska in previous years. Study methods and results are...

  5. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report, update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July of 1982. The study objectives are: to...

  6. Progress on the europium neutron capture study using DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R. A.; Parker, W.; Wilk, P.; Wu, C. Y.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Mitchell, G. E.; Sheets, S.; Bečvář, F.; Krtička, M.

    2007-08-01

    The accurate measurement of neutron capture cross sections of the Eu isotopes is important for many reasons including nuclear astrophysics and nuclear diagnostics. Neutron capture excitation functions of 151,153Eu targets were measured recently using a 4π γ-ray calorimeter array DANCE located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for En = 0.1-100 keV. The progress on the data analysis efforts is given in the present paper. The γ-ray multiplicity distributions for the Eu targets and Be backing are significantly different. The γ-ray multiplicity distribution is found to be the same for different neutron energies for both 151Eu and 153Eu. The statistical simulation to model the γ-ray decay cascade is summarized.

  7. Progress on the Europium Neutron-Capture Study using DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Macri, R A; Parker, W; Wilk, P; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T A; Esch, E; Haight, R C; O' Donnell, J M; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R S; Schwantes, J M; Ullmann, J L; Vieira, D J; Wilhelmy, J B; Wouters, J M; Mitchell, G E; Sheets, S A; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

    2006-09-05

    The accurate measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of the Eu isotopes is important for many reasons including nuclear astrophysics and nuclear diagnostics. Neutron capture excitation functions of {sup 151,153}Eu targets were measured recently using a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter array DANCE located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for E{sub n} = 0.1-100 keV. The progress on the data analysis efforts is given in the present paper. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distributions for the Eu targets and Be backing are significantly different. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution is found to be the same for different neutron energies for both {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu. The statistical simulation to model the {gamma}-ray decay cascade is summarized.

  8. Progress on the europium neutron capture study using DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agvaanluvsan, U. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: agvaanluvsan1@llnl.gov; Becker, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Macri, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Parker, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wilk, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wu, C.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, P.O. Box 808, L-414, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bredeweg, T.A.; Esch, E.; Haight, R.C.; O' Donnell, J.M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Schwantes, J.M.; Ullmann, J.L.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Wouters, J.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mitchell, G.E.; Sheets, S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M. [Charles University in Prague, CZ 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2007-08-15

    The accurate measurement of neutron capture cross sections of the Eu isotopes is important for many reasons including nuclear astrophysics and nuclear diagnostics. Neutron capture excitation functions of {sup 151,153}Eu targets were measured recently using a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter array DANCE located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for E {sub n} = 0.1-100 keV. The progress on the data analysis efforts is given in the present paper. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distributions for the Eu targets and Be backing are significantly different. The {gamma}-ray multiplicity distribution is found to be the same for different neutron energies for both {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu. The statistical simulation to model the {gamma}-ray decay cascade is summarized.

  9. Comparative study of factor structure of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, A; Schaller, S

    1980-12-01

    The Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices were administered on group or individual bases to children ranging in age from 4 yr. 9 mo. to 11 yr. 0 mo. (N = 728). Factor analysis yielded three factors: 1. Perceptual closure involving complex figures and patterns with heterogeneous inner structures, 2. Concrete and abstract reasoning, 3. Completion of homogeneous patterns and recognition of given elements. Factor matrix comparisons across age groups resulted in a mean similarity coefficient of .75. Comparisons of data with earlier analyses also resulted in high similarity. This supports the hypothesis of a three-factor structure rather than a four-factor solution or a simple dual classification into items which can be solved by perceptual processes and those which require conceptual solutions.

  10. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  11. Recent Progress and Perspectives in the Electrokinetic Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Zimmermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the charge, structure and molecular interactions of/within polymeric substrates defines an important analytical challenge in materials science. Accordingly, advanced electrokinetic methods and theories have been developed to investigate the charging mechanisms and structure of soft material coatings. In particular, there has been significant progress in the quantitative interpretation of streaming current and surface conductivity data of polymeric films from the application of recent theories developed for the electrohydrodynamics of diffuse soft planar interfaces. Here, we review the theory and experimental strategies to analyze the interrelations of the charge and structure of polyelectrolyte layers supported by planar carriers under electrokinetic conditions. To illustrate the options arising from these developments, we discuss experimental and simulation data for plasma-immobilized poly(acrylic acid films and for a polyelectrolyte bilayer consisting of poly(ethylene imine and poly(acrylic acid. Finally, we briefly outline potential future developments in the field of the electrokinetics of polyelectrolyte layers.

  12. US Progress on Property Characterization to Support LEU U-10 Mo Monolithic Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Laboratory; Rabin, Barry H [Idaho National Laboratory; Smith, James Arthur [Idaho National Laboratory; Scott, Clark Landon [Idaho National Laboratory; Benefiel, Bradley Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Larsen, Eric David [Idaho National Laboratory; Lind, Robert Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Sell, David Alan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    The US High Performance Research Reactor program is pursuing development and qualification of a new high density monolithic LEU fuel to facilitate conversion of five higher power research reactors located in the US (ATR, HFIR, NBSR, MIT and MURR). In order to support fabrication development and fuel performance evaluations, new testing capabilities are being developed to evaluate the properties of fuel specimens. Residual stress and fuel-cladding bond strength are two characteristics related to fuel performance that are being investigated. In this overview, new measurement capabilities being developed to assess these characteristics in both fresh and irradiated fuel are described. Progress on fresh fuel testing is summarized and on-going hot-cell implementation efforts to support future PIE campaigns are detailed. It is anticipated that benchmarking of as-fabricated fuel characteristics will be critical to establishing technical bases for specifications that optimize fuel fabrication and ensure acceptable in-reactor fuel performance.

  13. The molecular characterization of the lignin-forming peroxidase. Progress summary report, April 1, 1989--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1992-04-01

    This laboratory is committed to understanding the function of plant peroxidases via a multi-disciplinary approach. We have chosen the lignin-forming peroxidase from tobacco as the first isoenzyme to be subjected to this comprehensive approach. The goals which were set out upon the initiation of this project were as follows: (1) utilize a cDNA clone to the tobacco anionic peroxidase to generate transgenic plants which either over-produced this isoenzyme or specifically under-produced this isoenzyme via antisense RNA, (2) describe any phenotypic changes resulting from altered peroxidase expression, (3) perform morphological, physiological, and biochemical analysis of the above mentioned plants to help in determining the in planta function for this enzyme, and (4) clone and characterize the gene for the tobacco anionic peroxidase. A summary of progress thus far which includes both published and unpublished work will be presented in three sections: generation and characterization of transgenic plants, description of phenotypes, and biochemical and physiological analysis of peroxidase function, and cloning and characterization of the tobacco anionic peroxidase gene.

  14. Characterizing healthy samples for studies of human cognitive aging

    OpenAIRE

    Geldmacher, David S.; Levin, Bonnie E.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the cognitive declines associated with aging, and differentiating them from the effects of disease in older adults, are important goals for human neuroscience researchers. This is also an issue of public health urgency in countries with rapidly aging populations. Progress toward understanding cognitive aging is complicated by numerous factors. Researchers interested in cognitive changes in healthy older adults need to consider these complexities when they design and interpre...

  15. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL, and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. The core of the HEVA methodology, the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, serves as an indirect method for the measurement of total neutron emission from the cylinder. A method for measuring the intrinsic efficiency of this “non-traditional” neutron signature and the results from a benchmark experiment are presented. Also discussed are potential perturbing effects on the non-traditional signature, including short-lived activation of materials in the HEVA module. Modeling and empirical results are presented to demonstrate that such effects are expected to be negligible for the envisioned implementation scenario. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high-energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  16. Hierarchical zeolites: progress on synthesis and characterization of mesoporous zeolite single crystal catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustova, Marina; Egeblad, Kresten; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    in a hierarchical pore size distribution. In this work, the preparation of mesoporous ZSM-12 single crystal catalysts using a new improved procedure for directly introducing carbon in the reaction mixture is reported. The microwave heating technique is also applied for the synthesis of mesoporous silicalite-1...... single crystals using this direct introduction of carbon into the reaction mixture. All samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD), and N-2 adsorption...

  17. [Progress of anti-tumor study based on BRAF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gui-Rui; Xu, Zhi-Jian; Wang, He-Yao; Zhu, Wei-Liang

    2012-12-01

    BRAF is one of the most important pro-oncogenes, which is mutated in approximately 8% of human tumors. The most common BRAF mutation is a valine-to-glutamate transition (V600E) that is expressed primarily in melanoma, colorectal cancer and thyroid carcinoma. MEK/ERK is constitutively activated in the cells expressing BRAFV600E, leading to tumor development, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, BRAFV600E is a therapeutic target for melanoma and some other BRAFV600E tumors. Vemurafenib, a BRAFV600E inhibitor, which was approved by FDA for the treatment of late-stage melanoma in 2011, produces improved rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with the BRAFV600E mutation, making a dramatic breakthrough in melanoma treatment. Vemurafenib is also an individual target drug based on genetic diagnosis. However, its therapeutic success is limited by the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to explore the mechanisms underlying the resistance for developing new inhibitor drugs and for preventing or delaying the resistance evolution to BRAF inhibitor drugs. In this review, we described the role of BRAFV600E as an anti-tumor drug target and the development of BRAF inhibitors. We also discussed the mechanisms leading to resistance of BRAFV600E inhibitors. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies that might be employed to overcome acquired resistance were proposed.

  18. Progress in characterizing the multidimensional color quality properties of white LED light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Kees; Hoelen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of solid state light sources, the variety in emission spectra is almost unlimited. However, the set of standardized parameters to characterize a white LED light source, such as correlated color temperature (CCT) and CIE general color rendering index (Ra), is known to be limited and insufficient for describing perceived differences between light sources. Several characterization methods have been proposed over the past decades, but their contribution to perceived color quality has not always been validated. To gain more insight in the relevant characteristics of the emission spectra for specific applications, we have conducted a perception experiment to rate the attractiveness of three sets of objects, including fresh food, packaging materials and skin tones. The objects were illuminated with seven different combinations of Red, Green, Blue, Amber and White LEDs, all with the same CCT and illumination level, but with differences in Ra and color saturation. The results show that, in general, object attractiveness does not correlate well with Ra, but shows a positive correlation with saturation increase for two out of three applications. There is no clear relation between saturation and skin tone attractiveness, partly due to differences in preference between males and females. A relative gamut area index (Ga) represents the average change in saturation and a complementary color vector graphic shows the direction and magnitude of chromatic differences for the eight CIE-1974 test-color samples. Together with the CIE general color rendering index (Ra) they provide useful information for designing and optimizing application specific emission spectra.

  19. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Number 15, April 1--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1996, activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (Project) supported the objectives of the revised Program Plan released this period by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (Department). Outlined in the revised plan is a focused, integrated program of site characterization, design, engineering, environmental, and performance assessment activities that will achieve key Program and statutory objectives. The plan will result in the development of a license application for repository construction at Yucca Mountain, if the site is found suitable. Activities this period focused on two of the three near-term objectives of the revised plan: updating in 1997 the regulatory framework for determining the suitability of the site for the proposed repository concept and providing information for a 1998 viability assessment of continuing toward the licensing of a repository. The Project has also developed a new design approach that uses the advanced conceptual design published during the last reporting period as a base for developing a design that will support the viability assessment. The initial construction phase of the Thermal Testing Facility was completed and the first phase of the in situ heater tests began on schedule. In addition, phase-one construction was completed for the first of two alcoves that will provide access to the Ghost Dance fault.

  20. Progression to deep sleep is characterized by changes to BOLD dynamics in sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ben; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Jovicich, Jorge; Laufs, Helmut; Hasson, Uri

    2016-04-15

    Sleep has been shown to subtly disrupt the spatial organization of functional connectivity networks in the brain, but in a way that largely preserves the connectivity within sensory cortices. Here we evaluated the hypothesis that sleep does impact sensory cortices, but through alteration of activity dynamics. We therefore examined the impact of sleep on hemodynamics using a method for quantifying non-random, high frequency signatures of the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal (amplitude variance asymmetry; AVA). We found that sleep was associated with the elimination of these dynamics in a manner that is restricted to auditory, motor and visual cortices. This elimination was concurrent with increased variance of activity in these regions. Functional connectivity between regions showing AVA during wakefulness maintained a relatively consistent hierarchical structure during wakefulness and N1 and N2 sleep, despite a gradual reduction of connectivity strength as sleep progressed. Thus, sleep is related to elimination of high frequency non-random activity signatures in sensory cortices that are robust during wakefulness. The elimination of these AVA signatures conjointly with preservation of the structure of functional connectivity patterns may be linked to the need to suppress sensory inputs during sleep while still maintaining the capacity to react quickly to complex multimodal inputs.

  1. Redox subpopulations and the risk of cancer progression: a new method for characterizing redox heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that a malignant tumor is akin to a complex organ comprising of various cell populations including tumor cells that are genetically, metabolically and functionally different. Our redox imaging data have demonstrated intra-tumor redox heterogeneity in all mouse xenografts derived from human melanomas, breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Based on the signals of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp, including flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)) and their ratio, i.e., the redox ratio, which is an indicator of mitochondrial metabolic status, we have discovered several distinct redox subpopulations in xenografts of breast tumors potentially recapitulating functional/metabolic heterogeneity within the tumor. Furthermore, xenografts of breast tumors with higher metastatic potential tend to have a redox subpopulation whose redox ratio is significantly different from that of tumors with lower metastatic potential and usually have a bi-modal distribution of the redox ratio. The redox subpopulations from human breast cancer samples can also be very complex with multiple subpopulations as determined by fitting the redox ratio histograms with multi- Gaussian functions. In this report, we present a new method for identifying the redox subpopulations within individual breast tumor xenografts and human breast tissues, which may be used to differentiate between breast cancer and normal tissue and among breast cancer with different risks of progression.

  2. A study on the late core melt progression in pressurized water reactor severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jeun Gyoo Dong; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Park, Seh In; Lim, Jae Hyuck; Park, Seong Yong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Hyung Hmm [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    After TMI-2 accidents, it has been paid much attention to severe accidents beyond the design basis accidents and the research on the progress of severe accidents and mitigation and the closure of severe accidents has been actively performed. In particular, a great deal of uncertainties yet exist in the phase of late core melt progression and thus the research on this phase of severe accident progress has a key role in obtaining in severe accident mitigation and nuclear reactor safety. In the present study, physics of late core melt progression, experimental data and the major phenomenological models of computer codes are reviewed and a direction of reducing the uncertainties in the late core melt progression os proposed.

  3. In vivo MRI characterization of progressive cardiac dysfunction in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Stuckey

    Full Text Available AIMS: The mdx mouse has proven to be useful in understanding the cardiomyopathy that frequently occurs in muscular dystrophy patients. Here we employed a comprehensive array of clinically relevant in vivo MRI techniques to identify early markers of cardiac dysfunction and follow disease progression in the hearts of mdx mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serial measurements of cardiac morphology and function were made in the same group of mdx mice and controls (housed in a non-SPF facility using MRI at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after birth. Left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV systolic and diastolic function, response to dobutamine stress and myocardial fibrosis were assessed. RV dysfunction preceded LV dysfunction, with RV end systolic volumes increased and RV ejection fractions reduced at 3 months of age. LV ejection fractions were reduced at 12 months, compared with controls. An abnormal response to dobutamine stress was identified in the RV of mdx mice as early as 1 month. Late-gadolinium-enhanced MRI identified increased levels of myocardial fibrosis in 6, 9 and 12-month-old mdx mice, the extent of fibrosis correlating with the degree of cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: MRI could identify cardiac abnormalities in the RV of mdx mice as young as 1 month, and detected myocardial fibrosis at 6 months. We believe these to be the earliest MRI measurements of cardiac function reported for any mice, and the first use of late-gadolinium-enhancement in a mouse model of congenital cardiomyopathy. These techniques offer a sensitive and clinically relevant in vivo method for assessment of cardiomyopathy caused by muscular dystrophy and other diseases.

  4. Design, synthesis, characterization and study of novel conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    After introducing the subject of conjugated polymers, the thesis has three sections each containing a literature survey, results and discussion, conclusions, and experimental methods on the following: synthesis, characterization of electroluminescent polymers containing conjugated aryl, olefinic, thiophene and acetylenic units and their studies for use in light-emitting diodes; synthesis, characterization and study of conjugated polymers containing silole unit in the main chain; and synthesis, characterization and study of silicon-bridged and butadiene-linked polythiophenes.

  5. A progress report on the ARRA-funded geotechnical site characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K.; Di Matteo, A.; Diehl, J.; Jack, S.

    2011-12-01

    For the past 18 months, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has funded geotechnical site characterizations at 189 seismographic station sites in California and the central U.S. This ongoing effort applies methods involving surface-wave techniques, which include the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique and one or more of the following: spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), active and passive multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and passive array microtremor techniques. From this multi-method approach, shear-wave velocity profiles (VS) and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 meters (VS30) are estimated for each site. To accommodate the variability in local conditions (e.g., rural and urban soil locales, as well as weathered and competent rock sites), conventional field procedures are often modified ad-hoc to fit the unanticipated complexity at each location. For the majority of sites (>80%), fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion-based techniques are deployed and where complex geology is encountered, multiple test locations are made. Due to the presence of high velocity layers, about five percent of the locations require multi-mode inversion of Rayleigh wave (MASW-based) data or 3-D array-based inversion of SASW dispersion data, in combination with shallow P-wave seismic refraction and/or HVSR results. Where a strong impedance contrast (i.e. soil over rock) exists at shallow depth (about 10% of sites), dominant higher modes limit the use of Rayleigh wave dispersion techniques. Here, use of the Love wave dispersion technique, along with seismic refraction and/or HVSR data, is required to model the presence of shallow bedrock. At a small percentage of the sites, surface wave techniques are found not suitable for stand-alone deployment and site characterization is limited to the use of the seismic refraction technique. A USGS Open File Report-describing the surface geology, VS profile and the

  6. Evaluation of Study and Patient Characteristics of Clinical Studies in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ziemssen

    Full Text Available So far, clinical studies in primary progressive MS (PPMS have failed to meet their primary efficacy endpoints. To some extent this might be attributable to the choice of assessments or to the selection of the study population.The aim of this study was to identify outcome influencing factors by analyzing the design and methods of previous randomized studies in PPMS patients without restriction to intervention or comparator.A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the COCHRANE Central Register of Controlled Trials (inception to February 2015. Keywords included PPMS, primary progressive multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Randomized, controlled trials of at least one year's duration were selected if they included only patients with PPMS or if they reported sufficient PPMS subgroup data. No restrictions with respect to intervention or comparator were applied. Study quality was assessed by a biometrics expert. Relevant baseline characteristics and outcomes were extracted and compared.Of 52 PPMS studies identified, four were selected. Inclusion criteria were notably different among studies with respect to both the definition of PPMS and the requirements for the presence of disability progression at enrolment. Differences between the study populations included the baseline lesion load, pretreatment status and disease duration. The rate of disease progression may also be an important factor, as all but one of the studies included a large proportion of patients with a low progression rate. In addition, the endpoints specified could not detect progression adequately.Optimal PPMS study methods involve appropriate patient selection, especially regarding the PPMS phenotype and progression rate. Functional composite endpoints might be more sensitive than single endpoints in capturing progression.

  7. Evaluation of Study and Patient Characteristics of Clinical Studies in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, T.; Rauer, S.; Stadelmann, C.; Henze, T.; Koehler, J.; Penner, I.-K.; Lang, M.; Poehlau, D.; Baier-Ebert, M.; Schieb, H.; Meuth, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background So far, clinical studies in primary progressive MS (PPMS) have failed to meet their primary efficacy endpoints. To some extent this might be attributable to the choice of assessments or to the selection of the study population. Objective The aim of this study was to identify outcome influencing factors by analyzing the design and methods of previous randomized studies in PPMS patients without restriction to intervention or comparator. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the COCHRANE Central Register of Controlled Trials (inception to February 2015). Keywords included PPMS, primary progressive multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Randomized, controlled trials of at least one year’s duration were selected if they included only patients with PPMS or if they reported sufficient PPMS subgroup data. No restrictions with respect to intervention or comparator were applied. Study quality was assessed by a biometrics expert. Relevant baseline characteristics and outcomes were extracted and compared. Results Of 52 PPMS studies identified, four were selected. Inclusion criteria were notably different among studies with respect to both the definition of PPMS and the requirements for the presence of disability progression at enrolment. Differences between the study populations included the baseline lesion load, pretreatment status and disease duration. The rate of disease progression may also be an important factor, as all but one of the studies included a large proportion of patients with a low progression rate. In addition, the endpoints specified could not detect progression adequately. Conclusion Optimal PPMS study methods involve appropriate patient selection, especially regarding the PPMS phenotype and progression rate. Functional composite endpoints might be more sensitive than single endpoints in capturing progression. PMID:26393519

  8. Characterization of the mammalian DNA polymerase gene and protein. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    We have purified and characterized at least three DNA polymerases from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line Kl in order to evaluate the roles of different polymerases in eukaryotic DNA replication. Pol {alpha} was the most abundant among different polymerase activities and it was neutralized by a monoclonal antibody raised against human pol {alpha}. Pol {var_epsilon} was separated from pol {alpha} and pol {delta} activities using DEAE Sephacell, phosphocellulose and hydroxylapatite columns. The enzyme proved to be sensitive to aphidicolin and carbonyldiphosphonate and was not stimulated by PCNA- Pol {delta} was the least abundant among the three enzymes. It was sensitive to aphidicolin and carbonyidiphosphonate and was stimulated by PCNA. it had a preference for template/primer poly (dA-dT). Based on DNA sequence data of different eukaryotic polymerases PCR primers complementary to two neighboring synthesized. In PCR experiments several products were obtained which are assumed to be specific for the CHO polymerases. We have also analyzed a large number of aphidicolin resistant mutants of CHO to identify mutants with altered DNA polymerases.

  9. MMP13 mediates cell cycle progression in melanocytes and melanoma cells: in vitro studies of migration and proliferation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meierjohann, S.; Hufnagel, A.; Wende, E.; Kleinschmidt, M.A.; Wolf, K. van der; Friedl, P.H.A.; Gaubatz, S.; Schartl, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma cells are usually characterized by a strong proliferative potential and efficient invasive migration. Among the multiple molecular changes that are recorded during progression of this disease, aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) is often observed. Activation o

  10. Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0126 GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF ADVANCED INFRARED HETEROSTRUCTURES Sanjay Krishna...To) 15 Feb 2013 – 09 May 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Growth And Characterization Studies Of Advanced Infrared Heterostructures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...DISCUSSION After growth , the epitaxial wafers were characterized by x-ray diffraction to monitor crystal quality and layer thicknesses. The

  11. Tijuana River National Wildlife Refuge contaminant study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A contaminant study was initiated at Tijuana Slough National Wildlife Refuge in 1987, as a result of concern for pollution from a variety of potential sources. To...

  12. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge contaminant biomonitoring study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of trace element contamination, particularly boron and selenium, and organochlorine contamination in sediment...

  13. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Without Appropriate Action Progresses to Right Ventricular Strain: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Logan; Harper, Chris; Rozwadowski, Sophie; Imray, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Mills, Logan, Chris Harper, Sophie Rozwadowski, and Chris Imray. High altitude pulmonary edema without appropriate action progresses to right ventricular strain: A case study. High Alt Med Biol. 17:228-232, 2016.-A 24-year-old male developed high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) after three ascents to 4061 m over 3 days, sleeping each night at 2735 m. He complained of exertional dyspnea, dry cough, chest pain, fever, nausea, vertigo, and a severe frontal headache. Inappropriate continuation of ascent despite symptoms led to functional impairment and forced a return to the valley, but dyspnea persisted in addition to new orthopnea. Hospital admission showed hypoxemia, resting tachycardia, and systemic hypertension. ECG revealed right ventricular strain and a chest X-ray revealed right lower zone infiltrates. This case demonstrates that HAPE can develop in previously unaffected individuals given certain precipitating factors, and that in the presence of HAPE, prolonged exposure to altitude with exercise (or exertion) does not confer acclimatization with protective adaptations and that rest and descent are the appropriate actions. The case additionally demonstrates well-characterized right ventricular involvement.

  14. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project; Technical progress report: First quarter (January--August 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project.

  15. Plasma characterization studies for materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfender, E.; Heberlein, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    New applications for plasma processing of materials require a more detailed understanding of the fundamental processes occurring in the processing reactors. We have developed reactors offering specific advantages for materials processing, and we are using modeling and diagnostic techniques for the characterization of these reactors. The emphasis is in part set by the interest shown by industry pursuing specific plasma processing applications. In this paper we report on the modeling of radio frequency plasma reactors for use in materials synthesis, and on the characterization of the high rate diamond deposition process using liquid precursors. In the radio frequency plasma torch model, the influence of specific design changes such as the location of the excitation coil on the enthalpy flow distribution is investigated for oxygen and air as plasma gases. The diamond deposition with liquid precursors has identified the efficient mass transport in form of liquid droplets into the boundary layer as responsible for high growth, and the chemical properties of the liquid for the film morphology.

  16. Molecular characterization of a maize regulatory gene. Annual progress report, March 1990--November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessler, S.R.

    1991-12-01

    Based on initial bombardment studies we have previously concluded that promoter diversity was responsible for the diversity of naturally occurring R alleles. During this period we have found that R is controlled at the level of translation initiation and intron 1 is alternatively spliced. The experiments described in Sections 1 and 2 sought to quantify these effects and to determine whether they contribute to the tissue specific expression of select R alleles. This study was done because very little is understood about the post-transcriptional regulation of plant genes. Section 3 and 4 describe experiments designed to identify important structural components of the R protein.

  17. The progress in the study of Arctic pack ice ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何剑锋; 王桂忠; 蔡明红; 李少菁

    2004-01-01

    The sea ice community plays an important role in the Arctic marine ecosystem. Because of the predicted environmental changes in the Arctic environment and specifically related to sea ice, the Arctic pack ice biota has received more attention in recent years using modern ice-breaking research vessels. Studies show that the Arctic pack ice contains a diverse biota and besides ice algae, the bacterial and protozoan biomasses can be high. Surprisingly high primary production values were observed in the pack ice of the central Arctic Ocean. Occasionally biomass maximum were discovered in the interior of the ice floes, a habitat that had been ignored in most Arctic studies. Many scientific questions, which deserve special attention, remained unsolved due to logistic limitations and the sea ice characteristics. Little is know about the pack ice community in the central Arctic Ocean. Almost no data exists from the pack ice zone for the winter season. Concerning the abundance of bacteria and protozoa, more studies are needed to understand the microbial network within the ice and its role in material and energy flows. The response of the sea ice biota to global change will impact the entire Arctic marine ecosystem and a long-term monitoring program is needed. The techniques, that are applied to study the sea ice biota and the sea ice ecology, should be improved.

  18. Inflow Characterization for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices. FY-2010 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian

    2011-01-31

    Marine and Hydro Kinetic devices (MHK) are being widely studied as a source of renewable energy. The Marrowstone Island site is a potential location for installing MHK devices because the tidal currents observed that are sufficient for power generation. In order to quantify the effects of turbulence on MHK devices and the surrounding environment at this site, a prelimi- nary fluid flow field study was conducted here by the Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) in collaboration with the Applied Physics Lab at the University of Washington (APL-UW). This study entailed continuous The Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements from May 4, 2010 to May 22, 2010, in order to obtain information about turbulence effects during different tidal conditions. The instruments used for collecting the above measurements were deployed at the Marrowstone site using a R/V Jack Robertson provided by the University of Washington (APL-UW). All the measurements were taken at the site with an average depth of 22 m below the sea surface. ADV acquired velocity data at 32 Hz sampling frequency at 4.6 m above the seabed, and ADCP acquired velocity profile data at a sampling frequency of 2 Hz, from a height of 2.6 m above the seabed to the surface with a bin resolution of 0.5 m. The ADV and ADCP measurements showed that the horizontal velocity had a turbulence intensity of 10%. Further- more, the spectral analysis from ADV measurements showed that the flow is fully turbulent with -5/3 slope in the inertial sub-range of the spectra. Moreover, the temporal-frequency analysis showed presence of ”eddies” at high frequencies. These preliminary studies provided initial flow field and site characteristics, showed the limitations of the instruments used and highlighted changes that need to be made in the experimental setup for deployment in FY-2011 studies.

  19. Introduction. Progress in Earth science and climate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-28

    In this introductory paper, I review the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by top young scientists for the second of the two Christmas 2008 Triennial Issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc.A, devoted respectively to astronomy and Earth science. Topics covered in the Earth science issue include: trace gases in the atmosphere; dynamics of the Antarctic circumpolar current; a study of the boundary between the Earth's rocky mantle and its iron core; and two studies of volcanoes and their plumes. A final section devoted to ecology and climate covers: the mathematical modelling of plant-soil interactions; the effects of the boreal forests on the Earth's climate; the role of the past palaeoclimate in testing and calibrating today's numerical climate models; and the evaluation of these models including the quantification of their uncertainties.

  20. Nuclear structure studies. Progress report, [1988--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.B.

    1993-07-31

    In this report, newly initiated work at the FMA is described where the use of double-sided strip detectors for charged particle spectroscopy on nuclides near the proton drip line has been investigated. Half lives for proton emitting nuclides have been determined with improved uncertainties. Several sections report on the results of studies of model parameters in the Z = 50 region for even-even nuclides, for odd-mass nuclides and for odd-odd nuclides. Other studies are reported for nuclear orientation in Br and for structure of Pr-147 which lies in a transition zone between reflection-asymmetric, spherical, and prolate nuclides. And there is a section in which the positions of the single Particle levels in the A = 100 region are discussed.

  1. Recent progress in vortex studies by tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, A. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: Amir.Kohen@insp.jussieu.fr; Cren, T. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Noat, Y. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Proslier, T. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Giubileo, F. [Physics Department and INFM-SUPERMAT Laboratory, University of Salerno, via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy); Bobba, F. [Physics Department and INFM-SUPERMAT Laboratory, University of Salerno, via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy); Cucolo, A.M. [Physics Department and INFM-SUPERMAT Laboratory, University of Salerno, via S. Allende, 84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy); Zhigadlo, N. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kazakov, S.M. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Karpinski, J. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Sacks, W. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Roditchev, D. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UMR7588 au CNRS, Universite Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2006-05-15

    Among the methods used to study the vortex state in superconductors, scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), is unique in its ability to measure in real space the variations in the local quasiparticle density of states. Thus, as opposed to magnetic imaging, STS gives direct access to the coherence length rather than to the penetration length. Here we discuss two novel methods which enhance the capabilities of STS as a tool for the study of the vortex state. In the first one, called Lazy Fisherman [A. Kohen et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 86 (2005) 212503], the scanning tunneling microscope's tip is kept fixed at a selected location while the vortices are being moved by varying the applied magnetic field. By continuously acquiring the local tunneling conductance spectra, dI/dV(V), we detect the changes in the local density of states under the tip due to the vortex motion. With no need for scanning, the method permits one to extend the study of vortices to samples in which scanning is difficult or even impossible due to surface non-uniformity and allows one to detect faster vortex dynamics. To illustrate the approach we study single crystal samples of MgB{sub 2}. In the second STS method, we replace the commonly used normal metal STM tip by a superconducting (SC) tip which we produce either by mechanically breaking a Nb wire under vacuum in the STM chamber [A. Kohen et al., Physica C 49 (2005) 18] or by gluing a piece of a crystal of MgB{sub 2} [F. Giubileo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 177008]. The use of a SC tip enhances the energy resolution of STS in comparison to that obtained with a normal metal tip. The method is illustrated by using Nb and MgB{sub 2} tips to perform a simultaneous topographic and spectroscopic imaging on 2H-NbSe{sub 2}.

  2. Thorium assessment study quarterly progress report, third quarter fiscal 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiewak, I.; Bartine, D. E.; Burns, T. J.; Cleveland, J. C.; Thomas, W. E.; White, J. R.

    1977-09-30

    The objective of the program described is to contribute to the ongoing assessment of the potential role of thorium fuel cycles for alleviating safeguards concerns. Scenarios include (1) no fuel recycle permitted, (2) fuel recycle permitted only in secure regions (''energy parks'') with denatured (chemically non-separable) fuels only outside these regions, and (3) no limits on fuel recycle. A further objective is to provide nuclear mass balance data on HTGRs required by ERDA contractors for comparative cost-benefit studies.

  3. Recent Progress in the Study of Dinosaur Eggs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG Xiaolin; ZHAO Zikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dinosaur eggs are a special type of vertebrate fossils.Despite their varied shapes,all dinosaur eggs are composed of eggshells,though the thickness of the shell may also vary.Dinosaur eggshells consist primarily of the mineral calcite(calcium carbonate).By studying dinosaur eggs,we can infer the reproductive system and behavior of dinosaurs and even the palaeoenvironment,palaeoclimate,palaeoecology in which they lived.Moreover,dinosaur eggs are useful for stratigraphic division and correlation as well as paleobiogeographic interpretations.

  4. Trace element characterization of coal wastes. Fourth annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.; Bertino, J.P.; Jones, M.M.; Wagner, P.; Wanek, P.L.; Wangen, L.E.; Wewerka, E.M.

    1981-04-01

    In the past year assessment studies of low-sulfur coal wastes from the Appalachian Region have been continued. These included mineralogical and trace elemental analyses on these materials and studies of their weathering and leaching behavior. Although the concentrations of the acid-forming minerals (pyrite and marcasite) were very low, leachates were quite acid (pH < 3) with concomitant trace element (Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu) concentration elevation. As part of the overall assessment of the degree of environmental concern associated with acidic coal waste drainages, bioassay studies were performed. These revealed that coal wastes and their leachates are toxic to fresh water algae, fathead minnows, and one species of fresh-water flea. Laboratory experiments to identify control options for the coal wastes and their drainages have been focused on predisposal and codisposal treatments of the waste, with technical and economic evaluations being performed on the most promising options. One of the most promising control methods is pretreatment of the waste with a lime/limestone mixture; this produces a waste with no acid-forming tendencies for times up to several months, during which time it may be possible to dispose of the treated waste in a nonreactive environment. The cost of this option is comparable to that of the commonly used lime neutralization of the acid drainage. Other experiments have investigated, in considerable detail, the economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages of codisposing the wastes with 37 naturally occurring soils and industrial wastes. These methods look promising only under certain conditions, but are in general an order of magnitude less effective than existing controls or the lime/limestone disposal method.

  5. Progress in cognitive neuroscientific studies of visual awareness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Li; Haiyan Geng

    2009-01-01

    The psychological and neural mechanisms of consciousness are among the most baffling problems in cognitive neuroscience. In this field, visual awareness is a topic that has been largely investigated, due to easy manipulation and measurable effects. The present arti-cle begins with the phenomena of dissociations between visual awareness and visual stimulus, visual awareness and visual attention, as well as visual awareness and vision-guided behavior, along with the corresponding experimental evidence. Furthermore, the neural mechanism of visual awareness is also discussed. It has been generally believed that visual awareness is the function of higher-order cerebral areas; however, recent discoveries have demonstrated that feedback from higher- to lower-order cortex areas is necessary for generating consciousness. The present article presents an in-depth analysis regarding this feedback process, and exploring its relation-ship with the generation and mechanisms of consciousness. Finally, theoretical controversies and discrepancies, as well as result con-flicts from various studies, have been collected, compared and discussed. Because the field of consciousness continues to be an extremely mysterious and complicated psychological phenomenon, there is a great need for further studies to explore and clarify this topic.

  6. Research progress in studies on the coalbed gas geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The current situation of geochemical studies on coalbed gas is reviewed in this paper. Generally, coalbed gas is compositionally dominated by methane with δ13C1 values ranging approximately from - 80‰ to - 10‰. However, few isotopic studies have been carried out on other components of coalbed gas except for hydrogen and carbon dioxide, whose δDCH4 values available for utilization vary from - 333‰ to - 117‰, and δ13CCO2 values from -29.4‰ to + 18.6‰. Two major types of coalbed gas, thermogenic gas and secondary biogenic gas, have been identified, and there are also some other classification criteria. Compared with conventional natural gases,coalbed gas has a wide distribution range of δ13C1 andδ13CCO2 values, especially possessing some extremely heavy values. Current problems that remain unsolved in the coalbed gas geochemistry include the variation mechanism, controlling factors and application of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of methane, the relation between the values of δ13C1 and Ro, the systematic classification scheme and criterion of genetic types, and the application of the coalbed gas geochemistry in evaluating target districts of the coalbed gas exploration.

  7. Inflow Characterization for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Devices. FY-2011: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Durgesh, Vibhav; Thomson, Jim; Polagye, Brian

    2011-06-09

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in collaboration with the Applied Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington (APL-UW), has carried out a detailed preliminary fluid flow field study at site selected for testing of marine and hydrokinetic turbines using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) measurements, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, and Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) measurements. In FY-2011 these measurements were performed continuously for two weeks, in order to collect data during neap and spring tides, as well as during diurnal tidal variations.

  8. The Characterization of Psychrophilic Microorganisms and their potentially useful Cold-Active Glycosidases Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchly, Jean E.

    2008-06-30

    Our studies of novel, cold-loving microorganisms have focused on two distinct extreme environments. The first is an ice core sample from a 120,000 year old Greenland glacier. The results of this study are particularly exciting and have been highlighted with press releases and additional coverage. The first press release in 2004 was based on our presentation at the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology and was augmented by coverage of our publication (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 71:7806) in the Current Topics section of the ASM news journal, “Microbe.” Of special interest for this report was the isolation of numerous, phylogenetically distinct and potentially novel ultrasmall microorganisms. The detection and isolation of members of the ultrasmall population is significant because these cells pass through 0.2 micron pore filters that are generally used to trap microorganisms from environmental samples. Thus, analyses by other investigators that examined only cells captured on the filters would have missed a significant portion of this population. Only a few ultrasmall isolates had been obtained prior to our examination of the ice core samples. Our development of a filtration enrichment and subsequent cultivation of these organisms has added extensively to the collection of, and knowledge about, this important population in the microbial world.

  9. MSR Studies in the Progress Towards Diamond Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, S. H., E-mail: connell@src.wits.ac.za [University of the Witwatersrand, Schonland Research Institute for Nuclear Sciences (South Africa); Machi, I. Z. [University of South Africa, Physics Department (South Africa); Bharuth-Ram, K. [University of KwaZulu Natal, School of Pure and Applied Physics (South Africa)

    2004-12-15

    The recent development of device quality synthetic diamond dramatically increases the potential of diamond as a wide band gap semiconductor. A remaining obstacle is the lack of shallow n-type dopants. Molecular dopant systems have been shown theoretically to lead to the shallowing of levels in the band gap. Some of these systems involve defect-hydrogen complexes. This, and other phenomena, motivate the study of the chemistry and dynamics of hydrogen in diamond. Much information on this topic has been obtained from Muon Spin Rotation (MSR) experiments. These experiments view the muonium (Mu {identical_to} {mu}{sup +}e{sup -}) atom as a light chemical analogue of hydrogen. Data on isolated muonium in diamond is reviewed, and evidence on formation of N-Mu-N (a shallow dopant candidate), the trapping of Mu at B-dopants, and fast quantum diffusion of muonium are discussed.

  10. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  11. [Study of heavy-flavored particles]. Part 1, Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The program of physics analysis using CLEO II data is reported. A statistically significant measurement was made of the isospin mass splitting of the {Sigma}{sub c}{sup +} with respect to the {Sigma}{sub c}{sup o} and {Sigma}{sub c}{sup ++}. This result is based on first observation of the {Sigma}{sub c}{sup +} in the decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}. Many new decay modes of the charmed baryon {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} were studied. Several new decay modes of {xi}{sub c}`s. Some preliminary results on 3 new modes of {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} decay are reported. In the area of B-meson decay into baryons, were observed conclusively the decays B {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}{sup 0} and {Sigma}{sub c}{sup ++}. From about 1500 events corresponding to B {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}X reconstruction of exclusive final states of the form {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}(n{pi}) was started. A comprehensive investigation of particle identification using both the time-of-flight and dE/dx systems was made. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton identification efficiencies have been made, corresponding to several different selection criteria. Measurements of corresponding pion probabilities to fake kaons nd protons have also been made.

  12. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  13. Progress in characterizing submonolayer island growth: Capture-zone distributions, growth exponents, & hot precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Theodore L.; Pimpinelli, Alberto; González, Diego Luis; Morales-Cifuentes, Josue R.

    2015-09-01

    In studies of epitaxial growth, analysis of the distribution of the areas of capture zones (i.e. proximity polygons or Voronoi tessellations with respect to island centers) is often the best way to extract the critical nucleus size i. For non-random nucleation the normalized areas s of these Voronoi cells are well described by the generalized Wigner distribution (GWD) Pβ(s) = asβ exp(-bs2), particularly in the central region 0.5 < s < 2 where data are least noisy. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations reveal inadequacies of our earlier mean field analysis, suggesting β = i + 2 for diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). Since simulations generate orders of magnitude more data than experiments, they permit close examination of the tails of the distribution, which differ from the simple GWD form. One refinement is based on a fragmentation model. We also compare island-size distributions. We compare analysis by island-size distribution and by scaling of island density with flux. Modifications appear for attach-limited aggregation (ALA). We focus on the experimental system para-hexaphenyl on amorphous mica, comparing the results of the three analysis techniques and reconciling their results via a novel model of hot precursors based on rate equations, pointing out the existence of intermediate scaling regimes between DLA and ALA.

  14. Progress in the synthesis and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles with amino groups on the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durdureanu-Angheluta, A.; Dascalu, A.; Fifere, A.; Coroaba, A.; Pricop, L. [Centre of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, ' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy, 41A Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Chiriac, H. [National Institute of Research and Development in Technical Physics, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Tura, V. [Faculty of Physics, ' ' Al. I. Cuza' ' University, B-dul Carol I, no. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Pinteala, M., E-mail: pinteala@icmpp.ro [Centre of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, ' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy, 41A Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, B.C. [Centre of Advanced Research in Bionanoconjugates and Biopolymers, ' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy, 41A Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers, ' ' Gh. Asachi' ' Technical University of Iasi, 73 Mangeron Blvd, 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2012-05-15

    This manuscript deals with the synthesis of new hydrophilic magnetite particles by employing a two-step method: in the first step magnetite particles with hydrophobic shell formed in presence of oleic acid-oleylamine complex through a synthesis in mass, without solvent, in a mortar with pestle were obtained; while in the second step the hydrophobic shell was interchanged with an aminosilane monomer. The influence of the Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} molar ratio on the dimension of the particles of high importance for their potential applications was carefully investigated. This paper, also presents an alternative method of synthesis of new core-shell magnetite particles and the complete study of their structure and morphology by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, ESEM and TEM techniques. The rheological properties and magnetization analysis of high importance for magnetic particles were also investigated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite particles are superparamagnetic materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite has significant role in nanotechnology due to surface properties and applicability in physical and chemical processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used an ecological method of synthesis, a reaction in mass, without solvent, in a mortar with pestle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared hydrophilic magnetite particles, precursors for biomedical applications.

  15. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  16. Characterization and stability studies of titanium beryllides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal) and CFNUL, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Alves, L.C. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisbon (Portugal); Franco, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, M.R. da [CFNUL, University of Lisbon, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisbon (Portugal); Paul, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Av. Americo Vespucio s/n, 41092 Sevilla (Portugal); Hegeman, J.B. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands); Druyts, F. [SCK.CEN, The Belgian Nuclear Research Center, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-11-15

    Beryllides appear as potential candidates to replace Be in future fusion power plants due to their improved properties. However, while the fabrication and properties of beryllium are well established a lack of knowledge still exists for beryllides. In this work, we present a detailed characterization of titanium beryllides, provided by JAERI in the frame of the IEA agreement, using a large number of techniques. Compositions of Be-5 at% Ti and Be-7 at% Ti were used to produce the samples. High resolution X-ray diffraction clearly shows the formation of Be{sub 1}Ti phase for the Be-7 at% Ti composition. For the Be-5 at% Ti, the major phase is Be{sub 12}Ti with traces of a Be-rich phase. In both cases, no evidence was found for the presence of pure Be phase in the samples. Ti elemental maps obtained with a scanning nuclear microprobe reveals the presence of regions containing large amounts of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and in some cases U. These impurities are common in Be and this behaviour suggests that a segregation process occurs during the beryllide formation. Moreover, the RBS spectra also show the presence of oxygen in this region while it seems to be depleted from the beryllide bulk. The oxidation seems to occur preferentially along the beryllide boundaries and Ti depleted region.

  17. [The phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia, a single case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2011-04-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression of deficits that can involve any aspect of language, including word finding, object naming, fluency, syntax, phonology and word comprehension. The initial symptoms occur in the absence of major deficits in other cognitive domains, including episodic memory, visuospatial abilities and visuoconstruction. According to recent diagnostic guidelines, PPA is typically divided into three variants: nonfluent variant PPA (also termed progressive nonfluent aphasia), semantic variant PPA (also termed semantic dementia) and logopenic/phonological variant PPA (also termed logopenic progressive aphasia). The paper describes a 79-yr old man, who presented with normal motor speech and production rate, impaired single word retrieval and phonemic errors in spontaneous speech and confrontational naming. Confrontation naming was strongly affected by lexical frequency. He was impaired on repetition of sentences and phrases. Reading was intact for regularly spelled words but not for irregular words (surface dyslexia). Comprehension was spared at the single word level, but impaired for complex sentences. He performed within the normal range on the Dutch equivalent of the Pyramids and Palm Trees (PPT) Pictures Test, indicating that semantic processing was preserved. There was, however, a slight deficiency on the PPT Words Test, which appeals to semantic knowledge of verbal associations. His core deficit was interpreted as an inability to retrieve stored lexical-phonological information for spoken word production in spontaneous speech, confrontation naming, repetition and reading aloud.

  18. 40 CFR 160.135 - Physical and chemical characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical and chemical characterization... and chemical characterization studies. (a) All provisions of the GLP standards shall apply to physical... physical and chemical characteristics of a test, control, or reference substance: § 160.31 (c), (d), and...

  19. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  20. Serum metabolomics of slow vs. rapid motor progression Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Roede

    Full Text Available Progression of Parkinson's disease (PD is highly variable, indicating that differences between slow and rapid progression forms could provide valuable information for improved early detection and management. Unfortunately, this represents a complex problem due to the heterogeneous nature of humans in regards to demographic characteristics, genetics, diet, environmental exposures and health behaviors. In this pilot study, we employed high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to investigate the metabolic signatures of slow versus rapidly progressing PD present in human serum. Archival serum samples from PD patients obtained within 3 years of disease onset were analyzed via dual chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, with data extraction by xMSanalyzer and used to predict rapid or slow motor progression of these patients during follow-up. Statistical analyses, such as false discovery rate analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, yielded a list of statistically significant metabolic features and further investigation revealed potential biomarkers. In particular, N8-acetyl spermidine was found to be significantly elevated in the rapid progressors compared to both control subjects and slow progressors. Our exploratory data indicate that a fast motor progression disease phenotype can be distinguished early in disease using high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling and that altered polyamine metabolism may be a predictive marker of rapidly progressing PD.

  1. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  2. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, April 1, 1991--September 30, 1991, Number 5; Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-01

    The Site Characterization Progress Report of Yucca Mountain (PR) presents brief summaries of the status of site characterization activities and cites the technical reports and research products that provide more detailed information on the activities. The report provides highlights of work started during the reporting period, work in progress, and work completed and documented during the reporting period. In addition, the report is the vehicle for the discussion of changes to the DOE`s site characterization program resulting from ongoing collection and evaluation of site information; the development of repository and waste-package designs; the results of performance assessments; and any changes that occur in response to external comments. Information covered includes geochemistry, hydrology, geology, climate, and radiation dose estimate calculations.

  3. International vision requirements for driver licensing and disability pensions: using a milestone approach in characterization of progressive eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain M Bron

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Alain M Bron1, Ananth C Viswanathan2, Ulrich Thelen3, Renato de Natale4, Antonio Ferreras5, Jens Gundgaard6, Gail Schwartz7, Patricia Buchholz81Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France; 2Glaucoma Research Unit, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Department of Genetics, University College of London Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 3Private Practice, Munster, Germany; 4Ospedale Civile di Monselice, Monselice, Italy; 5Ophthalmology, Miguel Servet University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain; 6COWI, Kolding, Denmark; 7Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Glaucoma Consultants, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Patricia Buchholz Consulting, Karlsruhe, GermanyObjective: Low vision that causes forfeiture of driver’s licenses and collection of disability pension benefits can lead to negative psychosocial and economic consequences. The purpose of this study was to review the requirements for holding a driver’s license and rules for obtaining a disability pension due to low vision. Results highlight the possibility of using a milestone approach to describe progressive eye disease.Methods: Government and research reports, websites, and journal articles were evaluated to review rules and requirements in Germany, Spain, Italy, France, the UK, and the US.Results: Visual acuity limits are present in all driver’s license regulations. In most countries, the visual acuity limit is 0.5. Visual field limits are included in some driver’s license regulations. In Europe, binocular visual field requirements typically follow the European Union standard of ≥120°. In the US, the visual field requirements are typically between 110° and 140°. Some countries distinguish between being partially sighted and blind in the definition of legal blindness, and in others there is only one limit.Conclusions: Loss of driving privileges could be used as a milestone to monitor progressive eye disease. Forfeiture could be standardized as a

  4. Prognostic factors of progression of osteoarthritis of the knee : A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, J. N.; Berger, M. Y.; Reijman, M.; Koes, B. W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    objective. To provide an overview of prognostic factors of knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Methods. We searched Medline and Embase up to December 2003 according to a specified search strategy (keywords for disease, location, and study design). Studies that fulfilled predefined criteria were as

  5. Progress in the studies of electrochemically controllable host-guest interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Yuangang; FANG Yu

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the electrochemically controllable host-guest interactions have received considerable attention since the middle of the 1980s. In this paper, progress in such studies is reviewed according to the types of the hosts, including cyclodextrin, calixarene,cucurbituril, cyclophane, and so on. In addition, perspectives for the future development and potential applications of the interactions are discussed.

  6. SUCCESS AND PROGRESS IN HIGHER-EDUCATION : A STRUCTURAL MODEL OF STUDYING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MINNAERT, A; JANSSEN, PJ

    1992-01-01

    In Belgium, the success rates of freshmen in higher education are relatively low. To understand this phenomenon a structural model for indiviaual differences in study success and progress is suggested. Starting from the theory that studying is the integration of thinking and learning on the basis of

  7. Detailed immunohistochemical characterization of temporal and spatial progression of Alzheimer's disease-related pathologies in male triple-transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowers William J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several transgenic animal models genetically predisposed to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD-like pathology have been engineered to facilitate the study of disease pathophysiology and the vetting of potential disease-modifying therapeutics. The triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD harbors three AD-related genetic loci: human PS1M146V, human APPswe, and human tauP301L. These mice develop both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangle-like pathology in a progressive and age-dependent manner, while these pathological hallmarks are predominantly restricted to the hippocampus, amygdala, and the cerebral cortex the main foci of AD neuropathology in humans. This model represents, at present, one of the most advanced preclinical tools available and is being employed ever increasingly in the study of mechanisms underlying AD, yet a detailed regional and temporal assessment of the subtleties of disease-related pathologies has not been reported. Methods and results In this study, we immunohistochemically documented the evolution of AD-related transgene expression, amyloid deposition, tau phosphorylation, astrogliosis, and microglial activation throughout the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, primary motor cortex, and amygdala over a 26-month period in male 3xTg-AD mice. Intracellular amyloid-beta accumulation is detectable the earliest of AD-related pathologies, followed temporally by phospho-tau, extracellular amyloid-beta, and finally paired helical filament pathology. Pathology appears to be most severe in medial and caudal hippocampus. While astrocytic staining remains relatively constant at all ages and regions assessed, microglial activation appears to progressively increase temporally, especially within the hippocampal formation. Conclusion These data fulfill an unmet need in the ever-widening community of investigators studying 3xTg-AD mice and provide a foundation upon which to design future experiments that seek to

  8. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0652 TITLE: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS...0652 A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...PROJECT NUMBER Sergio E. Baranzini 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: Sergio.baranzini@ucsf.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  9. Editorial summary: findings from a survey on the Danish study progress reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise; Madsen, Simon Ryberg

    The summary presents the key findings from the first comprehensive survey of what students expect of the Danish Study Progress Reform. The summarised report is based on a survey conducted among 4.354 university students, who were asked to assess how they expect to manage their time and prioritise...... their activities in light of the Study Progress Reform’s requirements for faster completion. The survey was distributed in April 2015 as part of a politically independent research project funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research/Humanities (FKK)....

  10. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  11. Recent progress in studies of experimental rock mechanics and tectonophysics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马胜利; 马瑾

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in the studies of experimental rock mechanics and tectonophysics concerning seismology and physics of the Earth's interior in China. The progress is presented in the following aspects: a) A lot of results of experiment and numerical simulation enrich our knowledge of the brittle fracturing process under the condition with heterogeneity in material and structure; b) Some new results on frictional behavior of non-homogeneous faults reveal the complexity of faulting behavior; c) Some new results on the brittle-plastic transition and plastic flow are obtained; especially the important progress is obtained on rheological properties of rocks in the lower crust and the upper mantle; d) A lot of experimental results are obtained on rock physics at high temperature and pressure and have been used in study of material composition and state. These results provide useful information for understanding the physical properties and deformation mechanisms of material of the Earth's interior and earthquake physics.

  12. Genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22: characterization of non-syndromic, autosomal dominant, progressive sensorineural hearing loss due to MYO6 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Topsakal, Vedat;

    2010-01-01

    Clinical and audiological examination was done in 2 Belgian families with autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) linked to DFNA22. Nineteen subjects in family 1 had mild to moderate SNHL starting in the third decade. The hearing loss was characterized by a flat audiogram affecting all...... tested frequencies with statistically significant progression. In family 2 eleven subjects were affected with mild to moderate SNHL starting in the second decade. Most of them showed a flat audiogram, but some had mid-frequency hearing loss. Significant progression of thresholds was present at 4 and 8 k...

  13. The effect of conditional probability of chord progression on brain response: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual.

  14. SERDP munition disposal source characterization pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R.C.; Couch, R.G.; Fried, L.E. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) is supporting studies to develop and implement technologies for the safe, efficient, and environmentally sound disposal of obsolete munitions and propellants which are stored at various locations across the country. One proposed disposal technique is the open-air burning or detonation (OB/OD) of this material. Although OB/OD is viewed as an efficient and cost-effective method for reducing the inventory of unwanted munitions and propellants, questions regarding its safety and environmental impacts must be addressed. Since very large amounts of munitions and propellants must be consumed inexpensively in relatively short time periods and with the very restrictive Federal and State regulations on environmental issues, it is clear that traditional OB/OD procedures will not be acceptable and that it is necessary to develop modified or advanced OB/OD technology. The effectiveness and environmental impact of the OB/OD technology must be verified by experimental data and with validated numerical models for acceptance by Federal and State regulators. Specifically, technology must be developed and tested that minimizes toxic bum and detonation products the noise (peak pressure) and destructive effect (impulse) of the explosive blast generation and travel distance of shrapnel, and entrainment of dust. Three explosion attenuation scenarios are analyzed: Contained water, aqueous foams, and wet sand.

  15. Study to Minimize Learning Progress Differences in Software Learning Class Using PLITAZ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Jie; Hwang, Wu-Yuin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a system using two-phased strategies called "Pause Lecture, Instant Tutor-Tutee Match, and Attention Zone" (PLITAZ). This system was used to help solve learning challenges and to minimize learning progress differences in a software learning class. During a teacher's lecture time, students were encouraged to anonymously express…

  16. The WISC-III and Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test: A Pilot Study of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluever, Raymond C.; And Others

    The relationship between scores on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) scores and subtest scores and IQs from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) was studied for 28 children aged 6 to 11 years. Subjects had been referred to a university assessment center because they were believed to have exceptional learning…

  17. A Progressive Pedagogy for Online Learning with High-Ability Secondary School Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Nicholas, Howard

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a case study of a group of ten 14-year-old students who engaged with an online extended-learning project as an extracurricular activity for about 6 months. The students were physically located in Australia, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom. The facilitation and online learning made use of a progressive pedagogy that moved…

  18. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  19. Primary radiotherapy in progressive optic nerve sheath meningiomas: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeed, P.; Blank, L.; Selva, D.; Wolbers, J.G.; Nowak, P.J.C.M.; Geskus, R.B.; Weis, E.; Mourits, M.P.; Rootman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims To report the outcome of primary radiotherapy in patients with progressive optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM). Methods The clinical records of all patients were reviewed in a retrospective, observational, multicentre study. Results Thirty-four consecutive patients were included. Tw

  20. Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment is associated with Progression to Alzheimer's Disease : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Fransen, Erik; Struyfs, Hanne; Luyckx, Jill; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD) belong to the core symptoms of dementia and are also common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: This study would like to contribute to the understanding of the prognostic role of BPSD in MCI for the progression

  1. Maternal morbidity with caesarean section for non-progress of labour: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the maternal morbidity and mortality in caesarean section for non-progress of labour, a study was conducted over a period of 16 years at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram among 533 cases of non-progress of labour for which caesarean section was performed. A total of 34975 women delivered including 7309 cases by caesarean section. Sixteen years records divided into 4 blocks, one each of 4 years were analysed. There was no maternal mortality but 8.25% women had intra-operative complication and 42.21% had postoperative morbidity. Timely intervention can save complication of prolonged labour as well as complications for which caesarean section was done for non-progress of labour.

  2. Application of Systems Theory in Longitudinal Studies on the Origin and Progression of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Khachaturian, Zaven S; Rujescu, Dan; Garaci, Francesco; Dubois, Bruno; Hampel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This chapter questions the prevailing "implicit" assumption that molecular mechanisms and the biological phenotype of dominantly inherited early-onset alzheimer's disease (EOAD) could serve as a linear model to study the pathogenesis of sporadic late-onset alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Now there is growing evidence to suggest that such reductionism may not be warranted; these suppositions are not adequate to explain the molecular complexities of LOAD. For example, the failure of some recent amyloid-centric clinical trials, which were largely based on the extrapolations from EOAD biological phenotypes to the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of LOAD, might be due to such false assumptions. The distinct difference in the biology of LOAD and EOAD is underscored by the presence of EOAD cases without evidence of familial clustering or Mendelian transmission and, conversely, the discovery and frequent reports of such clustering and transmission patterns in LOAD cases. The primary thesis of this chapter is that a radically different way of thinking is required for comprehensive explanations regarding the distinct complexities in the molecular pathogenesis of inherited and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We propose using longitudinal analytical methods and the paradigm of systems biology (using transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics) to provide us a more comprehensive insight into the lifelong origin and progression of different molecular mechanisms and neurodegeneration. Such studies should aim to clarify the role of specific pathophysiological and signaling pathways such as neuroinflammation, altered lipid metabolism, apoptosis, oxidative stress, tau hyperphosphorylation, protein misfolding, tangle formation, and amyloidogenic cascade leading to overproduction and reduced clearance of aggregating amyloid-beta (Aβ) species. A more complete understanding of the distinct difference in molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways, as well as

  3. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  4. Site characterization studies for the Iranian National Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Khosroshahi, Habib G

    2011-01-01

    We report on the Iranian National Observatory (INO) ongoing site characterization studies for INO 3.4m optical telescope under development. Iran benefits from high altitude mountains and a relatively dry climate, thus offer many suitable sites for optical observations. The site selection (2001-2007) studies resulted in two promising sites in central Iran, one of which will host the 3.4m telescope. The studies between 2008 and 2010 aimed at detail characterization of the two sites. This involved measurements of a number of parameters including the wind speed and wind direction, astronomical seeing, sky brightness and microthermal variations.

  5. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasil Yablanski; Svetla Nikolova; Evgeni Vlaev; Alexey Savov; Ivo Kremensky

    2016-01-01

    The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. Th...

  6. Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Matthew P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Parkinson disease (PD, even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an

  7. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies.......Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...

  8. Investigation on non-glass laser fusion targets: their fabrication, characterization, and transport. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 2-81, progress report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of the research progress made under LLNL Subcontract 8320003 for the period of June 1, 1980 through January 31, 1981. The main theme of the research has continued to be the development of techniques for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting laser fusion targets on a continuous basis. The target fabrication techniques are intended mainly for non-glass spherical shell targets, both cryogenic and non-cryogenic. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following categories. (1) Investigation of liquid hydrogen behavior inside a spherical laser fusion target. (2) Development of automated target characterization scheme. (3) Study of cryogenic target fabrication scheme utilizing cold-gas-levitation and electric field positioning. (4) Development of a cryogenic target fabrication system based on target free-fall method. (5) Generation of hydrogen powder using electro-hydrodynamic spraying. (6) Study of target-charging techniques for application to contactless cryogenic target fabrication. (7) Development of hollow metal sphere production technique. A brief summary of the research progress made in each category is presented.

  9. Genetic Breeding and Diversity of the Genus Passiflora: Progress and Perspectives in Molecular and Genetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernard M. Cerqueira-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of passion fruit (Passiflora spp., molecular markers have only recently been utilized in genetic studies of this genus. In addition, both basic genetic researches related to population studies and pre-breeding programs of passion fruit remain scarce for most Passiflora species. Considering the number of Passiflora species and the increasing use of these species as a resource for ornamental, medicinal, and food purposes, the aims of this review are the following: (i to present the current condition of the passion fruit crop; (ii to quantify the applications and effects of using molecular markers in studies of Passiflora; (iii to present the contributions of genetic engineering for passion fruit culture; and (iv to discuss the progress and perspectives of this research. Thus, the present review aims to summarize and discuss the relationship between historical and current progress on the culture, breeding, and molecular genetics of passion fruit.

  10. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablanski, Vasil; Nikolova, Svetla; Vlaev, Evgeni; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's Exact Test. The results indicated that the genotypes and alleles of TPH1 (rs10488682) are not correlated with curve severity, curve pattern, or bracing. Therefore, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a genetic factor with modifying effect of IS. In conclusion, this case-control study revealed no statistically significant association between TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of IS in Eastern European population sample. These preliminary results should be replicated in extended population studies including larger sample sizes. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for a more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve. That would permit early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures.

  11. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Yablanski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682 and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s Exact Test. The results indicated that the genotypes and alleles of TPH1 (rs10488682 are not correlated with curve severity, curve pattern, or bracing. Therefore, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a genetic factor with modifying effect of IS. In conclusion, this case-control study revealed no statistically significant association between TPH1 (rs10488682 and progression of IS in Eastern European population sample. These preliminary results should be replicated in extended population studies including larger sample sizes. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for a more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve. That would permit early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures.

  12. Acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, as an agent to stop vitiligo progression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, Igor V; Lomonosov, Konstantin M

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo progression is attributed to immune system malfunctioning, thus immunomodulating compounds might be beneficial in stopping vitiligo progression which is a prerequisite for successful repigmentation. The goal of this study was to assess efficacy of acridone acetic acid, sodium salt (Na-AAA), an immunomodulating compound with favorable safety profile, in stabilizing active vitiligo, and to reveal prognostic factors of treatment outcome. Sixty consecutive patients with progressing nonsegmental vitiligo were treated with 10 i.m. injections of Na-AAA every other day. Disease stability was assessed in 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate treatment outcome and available clinical parameters. Of the 60 patients treated, vitiligo stopped progression in 44 patients (73.3%). Older age (p = 0.0219), age of 35 and older (p = 0.0189, odds ratio (OR) = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-20.84) or age of 40 and older (p = 0.0039, OR = 6.48, 95% CI 1.86-22.61), longer disease duration (p = 0.0234), pre-treatment interleukin-6 level over 2 pg/mL (p = 0.0005, OR = 13.7, 95% CI 2.97-63), and over the reference threshold value 5.9 pg/mL (p = 0.0009, OR = 25.8, 95% CI 2.8-239) as well as presence of other autoimmune diseases (p = 0.038, OR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.14-42.97) were negative prognostic factors of treatment success. In conclusion, acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, emerges as an efficient option for stopping vitiligo progression.

  13. A generic approach does not work : Disciplinary differences as explanation for study progress in higher professional education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J. C.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Terlouw, C.

    2012-01-01

    A generic approach does not work. Disciplinary differences as explanation for study progress in higher professional education. We combine concepts of Tinto's theory on student departure and Becher's theory on disciplinary tribes for explaining study progress in universities. We collected data with a

  14. Cerebral hypometabolism in progressive supranuclear palsy studied with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, N.L.; Gilman, S.; Berent, S.; Morin, E.M.; Brown, M.B.; Koeppe, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is characterized by supranuclear palsy of gaze, axial dystonia, bradykinesia, rigidity, and a progressive dementia. Pathological changes in this disorder are generally restricted to subcortical structures, yet the type and range of cognitive deficits suggest the involvement of many cerebral regions. We examined the extent of functional impairment to cerebral cortical and subcortical structures as measured by the level of glucose metabolic activity at rest. Fourteen patients with PSP were compared to 21 normal volunteers of similar age using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism was reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, pons, and cerebral cortex, but not in the cerebellum in the patients with PSP as compared to the normal subjects. Analysis of individual brain regions revealed significant declines in cerebral glucose utilization in most regions throughout the cerebral cortex, particularly those in the superior half of the frontal lobe. Declines in the most affected regions of cerebral cortex were greater than those in any single subcortical structure. Although using conventional neuropathological techniques the cerebral cortex appears to be unaffected in PSP, significant and pervasive functional impairments in both cortical and subcortical structures are present. These observations help to account for the constellation of cognitive symptoms in individual patients with PSP and the difficulty encountered in identifying a characteristic psychometric profile for this group of patients.

  15. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  16. The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-10-06

    Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old, mean 35.8±11.1 years) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, university students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules), was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ(2) (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = 0.35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.

  17. Behavior of wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimse, Rohit B.; Joshi, Digesh D.; Patel, Paresh V.

    2014-12-01

    Progressive collapse denotes a failure of a major portion of a structure that has been initiated by failure of a relatively small part of the structure such as failure of any vertical load carrying element (typically columns). Failure of large part of any structure will results into substantial loss of human lives and natural resources. Therefore, it is important to prevent progressive collapse which is also known as disproportionate collapse. Nowadays, there is an increasing trend toward construction of buildings using precast concrete. In precast concrete construction, all the components of structures are produced in controlled environment and they are being transported to the site. At site such individual components are connected appropriately. Connections are the most critical elements of any precast structure, because in past major collapse of precast structure took place because of connection failure. In this study, behavior of three different 1/3rd scaled wet precast beam column connections under progressive collapse scenario are studied and its performance is compared with monolithic connection. Precast connections are constructed by adopting different connection detailing at the junction by considering reinforced concrete corbel for two specimens and steel billet for one specimen. Performance of specimen is evaluated on the basis of ultimate load carrying capacity, maximum deflection and deflection measured along the span of the beam. From the results, it is observed that load carrying capacity and ductility of precast connections considered in this study are more than that of monolithic connections.

  18. Numerical study of how creep and progressive stiffening affect the growth stress formation in trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2010-01-01

    annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The material model used is based on the theory of small strains (where strains refer to the undeformed configuration which is good approximation for strains less than 4%) where so-called biological maturation strains (growth......It is not fully understood how much growth stresses affect the final quality of solid timber products in terms of e.g. shape stability. It is for example difficult to predict the internal growth stress field within the tree stem. Growth stresses are progressively generated during the tree growth...... and they are highly influenced by climate, biologic and material related factors. To increase the knowledge of the stress formation a finite element model was created to study how the growth stresses develop during the tree growth. The model is an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new...

  19. STUDY OF DELETION OF P16 GENE IN THE PROGRESSION OF BRAIN ASTROCYTOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Guang; Yuan Xianhou

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between deletion of P16 gene and occurrence and progression of astrocytomas. Methods: The techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the deletion of exon2 of P16 gene and expression of P16 gene in 52 cases of Brain astrocytoma.Results: The deletion rate of exon2 of P16 gene in the tumors analyzed was 34.6%. Most of them with deletion of exon2 of p16 gene were high grade astrocytomas (grade Ⅲ 42%, grade Ⅳ 50%). 61.5% of the tumors were absent from expression of p16 and the deletion rate of p16 protein increased with the grade of astrocytoma (X2=10.83, P<0.005). Conclusion: Deletion of p16 gene and protein may correlate with the malignant progression of astrocytoma.

  20. Fusion reactor systems studies. Progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    Fusion Technology Institute personnel actively participated in the ARIES/PULSAR project during the present contract period. Numerous presentations were made at PULSAR project meetings, major contributions were written for the ARIES-II/IV Final Report presentations and papers were given at technical conferences contributions were written for the ARIES Lessons Learned report and a very large number of electronic-mail and regular-mail communications were sent. The remaining sections of this progress report win summarize the work accomplished and in progress for the PULSAR project during the contract period. The main areas of effort are: PULSAR Research; ARIES-II/IV Report Contributions; ARIES Lessons Learned Report Contributions; and Stellarator Study.

  1. Informing efficient randomised controlled trials: exploration of challenges in developing progression criteria for internal pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Paula R; Gamble, Carrol; O'Connell Francischetto, Elaine; Metcalfe, Chris; Davidson, Peter; Williams, Hywel; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Designing studies with an internal pilot phase may optimise the use of pilot work to inform more efficient randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Careful selection of preagreed decision or ‘progression’ criteria at the juncture between the internal pilot and main trial phases provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the likely success of the main trial and optimise its design or, if necessary, to make the decision not to proceed with the main trial. Guidance on the appropriate selection and application of progression criteria is, however, lacking. This paper outlines the key issues to consider in the optimal development and review of operational progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase. Design A structured literature review and exploration of stakeholders' opinions at a Medical Research Council (MRC) Hubs for Trials Methodology Research workshop. Key stakeholders included triallists, methodologists, statisticians and funders. Results There is considerable variation in the use of progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase, although 3 common issues predominate: trial recruitment, protocol adherence and outcome data. Detailed and systematic reporting around the decision-making process for stopping, amending or proceeding to a main trial is uncommon, which may hamper understanding in the research community about the appropriate and optimal use of RCTs with an internal pilot phase. 10 top tips for the development, use and reporting of progression criteria for internal pilot studies are presented. Conclusions Systematic and transparent reporting of the design, results and evaluation of internal pilot trials in the literature should be encouraged in order to facilitate understanding in the research community and to inform future trials. PMID:28213598

  2. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  3. Defining as a Mathematical Activity: A Framework for Characterizing Progress from Informal to More Formal Ways of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Michelle; Rasmussen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further the notion of defining as a mathematical activity by elaborating a framework that structures the role of defining in student progress from informal to more formal ways of reasoning. The framework is the result of a retrospective account of a significant learning experience that occurred in an undergraduate…

  4. [Main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen-zhen; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuan-jie; Zhang, Chen-feng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Guizhi Fuling capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of five kinds of medicinal plants, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria, Moutan Cortex, Persicae Semen, and Paeoniae Radix Alba. Pharmacology studies have shown that Guizhi Fuling capsule has many activities: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, regulating smooth muscle, endocrine regulation and enhancing immunity. It achieved obvious effects in the treatment of uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrheal, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, breast hyperplasia and other gynecological diseases. This paper reviewed the main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule in recent years.

  5. Progress in Marine Meteorology Studies in China during 1999-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东晓; 秦曾灏; 施平

    2004-01-01

    The progresses of marine meteorology studies achieved in China during the four year period from 1999 to 2002 are summarized in six directions: air-sea flux, marine meteorology in high latitudes, marine disasters, connection between ocean and weather/climate in China, remote sensing applications and new methodologies in marine meteorology. Compared to the previous ones, these studies adopted much more first-hand datasets, and more scientific issues were involved. As an exciting remark, there were so many contributions done by the young scientists. A brief statement about the research strategy of marine meteorology in China for the coming years is also given.

  6. Progress of Study on Application of Rare Earth Metals in Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Longmei; Lin Qin; Ji Jingwen; Lan Denian

    2004-01-01

    With the improvement of the clean steel by degrees, the functions of rare earth metals in steel are more focused on modification of inclusions and micro alloying.The new study concerning the application of RE metals in clean steels were investigated by ICP, metallographic examination, SEM, EDS, EPMA, TEM and IMMA.The mechanism of corrosion resistance in the weather resistance steel was clarified.The mechanism of abrasion resistance and the life of fatigue enhanced in the RE - heavy rails steel were discussed.Progress in study of application of rare earth metals in steels (including weather resistance steel, low alloy steel, and heavy rails steel) was covered in this paper.

  7. [Progress in Proteomic Study of the Penicillin Producer---Penicillium Chrysogenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Wang, Peihong; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Ruichang

    2015-12-01

    Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression.

  8. Homoarginine and progression of chronic kidney disease: results from the Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Drechsler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative mainly synthesized in the kidney. It is suggested to increase nitric oxide availability, enhance endothelial function and to protect against cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the relation between homoarginine, kidney function and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. METHODS: We measured plasma homoarginine concentrations in baseline samples of the Mild to Moderate Kidney Disease (MMKD Study, a prospective cohort study of 227 patients with CKD in Europe. Homoarginine concentrations were available in 182 of the baseline samples and in 139 of the prospectively-followed patients. We correlated homoarginine concentrations to parameters of kidney function. The association between homoarginine and progression of CKD was assessed during a follow-up of up to seven years (median 4.45 years, interquartile range 2.54-5.19 using Cox regression analysis. Progression of CKD was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or end-stage renal disease. RESULTS: Study participants were at baseline on average 47±13 years old and 65% were male. Mean±standard deviation of homoarginine concentrations were 2.5±1.1 µmol/L and concentrations were incrementally lower at lower levels of GFR with mean concentrations of 2.90±1.02 µmol/L (GFR>90 ml/min, 2.64±1.06 µmol/L (GFR 60-90 ml/min, 2.52±1.24 µmol/L (GFR 30-60 ml/min and 2.05±0.78 µmol/L (GFR<30 ml/min, respectively (p = 0.002. The age- and sex-adjusted risk to reach the renal endpoint was significantly higher by 62% with each decrease by one standard deviation (1.1 µmol/L of homoarginine (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.27, p = 0.005. This association was independent of proteinuria (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.20, p = 0.01, and was slightly attenuated when adjusting for GFR (HR 1.40 (95% CI 0.98-1.98, p = 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: Homoarginine concentrations are directly correlated with kidney function and are significantly

  9. Multiple markers for melanoma progression regulated by DNA methylation: insights from transcriptomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, William M; Bergin, Orla E; Rafferty, Mairin; Kelly, Zoë D; Nolan, Ilse-Maria; Fox, Edward J P; Culhane, Aedin C; McArdle, Linda; Fraga, Mario F; Hughes, Linda; Currid, Caroline A; O'Mahony, Fiona; Byrne, Aileen; Murphy, Alison A; Moss, Catherine; McDonnell, Susan; Stallings, Raymond L; Plumb, Jane A; Esteller, Manel; Brown, Robert; Dervan, Peter A; Easty, David J

    2005-11-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing rapidly, with advanced lesions generally failing to respond to conventional chemotherapy. Here, we utilized DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling techniques to identify molecular determinants of melanoma progression within a unique panel of isogenic human melanoma cell lines. When a poorly tumorigenic cell line, derived from an early melanoma, was compared with two increasingly aggressive derivative cell lines, the expression of 66 genes was significantly changed. A similar pattern of differential gene expression was found with an independently derived metastatic cell line. We further examined these melanoma progression-associated genes via use of a tailored TaqMan Low Density Array (LDA), representing the majority of genes within our cohort of interest. Considerable concordance was seen between the transcriptomic profiles determined by DNA microarray and TaqMan LDA approaches. A range of novel markers were identified that correlated here with melanoma progression. Most notable was TSPY, a Y chromosome-specific gene that displayed extensive down-regulation in expression between the parental and derivative cell lines. Examination of a putative CpG island within the TSPY gene demonstrated that this region was hypermethylated in the derivative cell lines, as well as metastatic melanomas from male patients. Moreover, treatment of the derivative cell lines with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC), restored expression of the TSPY gene to levels comparable with that found in the parental cells. Additional DNA microarray studies uncovered a subset of 13 genes from the above-mentioned 66 gene cohort that displayed re-activation of expression following DAC treatment, including TSPY, CYBA and MT2A. DAC suppressed tumor cell growth in vitro. Moreover, systemic treatment of mice with DAC attenuated growth of melanoma xenografts, with consequent re-expression of TSPY mRNA. Overall, our data support

  10. Genome-Wide Association of CKD Progression: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Afshin; Kanetsky, Peter A; Xiao, Rui; Gupta, Jayanta; Mitra, Nandita; Limou, Sophie; Xie, Dawei; Xu, Huichun; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Ojo, Akinlolu; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Sandholm, Niina; Jeff, Janina; Raj, Dominic E; Böger, Carsten A; Bottinger, Erwin; Salimi, Shabnam; Parekh, Rulan S; Adler, Sharon G; Langefeld, Carl D; Bowden, Donald W; Groop, Per-Henrik; Forsblom, Carol; Freedman, Barry I; Lipkowitz, Michael; Fox, Caroline S; Winkler, Cheryl A; Feldman, Harold I

    2017-03-01

    The rate of decline of renal function varies significantly among individuals with CKD. To understand better the contribution of genetics to CKD progression, we performed a genome-wide association study among participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Our outcome of interest was CKD progression measured as change in eGFR over time among 1331 blacks and 1476 whites with CKD. We stratified all analyses by race and subsequently, diabetes status. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that surpassed a significance threshold of P<1×10(-6) for association with eGFR slope were selected as candidates for follow-up and secondarily tested for association with proteinuria and time to ESRD. We identified 12 such SNPs among black patients and six such SNPs among white patients. We were able to conduct follow-up analyses of three candidate SNPs in similar (replication) cohorts and eight candidate SNPs in phenotype-related (validation) cohorts. Among blacks without diabetes, rs653747 in LINC00923 replicated in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort (discovery P=5.42×10(-7); replication P=0.039; combined P=7.42×10(-9)). This SNP also associated with ESRD (hazard ratio, 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.7); P=4.90×10(-6)). Similarly, rs931891 in LINC00923 associated with eGFR decline (P=1.44×10(-4)) in white patients without diabetes. In summary, SNPs in LINC00923, an RNA gene expressed in the kidney, significantly associated with CKD progression in individuals with nondiabetic CKD. However, the lack of equivalent cohorts hampered replication for most discovery loci. Further replication of our findings in comparable study populations is warranted.

  11. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.

    1978-03-01

    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  12. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  13. The effects of cidofovir on progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an MRI case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, R.L.; Cheng, K.H. [Physics Dept., Texas Technical University, Lubbock (United States); Sack, K. [Mount Diablo Medical Center, Concord, CA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    MRI was used to study the effects of introducing cidofovir (HPMPC, Vistide) to the antiretroviral therapy of a 33-year-old white man diagnosed as having progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) secondary to AIDS. In response to combined cidofovir and antiretroviral therapy he showed significant clinical improvement. MRI showed a decrease in extent of existing lesions, without new ones. Blood chemistry information obtained indicated some involvement of immunologic mechanisms: the CD4:8 ratio showed improvement from an average of 0.08 before treatment to 0.13 during therapy. (orig.)

  14. Review: Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-ping; WANG Lei; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes ofvasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

  15. Study of left- and right handedness of students in their educational progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олеся Володимирівна Тимчик

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An influence of left- and right handedness of students in their educational progress is considered in the article. The results show that for an adequate, long-term and valuable learning discipline it is necessary to consider physiological characteristics of students, including right and left-handedness, and work more on mastery of the curriculum with the latter. In the future, further study of the physiological characteristics of students and their consideration in learning the subject more fully help to master the subject material

  16. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates. Technical progress report, November 1, 1977--November 1, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan, L.

    1978-11-01

    During the past year a more quantitative characterization was developed of the localization and solvation processes of excess electrons and in particular the presolvated state of excess electrons produced by high energy chemistry. In addition, it was demonstrated how radical environments may be studied by the tunnelling mode mechanism of electron spin-lattice relaxation and atom solvation and radical orientation on surfaces were studied by electron spin-echo modulation techniques.

  17. Progression of solitary and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma— a retrospective study of 368 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiang-qian; WANG Chen; XU Meng; YU Yang; YUN Xin-wei; JIA Yong-sheng; WEI Song-feng; REN Xiu-bao; GAO Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) represents one of the most frequent endocrine malignancies.Several factors have been found to be involved in determining the outcome of treatment for patients with PTC.Large tumor size,diagnosis at an early age,extra-thyroidal invasion,aggressive histological variants,and distant metastases are the most important determinants of a poor outcome.BRAFv600E mutation has been found to be a major genetic alteration in PTC.This study aimed to evaluate progression in patients with multifocal and solitary PTC.Methods We performed a retrospective study to analyze 368 patients with PTC who underwent surgery,including 282 patients with solitary PTC and 86 patients with multifocal PTC.The status of BRAFv600E mutation in all tumor foci from multifocal PTC was detected.Results Our study suggested that multifocal PTC was more related to lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion than solitary PTC.However,the distant metastasis rate and 10-year survival rate showed no difference between these two groups.The number of tumor foci did not affect progression of disease in multifocal PTC patients.Lymph node metastasis in multifocal PTC patients was associated with larger tumors,diagnosis at early stage,and extra-thyroidal invasion.Conclusion The status of BRAFv600E mutation was more frequent in multifocal PTC patients with lymph node metastasis and diagnosis at later age.

  18. Interim progress report on the Vancouver Island Biodiesel Evaluation Study (VIBES) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlow, W. [City of Victoria, BC (Canada). Engineering Dept.

    2005-04-05

    The Vancouver Island Biodiesel Evaluation Study (VIBES) was launched in December 2004 by fleet operators and local political and community leaders to increase the public interest in biodiesel. The study provided a trial period to better understand the viability of using biodiesel in fleets, including school buses. The test involves a total of 17 test vehicles and 12 baseline vehicles. Nearly 200,000 litres of pre-blended B20 will be used by the vehicles during the field test in which vehicle performance, mileage and fuel consumption will be monitored over several industry sectors and vehicle types. This report reflects the progress of the VIBES project through the first 4 months and includes the experiences and findings of participants as well as the progress on the development of an emissions tracking and trading framework. This evaluation represents the largest cross-sector biodiesel evaluation study to date in Canada. The focus for the final 2 months of the project has shifted to expanding community participation through a One Tank Challenge, developing a User's Guide, and sharing the VIBES experience with other jurisdictions. The long-term objective of VIBES is to build a sufficient market base to support the development of a local biodiesel plant to ensure fleets have access to a cost competitive and efficient supply of quality biodiesel. The feedback thus far has been very positive and the City of Victoria is challenging other fleets to try biodiesel. tabs., figs.

  19. Clinical Significance of Optic Disc Progression by Topographic Change Analysis Maps in Glaucoma: An 8-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kourkoutas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT3 Topographic Change Analysis (TCA map to predict the subsequent development of clinical change, in patients with glaucoma. Materials. 61 eyes of 61 patients, which, from a retrospective review were defined as stable on optic nerve head (ONH stereophotographs and visual field (VF, were enrolled in a prospective study. Eyes were classified as TCA-stable or TCA-progressed based on the TCA map. All patients underwent HRT3, VF, and ONH stereophotography at 9–12 months intervals. Clinical glaucoma progression was determined by masked assessment of ONH stereophotographs and VF Guided Progression Analysis. Results. The median (IQR total HRT follow-up period was 8.1 (7.3, 9.1 years, which included a median retrospective and prospective follow-up time of 3.9 (3.1, 5.0 and 4.0 (3.5, 4.7 years, respectively. In the TCA-stable eyes, VF and/or photographic progression occurred in 5/13 (38.4% eyes compared to 11/48 (22.9% of the TCA-progressed eyes. There was no statistically significant association between TCA progression and clinically relevant (photographic and/or VF progression (hazard ratio, 1.18; P=0.762. The observed median time to clinical progression from enrollment was significantly shorter in the TCA-progressed group compared to the TCA-stable group (P=0.04. Conclusion. Our results indicate that the commercially available TCA progression criteria do not adequately predict subsequent photographic and/or VF progression.

  20. Preliminary Hydrogeologic Characterization Results from the Wallula Basalt Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; E. C. Sullivan; F. A. Spane; D. H. Bacon; G. Hund; P. D. Thorne; C. J. Thompson; S. P. Reidel; F. S. Colwell

    2009-12-01

    The DOE's Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership has completed drilling the first continental flood basalt sequestration pilot borehole to a total depth (TD) of 4,110 feet on the Boise White Paper Mill property at Wallula, Washington. Site suitability was assessed prior to drilling by the 2007-2008 acquisition, processing and analysis of a four-mile, five-line three component seismic swath, which was processed as a single data-dense line. Analysis of the seismic survey data indicated a composite basalt formation thickness of {approx}8,000 feet and absence of major geologic structures (i.e., faults) along the line imaged by the seismic swath. Drilling of Wallula pilot borehole was initiated on January 13, 2009 and reached TD on April 6, 2009. Based on characterization results obtained during drilling, three basalt breccia zones were identified between the depth interval of 2,716 and 2,910 feet, as being suitable injection reservoir for a subsequent CO2 injection pilot study. The targeted injection reservoir lies stratigraphically below the massive Umtanum Member of the Grande Ronde Basalt, whose flow-interior section possesses regionally recognized low-permeability characteristics. The identified composite injection zone reservoir provides a unique and attractive opportunity to scientifically study the reservoir behavior of three inter-connected reservoir intervals below primary and secondary caprock confining zones. Drill cuttings, wireline geophysical logs, and 31one-inch diameter rotary sidewall cores provided geologic data for characterization of rock properties. XRF analyses of selected rock samples provided geochemical characterizations of the rocks and stratigraphic control for the basalt flows encountered by the Wallula pilot borehole. Based on the geochemical results, the pilot borehole was terminated in the Wapshilla Ridge 1 flow of the Grande Ronde Basalt Formation. Detailed hydrologic test characterizations of 12 basalt interflow

  1. The progress and promise of zebrafish as a model to study mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Berman, Jason N

    2014-09-01

    Immunological and hematological research using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has significantly advanced our understanding of blood lineage ontology, cellular functions and mechanisms, and provided opportunities for disease modeling. Mast cells are an immunological cell type involved in innate and adaptive immune systems, hypersensitivity reactions and cancer progression. The application of zebrafish to study mast cell biology exploits the developmental and imaging opportunities inherent in this model system to enable detailed genetic and molecular studies of this lineage outside of traditional mammalian models. In this review, we first place the importance of mast cell research in zebrafish into the context of comparative studies of mast cells in other fish species and highlight its advantages due to superior experimental tractability and direct visualization in transparent embryos. We discuss current and future tools for mast cell research in zebrafish and the notable results of using zebrafish for understanding mast cell fate determination and our development of a systemic mastocytosis model.

  2. Progress of Large-Scale Air-Sea Interaction Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲书箴; 赵进平; 于卫东; 赵永平; 杨波

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the progress of large-scale air-sea interaction studies that has been achieved in China in the four-year period from July 1998 to July 2002, including seven aspects in the area of the air-sea interaction, namely air-sea interaction related to the tropical Pacific Ocean, monsoon-related air-sea interaction, air-sea interaction in the north Pacific Ocean, air-sea interaction in the Indian Ocean, air-sea interactions in the global oceans, field experiments, and oceanic cruise surveys. However more attention has been paid to the first and the second aspects because a large number of papers in the reference literature for preparing and organizing this paper are concentrated in the tropical Pacific Ocean, such as the ENSO process with its climatic effects and dynamics, and the monsoon-related air-sea interaction. The literature also involves various phenomena with their different time and spatial scales such as intraseasonal, annual, interannual, and interdecadal variabilities in the atmosphere/ocean interaction system, reflecting the contemporary themes in the four-year period at the beginning of an era from the post-TOGA to CLIVAR studies. Apparently, it is a difficult task to summarize the great progress in this area, as it is extracted from a large quantity of literature, although the authors tried very hard.

  3. Characterization of the effects of Escherichia coli replication terminator protein (Tus) on transcription reveals dynamic nature of the tus block to transcription complex progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, R; Sousa, R

    1999-01-01

    We have characterized the blocks to progression of T7 and T3 RNA polymerase transcription complexes created when a Tus protein is bound to the template. The encounter with Tus impedes the progress of the transcription complexes of either enzyme. The duration of the block depends on which polymerase is used and the orientation of Tus on the DNA. Both genuine termination (dissociation of the transcription complex) and halting followed by continued progression after the block is abrogated are observed. The fraction of complexes that terminates depends on which polymerase is used and on the orientation of the Tus molecule. The efficiency of the block to transcription increases as the Tus concentration is increased, even if the concentration of Tus is already many times in excess of what is required to saturate its binding sites on the template in the absence of transcription. The block to transcription is rapidly abrogated if an excess of a DNA containing a binding site for Tus is added to a transcription reaction in which Tus and template have been preincubated. Finally, we find that transcription will rapidly displace Tus from a template under conditions that generate persistent blocks to transcription. These observations reveal that during the encounter with the transcription complex Tus rapidly dissociates from the template but that at sufficiently high concentrations Tus usually rebinds before the transcription complex can move forward. The advantage of a mechanism which can create a persistent block to transcription or replication complex progression, which can nevertheless be rapidly abrogated in response to down regulation of the blocking protein, is suggested. PMID:10373601

  4. Corroborative studies of tritium characterization and depth profiles in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochel, R.C.

    2000-05-05

    This report is the second by the authors on characterizing the tritium content of cement and structural concrete. The first report reviewed the literature and used several new methods to characterize tritium on the surface and through the bulk of contaminated concrete at two facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). In both cases, a relatively constant tritium concentration as a function of depth was observed, which has not been previously reported in the literature. These findings were explained as the relatively rapid transport of tritiated liquid through pores of the hydrated cement, and the exchange of tritium with hydrogen found primarily as free and bound water in the hydrated cement binder. The study reported here extended the measurement of surface and bulk tritium in concrete to three other locations at SRS. The purpose of the current study was to characterize locations whose tritium exposure histories were well documented, and to characterize a location exposed exclusively to gaseous tritium, to confirm and possibly extend the knowledge gained from the earlier study. Results of the current study corroborate the earlier findings, in that the tritium concentration was constant through the bulk when exposed to aqueous tritium, even from a single aqueous tritium exposure. Exposure to gaseous tritium, on the other hand, lead to the well-known diffusion controlled variation of tritium concentration reported in the literature. Sufficient exposure history is available to enable a semi-quantitative explanation of the magnitude and depth dependence of the tritium in both the aqueous- and gas-exposed locations. The penetration of tritium from a liquid can be described by a hydraulic flow model, and gaseous tritium permeates in a diffusive manner. The general correlation of properly measured surface tritium activity to that in the underlying bulk found in the earlier study was confirmed. However, the surface and near surface tritium

  5. Progress of Dendrochronological Studies%树木年代学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树芝

    2001-01-01

    Scientific dendrochronology was established by the American astronomer Dr. Douglass in the early 20th century; since then it has been applied by world scientists in many research fields. At present in Germany and U. S. A., there is the synthetic chronology tracing to 10,000 BP; in Japan, a synthetic chronology can trace to 4000 BC and more. Scientists have used dendrochronologies with long sequences in the study and dating of past cultures, as well as in researches on climates (including temperature and rainfall), ecological conditions, the cultivation of forests, plant diseases and insect pests,and environmental pollution. The present paper makes a brief summarization of the definition, principles and significance of chronology and the progress of dendrochronological studies at home and abroad, and points out problems in Chinese dendrodating and the measures of their solution.

  6. Fluid distribution in progressive pulmonary edema: a low-temperature scanning-electron-microscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hook, G.R.

    1981-06-01

    High pressure pulmonary edema is a common medical disorder caused by venous hypertension following left ventricular heart failure. Abnormal fluid accumulation in the alveolar air spaces results in a life-threatening loss of respiratory function. The primary component of the fluid is water and therefore the study of water distribution in the alveolus can provide insight into high pressure pulmonary edema pathology. The new method of freeze-fracture, low temperature SEM has been developed and applied to the study of pulmonary edema. This method combines freeze-fracture sample preservation with SEM observation and retains pulmonary fluids in the frozen hydrated state for direct three-dimensional SEM imaging of alveoli. Quantitative measurements of alveolar structures resulting from high-pressure pulmonary edema were made from SEM micrographs. From these measurements a model for alveolar fluid distribution resulting from progressive high pressure edema was made.

  7. Assessing progression of clinical reasoning through virtual patients: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Elenita; Ziegert, Kristina; Hult, Håkan; Fors, Uno

    2016-01-01

    To avoid test-driven learning, there have been discussions regarding the use of more formative assessments in health care education to promote students' deep learning. Feedback is important in formative assessment, but many students ignore it; therefore, interventions should be introduced which stimulate them to reflect on the new knowledge. The aim for this study was to explore if Virtual Patient (VP)-based formative assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, had an impact on postgraduate pediatric nursing students' development of clinical reasoning abilities. Students' self-evaluations served as the basis for measuring progress. Data was analysed using deductive content analysis. The findings showed a clear progression of the clinical reasoning ability of the students. After the first assessment, the students described feelings of uncertainty and that their knowledge gaps were exposed. At the mid-course assessment the awareness of improved clinical reasoning was obvious and the students were more certain of knowing how to solve the VP cases. In the final assessment, self-efficacy was expressed. VP-based assessments, in connection with self-evaluations, early in the education resulted in a gain of students' own identification of the concept of clinical reasoning, awareness of what to focus on during clinical practice and visualised expected clinical competence.

  8. A nondestructive experimental study on damage progression in woven glass-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Patrick; Yu, Lingyu; Guo, Siming; Sutton, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the damage progression in composite materials undergoing tension loading, while pushing the boundaries on measurements to identify material damage. Several SHM methods are used to detect the types of damage that are observed in each test. A Digital Image Correlation system is used to measure the surface strain throughout the test and also the residual strain after each loading cycle. The residual strain is used as an indicator for the presence of damage in the structure. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are bonded to the composite material and are used to detect damage using Electromechanical Impedance Spectroscopy (EMIS). The EMIS method analyzes the changes in the structural resonances and anti-resonances. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (ECIS) method is also used to detect damage. This method uses the impedance of the structure to determine the state of the structure. As the damage progresses in the composite, the impedance across the thickness will change.

  9. Recent developments in QGP characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sangyong [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal (Canada)

    2016-01-22

    In recent years, great progress has been made in characterizing quark-gluon plasma (QGP) being created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The article briefly reviews QGP characteristics found in hydrodynamic studies of the QGP collective flows.

  10. Progress in nano-electro optics characterization of nano-optical materials and optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This volume focuses on the characterization of nano-optical materials and optical-near field interactions. It begins with the techniques for characterizing the magneto-optical Kerr effect and continues with methods to determine structural and optical properties in high-quality quantum wires with high spatial uniformity. Further topics include: near-field luminescence mapping in InGaN/GaN single quantum well structures in order to interpret the recombination mechanism in InGaN-based nano-structures; and theoretical treatment of the optical near field and optical near-field interactions, providing the basis for investigating the signal transport and associated dissipation in nano-optical devices. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  12. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DUCTILE-PHASE-TOUGHENED TUNGSTEN LAMINATES FOR PLASMA-FACING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Odette, G Robert; Fields, Kirk A.; Gragg, David; Yamamoto, Takuya; Zok, Frank W.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.

    2015-09-23

    A promising approach to increasing the fracture toughness of W-alloys is ductile-phase toughening (DPT). A ductile phase reinforcement in a brittle matrix increases toughness primarily by crack bridging. A W-Cu laminate was fabricated and the properties of the constituent metals were characterized along with those for the composite. Development of a design model for large-scale crack bridging continued.

  13. Characterization of artificial spherical particles for DEM validation studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignazio Cavarretta; Catherine O'Sullivan; Erdin Ibraim; Martin Lings; Simon Hamlin; David Muir Wood

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study in which advanced particle-scale characterization was carried out on spherical particles that can be used in experimental tests to validate discrete element method (DEM) simulations,Two types of particle,alkaline and borosilicate glass heads,made from two different materials,were considered.The particle shape,stiffness,contact friction properties and surface roughness were measured.The influences of hardness and roughness on the mechanical response of the particles were carefully considered.Compared to the alkaline beads,the borosilicate beads were more spherical and more uniform in size,and they exhibited mechanical characteristics closer to natural quartz sand.While only two material types were studied,the work has the broader implication as a methodology for selecting particles suitable for use in DEM studies and the key parameters that should be considered in the selection process are highlighted.

  14. Characterizing dense suspensions: two case studies from the pharmaceutical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Khawaja, Nazia; Kazakevich, Irina; Bhattacharjee, Himanshu; Heslinga, Michael; Dalton, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Liquid suspensions of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient powders are present as pharmaceutical dosage forms in the form of oral suspensions and injectables. We present two case studies, both dense (~ 30-40%) suspensions, in which the physical characterization of the product, specifically, particle size & shape and rheology were key to understanding the key product attributes as pertaining to the manufacturing process and to patient administration. For the one case study, an oral suspension, identifying variations in particle morphology during the wet milling of the product was key to the product understanding necessary to modify the milling process. Rheological measurements were applied as well. For the second case study, an injectable, results from different particle size measurement techniques and rheological measurements indicated the possibility of flocculation in a formulation. Additionally, measurements were obtained to assess the ``injectability'' of the product via rheometer and texture analyzer measurements and Poiseuille flow modeling. As a result, the relevant shear rate regime for this drug product administration was identified.

  15. Relation of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins with Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Akkina, Sanjeev; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Raj, Dominic S.; Schelling, Jeffrey; Strauss, Louise; Teal, Valerie; Rader, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Hyperlipidemia is common in patients with CKD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether measures of plasma lipids and lipoproteins predict progression of kidney disease in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Prospective cohort study in adults (n=3939) with CKD aged 21–74 years recruited between 2003 and 2008 and followed for a median of 4.1 years. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I , apoB, and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were measured. The outcomes were composite end point of ESRD or 50% decline in eGFR from baseline (rate of change of GFR). Results Mean age of the study population was 58.2 years, and the mean GFR was 44.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 48% of patients had diabetes. None of the lipid or lipoprotein measures was independently associated with risk of the composite end point or rate of change in GFR. However, there were significant (P=0.01) interactions by level of proteinuria. In participants with proteinuria0.2 g/d, neither LDL-C (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.05) nor total cholesterol levels were associated with renal outcomes. Treatment with statins was reported in 55% of patients and was differential across lipid categories. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients with CKD, total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-C, LDL-C, HDL-C, apoA-I, apoB, and Lp(a) were not independently associated with progression of kidney disease. There was an inverse relationship between LDL-C and total cholesterol levels and kidney disease outcomes in patients with low levels of proteinuria. PMID:24832097

  16. Defining natural history: assessment of the ability of college students to aid in characterizing clinical progression of Niemann-Pick disease, type C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Shin

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC is a fatal, neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder. It is a rare disease with broad phenotypic spectrum and variable age of onset. These issues make it difficult to develop a universally accepted clinical outcome measure to assess urgently needed therapies. To this end, clinical investigators have defined emerging, disease severity scales. The average time from initial symptom to diagnosis is approximately 4 years. Further, some patients may not travel to specialized clinical centers even after diagnosis. We were therefore interested in investigating whether appropriately trained, community-based assessment of patient records could assist in defining disease progression using clinical severity scores. In this study we evolved a secure, step wise process to show that pre-existing medical records may be correctly assessed by non-clinical practitioners trained to quantify disease progression. Sixty-four undergraduate students at the University of Notre Dame were expertly trained in clinical disease assessment and recognition of major and minor symptoms of NPC. Seven clinical records, randomly selected from a total of thirty seven used to establish a leading clinical severity scale, were correctly assessed to show expected characteristics of linear disease progression. Student assessment of two new records donated by NPC families to our study also revealed linear progression of disease, but both showed accelerated disease progression, relative to the current severity scale, especially at the later stages. Together, these data suggest that college students may be trained in assessment of patient records, and thus provide insight into the natural history of a disease.

  17. The Preparation and Characterization of INTEC HAW Phase I Composition Variation Study Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, C. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Piepel, G. F.; Scholes, B. A.; Staples, B. A.; Vienna, J. D.

    1999-03-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) is in progress to define formulations for the vitrification of high activity waste (HAW) proposed to be separated from dissolved calcine stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Estimates of calcine and HAW compositions prepared in FY97 were used to define test matrix glasses. The HAW composition is of particular interest because high aluminum, zirconium, phosphorous and potassium, and low iron and sodium content places it outside the realm of vitrification experience in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Through application of statistical techniques, a test matrix was defined for Phase 1 of the CVS. From this matrix, formulations were systematically selected for preparation and characterization with respect to homogeneity, viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL), and leaching response when subjected to the Product Consistency Test (PCT). Based on the properties determined, certain formulations appear suitable for further development including use in planning Phase 2 of the study. It is recommended that glasses to be investigated in Phase 2 be limited to 3-5 wt % phosphate. The results of characterizing the Phase 1 glasses are presented in this document. A full analysis of the composition-property relationships of glasses being developed for immobilizing HAWs will be performing at the completion of CVS phases. This analysis will be needed for the optimization of the glass formulations of vitrifying HAW. Contributions were made to this document by personnel working at the INEEL, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC).

  18. Progress and records in the study of endogenetic mineralization during collisional orogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To develop and perfect the theory of plate tectonics and regional metallogeny,metallogenesis during collisional orogenesis should be thoroughly studied and will attract increasing attention of more and more scientists.This paper presents the main aspects of research and discussions on metallogenesis during collisional orogenesis after the development of plate tectonics,and accordingly divides the study history into two stages,i.e.the junior stage during 1971-1990 and the senior stage after 1990.Beginning with the negation of mineralization in the collision regime by Guild (1971),the focus of study was put on whether there occurred any mineralization during collisional orogenesis at the junior stage.At the senior stage,which is initiated by the advance of metallogenic and petrogenic model for collisional orogenesis,scientists begin to pay their attention to the geodynamic mechanism of metallogenesis,spatial and temporal distribution of ore deposits,ore-forming fluidization,relationship between petrogenesis and mineralization in collisional orogenesis,etc.Abundance of typical collisional orogens such as Himalayan,China has best natural conditions to study collisional metallogenesis.Great progress in the study of metallogenesis during collisional orogenesis has been made by Chinese geologists.Therefore,we hope that the Chinese geologists and Chinese governments at various levels to pay more attention to the study of collisional metallogenesis.Some urgent problems are suggested to be solved so as to bring about breakthroughs in the aspects concerned.

  19. Progress in Finite Time Thermodynamic Studies for Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Ge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of introducing the origin and development of finite time thermodynamics (FTT, this paper reviews the progress in FTT optimization for internal combustion engine (ICE cycles from the following four aspects: the studies on the optimum performances of air standard endoreversible (with only the irreversibility of heat resistance and irreversible ICE cycles, including Otto, Diesel, Atkinson, Brayton, Dual, Miller, Porous Medium and Universal cycles with constant specific heats, variable specific heats, and variable specific ratio of the conventional and quantum working fluids (WFs; the studies on the optimum piston motion (OPM trajectories of ICE cycles, including Otto and Diesel cycles with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; the studies on the performance limits of ICE cycles with non-uniform WF with Newtonian and other heat transfer laws; as well as the studies on the performance simulation of ICE cycles. In the studies, the optimization objectives include work, power, power density, efficiency, entropy generation rate, ecological function, and so on. The further direction for the studies is explored.

  20. Estimating progression-free survival in paediatric brain tumour patients when some progression statuses are unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Thall, Peter F.; Wolff, Johannes E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In oncology, progression-free survival time, which is defined as the minimum of the times to disease progression or death, often is used to characterize treatment and covariate effects. We are motivated by the desire to estimate the progression time distribution on the basis of data from 780 paediatric patients with choroid plexus tumours, which are a rare brain cancer where disease progression always precedes death. In retrospective data on 674 patients, the times to death or censoring were recorded but progression times were missing. In a prospective study of 106 patients, both times were recorded but there were only 20 non-censored progression times and 10 non-censored survival times. Consequently, estimating the progression time distribution is complicated by the problems that, for most of the patients, either the survival time is known but the progression time is not known, or the survival time is right censored and it is not known whether the patient’s disease progressed before censoring. For data with these missingness structures, we formulate a family of Bayesian parametric likelihoods and present methods for estimating the progression time distribution. The underlying idea is that estimating the association between the time to progression and subsequent survival time from patients having complete data provides a basis for utilizing covariates and partial event time data of other patients to infer their missing progression times. We illustrate the methodology by analysing the brain tumour data, and we also present a simulation study. PMID:22408277

  1. Drug silica nanocomposite: preparation, characterization and skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, Martina; Ennas, Guido; Casu, Mariano; Fadda, Anna Maria; Frongia, Francesca; Marongiu, Francesca; Sanna, Roberta; Scano, Alessandra; Valenti, Donatella; Sinico, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate silica nanocomposites as topical drug delivery systems for the model drug, caffeine. Preparation, characterization, and skin permeation properties of caffeine-silica nanocomposites are described. Caffeine was loaded into the nanocomposites by grinding the drug with mesoporous silica in a ball mill up to 10 h and the efficiency of the process was studied by XRPD. Formulations were characterized by several methods that include FTIR, XRPD, SEM and TEM. The successful loading of caffeine was demonstrated by XRPD and FTIR. Morphology was studied by SEM that showed particle size reduction while TEM demonstrated formation of both core-shell and multilayered caffeine-silica structures. Solid-state NMR spectra excluded chemical interactions between caffeine and silica matrix, thus confirming that no solid state reactions occurred during the grinding process. Influence of drug inclusion in silica nanocomposite on the in vitro caffeine diffusion into and through the skin was investigated in comparison with a caffeine gel formulation (reference), using newborn pig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells. Results from the in vitro skin permeation experiments showed that inclusion into the nanocomposite reduced and delayed caffeine permeation from the silica nanocomposite in comparison with the reference, independently from the amount of the tested formulation.

  2. A population-based study of stimulant drug treatment of ADHD and academic progress in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Rothman, Kenneth J; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2012-01-01

    between their fourth- and seventh-grade tests were more likely to decline in test performance. The crude probability of academic decline was 72.9% in mathematics and 42.9% in language arts for children with a treatment start 25 to 36 months after the fourth-grade test. Compared with those starting......OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the hypothesis that later start of stimulant treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder adversely affects academic progress in mathematics and language arts among 9- to 12-year-old children. METHODS: We linked nationwide data from the Icelandic Medicines Registry...... and the Database of National Scholastic Examinations. The study population comprised 11,872 children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in both fourth and seventh grade. We estimated the probability of academic decline (drop of ≥ 5.0 percentile points) according to drug exposure and timing of treatment...

  3. Electron microscope studies. Progress report, June 1, 1992--November 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1993-11-01

    During the past year we have continued our work on the mirror-corrected high resolution STEM. We have made significant progress in the design and fabrication of the various microscope sub-systems and have completed a new display system. Additional calculations and computer simulations have been performed to confirm the original theory of mirror correctors. In our biological work we have made a careful study of the structure of globins, vertebrate and invertebrate, using the accumulated information contained in the Brookhaven Data Bank (3D structures), the Protein Identification Resource (ID sequences) and the data we have obtained with the STEM. Statistical templates have been generated to predict various classes of globins.

  4. Study Progress on Resistance of Lilium%百合抗性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳玲

    2012-01-01

    The present situation of the study on resistance of Lilium in aspects of drought resistance, salinity resistance, heat resistance, cold tolerance, pests and diseases resistance, low light resistance were summarized. The research progress and resistance mechanism were also discussed. These would provided basis for Lilium resistance breeding, popularization and application.%综述了百合在抗旱性、耐盐性、耐热性、抗寒性、抗病性、耐低光照等方面的研究现状,对百合抗性的研究进展和抗性机制、机理进行了探讨,为百合的抗性育种和推广应用提供理论依据。,

  5. A normative study of a shorter version of Raven's progressive matrices 1938.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarra, P; Vezzadini, G; Zonato, F; Copelli, S; Venneri, A

    2003-12-01

    A shorter four-set (A, B, C, D) version of Raven's progressive matrices 1938 (PM38) has gained increasing use in neuropsychological assessment. No normative data spanning across a wide age range are, however, available. This study collected norms for the shorter version of PM38, established an inferential cut-off value and derived equivalent scores in a sample of 248 individuals from 20 to 89 years of age, evenly distributed across sex, age and education levels. Results showed significant effects of age and education but no effect of sex on performance. These normative data will complement existing norms for other tests, will increase the wealth of neuropsychological tools for which normative data are available for the Italian population, and may be useful in the early detection of individuals at risk of developing dementia.

  6. Characterization of a 1,4-{beta}-D-glucan synthase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Progress report, May 1990--January 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, R.L.

    1992-01-15

    Various aspects of research concerning Dictyostelium discoideum are presented. The initial focus of this project was upon: the characterization of potential probes for the cellulose synthase (antibody and nucleic acid), the determination of the cultural induction conditions of cellulose synthesis, the solubilization of the enzyme activity, the development of a non-inhibitory disruption buffer, the generation and isolation of mutant strains deficient in cellulose synthesis, and the development of the capability to determine the degree of polymerization of the in vitro product. I have briefly summarized our most significant findings with only selected data sets being shown in this report in the interest of brevity.

  7. Studies of carbon--isotope fractionation. Annual progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, T.

    1975-12-01

    The vapor pressure isotope effect of /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-substitution in CClF/sub 3/ was measured at temperatures between 169/sup 0/ and 206/sup 0/K by means of cryogenic distillation. The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C-vapor pressure isotope effect in CHF/sub 3/ was also studied at temperatures between 161/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/K by a similar method. The construction of a cryostat has progressed as scheduled. The investigation of carbon isotope exchange equilibria between carbon dioxide and various carbamates dissolved in various organic solvents has continued. The five-stage system of Taylor-Ghate design was improved to shorten the transient time. A single stage apparatus was designed, built, and tested. These systems are used to measure the equilibrium constants and various phase equilibria involved in the carbon dioxide--carbamate system. The investigation of the explicit method of total isotope effect has made progress. A satisfactory approximation was found for the classical partition function of a Morse oscillator. The method gives a reasonable result at rho identical with /sup 1///sub 2/..sqrt..(u/sub e//x/sub e/) greater than 1.5. The medium cluster approach was applied to isotopic methanes to investigate the effects of intermolecular distance and mutual orientations of molecules in the liquid upon vapor pressure isotope effect. It was found that all geometrical effects studied tend to vanish as the size of clusters is increased. Isotope effect in the zero-point energy shifts on condensation was calculated on the basis of London dispersion forces in liquid and a semi-empirical molecular orbital theory, and was favorably compared with experimental results. (auth)

  8. CSF biomarkers associated with disease heterogeneity in early Parkinson's disease: the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Mollenhauer, Brit; Coffey, Christopher S; Toledo, Jon B; Weintraub, Daniel; Galasko, Douglas R; Irwin, David J; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Chen-Plotkin, Alice S; Caspell-Garcia, Chelsea; Waligórska, Teresa; Taylor, Peggy; Shah, Nirali; Pan, Sarah; Zero, Pawel; Frasier, Mark; Marek, Kenneth; Kieburtz, Karl; Jennings, Danna; Tanner, Caroline M; Simuni, Tanya; Singleton, Andrew; Toga, Arthur W; Chowdhury, Sohini; Trojanowski, John Q; Shaw, Leslie M

    2016-06-01

    The development of biomarkers to predict the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) from its earliest stage through its heterogeneous course is critical for research and therapeutic development. The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study is an ongoing international multicenter, prospective study to validate biomarkers in drug-naïve PD patients and matched healthy controls (HC). We quantified cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha-synuclein (α-syn), amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ1-42), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at Thr181 (p-tau) in 660 PPMI subjects at baseline, and correlated these data with measures of the clinical features of these subjects. We found that CSF α-syn, t-tau and p-tau levels, but not Aβ1-42, were significantly lower in PD compared with HC, while the diagnostic value of the individual CSF biomarkers for PD diagnosis was limited due to large overlap. The level of α-syn, but not other biomarkers, was significantly lower in PD patients with non-tremor-dominant phenotype compared with tremor-dominant phenotype. In addition, in PD patients the lowest Aβ1-42, or highest t-tau/Aβ1-42 and t-tau/α-syn quintile in PD patients were associated with more severe non-motor dysfunction compared with the highest or lowest quintiles, respectively. In a multivariate regression model, lower α-syn was significantly associated with worse cognitive test performance. APOE ε4 genotype was associated with lower levels of Aβ1-42, but neither with PD diagnosis nor cognition. Our data suggest that the measurement of CSF biomarkers in early-stage PD patients may relate to disease heterogeneity seen in PD. Longitudinal observations in PPMI subjects are needed to define their prognostic performance.

  9. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  10. 微片的特点和研究进展%Characterization and research progress of mini -tablets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪; 陈肖东; 苏峰; 何广卫

    2016-01-01

    In oral sustained and controlled release drug delivery systems,compared with the single unit dosage form,multiple unit dos-age form drug,highly dispersed in the gastrointestinal tract,can reduce drug burst release and increase the bioavailability,accurately control the dose,and also improve the compliance of patients.The multiple unit dosage form includes particles,microspheres,pellets, and mini-tablets.This article mainly introduces the characteristics of the mini-tablets and some research progress in recent years.%在口服缓控释给药系统中,与单元型制剂相比,多单元型制剂的药物高度分散在胃肠道内,可以减少药物突释、提高用药安全性,还可以准确控制剂量、提高患者顺应性。多单元型给药系统包括颗粒、微球、微丸和微片等。该文主要介绍微片的特点和近年来的一些研究进展。

  11. Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate and HPLC-based reaction progress curve data for the enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates by Sinapis alba myrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Klingaman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article, “HPLC-based enzyme kinetics assay for glucosinolate hydrolysis facilitate analysis of systems with both multiple reaction products and thermal enzyme denaturation” (C.K. Klingaman, M.J. Wagner, J.R. Brown, J.B. Klecker, E.H. Pauley, C.J. Noldner, J.R. Mays, [1]. This data article describes (1 the synthesis and spectral characterization data of a non-natural glucosinolate analogue, 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate, (2 HPLC standardization data for glucosinolate, isothiocyanate, nitrile, and amine analytes, (3 reaction progress curve data for enzymatic hydrolysis reactions with variable substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, buffer pH, and temperature, and (4 normalized initial velocities of hydrolysis/formation for analytes. These data provide a comprehensive description of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2,2-diphenylethyl glucosinolate (5 and glucotropaeolin (6 under widely varied conditions.

  12. Masitinib treatment in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermersch Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for patients suffering from progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS remain inadequate. Mast cells actively participate in the pathogenesis of MS, in part because they release large amounts of various mediators that sustain the inflammatory network. Masitinib, a selective oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibits the survival, migration and activity of mast cells. This exploratory study assessed the safety and clinical benefit of masitinib in the treatment of primary progressive MS (PPMS or relapse-free secondary progressive MS (rfSPMS. Methods Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial. Masitinib was administered orally at 3 to 6 mg/kg/day for at least 12 months, with dose adjustment permitted in event of insufficient response with no toxicity. The primary response endpoint was the change relative to baseline in the multiple sclerosis functional composite score (MSFC. Clinical response was defined as an increase in MSFC score relative to baseline of > 100%. Results Thirty-five patients were randomized to receive masitinib (N = 27 or placebo (N = 8. Masitinib was relatively well tolerated with the most common adverse events being asthenia, rash, nausea, edema, and diarrhea. The overall frequency of adverse events was similar to the placebo group, however, a higher incidence of severe and serious events was associated with masitinib treatment. Masitinib appeared to have a positive effect on MS-related impairment for PPMS and rfSPMS patients, as evidenced by an improvement in MSFC scores relative to baseline, compared with a worsening MSFC score in patients receiving placebo; +103% ± 189 versus -60% ± 190 at month-12, respectively. This positive, albeit non-statistically significant response was observed as early as month-3 and sustained through to month-18, with similar trends seen in the PPMS and rfSPMS subpopulations. A total of 7/22 (32

  13. A comparative study of two prediction models for brain tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deqi; Tran, Loc; Wang, Jihong; Li, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique together with traditional T1 or T2 weighted MRI scans supplies rich information sources for brain cancer diagnoses. These images form large-scale, high-dimensional data sets. Due to the fact that significant correlations exist among these images, we assume low-dimensional geometry data structures (manifolds) are embedded in the high-dimensional space. Those manifolds might be hidden from radiologists because it is challenging for human experts to interpret high-dimensional data. Identification of the manifold is a critical step for successfully analyzing multimodal MR images. We have developed various manifold learning algorithms (Tran et al. 2011; Tran et al. 2013) for medical image analysis. This paper presents a comparative study of an incremental manifold learning scheme (Tran. et al. 2013) versus the deep learning model (Hinton et al. 2006) in the application of brain tumor progression prediction. The incremental manifold learning is a variant of manifold learning algorithm to handle large-scale datasets in which a representative subset of original data is sampled first to construct a manifold skeleton and remaining data points are then inserted into the skeleton by following their local geometry. The incremental manifold learning algorithm aims at mitigating the computational burden associated with traditional manifold learning methods for large-scale datasets. Deep learning is a recently developed multilayer perceptron model that has achieved start-of-the-art performances in many applications. A recent technique named "Dropout" can further boost the deep model by preventing weight coadaptation to avoid over-fitting (Hinton et al. 2012). We applied the two models on multiple MRI scans from four brain tumor patients to predict tumor progression and compared the performances of the two models in terms of average prediction accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision. The quantitative performance metrics were

  14. Determinants of timely completion : the impact of Bachelor's degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law s

  15. A Study on Stochastic Thermal Characterization of Electronic Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Haddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Insofar as the electronics can be found now in several applications of multiple domains, we have tried to highlight in this study that, those systems must be based on unquestionable reliability and meet the needs of the external environment. Starting from the unit "°c / w" concerning the thermal resistance from the gap between junction temperature and a reference temperature, we have tried to compare the thermal performance of electronic packages taking into consideration the thermal management. Our approach is based on the Monte Carlo simulation and the stochastic characterization of the QFN. From the norm of normalization, we have obtained standardized data sheets allowing accurate comparisons of the thermal performance of electronic packages as produced by different manufacturers. Our numerical model through simulation, prototyping concerning the design involves the JEDEC recommendations, which we consider a very interesting alternative. Through the deterministic analysis, we conducted an analysis from the Matlab program parameters, which control the Ansys software, the results were processed by statistical techniques to evaluate the times of the thermal resistance of the QFN. That is why we must consider the electronic package (encapsulating the integrated circuit, through the printed circuit board (PCB to ensure the junction temperature maintenance and avoid the dissipation of the heat. Also our process was based on the union of the finite element method to the Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic characterization of the QFN

  16. Gold complexes with benzimidazole derivatives: synthesis, characterization and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Vinicius Zamprogno; de Carvalho, Gustavo Senra Gonçalves; da Silva, Adilson David; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; de Almeida Machado, Patrícia; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima; Shishido, Silvia Mika; Cuin, Alexandre

    2014-02-01

    Synthesis, characterization, DFT studies and biological assays of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes of benzimidazole are reported. Molecular and structural characterizations of the compounds were based on elemental (C, H and N) and thermal (TG-DTA) analyses, and FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic measurements. The structures of complexes were proposed based DFT calculations. The benzimidazole compounds (Lig1 and Lig2) and the gold complexes were tested against three Leishmania species related to cutaneous manifestations of leishmaniasis. The free benzimidazole compounds showed no leishmanicidal activity. On the other hand, the gold(I and III) complexes have shown to possess significant activity against Leishmania in both stages of parasite, and the gold(III) complex with Lig2 exhibited expressive leishmanicidal activity with IC50 values below 5.7 μM. Also, the gold complexes showed high leishmania selectivity. The gold(I) complex with Lig1, for example, is almost 50 times more toxic for the parasite than for macrophages. Besides the leishmanicidal activity, all complexes exhibited toxic effect against SK-Mel 103 and Balb/c 3T3, cancer cells.

  17. Characterization study of silica aerogel for Cherenkov imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallaz-Damaz, Y. [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Derome, L., E-mail: derome@lpsc.in2p3.f [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Mangin-Brinet, M.; Loth, M.; Protasov, K.; Putze, A.; Vargas-Trevino, M.; Veziant, O.; Buenerd, M. [LPSC, IN2P3/CNRS, 53 av. des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Belmont, E.; Vargas-Magana, M.; Leon-Vargas, H.; Ortiz-Velasquez, A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, AP 20-364, Mexico DF (Mexico); Malinine, A. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Barao, F.; Pereira, R. [LIP, Avenida Elias Garcia 14-1, P - 1000 Lisboa (Portugal); Bellunato, T.; Matteuzzi, C.; Perego, D.L. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca and INFN, Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    Different methods to measure the characteristics of silica aerogel tiles used as Cherenkov radiator in the CREAM and AMS experiments have been investigated to optimize the detector performances. The measurement accuracy dictated by the physics objectives on the velocity and charge resolutions set stringent requirements on the aerogel refractive index determination, namely DELTAnapprox1.5x10{sup -4} and DELTAnapprox5x10{sup -4} for the AMS and CREAM imagers, respectively. The matching of such accuracies for this material turned out to be a metrological challenge, and finally led to a full R and D program, to develop an appropriate characterization procedure. Preliminary studies performed with a standard refractive index measurement technique (laser beam deviation by a prism) have revealed a significant systematic index nonuniformity for the AMS tiles at a level (10{sup -3}), not acceptable considering the aimed accuracy. These large variations were confirmed in a beam test. A second method, mapping the transverse index gradient by deflection of a laser beam entering normally to the tile has then been developed. It is shown that this procedure is suitable to reach the required accuracy, at the price of using both methods combined. The several hundreds of tiles of the radiator plane of the CREAM and AMS Cherenkov imagers were characterized using a simplified procedure, however, appropriate for each case, compromising between the amount of work and the time available. The experimental procedures and set-ups used are described in the text, and the obtained results are reported.

  18. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2016-02-27

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention.

  19. Renal histology in pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis: 8-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana W Minz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The need to perform reporting of renal biopsies of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA-associated vasculitides in a more uniform manner required relook at our eight-year data. Aims: To document detailed renal histopathology of pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN and also to seek any significant differences in renal histology of C-ANCA-positive, P-ANCA-positive, and ANCA-negative patients. Materials and Methods: A detailed analysis of the histopathologic features of renal biopsies of 48 patients in whom a diagnosis of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis was concluded on renal biopsy and who presented clinically as rapidly progressive renal failure was done. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Pearson Chi square tests. Results: Compared with ANCA +ve patients, the ANCA -ve patients were much younger (46.85 ± 16.12 years vs 34.28±15.94 years. No significant differences were found between renal lesions of C-ANCA, P-ANCA, and ANCA-negative patients, except for diffuse tubular atrophy which was more severe and more frequently present with P-ANCA positivity (P value=0.013. Conclusions: Pauci-immune RPGN (irrespective of ANCA status is a relatively rare disorder in patients who are undergoing the renal biopsy at our institute, constituting 2% of all renal biopsies submitted. It is mandatory to have ANCA serology status during reporting of a kidney biopsy showing pauci-immune crescentic or necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Also, if a uniform reporting strategy is followed throughout the country, the studies from this vast country will be comparable.

  20. Recent progress in the growth and characterization of large Ge single crystals for IR optics and microelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Moshe; Gafni, Gabriella; Roth, Michael

    1991-11-01

    During recent years there has been an increasing demand for large homogeneous Ge single crystals to be used as optical components in high resolution thermal imaging systems. Thus, the authors' research focused on understanding the roles of dopant and stress distribution in large Ge crystals and their influence on the optical performance in the IR region, 8-12 micrometers . More recently, a new application for heavily dope, n-type Ge crystals with low resistivity (~0.1 Ω.cm) and high crystalline perfection (EPD ~5 X 103cm-2) has been reported. This paper presents the growth and characterization of large homogeneous Ge single crystals with diameters up to 240 mm for IR optics. Preliminary results on the growth of 75 mm diameter Ge single crystals for substrates preparation are given. These substrates can be used in GaAs solar cells for space applications.

  1. Fluorescence-based characterization of genetically encoded peptides that fold in live cells: progress toward a generic hairpin scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zihao; Campbell, Robert E.

    2007-02-01

    Binding proteins suitable for expression and high affinity molecular recognition in the cytoplasm or nucleus of live cells have numerous applications in the biological sciences. In an effort to add a new minimal motif to the growing repertoire of validated non-immunoglobulin binding proteins, we have undertaken the development of a generic protein scaffold based on a single β-hairpin that can fold efficiently in the cytoplasm. We have developed a method, based on the measurement of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a genetically fused cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), that allows the structural stability of recombinant β-hairpin peptides to be rapidly assessed both in vitro and in vivo. We have previously reported the validation of this method when applied to a 16mer tryptophan zipper β-hairpin. We now describe the use of this method to evaluate the potential of a designed 20mer β-hairpin peptide with a 3rd Trp/Trp cross-strand pair to function as a generic protein scaffold. Quantitative analysis of the FRET efficiency, resistance to proteolysis (assayed by loss of FRET), and circular dichroism spectra revealed that the 20mer peptide is significantly more tolerant of destabilizing mutations than the 16mer peptide. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that the in vitro determined β-hairpin stabilities are well correlated with in vivo β-hairpin stabilities as determined by FRET measurements of colonies of live bacteria expressing the recombinant peptides flanked by CFP and YFP. Finally, we report on our progress to develop highly folded 24mer and 28mer β-hairpin peptides through the use of fluorescence-based library screening.

  2. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  3. Recent progress of deep seismic experiments and studies of crustal structure in northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest marginal seas in the western Pacific. Its northern part has the features of a passive continental margin. The studies of deep crustal structure in this area are very important for understanding the tectonic nature, evolution history, basin formation of the northern margin, and the origin of the SCS. In the past decades, the deep seismic experiments of crustal studies in the northern SCS have gone through three stages, namely the sonobuoy, two-ship Expanding Spread Profile (ESP), and Ocean Bottom Hydrophone/Seismometer (OBH/OBS). Along the continental slope, the sonobuoy experiments provided useful information about the velocity structure of the upper crust, while the ESP data recorded for the first time the seismic signals from deep crustal structure and Moho interface. And the OBH/OBS profiles revealed the crustal structure in much greater detail. This paper first gives a brief historical review of these deep seismic experiments and studies, then a summary of the latest progress and important research results. The remaining problems and suggestions for further research work are presented as conclusive remarks.

  4. Progress in rapid climate changes and their modeling study in millennial and centennial scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Rapid climate change at millennial and centennial scales is one of the most important aspects in paleoclimate study.It has been found that rapid climate change at millennial and centennial scales is a global phenomenon during both the glacial age and the Holocene with amplitudes typical of geological or astronomical time-scales.Simulations of glacial and Holocene climate changes have demonstrated the response of the climate system to the changes of earth orbital parameter and the importance of variations in feedbacks of ocean,vegetation,icecap and greenhouse gases.Modeling experiments suggest that the Atlantic thermohaline circulation was sensitive to the fresh water input into the North Atlantic and was closely related to the rapid climate changes during the last glacial age and the Holocene.Adopting the Earth-system models of inter mediate complexity (EMICs),CLIMBER-2,the response of East Asian climate change to Dansgaard/Oeschger and Heinrich events during the typical last glacial period (60 ka B.P.-20 ka B.P.) and impacts of ice on the Tibetan plateau on Holocene climate change were stimulated,studied and revealed.Further progress of paleoclimate modeling depends on developing finer-grid models and reconstructing more reliable boundary conditions.More attention should be paid on the study of mechanisms of abrupt climatic changes as well as regional climate changes in the background of global climate change.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of anthracyclines: Structural characterization and in vitro tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafraniec, Ewelina; Majzner, Katarzyna; Farhane, Zeineb; Byrne, Hugh J.; Lukawska, Malgorzata; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2016-12-01

    A broad spectroscopic characterization, using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared absorption as well as Raman scattering, of two commonly used anthracyclines antibiotics (DOX) daunorubicin (DNR), their epimers (EDOX, EDNR) and ten selected analogs is presented. The paper serves as a comprehensive spectral library of UV-vis, IR and Raman spectra of anthracyclines in the solid state and in solution. The particular advantage of Raman spectroscopy for the measurement and analysis of individual antibiotics is demonstrated. Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the in vitro uptake and distribution of the drug in cells, using both 488 nm and 785 nm as source wavelengths, with submicrometer spatial resolution, although the cellular accumulation of the drug is different in each case. The high information content of Raman spectra allows studies of the drug-cell interactions, and so the method seems very suitable for monitoring drug uptake and mechanisms of interaction with cellular compartments at the subcellular level.

  6. A Study on the Characterization of Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏焕

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a brief study on the characterization of Jude the Obscure,and will be focus on the chief character Jude Fawley.This novel,first published in 1895,wasThomas Hardy's last and best literary success.There are six main characters in this novel:Jude Fawley,Susanna Bridehead,Arabella Donn,Richard Phillotson,Aunt Drusilla,Little Father Time(Little Jude).This analysis of the distinct depictions of the typical characters will be helpful to the understanding of the gap between the ideal life a man wishes to lead and the squalid existence he is fated to live in such social environment as Jude is confronted with.

  7. Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude

    2016-08-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and

  8. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  9. The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI): Infrared Detection and Characterization of Exozodiacal Dust to Super-Earths, A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a structurally connected infrared space interferometer with 0.5 m diameter telescopes on a 12.5 m baseline, and is passively cooled to approx.60K. The FKSI operates in the thermal infrared from 3-8 microns in a nulling (or starlight suppressing) mode for the detection and characterization of exoplanets, debris disks, extrasolar zodiacal dust levels. The FKSI will have the highest angular resolution of any infrared space instrument ever made with its nominal resolution of 40 mas at a 5 micron center wavelength. This resolution exceeds that of Spitzer by a factor of 38 and JWST by a factor of 5. The FKSI mission is conceived as a "probe class" or "mid-sized" strategic mission that utilizes technology advances from flagship projects like JWST, SIM, Spitzer, and the technology programs of TPF-I/Darwin. During the past year we began investigating an enhanced version of FKSI with 1-2 m diameter telescopes, passively cooled to 40K, on a 20-m baseline, with a sunshade giving a +/- 45 degree Field-of-Regard. This enhanced design is capable of detecting and characterizing the atmospheres of many 2 Earth-radius super-Earths and a few Earth-twins. We will report progress on the design of the enhanced mission concept and current status of the technologies needed for this mission.

  10. Characterization of a putative S-locus encoded receptor protein kinase and its role in self-incompatibility. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrallah, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The major results of our research effort include the determination of the S-Receptor Kinase (SRK) gene structure, the demonstration of S-haplotype-associated SRK polymorphisms and possible co-evolution of SRK and SLG, the characterization of the temporal and spatial expression patterns of SRK, and the demonstration that SRK has intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity. Our results have indicated that SLG originated from an SRK-like gene by a gene duplication event and suggested a possible molecular basis for leaky S haplotypes. The data have allowed us to develop a model of self-incompatibility based on the interaction of SRK and SLG and the activation of SRK in response to self-pollination. More generally, the information that we have obtained is potentially relevant to understanding mechanisms of signalling inplants. Thus, the interaction of membrane-based receptor protein kinases with secreted forms of their extracellular domains may represent a generalized mechanism by which receptors signal across the plant cell wall.

  11. The KCNJ11 E23K polymorphism and progression of glycaemia in Southern Chinese: a long-term prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Y Y Cheung

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The KCNJ11 E23K variant is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in cross-sectional studies, but conflicting findings have been reported from prospective studies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether the E23K variant could predict glycaemic progression in a Southern Chinese population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a long-term prospective study on 1912 subjects from the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factors Prevalence Study (CRISPS. The KCNJ11 E23K variant was associated with the progression to prediabetes after a median interval of 12 years on multinomial logistic regression analysis, even after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR 1.29, P(age, sex, BMI and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] adjusted = 0.02. Based on Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, the E23K variant also predicted incident prediabetes (HR 1.18, P(age, sex, BMI and FPG adjusted= 0.021. However, E23K was not associated with the progression to T2DM in either multinomial or Cox regression analysis, and the association of E23K with glycaemic progression to either prediabetes or T2DM was significant only in unadjusted Cox regression analysis (P = 0.039. In a meta-analysis of eight prospective studies including our own, involving 15680 subjects, the E23K variant was associated with incident T2DM (fixed effect: OR 1.10, P = 4×10(-3; random effect: OR 1.11, P = 0.035. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided supporting evidence for the role of the E23K variant in glycaemic progression in Chinese, with its effect being more evident in the early stage of T2DM, as the subjects progressed from normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes.

  12. Neutron scattering studies in the actinide region. Progress report, August 1, 1991--July 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, G.H.R.; Egan, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    During the period August 1, 1991 to July 31, 1994 the authors report progress on the following: (a) prompt fission neutron energy spectra for {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu; (b) two-parameter measurement of nuclear lifetimes; (c) `black` neutron detector; (d) data reduction techniques for neutron scattering experiments; (e) elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in {sup 197}Au; (f) elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in {sup 239}Pu; (g) neutron induced defects in silicon dioxide MOS structures; (h) response of a {sup 235}U fission chamber near reaction thresholds; (i) efficiency calibration of a liquid scintillation detector using the WNR facility at LAMPF; (j) prompt fission neutron energy spectrum measurements below the incident neutron energy; (k) multi-parameter data acquisition system; (l) accelerator improvements; (m) non-DOE supported research. Eight Ph.D. dissertations and two M.S. theses were completed during the report period. Publications consisted of 6 journal articles, 10 conference proceedings, and 19 abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. One invited talk was given.

  13. Recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijian, E-mail: weijian@loess.llqg.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Xingjun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Beck, Warren [NSF-Arizona AMS Facility, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kong, Xianghui; Xian, Feng; Du, Yajuan; Wu, Zhenkun [State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710061 (China); Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Application, Xi’an AMS Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Studies of cosmogenic {sup 10}Be in Chinese loess began about twenty-five years ago and since then a number of research groups worldwide have contributed to a firm understanding of the production, transport, deposition and storage of {sup 10}Be in loess. The essential characteristics that make {sup 10}Be a useful isotopic tracer in loess, include: (1) dominant atmospheric production directly linked to the intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field; (2) climate-dependent deposition; and (3) subsequent immobility, so that as {sup 10}Be accumulates in a loess profile its stratigraphic integrity is preserved. This fact, combined with very high deposition rates in loess on the Chinese Loess Plateau, makes {sup 10}Be an especially valuable continental archive of paleoclimate and paleomagnetism, complementing marine and ice-core records. Here we provide in particular the most recent progress of {sup 10}Be tracer studies in Chinese loess, including the determination of the correct age of the Brunhes–Matuyama polarity reversal at 780 ± 3 ka B.P., in accord with marine and ice records, and quantitative reconstruction of 130-ka paleoprecipitation using {sup 10}Be from Chinese loess profiles.

  14. Progress in studies of the reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhen-yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, and is the most common cause of dementia. Epidemiological studies have discovered that, 44% of patients with AD are associated with sleep disorders and (or circadian rhythm disorders. Now there are growing evidences indicating that interstitial fluid amyloid-β protein (A β levels exhibit circadian rhythm fluctuation, and sleep disorders will accelerate the process of Aβ deposition, which may act as a risk factor of AD, suggesting the possible reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and AD. The mechanism is not yet completely clear. Sleep disorders may be related with the impairments of both sleep-wake regulating system, circadian rhythm regulating system and the change of zeitgeber in AD. Sleep disorders would affect neuronal activity, neurotransmitter secretion, and as a stressor affecting A β processing and metabolism, thus accelerate the pathological process of AD. This paper reviewed the progress in the studies of reciprocal interaction between sleep disorders and Alzheimer's disease and the possible mechanisms.

  15. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project; Technical progress report, second quarter, September--November, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Progress is described in the four tasks associated with this project. Task 1, Paleobotanical studies in the Great Basin, has as its objective the reconstruction of the response of vegetation to climate in order to identify periods of mesic climate at Yucca Mountain during the last 20,000 to 50,000 years. Past extremes in infiltration rates are expected to serve as estimates of climate that may be expected during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mtn. Task 2, Paleofaunas, will construct a history of Great Basin vertebrates that will provide empirical evidence of past environmental and climatic conditions. The objective of Task 3, Geomorphology, is to document the responses of surficial processes and landforms to the climatic changes documented by studies of packrat middens, pollen, and faunal distributions. The goal of Task 4, Transportation, is to compare the results from three models that have been suggested as appropriate for evaluating flood flows on alluvial fans with the results obtained from the traditional one-dimensional, stochastic model used in previous research for Yucca Mountain. This research looked at three alluvial fans with rail transportation alignments crossing them.

  16. Recent progress on the study of asymmetric vortex flow over slender bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Y.Deng; W.Tian; B.F.Ma; Y.K.Wang

    2008-01-01

    The investigations of forebody vortex flow and its flow control have great importance in both academic field and engineering application areas. A large number of papers and many review papers have been published. However in this research field of forebody asymmetric vortices, three problems such as tip perturbation effect, Reynolds number effect and flow instability are less studied and thus not unders-tood completely. So many researches are still working on the issues in recent years. The present paper attempts to provide a review of recent research progress on first two problems. The first problem is mainly concerned with how the vortex flow evolves after tip perturbation; how to solve the problem of repeatability and reproducibility of wind tunnel testing data; how to develop a conception of active flow control technique with tip perturbation based on the study of vor-tex flow response to tip perturbation. For the second problem one is mainly concerned that how the asymmetric vortices are developed with the increase of Reynolds number; how to classify the vortex flow patterns in different Reynolds number regimes; how to develop an appropriate boundary layer tran-sition technique to simulate flows at high Reynolds number in the convention wind tunnels. Finally, some important ques-tions that deserve answers are proposed in the concluding remarks.

  17. Reliability study and simulation of the progressive collapse of Roissy Charles de Gaulle Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. El Kamari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport also known as Roissy Airport is the world's eighth-busiest airport in passengers served. In May 2004, the news of collapse of a portion of Terminal 2E leaving four casualties shook the world. Luckily, no boarding had been taking place in the collapsed area which consisted of a boarding area and three footbridges. This part of the terminal had an innovative design consisting of a vaulted concrete tube. We chose to model a representative part of the terminal to observe the structure's behavior. The purpose of our research is to explain the structure's collapse and to see if there were deficiencies from the design phase. Also, our new fine-grained model using Ansys Software makes it possible to explain the progressive collapse of the structure, which was the main challenge of our study. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to study the importance of each of the variables taken into account in the model.

  18. Cobalt-doped nanohydroxyapatite: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and hemolytic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tank, Kashmira P., E-mail: kashmira_physics@yahoo.co.in [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India); Chudasama, Kiran S.; Thaker, Vrinda S. [Saurashtra University, Bioscience Department (India); Joshi, Mihir J., E-mail: mshilp24@rediffmail.com [Saurashtra University, Crystal Growth Laboratory, Physics Department (India)

    2013-05-15

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}; HAP) is a major mineral component of the calcified tissues, and it has various applications in medicine and dentistry. In the present investigation, cobalt-doped hydroxyapatite (Co-HAP) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-mediated approach and characterized by different techniques. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the amount of doping in Co-HAP. The transmission electron microscopy result suggested the transformation of morphology from needle shaped to spherical type on increasing the doping concentration. The powder XRD study indicated the formation of a new phase of brushite for higher concentration of cobalt. The average particle size and strain were calculated using Williamson-Hall analysis. The average particle size was found to be 30-60 nm. The FTIR study confirmed the presence of various functional groups in the samples. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri as Gram negative as well as Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram positive. The hemolytic test result suggested that all samples were non-hemolytic. The photoluminescence study was carried out to identify its possible applicability as a fluorescent probe.

  19. Study on attribute characterization for reservoir dynamic monitoring by seismic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Study on characterizing reservoir parameters dynamic variations by time-lapse seismic attributes is the theoretical basis for effectively distinguishing reservoir parameters variations and conducting time-lapse seismic interpretation,and it is also a key step for time-lapse seismic application in real oil fields. Based on the rock physical model of unconsolidated sandstone,the different effects of oil saturation and effective pressure variations on seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities are calculated and analyzed. Using numerical simulation on decoupled wave equations,the responses of seismic amplitude with different offsets to reservoir oil saturation variations are analyzed,pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes differences for oil saturation and effective pressure variations of P-P wave and P-S converted wave are calculated,and time-lapse seismic AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) response rules of P-P wave and P-S converted wave to effective pressure and oil saturation variations are compared. The theoretical modeling study shows that it is feasible to distinguish different reservoir parameters dynamic variations by pre-stack time-lapse seismic information,including pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes and AVO information,which has great potential in improving time-lapse seismic interpreta-tion precision. It also shows that the time-lapse seismic response mechanism study on objective oil fields is especially important in establishing effective time-lapse seismic data process and interpreta-tion scheme.

  20. Docetaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles: formulation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; Thakur, Kanika; Kush, Preeti; Jain, Upendra K

    2014-08-01

    The primary objective of the present investigation was to explore biodegradable chitosan as a polymeric material for formulating docetaxel nanoparticles (DTX-NPs) to be used as a delivery system for breast cancer treatment. Docetaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated by water-in-oil nanoemulsion system and characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), loading capacity (LC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro release study and drug release kinetics. Further, to evaluate the potential anticancer efficacy of docetaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticulate system, in vitro cytotoxicity studies on human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) were carried out. The morphological studies revealed the spherical shape of docetaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles having an average size of 170.1±5.42-227.6±7.87nm, polydispersity index in the range of 0.215±0.041-0.378±0.059 and zeta potential between 28.3 and 31.4mV. Nanoparticles exhibited 65-76% of drug entrapment and 8-12% loading capacity releasing about 68-83% of the drug within 12h following Higuchi's square-root kinetics. An increase of 20% MDA-MB-231 cell line growth inhibition was determined by docetaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles with respect to the free drug after 72h incubation.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of Schiff base complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Hina; Ahmad, Anis; Khan, Asad U.; Khan, Tahir Ali

    2015-10-01

    The Schiff base complexes, MLCl2 [M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] have been synthesized by the template reaction of respective metal ions with 2-acetylpyrrole and 1,3-diaminopropane in 1:2:1 M ratio. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, ESI - mass, NMR (1H and 13C), IR, XRD, electronic and EPR spectral studies, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements. These studies show that all the complexes have octahedral arrangement around the metal ions. The molar conductance measurements of all the complexes in DMSO indicate their non-electrolytic nature. The complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity in vitro against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. Among the metal complexes studied the copper complex [CuLCl2], showed highest antibacterial activity nearly equal to standard drug ciprofloxacin. Other complexes also showed considerable antibacterial activity. The relative order of activity against S. Pyogenes is as Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Co(II) = Fe(II) > Ni(II) and with K. Pneumonia is as Cu(II) > Co(II) > Zn(II) > Fe(II) > Ni(II).

  2. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  3. Multitechnique characterization of lapis lazuli for provenance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Olivero, Paolo; Pratesi, Giovanni; Albonico, Maria; Conz, Elisa

    2009-12-01

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest precious stone, being used for glyptic as early as 7,000 years ago: jewels, amulets, seals, and inlays are examples of objects produced using this material. Only a few sources of lapis lazuli exist in the world due to the low probability of geological conditions in which it can form, so that the possibility to associate the raw material to man-made objects helps to reconstruct trade routes. Since art objects produced using lapis lazuli are valuable, only nondestructive investigations can be carried out to identify the provenance of the raw materials. Ionoluminescence (IL) is a good candidate for this task. Similar to cathodoluminescence (CL), IL consists in the collection of luminescence spectra induced by megaelectronvolt ion (usually protons) irradiation. The main advantage of IL consists in the possibility of working in air while measuring simultaneously the composition of major and trace elements by means of complementary ion beam analysis techniques like particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). In the present work, a systematic study of the luminescence properties of lapis lazuli under charged particle irradiation is reported. In the first phase, a multitechnique approach was adopted (CL, scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis, micro-Raman) to characterize luminescent minerals. This characterization was propaedeutic for IL/PIXE/PIGE measurements carried out on significant areas selected on the basis of results obtained previously. Criteria to identify provenance of lapis lazuli from four of the main sources (Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, Chile, and Siberia) were proposed.

  4. Electron microscope studies: Progress report for the period July 1, 1987 to June 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1988-08-01

    The work in our laboratory for the past year can be characterized as having had considerable success in our work on theoretical electron optics and in the biological use of our existing microscopes, but, on the other hand, we have encountered considerable frustration in our attempts to complete the construction of the Sub Angstrom STEM. With regard to theoretical electron optics, we have continued to pursue lines of inquiry which were opened up to us as a result of our previous work on the correction of third order aberrations. While the experimental proof of the sextupole concept is still some distance away, the number of theoretical investigations we have conducted on the system indicate that it should be possible to make it work. The logical outcome of this is the realization that we ought to begin investigating other remaining limitations to the resolution of a STEM. These considerations led to some work that was done on the correction of the fifth order aberrations. Another study of equal importance was the investigation we made on the use of a sextupole corrector in a transmission microscope of conventional design and the results here look quite promising. Other theoretical studies include some work which has recently been started on methods of characterization of electron beams. The reason for this study is that under normal circumstances when an electron beam is generated in a canning microscope the resolution is atrocious and the shape of the focused spot of electrons is very poor. Further work has been done on three dimensional reconstruction with the general aim of improving the precision of reconstruction and also being able to do so in spite of the existence of noise. Biological work on the existing microscope has proceeded apace and a large number of investigations have been done. Although the principle effort has remained towards investigations of giant hemoglobins, other molecules have also been studied.

  5. Electron microscope studies. Progress report, 1 July 1990--1 June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the ``linker`` subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  6. Undergraduate Use of Library Databases Decreases as Level of Study Progresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Miller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Mbabu, L.G., Bertram, A. B., & Varnum, K. (2013. Patterns of undergraduates’ use of scholarly databases in a large research university. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(2, 189-193. http://dx.doi.org/10.10.1016/j.acalib.2012.10.004 Abstract Objective – To investigate undergraduate students’ patterns of electronic database use to discover whether database use increases as undergraduate students progress into later stages of study with increasingly sophisticated information needs and demands. Design – User database authentication log analysis. Setting – A large research university in the Midwestern United States of America. Subjects – A total of 26,208 undergraduate students enrolled during the Fall 2009 academic semester. Methods – The researchers obtained logs of user-authenticated activity from the university’s databases. Logged data for each user included: the user’s action and details of that action (including database searches, the time of action, the user’s relationship to the university, the individual school in which the user was enrolled, and the user’s class standing. The data were analyzed to determine which proportion of undergraduate students accessed the library’s electronic databases. The study reports that the logged data accounted for 61% of all database activity, and the authors suggest the other 39% of use is likely from “non-undergraduate members of the research community within the [university’s] campus IP range” (192. Main Results – The study found that 10,897 (42% of the subject population of undergraduate students accessed the library’s electronic databases. The study also compared database access by class standing, and found that freshman undergraduates had the highest proportion of database use, with 56% of enrolled freshman accessing the library’s databases. Sophomores had the second highest proportion of students accessing the databases at 40%; juniors and seniors

  7. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  9. Amidated pectin based hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and cytocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R K; Singhal, J P; Datt, M; Banthia, A K

    2007-01-01

    The design and development of pectin-based hydrogels were attempted through the chemical modification of pectin with diethanolamine (DA). Diethanolamine modified pectin (DAMP) was synthesized by the chemical modification of pectin with varying concentrations of DA (1:1,1:2,1:3 and 1:4) at 5 oC in methanol. The modified product was used for the preparation of the hydrogel with glutaraldehyde (GA) reagent. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; organic elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and swelling, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility studies of the prepared hydrogels were also done. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. The XRD pattern of the DAMP hydrogel clearly indicated that there was a considerable increase in crystallinity as compared to parent pectin. The degree of amidation (DA) and molar and mass reaction yields (Ym and Yn) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. Drug release studies from the hydrogel membranes were also evaluated in a Franz's diffusion cell. The hydrogels demonstrated good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells and human blood.

  10. Wastewater characterization of IPEN facilities - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Goncalves, Cristina; Terazan, Wagner R.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: lrmonteiro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As part of IPEN's Environmental Monitoring Program, wastewater sample collection and analysis was implemented on a daily basis. CQMA- Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente was responsible for the determination of total, fixed and volatile solids, pH, metals (as Al, Sb, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Ag, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg, Be, Sn, Li, K, Sr, Ti and V), semimetals (As, B, Se and Si) and anions (such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride). The results were compared to the legal values established by the Sao Paulo State regulation 8,468/76, which defines the maximum permitted values for most of the studied substances in wastewater, aiming its releasing in public wastewater treatment system. The evaluation of this parameters concentration on Ipen's effluent implies that 50% of the wastewater corresponds to organic matter due to the sanitary load and inorganic macro elements, mainly as sodium, potassium, calcium. The only parameter not found in accordance with Brazilian legislation was pH in four out of the one hundred and seven samples collected throughout 2009 (2.8% of the samples analyzed). This preliminary study showed the effluents generated at Ipen's facility is characterized by the presence of organic matter and macro elements, commonly found in sanitary wastewater and it is in compliance with Sao Paulo regulations. (author)

  11. Characterization, antioxidant potential and cytotoxic study of mangaba fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fagundes Assumpção

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mangaba (Hancornia speciosa stands out and has a great potential for economic exploitation and researches have suggested relevant results regarding the nutritional and functional value of this food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to chemically and physicochemically characterize the mangaba fruit harvested in the Middle Araguaia region. It was evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, volatile compounds, preliminary photochemical studies of phenolic components and the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic extract fruits against Artemia salina. The mean pH, the total titratable acidity and the value for reducing sugars conclude that the mangaba possesses the characteristics appropriate for both fresh consumption and for processing. Between the mean values measured, the fruits presented high fiber content and a low caloric value. The analysis of the antioxidant potential revealed a significant activity and in the volatile compounds analysis, esters were the major class presents. The result of the phytochemical screening revealed that phenols, flavonoids and tannins were present in the ethanolic extract of mangaba and a significant activity in the cytotoxicity assay was observed.

  12. RESULTS OF MEDICO-GENETIC STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH DUCHENNE/BECKER PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES IN UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida Tulkinovna Omonova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to analyze clinical and genetic polymorphism of Duchenne/Becker progressive muscular dystrophies among patients with neuromuscular diseases in Uzbekistan. 106 male patients with progressive pseudohypertrophic forms of muscular dystrophy were retrospectively and prospectively analyzed in the period from 2004 till 2014: 93 patients with Duchenne PMD aged from 3 years to 18 years and 13 patients with Becker PMD aged from 10 years to 25 years, who had been examined in the medico-genetic consulting department of the Republican Center “Mother and Child Screening” of Tashkent city. Comprehensive clinical, neurophysiological, biochemical and genetic study of patients as the integral part in the differential diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker progressive muscular dystrophies allows creating the national database on D/B PMD to prevent the birth of children in families burdened by this disease.

  13. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Jennifer MJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.

  14. Potential association of hyperhomocysteinemia with the progression of IgA nephropathy: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Shuwei; Liu Shuwen; Sun Xuefeng; Zheng Ying; Liu Linchang; Yao Feixiang; Wu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background The high blood homocysteine (Hcy) levels found in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) have been implicated in an increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD).This study investigated the association of HHcy with progression of IgA nephropathy.Methods We analyzed 108 participants newly diagnosed with IgA nephropathy between August 2005 and August 2007 in the Department of Nephrology,Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital.The association between clinicopathological factors and the Hcy levels were analyzed by Logistic regression and those with ESRD risk were analyzed by Cox regression.Results Patients were aged (35.71±10.73) years and included 45.71% women and 12.04% patients with HHcy.In multivariate Logistic regression analysis,HHcy was associated with arterial lesions (OR 2.60; 95% CI 1.55-4.34; P<0.001) even when age,body mass index,estimated glomerular filtration rate,mean arterial pressure,and initial proteinuria were taken into account.Mean follow-up was (67.37±16.21) months.HHcy was also associated with worse ESRD-free survival (HR 4.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 15.31; P=0.010).Conclusion HHcy is associated with the risk of intrarenal arterial lesions and may be useful for estimating the prognosis of IgA nephropathy.

  15. Microfluidic culture models to study the hydrodynamics of tumor progression and therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Cara; Rylander, Marissa Nichole

    2013-08-01

    The integration of tissue engineering strategies with microfluidic technologies has enabled the design of in vitro microfluidic culture models that better adapt to morphological changes in tissue structure and function over time. These biomimetic microfluidic scaffolds accurately mimic native 3D microenvironments, as well as permit precise and simultaneous control of chemical gradients, hydrodynamic stresses, and cellular niches within the system. The recent application of microfluidic in vitro culture models to cancer research offers enormous potential to aid in the development of improved therapeutic strategies by supporting the investigation of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis under physiologically relevant flow conditions. The intrinsic material properties and fluid mechanics of microfluidic culture models enable high-throughput anti-cancer drug screening, permit well-defined and controllable input parameters to monitor tumor cell response to various hydrodynamic conditions or treatment modalities, as well as provide a platform for elucidating fundamental mechanisms of tumor physiology. This review highlights recent developments and future applications of microfluidic culture models to study tumor progression and therapeutic targeting under conditions of hydrodynamic stress relevant to the complex tumor microenvironment.

  16. Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: II. A qualitative and quantitative electronmicroscopy study of skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dias-Tosta

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the maior electron microscopic changes in limb muscle biopsies from 31 out of 34 patients with the syndrome of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Patients were divided into three clinical groups - A 10 sporadic cases with muscle weakness only; B 9 familial cases with muscle weakness only; C 15 cases with muscle weakness and one or more of the following features: pigmentary retinopathy, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs and peripheral neuropathy. Electron microscopic mitochondrial abnormalities were found in all groups (8 patients from group A, 3 from group B, 14 from group C. Quantitative measurements of certain muscle fibre constituents, using a point-counting technique, revealed decreased myofibril volume-fractions and increased volume-fractions of mitochondria, glycogen and lipid in some biopsies from each group. Mitochondrial volume-fractions correlated positively with lipid content, the proportion of type 1 fibres, and the percentage of fibres with increased oxidative enzyme activity. The three groups defined clinically showed no significant differences in terms of the relative proportions of these measured constituents.

  17. Rural Development in Bangladesh since Independence: A Study on Progress and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ismail Hossain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural development has been the core focus of the Bangladesh economic policies since her independence. The rural sector is pivotal to the country‟s economic, social and political development. This paper examines the Bangladesh rural development policies, strategies and programs since Independence in 1971. Secondary data were used and collected from various sources especially from BBS and HIES. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as mean and percentage to reach the objectives. Results of this study show that the share of agricultural sector in the country‟s GDP has declined which is an indicator of a country‟s progress from an agriculture-based to an export-oriented economy. The success of the agricultural and rural programs in Bangladesh is reflected in the reduction in the poverty incidence in the rural sector from almost 54 percent in the 1983-84 to about 35 percent in 2009-10. Development efforts of Bangladesh are governed by the twin objectives of achieving growth with equity and reducing poverty. The government policy has to some extent achieved the intended results but poverty and inequality are still significant and apparent. Hence, rural development continues to be an important agenda to the country‟s development effort.

  18. Recent progress of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of uranium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Okane, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Yuji [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Fujimori, Atsushi [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamagami, Hiroshi [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ōnuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Recent progresses in the soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies (hν ≳ 100 eV) for uranium compounds are briefly reviewed. The soft X-ray PES has enhanced sensitivities for the bulk U 5f electronic structure, which is essential to understand the unique physical properties of uranium compounds. In particular, the recent remarkable improvement in energy resolutions from an order of 1 eV to 100 meV made it possible to observe fine structures in U 5f density of states. Furthermore, soft X-ray ARPES becomes available due to the increase of photon flux at beamlines in third generation synchrotron radiation facilities.The technique made it possible to observe bulk band structures and Fermi surfaces of uranium compounds and therefore, the results can be directly compared with theoretical models such as band-structure calculations. The core-level spectra of uranium compounds show a systematic behavior depending on their electronic structures, suggesting that they can be utilized to determine basic physical parameters such as the U 5f-ligand hybridizations or Comlomb interaction between U 5f electrons. It is shown that soft X-ray PES provides unique opportunities to understand the electronic structures of uranium compounds.

  19. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  20. Genome-wide association study of corticobasal degeneration identifies risk variants shared with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Naomi; Ross, Owen A.; Dombroski, Beth; Younkin, Curtis S.; Serie, Daniel J.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra; Baker, Matthew; Finch, Ni Cole A.; Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Jungsu; Fujioka, Shinsuke; McLean, Catriona A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spina, Salvatore; Cantwell, Laura B.; Farlow, Martin R.; Grafman, Jordan; Huey, Edward D.; Ryung Han, Mi; Beecher, Sherry; Geller, Evan T.; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Roeber, Sigrun; Gearing, Marla; Juncos, Jorge L.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Grossman, Murray; Hurtig, Howard I.; Gross, Rachel G.; Arnold, Steven E.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.; Wenning, Gregor K.; White, Charles L.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Müller, Ulrich; Devlin, Bernie; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Crook, Julia; Parisi, Joseph E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Josephs, Keith A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Litvan, Irene; Younkin, Steven G.; Wang, Li-San; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer; Rademakers, Rosa; Hakonarsen, Hakon; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Dickson, Dennis W.

    2015-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting movement and cognition, definitively diagnosed only at autopsy. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in CBD cases (n=152) and 3,311 controls, and 67 CBD cases and 439 controls in a replication stage. Associations with meta-analysis were 17q21 at MAPT (P=1.42 × 10−12), 8p12 at lnc-KIF13B-1, a long non-coding RNA (rs643472; P=3.41 × 10−8), and 2p22 at SOS1 (rs963731; P=1.76 × 10−7). Testing for association of CBD with top progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) GWAS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified associations at MOBP (3p22; rs1768208; P=2.07 × 10−7) and MAPT H1c (17q21; rs242557; P=7.91 × 10−6). We previously reported SNP/transcript level associations with rs8070723/MAPT, rs242557/MAPT, and rs1768208/MOBP and herein identified association with rs963731/SOS1. We identify new CBD susceptibility loci and show that CBD and PSP share a genetic risk factor other than MAPT at 3p22 MOBP (myelin-associated oligodendrocyte basic protein). PMID:26077951

  1. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging.

  2. Crosswell electromagnetic imaging for geothermal reservoir characterization - a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrock, Friedemann; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    Most regions in the world do not have ready access to natural convective hydrothermal resources. To use deep geothermal heat as a viable energy resource in low-permeability formations, permeable fracture networks have to be created artificially to enable deep fluid circulation for advective heat transport to a production well. Such generation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is studied in the "Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG)" laboratory at the Grimsel pass, Switzerland. Here, an underground experiment is conducted by hydraulically stimulating a pre-existing shear zone within crystalline rock. The objectives of this project are to better describe and understand the processes acting during reservoir generation. We perform a feasibility study to evaluate the capability of low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) tomography for mapping of stimulation-induced changes in electrical conductivity. First numerical results show that crosswell EM data are generally sensitive to the inter-well conductivity distribution, which is affected by properties such as interconnected porosity, permeability and the presence of fluids. It thereby provides important information for characterization of potential EGS reservoirs. We present a 3-D forward modeling and inversion study using synthetic data and under realistic conditions, these include the true borehole spacing and the observed electromagnetic noise level in the DUG laboratory. Based on these results we discuss the system requirements and the capability of crosswell EM to recover the inter-well structure and stimulation-induced changes. Besides the numerical study we report on the current status of instrumentation and realization of crosswell EM measurements at the DUG laboratory.

  3. Pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer processes and applications to solar photochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neta, P.

    1995-02-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is applied to the study of electron transfer processes in a variety of chemical systems. Reactive intermediates are produced in solution by electron pulse irradiation and the kinetics of their reactions are followed by time resolved absorption spectrophotometry. Complementary experiments are carried out with excimer laser flash photolysis. These studies are concerned with mechanisms, kinetics, and thermodynamics of reactions of organic and inorganic radicals and unstable oxidation states of metal ions. Reactions are studied in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. The studies focus on the unique ability of pulse radiolysis to provide absolute rate constants for reactions of many inorganic radicals and organic peroxyl radicals, species that are key intermediates in many chemical processes. A special concern of this work is the study of electron transfer reactions of metalloporphyrins, which permits evaluation of these molecules as intermediates in solar energy conversion. Metalloporphyrins react with free radicals via electron transfer, involving the ligand or the metal center, or via bonding to the metal, leading to a variety of chemical species whose behavior is also investigated. The highlights of the results during the past three years are summarized below under the following sections: (a) electron transfer reactions of peroxyl radicals, concentrating on the characterization of new peroxyl radicals derived from vinyl, phenyl, other aryl, and pyridyl; (b) solvent effects on electron transfer reactions of inorganic and organic peroxyl radicals, including reactions with porphyrins, and (c) electron transfer and alkylation reactions of metalloporphyrins and other complexes.

  4. Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for recurrent or progressive glioblastoma. Final report of a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, M.; Diletto, B.; Chiesa, S.; D' Agostino, G.R.; Gambacorta, M.A.; Ferro, M.; Valentini, V. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rome (Italy); Colosimo, C. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Maira, G.; Anile, C. [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    Evaluated in this study were the feasibility and the efficacy of concurrent low dose fractionated radiotherapy (LD-FRT) and chemotherapy as palliative treatment for recurrent/progressive glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Eligible patients had recurrent or progressive GBM, Karnofsky performance status ≥70, prior surgery, and standard radiochemotherapy treatment. Recurrence/progression disease during temozolomide (TMZ) received cisplatin (CDDP; 30 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1, 8, 15), fotemustine (FTM; 40 mg/m{sup 2} on days 2, 9, 16), and concurrent LD-FRT (0.3 Gy twice daily); recurrence/progression after 4 months from the end of adjuvant TMZ were treated by TMZ (150/200 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1-5) concomitant with LD-FRT (0.4 Gy twice daily). Primary endpoints were safety and toxicity. A total of 32 patients were enrolled. Hematologic toxicity G1-2 was observed in 18.7% of patients and G3-4 in 9.4%. One patient (3.1%) had complete response, 3 (9.4%) had partial response, 8 (25%) had stable disease for at least 8 weeks, while 20 patients (62.5%) experienced progressive disease. The clinical benefit was 37.5%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5 and 8 months, respectively. Survival rate at 12 months was of 27.8%. LD-FRT and chemotherapy for recurrent/progressive GBM have a good toxicity profile and clinical outcomes, even though further investigation of this novel palliative treatment approach is warranted. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of a Novel Murine Model to Study Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Shannan L.; Tesh, Robert B.; Azar, Sasha R.; Muruato, Antonio E.; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Auguste, Albert J.; Langsjoen, Rose M.; Paessler, Slobodan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for an explosive ongoing outbreak of febrile illness across the Americas. ZIKV was previously thought to cause only a mild, flu-like illness, but during the current outbreak, an association with Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly in neonates has been detected. A previous study showed that ZIKV requires murine adaptation to generate reproducible murine disease. In our study, a low-passage Cambodian isolate caused disease and mortality in mice lacking the interferon (IFN) alpha receptor (A129 mice) in an age-dependent manner, but not in similarly aged immunocompetent mice. In A129 mice, viremia peaked at ∼107 plaque-forming units/mL by day 2 postinfection (PI) and reached high titers in the spleen by day 1. ZIKV was detected in the brain on day 3 PI and caused signs of neurologic disease, including tremors, by day 6. Robust replication was also noted in the testis. In this model, all mice infected at the youngest age (3 weeks) succumbed to illness by day 7 PI. Older mice (11 weeks) showed signs of illness, viremia, and weight loss but recovered starting on day 8. In addition, AG129 mice, which lack both type I and II IFN responses, supported similar infection kinetics to A129 mice, but with exaggerated disease signs. This characterization of an Asian lineage ZIKV strain in a murine model, and one of the few studies reporting a model of Zika disease and demonstrating age-dependent morbidity and mortality, could provide a platform for testing the efficacy of antivirals and vaccines. PMID:27022155

  6. Quantitative study of myocardial microcirculation in arterial hypertension due to progressive inhibition of NO synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Maria Meirelles Pereira

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the quantitative changes in intramyocardial blood vessels in rats in whom nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited. METHODS: Four groups of 10 rats were studied: control (C25 and C40 and L-NAME (L25 and L40. The animals L25 and L40 received L-NAME in the dosage of 50mg/kg/day for 25 and 40 days, respectively. On days 26 and 41 the animals in groups 25 and 40 were sacrificed. Analysis of the myocardium was performed using light microscopy and stereology. RESULTS: Arterial blood pressure and heart weight increased 74.5 and 57.8% after 25 days and 90.2 and 34.6% after 40 days, respectively. Comparing the L-NAME rats with the respective controls revealed that vessel volume density decreased 31.3% after 40 days, and the vessel length-density decreased 53.5% after 25 days and 25.7% after 40 days. The mean cross-sectional area of the vessels showed an important reduction of 154.6% after 25 days. The intramyocardial vessels decreased significantly in length- density in the L-NAME animals. The mean cross-sectional area of the vessels, which normally increases during heart growth between 25 and 40 days, showed a precocious increase by the 25th day in the L-NAME rats. This suggests an increase of the size of the heart, including blood vessels. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of the NO synthesis provokes rarefaction in the intramyocardial vessels that progresses with the time of administration of L-NAME.

  7. Cortical processing of swallowing in ALS patients with progressive dysphagia--a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga K Teismann

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rare disease causing degeneration of the upper and lower motor neuron. Involvement of the bulbar motor neurons often results in fast progressive dysphagia. While cortical compensation of dysphagia has been previously shown in stroke patients, this topic has not been addressed in patients suffering from ALS. In the present study, we investigated cortical activation during deglutition in two groups of ALS patients with either moderate or severe dysphagia. Whole-head MEG was employed on fourteen patients with sporadic ALS using a self-paced swallowing paradigm. Data were analyzed by means of time-frequency analysis and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM. Group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. We found a reduction of cortical swallowing related activation in ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally a disease-related shift of hemispheric lateralization was observed. While healthy subjects showed bilateral cortical activation, the right sensorimotor cortex was predominantly involved in ALS patients. Both effects were even stronger in the group of patients with severe dysphagia. Our results suggest that bilateral degeneration of the upper motor neuron in the primary motor areas also impairs further adjusted motor areas, which leads to a strong reduction of 'swallowing related' cortical activation. While both hemispheres are affected by the degeneration a relatively stronger activation is seen in the right hemisphere. This right hemispheric lateralization of volitional swallowing observed in this study may be the only sign of cortical plasticity in dysphagic ALS patients. It may demonstrate compensational mechanisms in the right hemisphere which is known to predominantly coordinate the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. These results add new aspects to our understanding of the pathophysiology of dysphagia in ALS patients and beyond. The compensational

  8. Characterization of Awassi lamb fattening systems: a Syrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Birgitte Wiedemann; Iñiguez, Luis; Mueller, Joaquin; Wurzinger, Maria; Knaus, W F

    2010-10-01

    Intensive lamb fattening systems are evolving in developing Middle Eastern countries due to high demand for lambs at favorable prices; however, little is known about their characteristics and constraints. A survey was conducted in Syria involving 241 farmers to characterize the fattening production systems and main constraints, with emphasis on feeding, management, labor, and marketing. Most farmers (90%) considered the income from fattening to be from medium to high, and 57% expressed that lamb fattening along with alternative income sources compose the family's livelihood strategies. Fattening systems offer employment to family members. Market price was the main decision factor to buy and sell lambs, but this was only part of various marketing aspects. Male lambs usually bought at markets at the mean age of 4 months (mean weight of 31 kg) are sold after fattening at a 50-60 kg weight range. The average yearly fattening cycle was 2.7 batches, and the average number of lambs per batch was 232. For 65% (n = 241) of the farmers the major constraint to fattening was feeding cost, and for about a half of farmers (51%, n = 241), disease outbreaks and prices for veterinarian services constituted the second important constraint. Research on least-cost fattening diets and curbing disease problems to increase farmer's income margins is needed. It is expected that due to existing commonalities, the information emerging from this study regarding major constraints to Awassi lamb fattening systems could be useful for an across-synthesis on Awassi fattening production in the region.

  9. New silver complexes with levofloxacin: Synthesis, characterization and microbiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Aura; Hancu, Gabriel; Tóth, Gergő; Vancea, Szende; Toma, Felicia; Mare, Anca Delia; Man, Adrian; Niţulescu, George Mihai; Uivarosi, Valentina

    2016-11-01

    Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic with a broad-spectrum including both Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria, as well atypical bacteria. In order to extend the spectrum of activity and to add new biological effects, several metal complexes of levofloxacin have been obtained and reported recently. The aim of our study was to obtain new silver complexes with levofloxacin with potential broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal activity. Therefore three new silver complexes of levofloxacin with the proposed chemical structures (levofloxacin)2Ag(NO3), (levofloxacin)2Ag(NO3)(CH3OH) and (levofloxacin)Ag(C6H6O7)·3H2O were synthesized. In order to characterize the obtained complexes elemental analysis, conductivity measurement, spectroscopic, and thermal methods were used. Optimized molecular structures were determined using DFT (density functional theory) analysis. The antibacterial activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and antifungal activity against Candida spp of the complexes was tested by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration through microtitre broth dilution method.

  10. Antenna coupling study for ICWC plasma characterization in TEXTOR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manash Kumar Paul; A Lyssoivan; R Koch; G Van Wassenhove; M Vervier; G Bertschinger; R Laengner; B Unterberg; G Sergienko; V Philipps; T Wauters; the TEXTOR Team

    2013-01-01

    Ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) discharges, in pulsed-mode operation, were carried out in the limiter tokamak TEXTOR to explore safe operational regimes for the experimental parameters for possible ICWC-discharge cleaning in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) at half field. Antenna coupling properties obtained during the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) wall conditioning experiments performed in helium–hydrogen mixture in TEXTOR were analysed in relation to the obtained ICWC-plasma characterization results. Satisfactory antenna coupling in the mode conversion scenario along with reproducible generation of ICRF plasmas for wall conditioning, were achieved by coupling radio frequency (RF) power from one or two ICRF antennas. The plasma breakdown results obtained in the TEXTOR tokamak have been compared with the predictions of a zero-dimensional RF plasma production model. The present study of ICWC emphasizes the beneficial effect of application of an additional (along with toroidal magnetic field) stationary vertical ($B_{V} \\ll B_{T}$) or oscillating poloidal magnetic field ($B_{P} \\ll B_{T}$) on antenna coupling and relevant plasma parameters.

  11. Spectroscopic Studies on the Characterization of a Persian Playing Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakooei, Parviz; Niknejad, Maryam; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigations on a playing card preserved at The Mūzih-i Āynih va Rushanāī in Yazd, Iran. Conducting micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF), micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-Raman), infrared reflectography (IRR), ultraviolet fluorescence photography, radiography, and optical microscopy, various paints applied on the playing card were identified. According to our analytical studies, red, green, blue, black, and gold-like metallic paints were identified to be a red monoazo pigment (β-naphthol PR 53:1), chrome green, artificial ultramarine blue, carbon black, and brass powder (Dutch metal powder), respectively, dating the playing card to 1895 onward based on the manufacturing date of the red monoazo pigment. Barite was also shown to be mixed with the pigments as an extender. On the other hand, the portrait's face of the playing card was peculiarly blackened. Our analytical approach toward characterizing the blackened face showed that the black paint was achieved by carbon black and, in other words, the face was not blackened due to the darkening of Pb-bearing pigments. Moreover, it was shown that there was no underdrawing under the black face and the black paint was most probably executed in the same time with the other paints. Considering the possible use of the playing card, it was suggested not to remove the blackened face in the cleaning process since the black paint was a part of the integrity of the playing card.

  12. Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array: Module Characterization Studies Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalavadia, Mital A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Leon E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kulisek, Jonathan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mace, Emily K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deshmukh, Nikhil S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this report is focused on the characterization and refinement of the HEVA approach, which combines the traditional 186-keV 235U signature with high-energy prompt gamma rays from neutron capture in the detector and surrounding collimator material, to determine the relative enrichment and 235U mass of the cylinder. The design of the HEVA modules (hardware and software) deployed in the current field trial builds on over seven years of study and evolution by PNNL and consists of a ø3''×3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to an Osprey digital multi-channel analyzer tube base from Canberra. In comparison to previous versions, the new design boosts the high energy prompt gamma-ray signature, provides more flexible and effective collimation, and improves count-rate management via commercially available pulse-processing electronics with a special modification prompted by PNNL.

  13. Synthesis and biological incorporation of icons into macromolecules for NMR study. Progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.M.

    1977-02-01

    Progress is reported on methods to synthesize novel /sup 13/C-labeled materials for incorporation into macromolecules. Gram quantities (9 grams) of labeled uracil have been synthesized and incorporated, by means of a mutant bacterial strain into t-RNA. The bulk t-RNA has been isolated, purified, and carbon-13 T/sub 1/ studies completed. Work now in progress is directed towards the production of greater quantities of t-RNA from E. coli instead of Salmonella and the ultimate isolation of individual t-RNA molecules.

  14. Progressive Neuronal Degeneration of Childhood with Liver's Disease (Alpers' Disease) Clinical Features and Neuropathological Studies of 4 Sibling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yupu Guo; Zhong Guo; Haowen Liu; Mingwe Wang; Hongwei Duan; Shufang Gao; Haitao Ren

    2000-01-01

    We report four siblings of a family with Alpers' disease. Three of four siblings occurred diarrhea and myoclonus at the ages of 7 to 8 years old. During the disease evolution, symptoms of subacute encephalopathy such as headache, visual disturbance, cortical blindness, progressive seizures and mental retardation were presented at the ages of 15 to 20 years old. Downhill progression led them to death in multiple organ failure within six to eight months of onset. CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral oc cipital and temporal lobes. Spongiform changes, which characterized by diffuse neuronal degeneration or loss and astrocytosis, were most severe in the gray matter. White matter was slightly involved, while basal ganglia, pons, brain stem and cerebellum were not involved. Physical examination of the only live brother of the four siblings showed short status (165 cm), arched feet and improper nose-pointed test of the left side. Muscle biopsy of him showed a large amount of Red-Ragged (RR) fibers and abnormal mitochondria. Clinical features and pathological findings of autopsy in all the four siblings were consistent with progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease (PNDC) - Alpers' disease. The muscle biopsy showed the characteristic findings of mitochondrial myopathy. Our report confirmed the classification of late onset Alpers' disease as a mitochondrial disorders.

  15. Variability in the precore and core promoter regions of HBV strains in Morocco: characterization and impact on liver disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Kitab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common human pathogens that cause aggressive hepatitis and advanced liver disease (AdLD, including liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The persistence of active HBV replication and liver damage after the loss of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg has been frequently associated with mutations in the pre-core (pre-C and core promoter (CP regions of HBV genome that abolish or reduce HBeAg expression. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pre-C and CP mutations and their impact on the subsequent course of liver disease in Morocco. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 186 patients with HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infection was studied (81 inactive carriers, 69 with active chronic hepatitis, 36 with AdLD. Pre-C and CP mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. The pre-C stop codon G1896A mutation was the most frequent (83.9% and was associated with a lower risk of AdLD development (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.04. HBV-DNA levels in patients with G1896A were not significantly different from the other patients carrying wild-type strains (p = 0.84. CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were associated with higher HBV-DNA level and increased liver disease severity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (≥ 40 years, male sex, high viral load (>4.3 log(10 IU/mL and CP mutations C1653T, T1753V, A1762T/G1764A, and C1766T/T1768A were independent risk factors for AdLD development. Combination of these mutations was significantly associated with AdLD (OR, 7.52; 95% CI, 4.8-8; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time the association of HBV viral load and CP mutations with the severity of liver disease in Moroccan HBV chronic carriers. The examination of CP mutations alone or in combination could be helpful for prediction of the clinical outcome.

  16. A Corpus-Based Study of Connectors and Thematic Progression in the Academic Writing of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyoo, Natthapong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to compare how Thai EFL writers develop and express their oppositional ideas in arguments and to compare their use of oppositional connectors in arguments to those of published scholars in the field of health science. An investigation of thematic progression pattern was conducted to examine whether a certain…

  17. Spontaneous progression of ligature induced peri-implantitis at implants with different surface roughness: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglundh, T; Gotfredsen, K; Zitzmann, N U;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is associated with the presence of submarginal plaque, soft-tissue inflammation and advanced breakdown of the supporting bone. The progression of peri-implantitis following varying periods of continuing plaque accumulation has been studied in animal models. OBJECTIVE:...

  18. Effect of statins, smoking and obesity on progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael A; Kyle, Robert A; Melton, L Joseph; Plevak, Matthew F; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2004-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP, a surrogate marker for IL-6) are important in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and myeloma. Smoking and obesity may elevate CRP levels, while statins decrease CRP levels. A case-control study in 200 MGUS patients found that statin use, smoking history and obesity do not affect MGUS progression.

  19. New techniques for positron emission tomography in the study of human neurological disorders. Progress report, June 1990--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1993-06-01

    This progress report describes accomplishments of four programs. The four programs are entitled (1) Faster,simpler processing of positron-computing precursors: New physicochemical approaches, (2) Novel solid phase reagents and methods to improve radiosynthesis and isotope production, (3) Quantitative evaluation of the extraction of information from PET images, and (4) Optimization of tracer kinetic methods for radioligand studies in PET.

  20. Progression of white matter hyperintensities and incidence of new lacunes over a 3-year period: the Leukoaraiosis and Disability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Fazekas, F.;

    2008-01-01

    of new lacunes, which were found in 19% of the subjects (maximum=9), also appeared in the subcortical white matter, mainly of the frontal lobes, whereas most baseline lacunes were located in the basal ganglia. Baseline WMH and lacunes predicted both WMH progression and new lacunes. Furthermore, previous......, predominantly in the subcortical white matter. Progression was observed especially in subjects with considerable WMH and lacunes at baseline. Moreover, the presence of vascular risk factors at baseline predicted WMH progression and new lacunes over a 3-year period Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We studied the natural course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes, the main MRI representatives of small vessel disease, over time and evaluated possible predictors for their development. METHODS: Baseline and repeat MRI (3-year follow-up) were collected...

  1. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta-analysed using fixed-effect and random-effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed-effect meta-analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed  = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed  = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low-grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression.

  2. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with the Progression of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Pei Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori on the progression of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with peptic ulcer. Methods. Participants with the diagnosis of AD and peptic ulcer were recruited between 2001 and 2008. We examined the association between eradication of H. pylori and the progression of AD using the multiple regression models. Medication shift from Donepezil, Rivastgmine, and Galantamine to Mematine is defined as progression of dementia according to the insurance of National Health Insurance (NHI under expert review. Results. Among the 30142 AD patients with peptic ulcers, the ratio of medication shift in AD patients with peptic ulcers is 79.95%. There were significant lower incidence comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and hyperlipidemia in patients with H. pylori eradication as compared with no H. pylori eradication. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased risk of AD progression (odds ratio [OR] 0.35 [0.23–0.52] as compared with no H. pylori eradication, which was not modified by comorbidities. Conclusions. Eradication of H. pylori was associated with a decreased progression of dementia as compared to no eradication of H. pylori in AD patients with peptic ulcers.

  3. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T; Koponen, Ismo K; Kling, Kirsten I; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder

    2016-04-01

    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 10(7)CFU of fungi/m(3)air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor,Chaetomium globosum,Cladosporium herbarum,Penicillium brevicompactum,Penicillium camemberti,Penicillium chrysogenum,Penicillium commune,Penicillium glabrum,Penicillium olsonii,Penicillium rugulosum,Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition.

  4. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. The paper describes activities carried out this quarter. 11 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M.; Martin, Richard M.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol‐metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study‐specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol‐metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer‐specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta‐analysed using fixed‐effect and random‐effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed‐effect meta‐analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low‐grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression. PMID:27643404

  6. Physicochemical characterization and solubility enhancement studies of allopurinol solid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati Changdeo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Allopurinol is a commonly used drug in the treatment of chronic gout or hyperuricaemia associated with treatment of diuretic conditions. One of the major problems with the drug is that it is practically insoluble in water, which results in poor bioavailability after oral administration. In the present study, solid dispersions of allopurinol were prepared by solvent evaporation, kneading method, co-precipitation method, co-grinding method and closed melting methods to increase its water solubility. Hydrophilic carriers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol 6000 were used in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 (drug to carrier ratio. The aqueous solubility of allopurinol was favored by the presence of both polymers. These new formulations were characterized in the liquid state by phase solubility studies and in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, UV and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Solid state characterizations indicated that allopurinol was present as an amorphous material and entrapped in polymer matrix. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure allopurinol, the dispersion of the drug in the polymers considerably enhanced the dissolution rate. Solid dispersion prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone showed highest improvement in wettability and dissolution rate of allopurinol. Mathematical modeling of in vitro dissolution data indicated the best fitting with Korsemeyer-Peppas model and the drug release kinetics primarily as Non-Fickian diffusion. Therefore, the present study showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol 6000 have a significant solubilizing effect on allopurinol.Alopurinol é fármaco comumente utilizado no tratamento de gota crônica ou hiperuricemia associada com o tratamento em condições diuréticas. Um dos maiores problemas com o fármaco é que este é praticamente insolúvel em água, o que resulta em baixa biodisponibilidade na administra

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  8. Polygenic risk accelerates the developmental progression to heavy, persistent smoking and nicotine dependence: Evidence from a 4-Decade Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Baker, Timothy B; Biddle, Andrea K; Evans, James P; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Meier, Madeline; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) influence the developmental progression of smoking behavior. DESIGN A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth-cohort. SETTING The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS N=1037 male and female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES We assessed genetic risk with a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS). The GRS was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in three meta-analyses of GWAS of smoking quantity phenotypes. OUTCOME MEASURES Smoking initiation, conversion to daily smoking, progression to heavy smoking, nicotine dependence (Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence), and cessation difficulties were evaluated at eight assessments spanning ages 11-38 years. RESULTS Genetic risk score was unrelated to smoking initiation. However, individuals at higher genetic risk were more likely to convert to daily smoking as teenagers, progressed more rapidly from smoking initiation to heavy smoking, persisted longer in smoking heavily, developed nicotine dependence more frequently, were more reliant on smoking to cope with stress, and were more likely to fail in their cessation attempts. Further analysis revealed that two adolescent developmental phenotypes—early conversion to daily smoking and rapid progression to heavy smoking--mediated associations between the genetic risk score and mature phenotypes of persistent heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation failure. The genetic risk score predicted smoking risk over and above family history. CONCLUSIONS Initiatives that disrupt the developmental progression of smoking behavior among adolescents may mitigate genetic risks for developing adult smoking problems. Future genetic research may maximize discovery potential by focusing on smoking behavior soon after smoking initiation and by studying young smokers. PMID:23536134

  9. New insights into Alzheimer's disease progression: a combined TMS and structural MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eini Niskanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of structural and functional data of the human brain can provide detailed information of neurodegenerative diseases and the influence of the disease on various local cortical areas. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the relationship between structure and function of the brain the cortical thickness based on structural magnetic resonance images and motor cortex excitability assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation were correlated in Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients as well as in age-matched healthy controls. Motor cortex excitability correlated negatively with cortical thickness on the sensorimotor cortex, the precuneus and the cuneus but the strength of the correlation varied between the study groups. On the sensorimotor cortex the correlation was significant only in MCI subjects. On the precuneus and cuneus the correlation was significant both in AD and MCI subjects. In healthy controls the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy subjects the motor cortex excitability is not dependent on the cortical thickness, whereas in neurodegenerative diseases the cortical thinning is related to weaker cortical excitability, especially on the precuneus and cuneus. However, in AD subjects there seems to be a protective mechanism of hyperexcitability on the sensorimotor cortex counteracting the prominent loss of cortical volume since the motor cortex excitability did not correlate with the cortical thickness. Such protective mechanism was not found on the precuneus or cuneus nor in the MCI subjects. Therefore, our results indicate that the progression of the disease proceeds with different dynamics in the structure and function of neuronal circuits from normal conditions via MCI to AD.

  10. Site characterization progress report: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995, Number 12. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    During the first half of fiscal year 1995, most activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project were directed at implementing the Program Plan developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Plan is designed to enable the Office to make measurable and significant progress toward key objectives over the next five years within the financial resources that can be realistically expected. Activities this period focused on the immediate goal of determining by 1998 whether Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is technically suitable as a possible site for a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Work on the Project advanced in several critical areas, including programmatic activities such as issuing the Program Plan, completing the first technical basis report to support the assessment of three 10 CFR 960 guidelines, developing the Notice of Intent for the Environmental Impact Statement, submitting the License Application Annotated Outline, and beginning a rebaselining effort to conform with the goals of the Program Plan. Scientific investigation and analysis of the site and design and construction activities to support the evaluation of the technical suitability of the site also advanced. Specific details relating to all Project activities and reports generated are presented in this report.

  11. Progress in Neutron Scattering Studies of Spin Excitations in High-Tc Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki; Hiraka, Haruhiro; Matsuda, Masaaki; Matsuura, Masato; Tranquada, John M.; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Xu, Guangyong; Yamada, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments continue to improve our knowledge of spin fluctuations in layered cuprates, excitations that are symptomatic of the electronic correlations underlying high-temperature superconductivity. Time-of-flight spectrometers, together with new and varied single crystal samples, have provided a more complete characterization of the magnetic energy spectrum and its variation with carrier concentration. While the spin excitations appear anomalous in comparison with simple model systems, there is clear consistency among a variety of cuprate families. Focusing initially on hole-doped systems, we review the nature of the magnetic spectrum, and variations in magnetic spectral weight with doping. We consider connections with the phenomena of charge and spin stripe order, and the potential generality of such correlations as suggested by studies of magnetic-field and impurity induced order. We contrast the behavior of the hole-doped systems with the trends found in the electron-doped superconductors. Returning to hole-doped cuprates, studies of translation-symmetry-preserving magnetic order are discussed, along with efforts to explore new systems. We conclude with a discussion of future challenges.

  12. Progress in Neutron Scattering Studies of Spin Excitations in High-T(c) Cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita M.; Tranquada J.; Hiraka, H.; Matsuda, M.; Matsuura, M.; Wakimoto, S.; Xu, G.; Yamada, K.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments continue to improve our knowledge of spin fluctuations in layered cuprates, excitations that are symptomatic of the electronic correlations underlying high-temperature superconductivity. Time-of-flight spectrometers, together with new and varied single crystal samples, have provided a more complete characterization of the magnetic energy spectrum and its variation with carrier concentration. While the spin excitations appear anomalous in comparison with simple model systems, there is clear consistency among a variety of cuprate families. Focusing initially on hole-doped systems, we review the nature of the magnetic spectrum, and variations in magnetic spectral weight with doping. We consider connections with the phenomena of charge and spin stripe order, and the potential generality of such correlations as suggested by studies of magnetic-field and impurity induced order. We contrast the behavior of the hole-doped systems with the trends found in the electron-doped superconductors. Returning to hole-doped cuprates, studies of translation-symmetry-preserving magnetic order are discussed, along with efforts to explore new systems. We conclude with a discussion of future challenges.

  13. Retrospective study of the effect of disease progression on patient reported outcomes in HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This retrospective study evaluated the impact of disease progression and of specific sites of metastasis on patient reported outcomes (PROs that assess symptom burden and health related quality of life (HRQoL in women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC. Methods HER-2 negative mBC patients (n = 102 were enrolled from 7 U.S. community oncology practices. Demographic, disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from electronic medical records and linked to archived Patient Care Monitor (PCM assessments. The PCM is a self-report measure of symptom burden and HRQoL administered as part of routine care in participating practices. Linear mixed models were used to examine change in PCM scores over time. Results Mean age was 57 years, with 72% of patients Caucasian, and 25% African American. Median time from mBC diagnosis to first disease progression was 8.8 months. Metastasis to bone (60%, lung (28% and liver (26% predominated at initial metastatic diagnosis. Results showed that PCM items assessing fatigue, physical pain and trouble sleeping were sensitive to either general effects of disease progression or to effects associated with specific sites of metastasis. Progression of disease was also associated with modest but significant worsening of General Physical Symptoms, Treatment Side Effects, Acute Distress and Impaired Performance index scores. In addition, there were marked detrimental effects of liver metastasis on Treatment Side Effects, and of brain metastasis on Acute Distress. Conclusions Disease progression has a detrimental impact on cancer-related symptoms. Delaying disease progression may have a positive impact on patients' HRQoL.

  14. National Assessment of Educational Progress Grade 12 Preparedness Research College Course Content Analysis Study: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Policy Improvement Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board is an independent, bipartisan organization that sets policy for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The Governing Board established the NAEP Program of 12th Grade Preparedness Research to assess what NAEP can report on the academic preparedness of 12th grade students entering college and…

  15. Progress Made in the Studies of Novel Materials for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Co-funded by NSFC, Ministry of Science & Technology of China (MOST) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), researchers at the Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, ICCAS, made progress in designing and synthesis of n- and p-type organic semiconductors.

  16. Leonard Covello: A Study of Progressive Leadership and Community Empowerment. Occasional Paper Series 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowsky, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells the remarkable and compelling story of Leonard Covello, a ground breaking progressive educator who worked tirelessly to shape public education in New York City during the first half of the 20th century. Covello was the founding principal of Benjamin Franklin High School (BFHS) in East Harlem in the 1930s. The author invites…

  17. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Kollerits, Barbara; Struck, Joachim; Ritz, Eberhard; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-02-01

    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the stable prohormones (MRproANP and MR-proADM). Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine and/or terminal renal failure, which occurred in 65 patients. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of renal endpoints showed similar areas under the curve for the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (0.838), MR-proANP (0.810), and MRproADM (0.876), respectively, as did the Kaplan-Meier curve analyses of the patients stratified according to the median of the respective markers. In separate multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses, increased plasma concentrations of both peptides were each strongly predictive of the progression of chronic kidney disease after adjustments for age, gender, GFR, proteinuria and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Our study suggests that MR-proANP and MR-proADM are useful new markers of progression of primary nondiabetic chronic kidney disease.

  18. MAMM (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Pyle, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    MAMM consortium (led by JA Pyle, Univ. Cambridge, with partners from Univ. East Anglia; Univ. Manchester; Royal Holloway, Univ. of London; NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology). The UK MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) is designed to improve quantitative knowledge of Arctic methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources (e.g. wetlands, natural gas, clathrates), to determine magnitudes and spatial distributions, and to develop process understanding (e.g. dependence of fluxes on temperature). In Arctic Finland, Sweden, Norway and Spitsbergen, intensive low-level aircraft campaigns (flights in spring, summer, autumn 2012 and 2013, with the UK FAAM BAe146 aircraft) are designed to measure concentrations of CH4 and other gases across the Arctic by time and location, with in situ sampling for δ13CCH4 at selected sites on land (Zeppelin, Pallas, Alert) and Keeling-plot diel determination of wetland source signatures. High altitude flights sampled stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the Arctic to assess the impact of the polar vortex on methane isotope budgets. Methane column profiles are measured by combining ground based eddy covariance and chamber measurements with aircraft measurements, using a landscape-scale box model approach and flying up and downwind of source regions. Airborne remote sensing is being used to retrieve CH4 columns for comparison with in-situ profiles and testing of hyperspectral retrieval methods from satellite platforms. Longer-term time series measurements are also being established in Kjølnes, northern Norway, for a range of greenhouse and related species via continuous or flask/bag sampling. Modelling studies are in progress to assess the overall Arctic influence on the global methane budget, including detailed back-trajectory analysis of the measurements, especially the isotopic data, to identify sources of methane by location, type (e.g. gasfield, wetland

  19. Micromechanical study of corrosion products layers. Part I: Experimental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoux, A., E-mail: dehoux@lmt.ens-cachan.fr [UPMC Univ., Paris 06, LMT-Cachan (ENS Cachan/UMR8535/UPMC) (France); Andra, Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Dechets RadioActifs, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, parc de la croix blanche, 92298 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (France); Bouchelaghem, F.; Berthaud, Y. [UPMC Univ., Paris 06, LMT-Cachan (ENS Cachan/UMR8535/UPMC) (France); Neff, D. [SIS2M/LAPA-Laboratoire Pierre Suee, UMR 9956 CNRS, CEA, Bt. 637, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); L' Hostis, V. [DEN, DANS, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical characterization of oxide formed on ancient ferrous artefacts has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main phases present are goethite, magnetite and maghemite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical ranges of the local mechanical properties can be related with the main phases present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Young moduli at the micrometric scale vary between 50 and 200 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time dependent effects are negligible. - Abstract: A micromechanical characterization had been performed on ancient artefacts corrosion products. The proposed experimental approach allies scanning electron microscopy observations, micro-indentation tests which allow the characterization of the local stiffness of elementary constituents, and finally Raman micro-spectroscopy tests which give access to the local crystallised phases of the samples. The experimental campaign contains a large series of tests, which give us the opportunity to interpret the dispersion of local stiffness measurements.

  20. ZERODUR: progress in CTE characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    In 2010, SCHOTT introduced a method for the modeling of the thermal expansion behavior of ZERODUR® under arbitrary temperature profiles for an optimized production of material for the upcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects. In 2012 a new product was introduced based on this method called ZERODUR® TAILORED. ZERODUR® TAILORED provides an evolution in the specification of the absolute Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) value by including the individual customer requirements in this process. This paper presents examples showing the benefit of an application oriented approach in the design of specifications using ZERODUR®. Additionally it will be shown how the modeling approach has advanced during the last years to improve the prediction accuracy on long time scales. ZERODUR® is known not only for its lowest CTE but also for its excellent CTE homogeneity as shown in the past for disc shaped blanks typical for telescope mirror substrates. Additionally this paper presents recent results of CTE homogeneity measurements in the single digit ppb/K range for a rectangular cast plate proving that the excellent CTE homogeneity is independent of the production format.

  1. Generation and characterization of a tetraspanin CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain competitively binding monoclonal antibody for inhibition of tumor progression in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Lu; Kang, Qiang; Liu, Li-Xin; Xie, Nan; Shen, Zao-Zhuo; Hu, Mei-Yu; Cao, Ya; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Shi, Guo-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that tetraspanin CD151 plays multiple roles in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by forming a functional complex with integrin α6β1. Herein, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that dissociates the CD151/integrin α6β1 complex, and we evaluated its bioactivity in HCCs. A murine mAb, tetraspanin CD151 (IgG1, called CD151 mAb 9B), was successfully generated against the CD151-integrin α6β1 binding site of CD151 extracellular domains. Co-immunoprecipitation using CD151 mAb 9B followed by Western blotting detected a 28 kDa protein. Both immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining showed a good reactivity of CD151 mAb 9B in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of HCC cells, as well as in liver cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that CD151 mAb 9B could inhibit neoangiogenesis and both the mobility and the invasiveness of HCC cells. An in vivo assay showed that CD151 mAb 9B inhibited tumor growth potential and HCC cells metastasis. We successfully produced a CD151 mAb 9B targeting the CD151/integrin α6β1-binding domain, which not only can displayed good reactivity to the CD151 antigen but also prevented tumor progression in HCC. PMID:26756217

  2. Synthesis and characterization studies of MgO:CuO nanocrystals by wet-chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Maria Magdalane, C.; Anand, K.; Manikandan, E.; Maaza, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we examine the progress in adapting these nanomaterials for several predominantly photonics device fabrication by wet-chemical method. Nanocomposite of magnesium oxide (MgO) with copper oxide (CuO) doped nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the observed peaks are quite agreeable with the pure phase cubic structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) results reveal that the resultant nanopowders are porous and agglomerated with polycrystalline nano-entities. Field emission of selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) studies showed that the average size of the nanoparticles were 20 nm. Photoluminescence spectra of MgO:CuO were investigated, showing emission peaks around 375 nm relating to new energy levels induced by defects or defect levels generation and confocal micro-Raman images indicated that the chemical molecular vibrational band structure and morphology of the product which is spherical shaped nanoparticles with an average particle size of ∼25 nm with standard deviation. The electrochemical response of MgO:CuO which is proves that the nano-copper/magnesium has high functionality due to the small size and it has higher electrochemical activity without any modifications.

  3. Progress in the Study of Nonlinear Atmospheric Dynamics and Predictability of Weather and Climate in China (2007-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feifan; DING Ruiqiang; FENG Guolin; FU Zuntao; DUAN Wansuo

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics and related predictability of weather and climate in China (2007-2011) are briefly introduced in this article.Major achievements in the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics have been classified into two types:(1) progress based on the analysis of solutions of simplified control equations,such as the dynamics of NAO,the optimal precursors for blocking onset,and the behavior of nonlinear waves,and (2) progress based on data analyses,such as the nonlinear analyses of fluctuations and recording-breaking temperature events,the long-range correlation of extreme events,and new methods of detecting abrupt dynamical change.Major achievements in the study of predictability include the following:(1) the application of nonlinear local Lyapunov exponents (NLLE) to weather and climate predictability; (2) the application of condition nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) to the studies of El Ni(n)o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictions,ensemble forecasting,targeted observation,and sensitivity analysis of the ecosystem; and (3) new strategies proposed for predictability studies.The results of these studies have provided greater understanding of the dynamics and nonlinear mechanisms of atmospheric motion,and they represent new ideas for developing numerical models and improving the forecast skill of weather and climate events.

  4. Progress in the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics and predictability of weather and climate in China (2007-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan; Ding, Ruiqiang; Feng, Guolin; Fu, Zuntao; Duan, Wansuo

    2012-09-01

    Recent progress in the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics and related predictability of weather and climate in China (2007-2011) are briefly introduced in this article. Major achievements in the study of nonlinear atmospheric dynamics have been classified into two types: (1) progress based on the analysis of solutions of simplified control equations, such as the dynamics of NAO, the optimal precursors for blocking onset, and the behavior of nonlinear waves, and (2) progress based on data analyses, such as the nonlinear analyses of fluctuations and recording-breaking temperature events, the long-range correlation of extreme events, and new methods of detecting abrupt dynamical change. Major achievements in the study of predictability include the following: (1) the application of nonlinear local Lyapunov exponents (NLLE) to weather and climate predictability; (2) the application of condition nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) to the studies of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) predictions, ensemble forecasting, targeted observation, and sensitivity analysis of the ecosystem; and (3) new strategies proposed for predictability studies. The results of these studies have provided greater understanding of the dynamics and nonlinear mechanisms of atmospheric motion, and they represent new ideas for developing numerical models and improving the forecast skill of weather and climate events.

  5. Nanomaterial synthesis and characterization for toxicological studies: TiO2 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsami-Jones, E.; Berhanu, D.; Dybowska, A.; Misra, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Tetley, T.D.; Luoma, S.N.; Plant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that the novel properties of nanomaterials may predispose them to a hitherto unknown potential for toxicity. A number of recent toxicological studies of nanomaterials exist, but these appear to be fragmented and often contradictory. Such discrepancies may be, at least in part, due to poor description of the nanomaterial or incomplete characterization, including failure to recognise impurities, surface modifications or other important physicochemical aspects of the nanomaterial. Here we make a case for the importance of good quality, well-characterized nanomaterials for future toxicological studies, combined with reliable synthesis protocols, and we present our efforts to generate such materials. The model system for which we present results is TiO2 nanoparticles, currently used in a variety of commercial products. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  6. Energetics of melts from thermal diffusion studies. FY 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, C.E.

    1994-12-31

    This research program characterizes diffusional mass transport in geological fluids in response to thermal, solubility and chemical gradients using tools of experimental petrology. Quantitative information is obtained on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of multicomponent systems that are the basis for predictive models of chemical diffusion, mineral dissolution, and complexing in synthetic and natural silicate systems. Among the technical accomplishments related to establishing the UCD experimental petrology laboratory in the last year has been the design and construction of two compact piston-cylinder devices capable of achieving 40 kb using 1/2-in. pressure vessels (also capable of accommodating 3/4-in. vessels). These machines are now on-line and performing thermal diffusion experiments. In addition to establishing the new laboratory at UCD, the PI began studies of molecular diffusion in the absence of a thermal gradient with results published on the chemical and self diffusion of Sr and Nd in naturally-occurring silicate liquids, and self diffusivities of Si and O in basaltic liquid.

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Selectivity Study of Mixed-Valence Sulfites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luciana A.; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    2010-01-01

    A project involving the synthesis of an isomorphic double sulfite series and characterization by classical inorganic chemical analyses is described. The project is performed by upper-level undergraduate students in the laboratory. This compound series is suitable for examining several chemical concepts and analytical techniques in inorganic…

  8. Pilot study of dynamic Bayesian networks approach for fault diagnostics and accident progression prediction in HTR-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Tong, Jiejuan; Zhang, Liguo, E-mail: lgzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic Bayesian network is used to diagnose and predict accident progress in HTR-PM. • Dynamic Bayesian network model of HTR-PM is built based on detailed system analysis. • LOCA Simulations validate the above model even if part monitors are lost or false. - Abstract: The first high-temperature-reactor pebble-bed demonstration module (HTR-PM) is under construction currently in China. At the same time, development of a system that is used to support nuclear emergency response is in progress. The supporting system is expected to complete two tasks. The first one is diagnostics of the fault in the reactor based on abnormal sensor measurements obtained. The second one is prognostic of the accident progression based on sensor measurements obtained and operator actions. Both tasks will provide valuable guidance for emergency staff to take appropriate protective actions. Traditional method for the two tasks relies heavily on expert judgment, and has been proven to be inappropriate in some cases, such as Three Mile Island accident. To better perform the two tasks, dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) is introduced in this paper and a pilot study based on the approach is carried out. DBN is advantageous in representing complex dynamic systems and taking full consideration of evidences obtained to perform diagnostics and prognostics. Pearl's loopy belief propagation (LBP) algorithm is recommended for diagnostics and prognostics in DBN. The DBN model of HTR-PM is created based on detailed system analysis and accident progression analysis. A small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) is selected to illustrate the application of the DBN model of HTR-PM in fault diagnostics (FD) and accident progression prognostics (APP). Several advantages of DBN approach compared with other techniques are discussed. The pilot study lays the foundation for developing the nuclear emergency response supporting system (NERSS) for HTR-PM.

  9. Progress and review of the studies on the end-Triassic mass extinction event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shenghui; LU Yuanzheng; XU Daoyi

    2005-01-01

    The mass extinction at the end-Triassic is one of the five biggest in the Phanerozoic. However,it is the least well understood among these five events, and only till last decade it became a great academic interesting subject to geologists. The evidences for this event come obviously from bivalves, brachiopods, ammonites, corals, radiolaria, ostracods and foraminifera of marine habitats, and plants and tetrapods of terrestrial realm. By contrast, for some of other groups, such as marine gastropods and marine vertebrates, no mass extinction has been recognized yet. The extinction event is strongly marked at specific level but shown a complicated situation at generic and family levels. Dramatic changing of the environment, such as the temperature raise due to the greenhouse effect, the marine anoxic habitats caused by a sudden transgression after the regression at the end of Triassic, has been claimed to be the main cause of the extinction. Many hypotheses have been suggested to demonstrate the mechanisms of the environment changing, among which two popular ones are the bolide impact and volcanic eruption. The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary mass extinction event is still poorly understood because no enough data have been obtained from the Tr-J boundary successional sections of both marine and terrestrial sediments, and most of these studies were regionally restricted. The basic aspects of the event and its associated environmental conditions remain poorly characterized and the causal mechanism or mechanisms are equivocal. Some authors even doubt its occurrence. China has many successionally developed terrestrial and marine Tr-J sections. Detailed studies of these sections may be important and significant for well understanding of the event.

  10. The Non-Obese Diabetic Mouse Strain as a Model to Study CD8(+) T Cell Function in Relapsing and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius Arokia Doss, Prenitha Mercy; Roy, Andrée-Pascale; Wang, AiLi; Anderson, Ana Carrizosa; Rangachari, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from an autoimmune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Although CD4(+) T cell function in MS pathology has been extensively studied, there is also strong evidence that CD8(+) T lymphocytes play a key role. Intriguingly, CD8(+) T cells accumulate in great numbers in the CNS in progressive MS, a form of the disease that is refractory to current disease-modifying therapies that target the CD4(+) T cell response. Here, we discuss the function of CD8(+) T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. In particular, we describe EAE in non-obese diabetic (NOD) background mice, which develop a pattern of disease characterized by multiple attacks and remissions followed by a progressively worsening phase. This is highly reminiscent of the pattern of disease observed in nearly half of MS patients. Particular attention is paid to a newly described transgenic mouse strain (1C6) on the NOD background whose CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are directed against the encephalitogenic peptide MOG[35-55]. Use of this model will give us a more complete picture of the role(s) played by distinct T cell subsets in CNS autoimmunity.

  11. The non-obese diabetic mouse strain as a model to study CD8+ T cell function in relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prenitha Mercy eIgnatius Arokia Doss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from an autoimmune attack on central nervous system myelin. While CD4+ T cell function in MS pathology has been extensively studied, there is also strong evidence that CD8+ T lymphocytes play a key role. Intriguingly, CD8+ T cells accumulate in great numbers in the CNS in progressive MS, a form of the disease that is refractory to current disease-modifying therapies which target the CD4+ T cell response. Here, we discuss the function of CD8+ T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model of MS. In particular, we describe EAE in non-obese diabetic (NOD background mice, which develop a pattern of disease characterized by multiple attacks and remissions followed by a progressively worsening phase. This is highly reminiscent of the pattern of disease observed in nearly half of MS patients. Particular attention is paid to a newly described transgenic mouse strain (1C6 on the NOD background whose CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are directed against the encephalitogenic peptide MOG[35-55]. Use of this model will give us a more complete picture of the role(s played by distinct T cell subsets in CNS autoimmunity.

  12. Predicting growth and curve progression in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: design of a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldhuizen Albert G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoliosis is present in 3-5% of the children in the adolescent age group, with a higher incidence in females. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is mainly dependent on the progression of the scoliotic curve. There is a close relationship between curve progression and rapid (spinal growth of the patient during puberty. However, until present time no conclusive method was found for predicting the timing and magnitude of the pubertal growth spurt in total body height, or the curve progression of the idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of several maturity indicators that reflect growth or remaining growth potential, in order to predict timing of the peak growth velocity of total body height in the individual patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Furthermore, different parameters are evaluated for their correlation with curve progression in the individual scoliosis patient. Methods/design This prospective, longitudinal cohort study will be incorporated in the usual care of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. All new patients between 8 and 17 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle >10 degrees visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Medical Center Groningen are included in this study. Follow up will take place every 6 months. The present study will use a new ultra-low dose X-ray system which can make total body X-rays. Several maturity indicators are evaluated like different body length dimensions, secondary sexual characteristics, skeletal age in hand and wrist, skeletal age in the elbow, the Risser sign, the status of the triradiate cartilage, and EMG ratios of the paraspinal muscle activity. Correlations of all dimensions will be calculated in relationship to the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, and to the progression of the scoliotic curve. An algorithm will be made for the optimal treatment strategy in the individual patient

  13. Effect of cellular therapy in progression of Becker’s muscular dystrophy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD is an inherited disorder due to deletions of the dystrophin gene that leads to muscle weakness. Effects of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC transplantation in Muscular Dystrophy have shown to be safe and beneficial. We treated a 20-year-old male suffering from BMD with autologous BMMNC transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. He presented with muscle weakness and had difficulty in performing his activities. The BMMNCs were transplanted via intrathecal and intramuscular routes. The effects were measured on clinical and functional changes. Over 9 months, gradual improvement was noticed in muscle strength, respiratory functions and North Star Ambulatory Assessment Scale. Functional Independence Measure, Berg Balance Score, Brooke and Vignos Scale remained stable indicating halting of the progression. The case report suggests that cellular therapy combined with rehabilitation may have possibility of repairing and regenerating muscle fibers and decreasing the rate of progression of BMD.

  14. Studies in Medium Energy Physics. Progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.M.; Worm, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    Progress is briefly reported in the following areas: p + A precision elastic forward-angle cross sections for 500- to 800-MeV p on {sup 40}Ca; precision measurement of D{sub NN} for {sup 13}C({rvec p}, {rvec p}) at 500 MeV; design of a polarized nuclear target; search for very rare K{sub L} decays; search for the H dibaryon; experimental search for quark -- gluon plasma; and theoretical work on proton -- nucleus scattering.

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of predictive parameters of progression in adolescent isthmic spondylolisthesis: a computer modeling and simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevrain Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic incidence, sacral slope and slip percentage have been shown to be important predicting factors for assessing the risk of progression of low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Biomechanical factors, which affect the stress distribution and the mechanisms involved in the vertebral slippage, may also influence the risk of progression, but they are still not well known. The objective was to biomechanically evaluate how geometric sacral parameters influence shear and normal stress at the lumbosacral junction in spondylolisthesis. Methods A finite element model of a low-grade L5-S1 spondylolisthesis was constructed, including the morphology of the spine, pelvis and rib cage based on measurements from biplanar radiographs of a patient. Variations provided on this model aimed to study the effects on low grade spondylolisthesis as well as reproduce high grade spondylolisthesis. Normal and shear stresses at the lumbosacral junction were analyzed under various pelvic incidences, sacral slopes and slip percentages. Their influence on progression risk was statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance. Results Stresses were mainly concentrated on the growth plate of S1, on the intervertebral disc of L5-S1, and ahead the sacral dome for low grade spondylolisthesis. For high grade spondylolisthesis, more important compression and shear stresses were seen in the anterior part of the growth plate and disc as compared to the lateral and posterior areas. Stress magnitudes over this area increased with slip percentage, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Strong correlations were found between pelvic incidence and the resulting compression and shear stresses in the growth plate and intervertebral disc at the L5-S1 junction. Conclusions Progression of the slippage is mostly affected by a movement and an increase of stresses at the lumbosacral junction in accordance with spino-pelvic parameters. The statistical results provide

  16. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications. An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization. To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength. Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength. Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small (about 1.5 inches) and short (mostly 2-3 meter). Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. No suitable system is available for probing in such conditions to identify the voids/joints and specifically to measure rock strength for evaluation of rock mass and related optimization of ground support design. A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and

  17. Progressive volume loss and white matter degeneration in cstb-deficient mice: a diffusion tensor and longitudinal volumetry MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Manninen

    Full Text Available Unverricht-Lundborg type progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1, OMIM 254800 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset at the age of 6 to 16 years, incapacitating stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cystatin B. Previously, widespread white matter changes and atrophy has been detected both in adult EPM1 patients and in 6-month-old cystatin B-deficient mice, a mouse model for the EPM1 disease. In order to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain atrophy and white matter changes in EPM1, we conducted longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging accompanied with tract-based spatial statistics analysis to compare volumetric changes and fractional anisotropy in the brains of 1 to 6 months of age cystatin B-deficient and control mice. The results reveal progressive but non-uniform volume loss of the cystatin B-deficient mouse brains, indicating that different neuronal populations possess distinct sensitivity to the damage caused by cystatin B deficiency. The diffusion tensor imaging data reveal early and progressive white matter alterations in cystatin B-deficient mice affecting all major tracts. The results also indicate that the white matter damage in the cystatin B-deficient brain is most likely secondary to glial activation and neurodegenerative events rather than a primary result of CSTB deficiency. The data also show that diffusion tensor imaging combined with TBSS analysis provides a feasible approach not only to follow white matter damage in neurodegenerative mouse models but also to detect fractional anisotropy changes related to normal white matter maturation and reorganisation.

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reighn, Christopher A.; Lewis, Bert; Taki, Doug

    1999-06-01

    Information contained in this report summarizes the work that has been done by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes Fisheries Department under BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450. Relevant data generated by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe will be collated with other ISS cooperator data collected from the Salmon and Clearwater rivers and tributary streams. A summary of data presented in this report and an initial project-wide level supplementation evaluation will be available in the ISS 5 year report that is currently in progress. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department is responsible for monitoring a variety of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) production parameters as part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies (BPA Project No. 89-098-3, Contract Number 92-BI-49450). Parameters include parr abundance in tributaries to the upper Salmon River; adult chinook salmon spawner abundance, redd counts, and carcass collection. A rotary screw trap is operated on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag chinook smolts. These traps are also used to monitor parr movement, and collect individuals for the State and Tribal chinook salmon captive rearing program. The SBT monitors fisheries parameters in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork. Chinook populations in all SBT-ISS monitored streams continue to decline. The South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek have the strongest remaining populations. Snorkel survey methodology was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. Confidence intervals for the parr population estimates were large, especially when the populations were low. In 1998, based on ISS cooperator agreement, snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was ceased due to the large confidence intervals. A rotary screw trap was

  19. Progress in Studies and Utilizations of Ceratoides%驼绒藜属植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿拉塔; 孙海莲

    2012-01-01

    Ceratoides is a super xerophytic semi-shrub with high feeding value and important ecological function. On reviewing the research progress,classification,distribution, ecological values of Ceratoides on the basis of previous studies,we focus on several aspects such as short-lived seeds, difficulties in direct sowing and underutilization of production. First, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 was used to sequence 20 G bases of the transeriptome for Ceratoides. The genomic information was expected for further study of the seed longevity in natural populations. Second, by using technique of seedling in small area and transplanting in big area, we apply it in Ceratoides production. Third ,we utilize and extend the cuhivar of Ceratoides in arid region, saline lands and mining district.Ceratoides for ecological restoration. Besides, to assess nutrition values ,we carry out the research on Ceratoides pellet feed preparation as an alternative of alfalfa in sheep feeding trial.%驼绒藜属植物是饲用价值较高的超旱生半灌木,有重要的生态利用价值。在查阅国内外对驼绒藜属植物研究利用的相关文献基础上,对该属植物的研究进展、分类、分布、生态作用等进行了分析和论述。针对生产中提出的种子短寿命、直播困难、生产利用缺乏等问题,介绍了内蒙古农牧业科学院驼绒藜课题组的具体科研思路和科研进展。一是针对种子短命问题。开展了驼绒藜转录组的分析和控制基因的定位研究,目前已获得20G的数据和完整的驼绒藜叶片组织的转录组集合,测序结果与信息将用于后续的种子寿命相关技术研发,期待实现能够延长种子寿命的产品或新材料;二是在种子直播技术未得到解决的情况下.采用小面积育苗后大面积移栽方式,将广泛应用于林业苗木生产的小面积育苗技术应用于驼绒藜属植物;三是针对生态应用技术,把自主知识产权的驼绒藜

  20. Unidimensionality study about Raven's Coloured Standard Progressive Matrices / Estudo sobre a unidimensionalidade do teste Matrizes Progressivas Coloridas de Raven

    OpenAIRE

    Fermino Fernandes Sisto; Fabián Javier Marín Rueda; Daniel Bartholomeu

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the adjustment of the Rasch model concerning unidimensionality of Raven's Colored Standard Progressive Matrices. Four hundred and forty-one (441) elementary school children, of both genders, attending first to fourth grade were investigated. Considering that residuals may be enough to violate the intrinsic unidimensionality of the items, residual principal component analysis was used to assess the possibility of this violation. Items with higher factorial loading relating ...

  1. [Study progress of spectral color science and its prospect of application in the field of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fang-zhou; Wu, Xiao-yan; Mao, Chun-qing; Ji, De; Cai, Bao-chang; Lu, Tu-lin

    2013-09-01

    The paper reviewed the research progress in the spectral color science, including the common model, color measurement instrument in recent years, application of color measurement technology in agriculture, food, industry, medicine and other fields. The possibility to achieve the color quantization of Chinese medicine was explored by color measurement technology, and analyzed its application prospect in the field of Chinese medicine, provided a model for the study on quality control for Chinese medicine non-destructive online

  2. Ciclosporin A proof of concept study in patients with active, progressive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Martin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP become progressively impaired, with chronic pain, immobility and bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Tested antiretroviral therapies have not been effective and most patients are offered a short course of corticosteroids or interferon-α, physiotherapy and symptomatic management. Pathogenesis studies implicate activated T-lymphocytes and cytokines in tissue damage. We therefore tested the hypothesis that inhibition of T-cell activation with ciclosporin A would be safe and clinically beneficial in patients with early and/or clinically progressing HAM/TSP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Open label, proof of concept, pilot study of 48 weeks therapy with the calcineurin antagonist, ciclosporin A (CsA, in seven patients with 'early' (50% deterioration in timed walk during the preceding three months HAM/TSP. Primary outcomes were incidence of clinical failure at 48 weeks and time to clinical failure. RESULTS: All patients completed 72 weeks study participation and five showed objective evidence of clinical improvement after 3 months treatment with CsA. Two patients exhibited clinical failure over 6.4 person-years of follow-up to week 48. One patient had a >2 point deterioration in IPEC (Insituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas disability score at weeks 8 and 12, and then stopped treatment. The other stopped treatment at week 4 because of headache and tremor and deterioration in timed walk, which occurred at week 45. Overall pain, mobility, spasticity and bladder function improved by 48 weeks. Two patients recommenced CsA during follow-up due to relapse. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide initial evidence that treatment with CsA is safe and may partially reverse the clinical deterioration seen in patients with early/progressive HAM/TSP. This trial supports further investigation of this agent's safety and effectiveness in larger, randomised controlled studies in

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of the isolated SF6- and C4F8- anions: observation of very long harmonic progressions in symmetric deformation modes upon photodetachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Joseph C; Roscioli, Joseph R; Johnson, Mark A; Miller, Thomas M; Viggiano, A A; Villano, Stephanie M; Wren, Scott W; Lineberger, W Carl

    2007-02-22

    Spectroscopic studies of the SF6- and c-C4F8- anions are reported to provide experimental benchmarks for theoretical predictions of their structures and electron binding energies. The photoelectron spectrum of SF6- is dominated by a long progression in the S-F stretching mode, with an envelope consistent with theoretical predictions that the anion preserves the Oh symmetry of the neutral, but has a longer S-F bond length. This main progression occurs with an unexpectedly strong contribution from a second mode, however, whose characteristic energy does not correspond to any of the neutral SF6 fundamental vibrations in its ground electronic state. The resulting doublet pattern is evident when the bare ion is prepared with low internal energy content (i.e., using N2 carrier gas in a free jet or liquid nitrogen-cooling in a flowing afterglow) but is much better resolved in the spectrum of the SF6-.Ar complex. The infrared predissociation spectrum of SF6-.Ar consists of a strong band at 683(5) cm(-1), which we assign to the nu3 (t1u) fundamental, the same mode that yields the strong 948 cm(-1) infrared transition in neutral SF6. One qualitatively interesting aspect of the SF6- behavior is the simple structure of its photoelectron spectrum, which displays uncluttered, harmonic bands in an energy region where the neutral molecule contains about 2 eV of vibrational excitation. We explore this effect further in the c-C4F8- anion, which also presents a system that is calculated to undergo large, symmetrical distortion upon electron attachment to the neutral. The photoelectron spectrum of this species is dominated by a long, single vibrational progression, this time involving the symmetric ring-breathing mode. Like the SF6- case, the c-C4F8- spectrum is remarkably isolated and harmonic in spite of the significant internal excitation of a relatively complex molecular framework. Both these perfluorinated anions thus share the property that the symmetrical deformation of the

  4. Progress on Observation of Cryospheric Components and Climate-Related Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cunde; QIN Dahe; YAO Tandong; DING Yongjian; LIU Shiyin; ZHAO Lin; LIU Yujie

    2008-01-01

    Systematic studies on the cryosphere in China started in the late 1950s.Significant achievements have been made by continuous investigation of glacier inventories,frozen ground observations,paleo-climate analyses of ice cores,process studies and the modeling of cryopsheric/atmospheric interactions.The general facts and understanding of these changes include:(1)Solid precipitation,including the number of days with frost and hail storms,shows a decreasing tendency over the past half century.(2)In most areas glaciers upon time period).The annual glacial melt water has been increasing since the 1980s.This increased supply of melt water to river runoff in Northwest China is about a 10%-13%.(3)The long-term variability of snow cover in western China is characterized by a large inter-annual variation superimposed on a small increasing trend.Snow cover variability in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau(QXP)is influenced by the Indian monsoon,and conversely impacts monsoon onset and strength and eventually the drought and flood events in middle-low reaches of Yangtze River.(4)Frozen ground,including permafrost,is decaying both in QXP and in Northeast China.The most significant changes occurred in the regions with thickest seasonal frozen ground(SFG),i.e.,inland QXP,then northeastern and northwestern QXP.The cold season air temperature is the main factor controlling SFG change.The increase of ground surface temperatures is more significant than air temperature.(5)The sea ice coverage over the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea has deceased since the 1980s.(6) River ice duration and ice thickness is also decreasing in northern China.In 2001,the Chinese National Committee of Worid Climate Research Program/Climate and Cyosphere (WCRP/CliC)(CNC-CliC)was organized to strengthen research on climate and cryosphere in China.Future monitoring of the cryosphere in China will be enhanced both in spatial coverage and through the use of new techniques.Interactions between atmosphere

  5. 酮洛芬药理研究进展%Progresses in Pharmacological Study of Ketoprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石开云; 余清宝

    2015-01-01

    Ketoprofen is a good 2-arylpropionic acid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ( NSAID ) . It performs it's significant activi-ties on antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory by inhibiting the enzyme activities of cyclooxygenases ( COXs ) , proinflammatory pep-tides and/or lipoxygenases ( LOXs ) , further inhibiting the biosynthesis of those inflammatory substances such as prostaglandins ( PGs ) , bradykinins, leukotrienes ( LTs ) and thromboxanes ( TXs ) . The antiplatelet aggregation activity of ketoprofen quantitatively depends on the acidity. Its anti-inflammatory activity, which is strengthened by selectively inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis induced by the interleukin-8 ( IL-8 ) , may be partly due to the abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) and reactive nitrogen species ( RNS ) , as well as the abilities to inhibit the respiratory burst of neutrophils triggered by various activating agents. Because of unselectively inhibiting COX-1 and COX-2, ketoprofen may prevent the biosynthesis of prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) in gastric mucosal and further produce gastro-toxic activity, cause gastric mucosa damage or bleeding. Moreover, by inhibiting the COX-2 activity, ketoprofen reduce the concentration of endogenous PGF2α, and this may increase the potential risk of seizures. Local usage of ketoprofen may produce photosensitive toxic side effects caused by typeⅠfree radical reaction and contact dermatitis caused by the carboxyl group ( -COOH ) separated from the aromatic structure. In general, this paper systematically summarizes the progresses in pharmacological study of Ketoprofen, reveals its molecular mechanism of pharmacology, and illustrates the efficacy and side effects from its chemical structure nature. This paper may be helpful for the design and development of new products of ketoprofen class and the rational clinical use.%酮洛芬是2-芳基丙酸类非甾体抗炎药,主要通过抑制环氧合酶(COXs)、促炎肽和/或脂氧化

  6. 光生物调节作用研究进展%Progress in Photobiomodulation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承宜; 蔡庆; Karu Tiina Ⅰ; 段锐; Wilden Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a biomodulation of laser irradiation (LI) or monochromatic light. The LI may be low intensity LI (LIL) at about 10 mW/cm2, moderate intensity LI (MIL) at 0. 1 --1.0 W/cm2 or high intensity LI. The progress in PBM studies is reviewed from homeostatic viewpoint in this paper. Function-specific homeostasis (FSH) is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. FSH can resist internal or/and external disturbance under threshold, but can be disrupted by FSH-specific stress (FSS). There is a FSS-specific homeostasis (FSSH) in which a FSS not only disrupts the original FSH, but also establishes a new FSH so that it is called a successful stress. Low level LI (LLL) has been so defined that it cannot modulate a successful stress or a function in its FSH, but it can modulate a FSS far from its FSSH. LIL might be coordinately mediated by many kinds of proteins in membrane of cells or cellular organellae so that the FSH can be self-adaptively established. MIL might be mediated by endogenetic photosensitive proteins. LLL can be used to diagnose the process for a function to establish its FSH or for a FSS to establish its FSSH and the FSH or FSSH itself. The applications of PBM in enhanced recovery after surgery are also discussed.%激光或单色光的强度可以分为低、中和高三个等级,其生物调节作用称为光生物调节作用.从内稳态的角度综述相应的研究进展.功能内稳态是维持功能充分稳定发挥的负反馈机制,它可以抵抗低于阈值的内外干扰,但被高于阈值的应激所打破.处于内稳态的应激称为成功应激,远离内稳态的应激称为慢性应激.成功应激打破一个功能内稳态之后,能够建立另一个功能内稳态.弱光可以调节慢性应激,但对成功应激或处于功能内稳态的功能无效.细胞的多种膜蛋白可以协同介导低强度

  7. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation. Annual progress report, March 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, D.M. Jr. (ed.)

    1977-06-01

    Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness.

  8. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  9. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  10. The syndrome of progressive posterior cortical dysfunction: A multiple case study and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Areza-Fegyveres

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. Objectives: To describe cases of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. Methods: We conducted a retrospective search of cases of progressive dementia with predominant visual symptoms, seen at our dementia unit from 1996 to 2006. Results: Twelve patients (5 men, 7 women were identified, with ages ranging from 49 to 67 years. At the first examination, the duration of the symptoms ranged from one to ten years and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 7 to 27. Eleven patients presented with predominant visuospatial symptoms (partial or complete Balint syndrome and one with visuoperceptive impairment. Other reported manifestations were: constructional apraxia in 11 patients, partial or complete Gerstmann syndrome in ten, ideomotor apraxia in nine, hemineglect or extinction in four patients, alien hand phenomenon in three, and prosopagnosia in one patient. Memory loss was reported by ten patients, but was not the main complaint in any of these cases. Insight was relatively preserved in five patients even after a long period following the onset of symptoms. Six patients developed parkinsonism during evolution. Clinical diagnoses were possible or probable AD in seven patients, cortico-basal degeneration in four, and dementia with Lewy body in one. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  11. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: A longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Mascalchi; Stefano Diciotti; Marco Giannelli; Andrea Ginestroni; Andrea Soricelli; Emanuele Nicolai; Marco Aiello; Carlo Tessa; Lucia Galli; Maria Teresa Dotti; Silvia Piacentini; Elena Salvatore; Nicola Toschi

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years) and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years) on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to investigate volume changes and t...

  12. Getting ready for REDD+ in Tanzania: a case study of progress and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Neil David; Bahane, Bruno; Clairs, Tim;

    2010-01-01

    the Norwegian, Finnish and German governments and is a participant in the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. In combination, these interventions aim to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, provide an income to rural communities and conserve biodiversity. The establishment of the UN-REDD Programme...... cover, enhanced capacity for measuring, reporting and verification, and pilot projects to test REDD+ implementation linked to the existing Participatory Forest Management Programme. Our conclusion is that even in a country with considerable donor support, progressive forest policies, laws...

  13. Peptidomics for dairy foods characterization - a method development study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Nanna Stengaard; Hammershøj, Marianne; Sørensen, John

    During storage of long shelf life dairy products undesired changes can appear in the products. One major change in liquid UHT products and re-dissolved dairy product powders is an increase in viscosity, creation of “fluffy” material or “clouds” caused by aggregation of material including proteins...... that happen during storage instead of characterization of enzyme activties. A matrix of storage conditions such as time, temperature, pH etc should be constructed, and proteolysis is investigated e.g. by detection of increase in free amino acid terminals or by creating peptide profiles by means of LC...

  14. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Study the Role of the Gut Microbiome in Relapsing and Progressive MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mailing kits Subtask 2: Bacterial DNA extraction from stool material Subtask 3: Genotyping and HLA characterization of host DNA . Milestone #1...metabolomics components in Qiita. Karenina F Sanders Knight Lab Asst 3 Benchmarking of laboratory protocols for efficient DNA extraction for this project...invitations to participate, mailing kits have been designed, prepared and started to being distributed to eligible participants, bacterial DNA is

  15. Imaging the human spine using ultrasound : a preliminary study to follow scoliosis progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnama, I Ketut Eddy

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformation of the spine which is recognized in the frontal view by the presence of a lateral curvature. This curvature is characterized by an axial rotation of the vertebrae. The axial rotation in the thoracic region will move and deform the attached ribs resulting

  16. Progression of brain atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a longitudinal tensor-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mascalchi

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2 is the second most frequent autosomal dominant inherited ataxia worldwide. We investigated the capability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to track in vivo progression of brain atrophy in SCA2 by examining twice 10 SCA2 patients (mean interval 3.6 years and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean interval 3.3 years on the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. We used T1-weighted images and tensor-based morphometry (TBM to investigate volume changes and the Inherited Ataxia Clinical Rating Scale to assess the clinical deficit. With respect to controls, SCA2 patients showed significant higher atrophy rates in the midbrain, including substantia nigra, basis pontis, middle cerebellar peduncles and posterior medulla corresponding to the gracilis and cuneatus tracts and nuclei, cerebellar white matter (WM and cortical gray matter (GM in the inferior portions of the cerebellar hemisphers. No differences in WM or GM volume loss were observed in the supratentorial compartment. TBM findings did not correlate with modifications of the neurological deficit. In conclusion, MRI volumetry using TBM is capable of demonstrating the progression of pontocerebellar atrophy in SCA2, supporting a possible role of MRI as biomarker in future trials.

  17. [Rheumatoid factor activity, age at manifestation and roentgenologic progression of rheumatoid arthritis--a retrospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G; Eidner, G; Eidner, T; Marzoll, I; Klinner, M

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of RF-activity (measured by hemagglutination in the modification of Podliachouk-Harboe) was investigated in 95 patients with RA. In 52 of these patients the radiological progression (modification of Larsen index for hands and feet) in correlation to the outcome of RF was assessed. The results can be summarized in the following way: 1. Elderly RA patients show a significant elevation of RF titer. 2. There is a statistically insignificant correlation between age of RA manifestation and RF level. 3. The investigation of individual RF outcome shows that 54% of the patients have a relatively constant RF level, 15% tend to a decrease of the level of RF activity. Increased RF activity could only be demonstrated in 31% of the patients in the follow-up. 4. We more often observed a decrease of RF activity in RA cases with a disease manifestation 60 y. 5. RA patients with a high level of RF activity (HAR > 1:512) have a significantly higher radiological progression index than cases with a low RF activity (HAR < 1:512).

  18. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of 2-chloro-5-fluoro-N-[dibenzyl carbamothioyl] benzamide thiourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapari, Suhaila; Yamin, Bohari M.; Hasbullah, Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, The National University of Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of 2-chloro-5-fluoro-N-[dibenzyl carbamothioyl] benzamide thiourea has been reported. The compound characterized by using elementary analysis CHNS, IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopies. The compounds have been screened for their antibacterial studies.

  19. Hepatocyte expression of minichromosome maintenance protein-2 predicts fibrosis progression after transplantation for chronic hepatitis C virus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Aileen; Rushbrook, Simon; Morris, Lesley S; Scott, Ian S; Vowler, Sarah L; Davies, Susan E; Coleman, Nicholas; Alexander, Graeme

    2005-04-01

    Although graft infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs in virtually all patients transplanted for HCV-related liver disease, the outcome ranges from minimal disease to the rapid development of cirrhosis. Induction of hepatocyte cell cycle entry followed by inhibition of cell cycle progression has been proposed as a potential mechanism whereby HCV may cause hepatocyte dysfunction and may promote fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess whether early hepatocyte cell cycle entry might predict subsequent fibrosis progression in patients with graft HCV infection after liver transplantation. Liver biopsies from 21 liver transplant recipients diagnostic of graft HCV infection but before development of significant fibrosis were studied. Patients were classed as nonprogressors, intermediate progressors, or rapid progressors according to the rate of fibrosis progression calculated from the most recent biopsy. Minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (Mcm-2), a highly sensitive and specific marker of cell cycle entry, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte Mcm-2 expression increased significantly according to rate of fibrosis. For nonprogressors, the median percentage of positive hepatocytes was 5.3% (range, 0.92%-11.2%) compared with 20.7% (4.6%-43.7%) in intermediate progressors and 23.7% (11.6%-55.2%) in rapid progressors (P = 0.002). By contrast, there was no evidence of a difference in hepatocyte p21 expression. Median values and ranges were 3.4% (range, 1.1%-30%), 13.3% (range, 1.4%-42.3%), and 11.8% (range, 7.6%-52.3%) for nonprogressors, intermediate progressors, and rapid progressors, respectively (P = 0.11). In conclusion, hepatocyte cell cycle entry may be important in the pathogenesis of posttransplant HCV hepatitis. Early assessment of hepatocyte Mcm-2 expression could help identify patients at high risk for progressive fibrosis before it occurs.

  20. Natalizumab in progressive MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients with progre......OBJECTIVE: Natalizumab inhibits the migration of systemic immune cells to the CNS and may be beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of the study was to examine the effects of natalizumab in progressive MS. METHODS: In an open-label phase 2A study, 24 patients...

  1. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1979-01-15

    The characterization data obtained during the period October through December 1978 are described. One well in Allegany County, New York, was sampled in September 1978. A total of 412 samples were collected from the Allegany County, New York well (165 for Battelle and 247 for other DOE/MERC contractors). Two other wells, namely in Wetzel County, West Virginia and Johnson County, Kentucky, were cored during the last quarter of 1978. A total of 109 samples were obtained from the Wetzel County, West Virginia well (46 samples for Battelle and 63 samples for other DOE/MERC contractors). The samples were obtained from depths of 6100 to 6635 feet. Characterization data on I-2 (EGSP Ind. No. 2), Clark County, Indiana, and Y-1 (EGSP New York No. 1), Allegany County, New York wells are reported and discussed. Analysis of the hydrocarbon gases in Y-1 samples indicates that the longer chain hydrocarbon gases (ethane, propane, butane) in these shales are significantly higher than in the previous wells studied. The Indiana well (I-2) shows surprisingly high carbon contents compared with the hydrocarbon gas contents. The carbon contents of the Y-1 (Allegany County, New York) well, on the other hand, are somewhat lower than would be predicted from the hydrocarbon gas contents. Among the physical properties, the I-2 well generally exhibits lower density values than previously studied shales.

  2. Characterization studies of purified HgI{sub 2} precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. E-mail: Schieber@vms.huji.ac.il; Zuck, A.; Sanguinetti, S.; Montalti, M.; Braiman, M.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L

    1999-06-01

    The ability of HgI{sub 2} powders, used as precursors in mercuric iodide crystal growth, to produce high-quality detectors may be predicted by non-destructive methods like photoluminescence. In fact, it is possible to correlate the presence and the intensity ratio of specific bands in the photoluminescence spectrum of a HgI{sub 2} crystal to its impurity content and stoichiometry. These quantities determine the detector grade that may be achieved using that starting material. Nine different HgI{sub 2} precursors, obtained by different purification methods, have been characterized. The lowest impurity content is achieved via poly-ethylene treatment, which gives also a powder of relatively good stoichiometric quality.

  3. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science). Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  4. Progress in dynamic study on the triplet excited states and radical ions of DNA and its components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋钦华; 林念芸; 姚思德; 张加山

    2000-01-01

    Progress in dynamic study on the triplet excited states and radical ions of DNA and its components is reviewed. It has been found that acetone is the only effective sensitizer for the study of the triplet excited states of DNA components. The transient absorption spectrum of guanyl radical cation resulting from the interaction of triplet acetone and DNA was observed directly, and the original evidence for selective damage of DNA by excited photosensitizer was obtained for the first time, which offered a new pathway for obtaining the main transient species of selective damage of DNA by photonucleases and illustrating initial oxidation mechanism of DNA via electron transfer.

  5. Effect of low-addition soft contact lenses with decentered optical design on myopia progression in children: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujikado T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujikado,1 Sayuri Ninomiya,2 Takuma Kobayashi,2 Asaki Suzaki,3 Mitsuhiko Nakada,3 Kohji Nishida4 1Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, 2Itami Chuo Eye Clinic, Itami, 3Menicon, Nagoya, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan Purpose: To investigate the effect of low-addition soft contact lenses (CLs with decentered optical design on the progression of myopia in children in a pilot study.Subjects and methods: Twenty-four Japanese children age 10–16 years with baseline myopia of –0.75 to –3.50 D sphere and ≤1.00 D cylinder were studied. The new CLs were designed to have a nasal decentration with the optical center centered on the line of sight, and with progressive-addition power of +0.5 D peripherally. Monofocal soft CLs were used as controls. A pair of new CLs or control CLs was randomly assigned to the children, and they wore the lenses for 12 months during the first phase. Then, the type of CLs was changed, ie, a crossover design, and the children were observed for another 12 months during the second phase. The end points were changes in axial length and refractive error (spherical equivalent under cycloplegia.Results: The change of axial length in the new-CL and control-CL groups was not different between 12 months and baseline, the change of axial length between 12 months and 1 month in the new-CL group (0.09±0.08 mm was significantly smaller (47% than that in the control-CL group (0.17±0.08 mm, P<0.05. During the same period, the change of refractive error in the new-CL group was not significantly different from that in the control group. Neither the change in axial length nor refractive error in the new-CL group was significantly different from those in the control-CL group in the second phase.Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that low-addition soft CLs with decentered optical design can reduce the degree of axial

  6. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2016-07-25

    The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss) can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.

  7. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.

  8. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss) can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided. PMID:27463711

  9. Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading: Multi-Study Evaluation of Schedule, Duration, and Dataset Quality on Progress Monitoring Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Theodore J.; Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Monaghen, Barbara D.; Van Norman, Ethan R.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading (CBM-R) is used to collect time series data, estimate the rate of student achievement, and evaluate program effectiveness. A series of 5 studies were carried out to evaluate the validity, reliability, precision, and diagnostic accuracy of progress monitoring across a variety of progress monitoring…

  10. Cognitive performance after first ever stroke related to progression of vascular brain damage: a 2 year follow up CT scan study

    OpenAIRE

    Rasquin, S; Verhey, F; Lousberg, R.; Lodder, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. Ischaemic brain damage (white matter lesions and silent infarcts) progresses in a substantial number of stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the progression of ischaemic brain damage is associated with cognitive functioning after first ever stroke.

  11. Relationship of thoracic aortic calcium to coronary calcium and its progression (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J; Nasir, Khurram; Katz, Ronit; Takasu, Junichiro; Allison, Matthew; Wong, Nathan D; Barr, R Graham; Carr, Jeffrey J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) has been associated with a higher prevalence of coronary arterial calcium (CAC). The purpose of this study was to assess the relations between TAC and incident CAC and CAC progression in a cohort from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease at entry who underwent noncontrast cardiac computed tomographic scanning at baseline examination and at a 2-year follow-up assessment. The independent associations between TAC and incident CAC in those without CAC at baseline and between TAC and CAC progression in those with CAC at baseline were investigated. The final study population consisted of 5,755 subjects (84%; mean age 62 +/- 10 years, 48% men) who had follow-up CAC scores an average of 2.4 years later. Incident CAC was significantly higher in those with TAC compared with those without TAC at baseline (11 per 100 patient-years vs 6 per 100 patient-years). Similarly, TAC was associated with a higher CAC change (p CAC at baseline. In analysis adjusted for demographics and follow-up duration, TAC was associated with incident CAC (relative risk 1.72, p CAC change (first quartile: relative risk 2.89, 95% confidence interval -3.16 to 8.95; fourth quartile: relative risk 24.21, 95% confidence interval 18.25 to 30.18). In conclusion, TAC is associated with the incidence and progression of CAC. The detection of TAC may improve risk stratification efforts. Future clinical outcomes studies are needed to support such an approach.

  12. Study on Causes of Slow Progress in Promoting the Application of Food Traceability System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinghua; HE; Peisi; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Chinese government has attempted to promote food traceability system with all strength,but the application process of this system is very slow. The reason is that the adopters have a low level of system application,which causes the system to be invalid at the source of traceability. This paper applies literature research method to analyze the influencing factors for slow application process of the food traceability system in China from various angles including manufacturer,technology,consumer and law,and further concludes that the applying intention of manufacturers,cognizing and purchasing intentions of consumers,and legal environment are important factors for slow progress of system application. On the basis of the research conclusions,the paper proposes practical ways for better construction of food traceability system in China.

  13. Use of DBD-FISH for the study of cervical cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Fernández, Jose Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a procedure to detect and quantify DNA breaks in single cells, either in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. This methodology combines microgel embedding of cells and DNA unwinding procedures with the power of FISH coupled to digital image analysis. Cells trapped within an agarose matrix are lysed and immersed in an alkaline unwinding solution that produces single-stranded DNA motifs beginning at the ends of internal DNA strand breaks. After neutralization, the microgel is dehydrated and the cells are incubated with fluorescently labeled DNA probes. The amount of hybridized probe at a target sequence correlates with the amount of single-stranded DNA generated during the unwinding step, which is in turn proportional to the degree of local DNA breakage. A general view of the technique is provided, emphasizing its versatility for evaluating the association between DNA damage and progressive stages of cervical neoplasia.

  14. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose......) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying...... of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte...

  15. LMFBR fuel cycle studies progress report for August 1972. No. 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1972-10-01

    This report continues a series outlining progress in the development of methods for the reprocessing of LMFBR fuels. Development work is reported on problems of irradiated fuel transport to the processing facility, the dissolution of the fuel and the chemical recovery of PuO2-UO2 values, the containment of volatile fission products, product purification, conversion of fuel processing plant product nitrate solutions to solids suitable for shipping and for subsequent fuel fabrication. Pertinent experimental results are presented for the information of those immediately concerned with the field. Detailed description of experimental work and data are included in the topical reports and in the Chemical Technology Division Annual Reports.

  16. Study Progress of Echinococcosis%棘球蚴病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璇; 夏党荣; 赵新斐; 王琛; 高波

    2014-01-01

    细粒棘球绦虫(Echinococcus granulosus)是一类呈世界性广泛分布,严重危害公共卫生的人兽共患寄生虫病。本文就包虫病的病因、病理、流行病学的流行进展做了概述,并对本病的诊断和预防做了出建议。%Echinococcus granulosus (Taeniidae;Echinococcus) is a medically important parasitic helminth due to the fatal echinococcosis caused by its larvae (metacestode) in domestic ruminants or wild ungulate as well as hu-mans. This review will outline the relevant progress made in etiology, pathology, epidemiology, and diagnosis of this disease and propose prospects for future treatment using molecular methodologies such as vaccination.

  17. Nuclear powered satellite studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M.H.

    1977-06-01

    Progress achieved during the period July 1, 1976 to June 30, 1977 is reported. Discussions of several pertinent aspects are included, e.g., schedule, personnel, technology developments, and plans. The reporting period is the first year of activities of a project which is designed to provide continuing support to the Nuclear Research and Applications Division of ERDA. Thus, a significant effort has been made to establish appropriate staff positions and liaison ties with government and industry. Technology developments were achieved and communicated to the scientific community via publications and presentations. Project personnel also participated in design reviews and provided support to ERDA on a real-time basis. The report is intended to summarize activities over the past year and provides a basis for continued project support by ERDA.

  18. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  19. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  20. Increasing heavy oil reservers in the Wilmington oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies, technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, S. [Tidelands Oil Production Co., Long Beach, CA (United States)], Casteel, J. [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)

    1997-05-11

    The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in a slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoir in the Wilmington field, Los Angeles Co., Calif. using advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block (FB) 11-A has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steam drive area to improve thermal efficiency. (7) Installing a 2100 foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location. (8) Test a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems and fluid entry profiles. (9) Advanced reservoir management through computer-aided access to production and

  1. The metabolic syndrome and progression of carotid atherosclerosis over 13 years. The Tromsø study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder Marit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examine if metabolic syndrome predicts progression of atherosclerosis over 13 years. Methods Participants were 1442 men and 1532 women in the population-based Tromsø Study who underwent carotid ultrasound examinations at baseline in the 4th (1994–5 and at follow-up in the 6th survey (2007–8. Of these, 278 men and 273 women fulfilled the criteria for the MetS, defined according to a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP, ATPIII. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed as total plaque area (TPA and mean intima-media thickness (IMT at follow-up and as change in IMT and TPA from baseline to follow-up. Associations between MetS and its components and carotid atherosclerosis were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, total cholesterol and daily smoking, stratified by sex. Results IMT and TPA levels at follow-up (p 2, p = 0.009 and IMT (β = 0.051 mm, p 2, p = 0.002 in men below 50 years of age. Hypertension was predictive of follow-up TPA and IMT in both genders and of progression of TPA in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was associated with follow up levels of IMT and TPA as well as progression in IMT in men. None of the other components of MetS were associated with progression of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Subjects with MetS had higher levels of IMT and TPA at follow up than those without MetS. Mets predicted progression of IMT and TPA in those below 50 years of age, but not in other age groups, indicating that MetS may be involved in the initiation of the atherosclerotic process.

  2. Novel aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone derivatives: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Tuncay; Tahtaci, Hakan; Subasi, Nuriye Tuna; Er, Mustafa; Ağar, Erbil

    2016-12-01

    In this study our purpose is that, synthesis and characterization of compounds containing the aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone groups and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental results. The structures of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses techniques. The structure of compound (4) (C9H8N4O2S) was also elucidated by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the theoretical IR spectrum, 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shift values, frontier molecular orbital values (FMO) of these molecules were analyzed by using Becke-3- Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) method with LanL2DZ basis set. Finally, molecular docking studies were performed on synthesized compounds using the 4DKI beta-lactam protein structure to determine the potential binding mode of inhibitors.

  3. External field characterization using CHAMP satellite data for induction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kunagu; E Chandrasekhar

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of external inducing source field morphology is essential for precise estimation of electromagnetic (EM) induction response. A better characterization of the external source field of magnetospheric origin can be achieved by decomposing it into outer and inner magnetospheric contributions, which are best represented in Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) and Solar Magnetic (SM) reference frames, respectively. Thus we propose a spherical harmonic (SH) model to estimate the outer magnetospheric contribution, following the iterative reweighted least squares approach, using the vector magnetic data of the CHAMP satellite. The data covers almost a complete solar cycle from July 2001 to September 2010, spanning 54,474 orbits. The SH model, developed using orbit-averaged vector magnetic data, reveals the existence of a stable outer magnetospheric contribution of about 7.39 nT. This stable field was removed from the CHAMP data after transforming to SM frame. The residual field in the SM frame acts as a primary source for induction in the Earth. The analysis of this time-series using wavelet transformation showed a dominant 27-day periodicity of the geomagnetic field. Therefore, we calculated the inductive EM -response function in a least squares sense considering the 27-day period variation as the inducing signal. From the estimated -response, we have determined that the global depth to the perfect substitute conductor is about 1132 km and its conductivity is around 1.05 S/m.

  4. Characterization of Pedagogical Knowledge: A Study of Novice Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical knowledge, understood as a specific display of paradigmatic and ideological narratives and configurations about the character and sense of the educational action, is ultimately what each teacher defines as the learning environment. Therefore, its characterization and categorization become a central concept of scientific and pedagogical knowledge. The main objective of this article was to investigate, describe and interpret the relationship between the practice shown in the classroom and the pedagogical knowledge from the teacher-learner relationship in novice teachers graduated from the School of Education of Universidad Autónoma de Chile. A qualitative research approach was used, based on the epistemological perspective of an interpretative paradigm, utilizing the subjective comprehension of the process. Participants emphasized the importance of practical experience as fundamental in their teacher training. In addition, they see positively the emphasis given by Universidad Autónoma de Chile on forming reflective, critical and autonomous teachers through a teaching practice focused on the co-construction of knowledge.

  5. Research Progress on Methods for Characterizing Protein Structure%大豆蛋白结构表征方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玲玲; 郭庆启; 石彦国; 张娜

    2015-01-01

    本文综述了大豆蛋白的结构与功能的关系,并对目前应用较多的大豆蛋白结构表征方法进行了归纳和总结.介绍了热分析法、力学性能表征、电泳法、波谱法和微观结构分析法等方法在大豆蛋白结构研究方面的应用.最后指出大豆蛋白的结构研究将有助于推动相关应用领域的迅速发展.%The paper reviewed the relationship between structure and function of soy proteins, and summarized the most applied methods for soy protein surface structure characterization. The characterization methods used in examining the structure of soy protein, including thermal analysis, mechanical properties, electrophoresis, spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were introduced. The studies for the structure of soy protein will promote the rapid development of related applications.

  6. Early Statin Use and the Progression of Alzheimer Disease: A Total Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Cheng; Chuang, Yun-Shiuan; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Chiu, Kuei-Fen; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2015-11-01

    The protective effect of statin on Alzheimer disease (AD) is still controversial, probably due to the debate about when to start the use of statin and the lack of any large-scale randomized evidence that actually supports the hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the protective effect of early statin use on mild-to-moderate AD in the total Taiwanese population.This was a total population-based case-control study, using the total population of Taiwanese citizens seen in general medical practice; therefore, the findings can be applied to the general population. The study patients were those with newly diagnosed dementia (ICD-9 290.x) and prescribed any acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset in 1997 to 2008. The newly diagnosed eligible mild-to-moderate AD patients were traced from the dates of their index dates, which was defined as the first day to receive any AChEI treatment, back to 1 year (exposure period) to categorize them into AD with early statin use and without early statin use. Early statin use was defined as patients using statin before AChEI treatment. Alzheimer disease patients with early statin use were those receiving any statin treatment during the exposure period. Then, we used propensity-score-matched strategy to match these 2 groups as 1:1. The matched study patients were followed-up from their index dates. The primary outcome was the discontinuation of AChEI treatment, indicating AD progression.There were 719 mild-to-moderate AD-paired patients with early statin use and without early statin use for analyses. Alzheimer disease progression was statistically lower in AD patients with early statin use than those without (P = 0.00054). After adjusting for other covariates, mild-to-moderate AD patients with early stain use exhibited a 0.85-risk (95% CI = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.0066) to have AD progression than those without.Early statin use was significantly associated with a reduction in AD

  7. Will the future lie in multitude? A critical appraisal of biomarker panel studies on prediction of diabetic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Elise; Gansevoort, Ron T; Benner, Jacqueline; Lutgers, Helen L; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J

    2015-08-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is diagnosed and staged by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Although albuminuria has strong predictive power for renal function decline, there is still variability in the rate of renal disease progression across individuals that are not fully captured by the level of albuminuria. Therefore, research focuses on discovering and validating additional biomarkers that improve risk stratification for future renal function decline and end-stage renal disease in patients with diabetes, on top of established biomarkers. Most studies address the value of single biomarkers to predict progressive renal disease and aim to understand the mechanisms that underlie accelerated renal function decline. Since diabetic kidney disease is a disease encompassing several pathophysiological processes, a combination of biomarkers may be more likely to improve risk prediction than a single biomarker. In this review, we provide an overview of studies on the use of multiple biomarkers and biomarker panels, appraise their study design, discuss methodological pitfalls and make recommendations for future biomarker panel studies.

  8. A segmental radiological study of the spine and rib – cage in children with progressive Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliadis Elias S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of rib cage in the development of progressive infantile idiopathic scoliosis (IIS has not been studied previously. No report was found for rib growth in children with IIS. These findings caused us to undertake a segmental radiological study of the spine and rib-cage in children with progressive IIS. The aim of the present study is to present a new method for assessing the thoracic shape in scoliotics and in control subjects and to compare the findings between the two groups. Materials and methods In the posteroanterior (PA spinal radiographs of 24 patients with progressive IIS, with a mean age of 4.1 years old, the Thoracic Ratios (TRs (segmental convex and concave TRs, the Cobb angle, the segmental vertebral rotation and vertebral tilt were measured. In 233 subjects, with a mean age of 5.1 years old, who were used as a control group, the segmental left and right TRs and the total width of the chest (left plus right TRs were measured in PA chest radiographs. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression analysis and ANOVA. Results The comparison shows that the scoliotic thorax is significantly narrower than that of the controls at all spinal levels. The upper chest in IIS is funnel-shaped and the vertebral rotation at T4 early in management correlates significantly with the apical vertebral rotation at follow up. Conclusion The IIS thorax is narrower than that of the controls, the upper chest is funnel-shaped and there is a predictive value of vertebral rotation at the upper limit of the thoracic curve of IIS, which reflects, impaired rib control of spinal rotation possibly due to neuromuscular factors, which contribute also to the funnel-shaped chest.

  9. Effect of mycophenolate mofetil on progression of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy after kidney transplantation: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihovilović, Karlo; Maksimović, Bojana; Kocman, Branislav; Guštin, Denis; Vidas, Željko; Bulimbašić, Stela; Ljubanović, Danica Galešić; Matovinović, Mirjana Sabljar; Knotek, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Chronic transplant dysfunction after kidney transplantation is a major reason of kidney graft loss and is caused by immunological and non-immunological factors. There is evidence that mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) may exert a positive effect on renal damage in addition to immunosuppression, by its direct antifibrotic properties. The aim of our study was to retrospectively investigate the role of MMF doses on progression of chronic allograft dysfunction and fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA). Setting Retrospective, cohort study. Participants Patients with kidney transplant in a tertiary care institution. This is a retrospective cohort study that included 79 patients with kidney and kidney–pancreas transplantation. Immunosuppression consisted of anti-interleukin 2 antibody induction, MMF, a calcineurin inhibitor±steroids. Primary outcome measures An association of average MMF doses over 1 year post-transplant with progression of interstitial fibrosis (Δci), tubular atrophy (Δct) and estimated-creatinine clearance (eCrcl) at 1 year post-transplant was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A higher average MMF dose was significantly independently associated with better eCrcl at 1 year post-transplant (b=0.21±0.1, p=0.04). In multiple regression analysis lower Δci (b=−0.2±0.09, p=0.05) and Δct (b=−0.29±0.1, p=0.02) were independently associated with a greater average MMF dose. There was no correlation between average MMF doses and incidence of acute rejection (p=0.68). Conclusions A higher average MMF dose over 1 year is associated with better renal function and slower progression of IF/TA, at least partly independent of its immunosuppressive effects. PMID:24993756

  10. Effect of progressive muscular relaxation exercises versus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on tension headache: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar, MPT, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension-type headache (TTH is most frequent among all types of headaches. According to the International Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (2004, TTH occurs in 30–78% of the population. Progressive muscular relaxation exercises have been shown to reduce TTH, and home-based relaxation programmes can result in significant improvement in headaches. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a method of electrical stimulation that primarily aims to provide a degree of symptomatic pain relief by exciting sensory nerves and stimulating either the pain gate mechanisms or the opioid systems. The objective of this study was to compare between the effects of progressive muscular relaxation exercises and TENS on pain intensity and stress in people with TTH. Thirty patients with TTH were allocated to either Group A or Group B. Group A practised progressive muscular relaxation exercise, whereas Group B received TENS. In the latter group, TENS electrodes were placed bilaterally either on the head at the site of pain or on the occiput. The treatment was carried out for 15 minutes a day, for 7 days. Patients were assessed for pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale and level of stress (Lakaev Academic Stress Response Scale before and after the intervention period. The results showed that progressive muscular relaxation exercises were effective in reducing pain as well as stress (p < 0.001. TENS, by contrast, reduced stress significantly (p < 0.001, but not pain (p = 0.233. Between-group analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in reduction of pain between the two groups (p = 0.595, but the amount of stress reduction in Group A (p = 0.002 was significantly more than that in Group B. In conclusion, progressive muscular relaxation exercises were more effective in reducing stress level than TENS in patients with TTH. The effect on pain reduction was similar between the two

  11. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  12. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety studies. Progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, T.E.; Sanders, J.P.; Kasten, P.R.

    1977-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: systems and safety analysis; fission product technology; primary coolant technology; seismic and vibration technology; confinement components; primary system materials technology; safety instrumentation; loss of flow accident analysis using HEATUP code; use of coupled-conduction-convection model for core thermal analysis; development of multichannel conduction-convection program HEXEREI; cooling system performance after shutdown; core auxiliary cooling system performance; development of FLODIS code; air ingress into primary systems following DBDA; performance of PCRV thermal barrier cover plates; temperature limits for fuel particle coating failure; tritium distribution and release in HTGR; energy release to PCRV during DBDA; and mathematical models for HTGR reactor safety studies.

  13. Progress in studies of Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as liquid breeder for fusion reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.

    1983-09-01

    A review of the experimental and conceptual design work in progress at JRC-Ispra to investigate the feasibility of the eutectic Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as a liquid breeder for experimental power reactors is presented. Results of recent measurements to implement the data base of this material are given in the following areas: physical parameters, hydrogen solubility and recovery, chemical reactivity with air and water, compatibility with steel. The studies carried out on blanket concepts for the INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor)/NET (Next European Torus) projects are outlined and discussed.

  14. Structured approach to design of diagnostic test evaluation studies for chronic progressive infections in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Gardner, Ian Andrew

    2011-05-12

    Diagnostic test evaluations (DTEs) for chronic infections are challenging because a protracted incubation period has to be considered in the design of the DTE, and the adverse effects of infection may be widespread and progressive over an animal's entire life. Frequently, the specific purpose of the test is not formally considered when a test is evaluated. Therefore, the result is often a DTE where test sensitivity and specificity estimates are biased, either because of problems with establishing the true infection status or because the test detects another aspect of the infection (and analyte) than originally intended. The objective of this paper is to outline a structured approach to the design and conduct of a DTE for diagnostic tests used for chronic infections in animals, and intended for different purposes. We describe the process from reflections about test purpose and the underlying target condition through considerations of the pathogenesis, and specification of a practical case definition, which can subsequently be used in the DTE for the specific purpose. The process is illustrated by two examples of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in cattle. MAP infections are chronic and can result in different adverse effects at different time points during the incubation period. The description provides input on the process and deductive reasoning which are integral parts to develop a high-quality design of a DTE for chronic infectious diseases.

  15. Study of the Regulation of Telomere Replication by Characterizing the Cdc-13p Pathway in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    binding protein Cdcl3p appears to play a key regulatory role in telomere replication. Identifying Cdcl3p interacting proteins could yield important...telomerase and Pol a. Other Cdcl3p interacting proteins were also identified. Further studies are in progress.

  16. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, October 1993--January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies.

  17. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Ying

    2001-01-01

    photoacoustic spectroscopy of dental calculus, Microchim. Acta, 1988, 2: 133-136.[24]Taylor, D. R., Crowther, R. S., Wu, J. G. et al., Calcium carbonate in cholesterol gallstones: polymorphism, distribution,and hypotheses about pathogenesis, Hepatology, 1995, 22(2): 488-496.[25]Liu, J. H., Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G. et al., How does Ca bilirubinate bind to protein in gallstones? Gastroenterology, 1994,106(4): A346.[26]Wagner, A. J., Wu, J. G., Soloway, R. D. et al., Does the structure of calcium bilirubinate provide special properties contributing to its precipitation in bile? A comparison with other metal bilirubinates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Hepatology, 1987, 7(5): 1138-1139.[27]Wu, J. G., Soloway, R. D., Xu, D. F. et al., FT-IR study on calcium ions binding to bilirubin, 7th International Conference on FTS, Abstract Program p2.6, SPIE, 1989, 1145: 264.[28]Yang, Z. L., Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G. et al., Calcium binds with both the carboxyl and pyrrole groups of bilirubinate in vitro formation of non-stoichoimetric salt, Gastroenterology, 1991, 100(5): A813.[29]Yang, B. J., Wu, J. G., Soloway, R. D. et al., Normal coordinate analysis of bilirubin vibrational spectra: effects of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, Spectrochimica Acta, 1993, 49A(12): 1735-1746.[30]Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G., Yang, Z. L. et al., Why does Ca++ vary from 3 to 12% in non-stoichiometric calcium bilirubinates? Gastroenterology, 1994, 106(4): A359.[31]Wu, E., Wu, J. G., Xu, G. X. et al., Gallstone analysis by ESR spectroscopy, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1989, 34(23):1996-2000.[32]Guo. H.. Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G. et al., Dependence of equilibrium swelling on an interaction between calcium bilirubinate and protein, Gastroenterology, 1990, 98(5): A249.[33]Shen G. R., Li, W. H., Wu, J. G. et al., Measurement and characterization of black gallstone composition using extraction with serial solvents, Gastroenterology, 1997, 112(4): A523.[34

  18. Multiscale study for stochastic characterization of shale samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Javadpour, Farzam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Piri, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of shale reservoirs, which are typically of low permeability, is very difficult because of the presence of multiscale structures. While three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be an ultimate solution for revealing important complexities of such reservoirs, acquiring such images is costly and time consuming. On the other hand, high-quality 2D images, which are widely available, also reveal useful information about shales' pore connectivity and size. Most of the current modeling methods that are based on 2D images use limited and insufficient extracted information. One remedy to the shortcoming is direct use of qualitative images, a concept that we introduce in this paper. We demonstrate that higher-order statistics (as opposed to the traditional two-point statistics, such as variograms) are necessary for developing an accurate model of shales, and describe an efficient method for using 2D images that is capable of utilizing qualitative and physical information within an image and generating stochastic realizations of shales. We then further refine the model by describing and utilizing several techniques, including an iterative framework, for removing some possible artifacts and better pattern reproduction. Next, we introduce a new histogram-matching algorithm that accounts for concealed nanostructures in shale samples. We also present two new multiresolution and multiscale approaches for dealing with distinct pore structures that are common in shale reservoirs. In the multiresolution method, the original high-quality image is upscaled in a pyramid-like manner in order to achieve more accurate global and long-range structures. The multiscale approach integrates two images, each containing diverse pore networks - the nano- and microscale pores - using a high-resolution image representing small-scale pores and, at the same time, reconstructing large pores using a low-quality image. Eventually, the results are integrated to generate a 3D model. The methods

  19. 10-Year Study Links Faster Progression of Atherosclerosis to Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) was the first U.S. research study to measure directly how long-term exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of heart disease.

  20. Progression of multiple system atrophy (MSA): a prospective natural history study by the European MSA Study Group (EMSA SG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geser, Felix; Wenning, Gregor K; Seppi, Klaus; Stampfer-Kountchev, Michaela; Scherfler, Christoph; Sawires, Martin; Frick, Carolin; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Ulmer, Hanno; Pellecchia, Maria T; Barone, Paolo; Kim, Hee T; Hooker, Juzar; Quinn, Niall P; Cardozo, Adriana; Tolosa, Eduardo; Abele, Michael; Klockgether, Thomas; Østergaard, Karen; Dupont, Erik; Schimke, Nicole; Eggert, Karla M; Oertel, Wolfgang; Djaldetti, Ruth; Poewe, Werner

    2006-02-01

    The disease-specific Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS) has been developed recently and validated for assessing disease severity in multiple system atrophy (MSA). Here, we aimed at (1) assessing rates of disease progression in MSA and (2) validating UMSARS for sensitivity to change over time. Impairment was assessed at two time points 12 months apart using UMSARS Part I (historical review), UMSARS Part II (motor examination), as well as measures of global disease severity, including UMSARS Part IV, Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Parkinson's disease staging, Schwab England Activities of Daily Living (SE ADL), and a three-point global Severity Scale (SS3). Fifty patients (male:female ratio, 1:0.9; possible MSA, 16%; probable MSA, 84%; MSA-parkinsonian, 58%; MSA-cerebellar, 42%) were assessed twice with an interval of 12.3 months. UMSARS II scores progressed by 57.3% (PMSA. Our data contribute to the ongoing validation process of UMSARS, and they facilitate the planning and implementation of future neuroprotective intervention trials.

  1. Clinical features and predictors for disease natural progression in adults with Pompe disease: a nationwide prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Beek Nadine AME

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due partly to physicians’ unawareness, many adults with Pompe disease are diagnosed with great delay. Besides, it is not well known which factors influence the rate of disease progression, and thus disease outcome. We delineated the specific clinical features of Pompe disease in adults, and mapped out the distribution and severity of muscle weakness, and the sequence of involvement of the individual muscle groups. Furthermore, we defined the natural disease course and identified prognostic factors for disease progression. Methods We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational study. Muscle strength (manual muscle testing, and hand-held dynamometry, muscle function (quick motor function test, and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity in sitting and supine positions were assessed every 3–6 months and analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Between October 2004 and August 2009, 94 patients aged between 25 and 75 years were included in the study. Although skeletal muscle weakness was typically distributed in a limb-girdle pattern, many patients had unfamiliar features such as ptosis (23%, bulbar weakness (28%, and scapular winging (33%. During follow-up (average 1.6 years, range 0.5-4.2 years, skeletal muscle strength deteriorated significantly (mean declines of −1.3% point/year for manual muscle testing and of −2.6% points/year for hand-held dynamometry; both p15 years and pulmonary involvement (forced vital capacity in sitting position Conclusions Recognizing patterns of common and less familiar characteristics in adults with Pompe disease facilitates timely diagnosis. Longer disease duration and reduced pulmonary function stand out as predictors of rapid disease progression, and aid in deciding whether to initiate enzyme replacement therapy, or when.

  2. In Situ Characterization of Stimulating Microelectrode Arrays: Study of an Idealized Structure Based on Argus II Retinal implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandagor, Vincent; Cela, Carlos J.; Sanders, Charlene A.; Greenbaum, Elias; Lazzi, Gianluca; Zhou, David D.; Castro, Richard; Gaikwad, Sanjay; Little, Jim

    The development of a retinal prosthesis for artificial sight includes a study of the factors affecting the structural and functional stability of chronically implanted microelectrode arrays. Although neuron depolarization and propagation of electrical signals have been studied for nearly a century, the use of multielectrode stimulation as a proposed therapy to treat blindness is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology research. Mapping and characterizing the topographic information contained in the electric field potentials and understanding how this information is transmitted and interpreted in the visual cortex is still very much a work in progress. In order to characterize the electrical field patterns generated by the device, an in vitro prototype that mimics several of the physical and chemical parameters of the in vivo visual implant device was fabricated. We carried out multiple electrical measurements in a model "eye," beginning with a single electrode, followed by a 9-electrode array structure, both idealized components based on the Argus II retinal implants. Correlating the information contained in the topographic features of the electric fields with psychophysical testing in patients may help reduce the time required for patients to convert the electrical patterns into graphic signals.

  3. The impact of teaching physical education to Czech school children using progressive teaching approaches: findings of a four-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromel, Karel; El Ansari, Walid; Vasícková, Jana

    2009-09-01

    Practice teaching is an important feature of pre-professional preparation of teachers. This study assessed student teachers' (STs) and pupils': overall evaluation and evaluation of pupils' roles in physical education (PE) and second subject lessons. STs delivered the lessons using either traditional or progressive teaching approaches. Questionnaires were completed by 57 STs and 10,517 high school pupils who assessed the lessons taught by the STs. Differences in the evaluation of pupil's role were analysed according to teaching approach, school years, and gender. In both types of lessons, pupils evaluated progressive teaching approaches more positively than the traditional approaches. Pupils' roles in lessons delivered using progressive teaching approaches also increased. STs evaluated the progressive approaches in both lessons more positively than traditional approaches. Girls evaluated PE lessons more favourably than boys regardless of teaching approach. If the goal is to increase pupils' role in the lessons, progressive teaching approach may be more effective than traditional.

  4. Characterizing Resilience and Growth Among Soldiers: A Trajectory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Psychology in the Classroom : A Case of Positive Psychology Intervention for Special Education in High School. Poster presentation. 2013 International... meditation can boost immune function.53 Psychosocial resilience training targeting positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning...mindfulness meditation . It is assumed that meditations induce positive affect and lead to good health. A study led by a neuroscientist, Richard Davidson

  5. Risk Factors for Visual Field Progression in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study : A Comparison of Different Statistical Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Marcus, Michael W.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify risk factors for visual field progression in glaucoma and to compare different statistical approaches with this risk factor analysis. Patients and Methods: We included 221 eyes of 221 patients. Progression was analyzed using Nonparametric Progression Analysis applied to Humphrey

  6. Population, movements and seasonal distribution of the Kilbuck Caribou Herd, southwest Alaska: Progress report, Kilbuck Caribou study, September 1985-May 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report covers work done on the Kilbuck Caribou herd in southwest Alaska from September of 1985 to May of 1988. The study area is described, as well as...

  7. Prognostic Value of Bone Mineral Density on Curve Progression: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of 513 Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIP, Benjamin Hon Kei; YU, Fiona Wai Ping; WANG, Zhiwei; HUNG, Vivian Wing Yin; LAM, Tsz Ping; NG, Bobby Kin Wah; ZHU, Feng; CHENG, Jack Chun Yiu

    2016-01-01

    Osteopenia has been found to occur in about 30% of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients. This study aimed to investigate its prognostic value on the risk of curve progression to surgical threshold. Newly diagnosed AIS girls (N = 513) with Cobb angle 10°–40° were recruited with follow-up till maturity. Bilateral hips were assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Distal radius of a subgroup of 90 subjects was further assessed with high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). 55 patients progressed to surgical threshold or underwent spine surgery at the end of follow-up. Cox model with osteopenia status performed significantly better than the model without (p = 0.010). Osteopenic patients had significantly higher risk of surgery (HR2.25, p = 0.011), even after adjustment for menarche status, age and initial Cobb angle. The incremental predictive value of osteopenia was, however, not statistically significant. In the subgroup analysis, cortical bone density was identified as a better marker to improve the sensitivity of the prediction, but requires further larger study to validate this finding. These consistent results of bone density measured at different sites suggest a systemic effect, rather than local effect to the deformed spine, and support to the link of abnormal bone density to the etiopathogenesis in AIS patients. PMID:27991528

  8. Studies of nuclear processes at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report, 1 September 1994--31 August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL)--a collaboration of Duke University, North Carolina State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill--has had a very productive year. This report covers the second year of a three-year grant between the US Department of Energy and the three collaborating universities. The TUNL research program focuses on the following areas of nuclear physics: parity violation in neutron and charged-particle resonances--the mass and energy dependence of the weak interaction spreading width; chaotic behavior in {sup 30}P from studies of eigenvalue fluctuations in nuclear level schemes; studies of few-body systems; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear data evaluation for A = 3--20, for which TUNL is now the international center; high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation in nuclei, involving collaborations at Argonne National Laboratory. Developments in technology and instrumentation have been vital to the research and training program. In this progress report the author describes: a proposed polarized {gamma}-beam facility at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory; cryogenic systems and microcalorimeter development; continuing development of the Low Energy Beam Facility. The research summaries presented in this progress report are preliminary.

  9. Inferior cerebellar hypoplasia resembling a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in purebred Eurasier dogs with familial non-progressive ataxia: a retrospective and prospective clinical cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Bernardino

    Full Text Available Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5-6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA Binding Studies of Nanoplumbagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheik Dawood Shahida Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional anticancer medicine plumbagin (PLN was prepared as nanostructured material (nanoplumbagin, NPn1 from its commercial counterparts, simultaneously coencapsulating with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or cyclodextrin as stabilizers using ultrasonication technique. Surface morphology of NPn analysed from atomic force microscopy (AFM indicates that NPn has tunable size between 75 nm and 100 nm with narrow particle size distribution. Its binding efficiency with herring sperm DNA was studied using spectral and electrochemical techniques and its efficiency was found to be more compared to the commercial microcrystalline plumbagin (PLN. DNA cleavage was also studied by gel electrophoresis. The observed results indicate that NPn1 has better solubility in aqueous medium and hence showed better bioavailability compared to its commercial counterparts.

  11. Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.

  12. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene Estanqueiro; Jaime Conceição; Maria Helena Amaral; Delfim Santos; João Baptista Silva; José Manuel Sousa Lobo

    2014-01-01

    Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and) sodium lauryl sulfate (and) sodium cetearyl su...

  13. Characterization and stability studies of emulsion systems containing pumice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Estanqueiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsions are the most common form of skin care products. However, these systems may exhibit some instability. Therefore, when developing emulsions for topical application it is interesting to verify whether they have suitable physical and mechanical characteristics and further assess their stability. The aim of this work was to study the stability of emulsion systems, which varied in the proportion of the emulsifying agent cetearyl alcohol (and sodium lauryl sulfate (and sodium cetearyl sulfate (LSX, the nature of the oily phase (decyl oleate, cyclomethicone or dimethicone and the presence or absence of pumice (5% w/w. While maintaining the samples at room temperature, rheology studies, texture analysis and microscopic observation of formulations with and without pumice were performed. Samples were also submitted to an accelerated stability study by centrifugation and to a thermal stress test. Through the testing, it was found that the amount of emulsifying agent affects the consistency and textural properties such as firmness and adhesiveness. So, formulations containing LSX (5% w/w and decyl oleate or dimethicone as oily phase had a better consistency and remained stable with time, so exhibited the best features to be used for skin care products.

  14. Fundamental studies of high-temperature corrosion reactions. Fifth annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    The in-situ study of metal oxidation reactions and the mechanism of the sulfidation of molybdenum by sulfur gases were studied. Equipment including a SEM microscope, heater and power supply which were used is described. (FS)

  15. The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Reaction Studies of Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles in Mesoporous Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioux, Robert M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst design program was implemented in which Pt nanoparticles, either of monodisperse size and/or shape were synthesized, characterized and studied in a number of hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The novel preparation of these materials enables exquisite control over their physical and chemical properties that could be controlled (and therefore rationally tuned) during synthesis. The ability to synthesize rather than prepare catalysts followed by thorough characterization enable accurate structure-function relationships to be elucidated. This thesis emphasizes all three aspects of catalyst design: synthesis, characterization and reactivity studies. The precise control of metal nanoparticle size, surface structure and composition may enable the development of highly active and selective heterogeneous catalysts.

  16. CTR plasma engineering studies. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma engineering studies at the Fusion Studies Laboratory of the University of Illinois, Urbana IL are described that deal with: fusion-product transport in plasmas and associated effects in tokamaks, neutral-beam injection and plasma build-up in mirrors, and studies of aspects of alternate confinement concepts including field-reversed mirrors, field-reversed pinches, and twin-beam mirrors.

  17. STUDY ON GLYCOCONJUGATE CHANGES ON CELL SURFACE IN PROGRESSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY TUMOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-mei; SHAN Jun; CHEN Zhuo-huai

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To investigate glycoconjugate changes on the cell surface of proliferative lesions and neoplasms of mice lungs at various stages of tumorigenesis, the relation between progressive development of mouse pulmonary tumors and expression of cell surface saccharide. Materials and methods: Thirty - one male A/J strain mice at 5 weeks of age were treated intraperitoneally with a single injection of 20 - methylcholanthrene (20 - MC), 292 pulmonary lesions including 31 hyperplasias, 145 alveolar adenomas, 61 papillary adenomas, 55 papillary adenocarcinomas and their combined type were obtained. The binding affinities of cells in normal respiratory epithelia and in proliferative lesions to four peroxidases - conjugated lectins, Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA), Arachis hypogea agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA), and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) were examined. Results: Cells of hyperplasia and alveolar adenoma showed fairly strong affinity to all the four lectins. However, part of papillary adenoma cells and greater part of papillary adenocarcinoma cells lost their binding affinity to MPA, PNA, and RCA, but not to WGA. The bindings of MPA, PNA and RNA were detected predominently on the luminal surfaces of benign tumors but not on the luminal surfaces of malignant tumors. WGA might bind to varied types of benign and malignant tumors. Pretreated with neuraminidase, the lesions enhanced the staining intensity for the four lectins, the binding sites of WGA to malignant tumor cells were numerous. A distinct difference in lectin binding affinity between hyperplasia / alveolar adenoma/papillary adenoma and papillary adenocarcinoma was clearly shown( x2 = 46.89, P < 0.01, x2 = 36.77, P < 0.01 and x2 = 52.87, P < 0.01 ) in this experiment. The complex glycoconjugates on the cell surface of malignant and benign lesions during the development of pulmonary tumor were changed,malignant tumor cells differed from the surface of benign tumor cells, the levels of

  18. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention.

  19. Enterococcus faecium strains characterization through polymorphism study of VNTR loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belteghi, C.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are commensally bacteria of the gastrointestinal and female genital tract in humans and some mammals and birds, and one of the significant causes of hospital-acquired infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Genetic fingerprinting (DNA fingerprinting is a tool for identifying, marking and prevention of infectious agents dissemination. SSR (short sequence repeat are known to suffer frequent variations in the number of repetitive units.MLVA (multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis is a variant of genetic fingerprinting, in epidemiological studies on the pathogenetic Enterococcus faecium. Our study included laboratory Enterococcus faecium strains or isolated from clinical cases or from the environment (2003-2008. All analyzed strains of Enterococcus faecium were sensitive to vancomycin, except BM4147, and resistant to oxacilin. Strains isolated from the birds’ samples have shown a smaller resistance profile than those of human origin. 33 Enterococus faecium strains were analyzed by PCR amplification. 27 MT (VNTR profiles were obtained: six in the case of the strains isolated from birds, 15 in the case of the strains isolated form humans, 4 in the case of the collection strains and 2 in the case of the strains isolated from water samples. Among the strains isolated from humans and those isolated from animals, identical profiles were not recorded. Within the strains isolated from clinical cases, and those isolated from birds, circulating genotypes were noted, which can be considered as epidemical. The strains used as probiotics proved to be different from those circulating in birds. All MLVA profiles codes compared with those published on line in the UMC Utrecht database proved to be different. Results obtained in this study support the usefulness of the polymorphic VNTR analysis, as genetic marker, inepidemiological investigations.

  20. Raman spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry for schwannoma characterization: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Lazaro P. M.; das Chagas, Maurilio J.; Carvalho, Luis Felipe C. S.; Ferreira, Isabelle; dos Santos, Laurita; Haddad, Marcelo; Loddi, Vinicius; Martin, Airton A.

    2016-03-01

    The schwannomas is a tumour of the tissue that covers nerves, called the nerve sheath. Schwannomas are often benign tumors of the Schwan cells, which are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Preoperative diagnosis of this lesion usually is difficult, therefore, new techniques are being studied as pre surgical evaluation. Among these, Raman spectroscopy, that enables the biochemical identification of the tissue analyzed by their optical properties, may be used as a tool for schwannomas diagnosis. The aim of this study was to discriminate between normal nervous tissue and schwannoma through the confocal Raman spectroscopy and Raman optical fiber-based techniques combined with immunohistochemical analysis. Twenty spectra were analyzed from a normal nerve tissue sample (10) and schwannoma (10) by Holospec f / 1.8 (Kayser Optical Systems) coupled to an optical fiber with a 785nm laser line source. The data were pre-processed and vector normalized. The average analysis and standard deviation was performed associated with cluster analysis. AML, 1A4, CD34, Desmin and S-100 protein markers were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive only for protein S-100 marker which confirmed the neural schwanomma originality. The immunohistochemistry analysis were important to determine the source of the injury, whereas Raman spectroscopy were able to differentiated tissues types indicating important biochemical changes between normal and benign neoplasia.

  1. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor base-technology program. Progress report, January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coobs, J.H.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-11-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: PCRV development, studies on structural materials, fission product technology studies, kernel migration and irradiated fuel chemistry, coolant chemistry (steam-graphite reactions), fuel qualification, and characterization and standardization of graphite.

  2. Studies on virus-induced cell fusion. Progress report, August 1, 1977--June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S.

    1978-07-01

    We have previously postulated that wild-type Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1) infections are characterized by the presence of a fusion factor and a fusion inhibitor activity. The fusion inhibitor presumably is dominant so that a small fraction of cells fuse in a typical wild-type infection. Furthermore, the syn mutants isolated in our laboratory are thought to cause extensive cell fusion because the production of active fusion inhibitor in cell membranes is delayed. If mutations existed that altered both the fusion factor and fusion inhibitor activity then separate viruses containing these two mutations might be able to complement each other, each supplying the defective gene product missing in the other virus. This would produce a wild type and not a syncytial mutant response. Complementation tests between two viruses, tsB5 and syn 20, which are thought to contain defects in the production of active fusion factor and fusion inhibitor activity, respectively, were done. A wild-type response was observed indicating that the mutations affecting fusion were in two separate genes.

  3. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P.A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T.B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonca, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, Jose A.A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  4. Synthesis, characterization and vibrational studies of p-chlorosulfinylaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemes, Doly M.; Alonso de Armiño, Diego J.; Cutin, Edgardo H.; Oberhammer, Heinz; Robles, Norma L.

    2017-01-01

    p-Cholorosulfinylaniline was prepared by the reaction of p-chloroaniline and SOCl2. The structural, conformational and configurational properties of the obtained liquid compound were studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopy in the liquid state. The assignment of the vibrational spectra was carried out with the help of data obtained by quantum chemical calculations at the harmonic oscillator approximation and using anharmonic vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) method as well. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by Gauge including orbital (GIAO) method (DFT/B3LYP approximation using 6-311 + G (df), 6-311++G (df,pd) and cc-pVTZ basis sets) and compared to the experimental values. Natural Bond Orbital analysis provides an explanation of the stability of the molecule and its electronic properties upon charge delocalization.

  5. Characterizing the Development of Students' Understandings regarding the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Using Learning Progressions to Illuminate Thinking in High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    As demonstrated by their emphasis in the new, national, science education standards, learning progressions (LPs) have become a valuable means of informing teaching and learning. LPs serve this role by isolating the key components of central skills and understandings, and by describing how those abilities and concepts tend to develop over time…

  6. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  7. Synthesis, characterization and isotherm studies of new composite sorbents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E S ZAKARIA; I MALI; M KHALIL; T Y MOHAMED; A EL-TANTAWY

    2016-12-01

    With different methods, different molar ratios and different surfactants have been investigated to reach the optimum conditions for synthesized zirconium tungstate (Zr(IV)W). Zr(IV)W with different molar ratios of o-toluidinewas synthesized to reach the optimum conditions for poly-o-toluidine zirconium tungstate (POTZr(IV)W). POTZr(IV)W with different molar ratios of tungstate was used to achieve the optimum conditions for poly-otoluidine Zr(IV) tungstophosphate (POTZr(IV)WP). The Na$^+$ capacity for all the prepared materials was investigated in order to determine the best ion exchanger towards the absorbed ions. The chemical and physical propertiesof materials were determined. Sorption isotherm studies of La$^{3+}$, Ce$^{3+}$, Nd$^{3+}$ and Sm$^{3+}$ ions were performed at differentreaction temperatures and analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Raduchkivich and Temkin isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters such as $\\Delta$G$^{\\circ}$, $\\Delta$H$^{\\circ}$ and $\\Delta$S$^{\\circ}$ were determined and found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  8. An ADAM33 polymorphism associates with progression of preschool wheeze into childhood asthma: a prospective case-control study with replication in a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester M M Klaassen

    Full Text Available The influence of asthma candidate genes on the development from wheeze to asthma in young children still needs to be defined.To link genetic variants in asthma candidate genes to progression of wheeze to persistent wheeze into childhood asthma.In a prospective study, children with recurrent wheeze from the ADEM (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study were followed until the age of six. At that age a classification (transient wheeze or asthma was based on symptoms, lung function and medication use. In 198 children the relationship between this classification and 30 polymorphisms in 16 asthma candidate genes was assessed by logistic regression. In case of an association based on a p<0.10, replication analysis was performed in an independent birth cohort study (KOALA study, n = 248 included for the present analysis.In the ADEM study, the minor alleles of ADAM33 rs511898 and rs528557 and the ORMDL3/GSDMB rs7216389 polymorphisms were negatively associated, whereas the minor alleles of IL4 rs2243250 and rs2070874 polymorphisms were positively associated with childhood asthma. When replicated in the KOALA study, ADAM33 rs528557 showed a negative association of the CG/GG-genotype with progression of recurrent wheeze into childhood asthma (0.50 (0.26-0.97 p = 0.04 and no association with preschool wheeze.Polymorphisms in ADAM33, ORMDL3/GSDMB and IL4 were associated with childhood asthma in a group of children with recurrent wheeze. The replication of the negative association of the CG/GG-genotype of rs528557 ADAM33 with childhood asthma in an independent birth cohort study confirms that a compromised ADAM33 gene may be implicated in the progression of wheeze into childhood asthma.

  9. Progress Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  10. CTR plasma engineering studies. Progress report, 1 September 1975--30 Jun 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1976-04-15

    During the past contract period, this research has been concerned with three principal tasks, namely: (1) Fusion-product studies. The primary objective of this work is to study potential effects (e.g. instabilities, changes in heating profile and wall loadings, etc.) caused by high-energy fusion products. A second objective is to establish the operating conditions and measurements required for use of D-/sup 3/He in early experiments such as TFTR to simulate D-T burns. (2) Mirror system studies. The objective of this work is to provide specialized support for the mirror research and development effort at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Three topics are under study: charge-exchange losses during neutral beam injection; the dynamics of plasma build-up during start-up; new approaches to mirror systems such as the ''twin-beam'' mirror. (3) Exploratory studies. Several new studies have been initiated during this period. These include: extension of the mirror neutral-beam injection studies to toroidal geometry and preliminary studies of reversed field configurations. Further details about each of these areas are contained in subsequent sections.

  11. Semiempirical studies of atomic structure. Progress report, July 1, 1994--October 1, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    Brief summaries are given for significant results of research in the following areas: line strength isoelectronic extrapolations; lifetime measurement in few times ionized states; determination of dipole polarizabilities from precision lifetime measurements and transition moment calculations; spectra and intensity ratio studies in the Al isoelectronic sequence; and experimental studies of energy levels and lifetimes in very high ionized two electron systems.

  12. Research Progress of Nuclear Astrophysics Physics:Study of Key Scientific Problems in Nuclear Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bing; LIU; Wei-ping; LI; Zhi-hong; WANG; You-bao; HE; Jian-jun; SHI; Jian-rong; TANG; Xiao-dong; YAN; Sheng-quan; SU; Jun; LI; Yun-ju; ZENG; Sheng; LIAN; Gang; BAI; Xi-xiang; CHEN; Yong-shou; PANG; Dan-yang; GU; Jian-zhong; HAN; Zhi-yu; LI; Xin-yue

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary A systematic study of the key scientific problems in nuclear synthesis has been conducted.Significant research achievements from several important subjects such as direct measurement of astrophysical reaction,observation of abundances of elements,studies on decay properties of nuclei and reaction rates of primordial nucleosynthesis have been made utilizing large scientific facilities from China

  13. Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: a prospective cohort study from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis and air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Adar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. METHODS AND RESULTS: MESA, a prospective cohort study, enrolled 6,814 participants at the baseline exam (2000-2002, with 5,660 (83% of those participants completing two ultrasound examinations between 2000 and 2005 (mean follow-up: 2.5 years. PM2.5 was estimated over the year preceding baseline and between ultrasounds using a spatio-temporal model. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were examined using mixed models adjusted for confounders including age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, and socio-economic indicators. Among 5,362 participants (5% of participants had missing data with a mean annual progression of 14 µm/y, 2.5 µg/m(3 higher levels of residential PM2.5 during the follow-up period were associated with 5.0 µm/y (95% CI 2.6 to 7.4 µm/y greater IMT progressions among persons in the same metropolitan area. Although significant associations were not found with IMT progression without adjustment for metropolitan area (0.4 µm/y [95% CI -0.4 to 1.2 µm/y] per 2.5 µg/m(3, all of the six areas showed positive associations. Greater reductions in PM2.5 over follow-up for a fixed baseline PM2.5 were also associated with slowed IMT progression (-2.8 µm/y [95% CI -1.6 to -3.9 µm/y] per 1 µg/m(3 reduction. Study limitations include the use of a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, some loss to follow-up, and the lack of estimates for air pollution concentrations prior to 1999. CONCLUSIONS: This early analysis from MESA suggests that higher long-term PM2.5 concentrations are associated with increased IMT progression and that greater reductions in PM2.5 are

  14. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The current plasma engineering studies report on three major areas of fusion reactor development. Plasma engineering studies of the field-reversed mirror (FRM) have focused on stability, start-up, and fusion product heating and leakage. A Monte Carlo technique has been developed to study high-energy fusion product transport in the FRM. The stability studies involve use of a perturbation theory applied to orbits calculated with the SUPERLAYER code. Studies of the reversed-field pinches (RFP) have centered around development of a 1-D dynamic MHD code which is designed to investigate enhanced transport, cold particle fueling, fusion product heating, and stability limits. Rotation effects in the field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) have been examined as a preliminary step in understanding its potential use in a reactor concept such as the moving plasmoid heater (MPH), also briefly examined here. Studies of fusion-product transport effects in tokamaks include plasma heating, blister-induced first wall erosion, and ash buildup limitations on burn time. Finally, other mirror systems studies have been concerned with both first-wall bombardment and plasma buildup during neutral beam injection.

  15. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  16. Radiation studies on bacterial and animal viruses: Progress report, October 15, 1962 to November 11, 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalek, R.J.

    1963-11-11

    Effects of in vacuo low-voltage electron beam irradiations of a number of biological materials have been reported by various workers. Similar studies with dry, wet, oxygenated, or chemically treated material have been reported by the author. Recently completed studies of the physical properties of low-voltage electron beams provides for more definitive interpretation of the biological work. The paper summarizes work carried out with E. coli cells, Streptomyces T-12 spores, and haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In addition, data from reported studies on T2 bacteriophage and L-P/sub 59/ mouse fibroblast cells is utilized.

  17. [Progression of the mechanism study on experimental migraine treated with acupuncture in rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Pei, Pei; Wang, Linpeng

    2016-03-01

    In the paper, by taking acupuncture and migraine as the key words to retrieve CNKI and PubMed database, the literature analysis was done on the mechanism study on experimental migraine treated with acupuncture in rat model. The results showed that acupuncture mechanism study focused on the regulation and control of the relevant neurotransmitters/neuromodulators of migraine, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), etc. Moreover, in the paper, the review had been done on the neurotransmitters/neuromodulators involved in the study.

  18. 1982 walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Savoonga, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details the harvest, health, and welfare study of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) as undertaken at Savoonga, Alaska, on St. Lawrence...

  19. 1982 walrus harvest, health and welfare study at Nome, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the third consecutive year, USFWS conducted a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) harvest health and welfare study in six Bering Sea coastal villages. The...

  20. Early life history studies of the king crab: A progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Describes a study where Alaska King Crabs were brought down from the Bering Sea and placed in outside rearing ponds at the State of Washington's Marine Research...

  1. Agricultural crop production and utilization study: Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge: Progress report: 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To determine the total amount of hot foods (corn, soybeans, and grain sorghum) produced for waterfowl on the...

  2. 1981 walrus harvest, health/welfare study, Nome, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a walrus harvest, health and welfare study in 5 northern Bering Sea coastal villages during the Spring of 1981. Goals of...

  3. 1983 walrus harvest, health, and welfare study at Nome, Alaska: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For the fourth consecutive year, USFWS conducted a walrus harvest, health and welfare study in five northern Bering Sea coastal villages during the spring of 1983....

  4. Defense Science Board 2005 Summer Study on Transformation: A Progress Assessment. Volume 2. Supporting Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    2005 SUMMER STUDY ON APPENDIX B. GUEST BRIEFERS Name Affiliation Topic Mr. Paul Brinkley Deputy Undersecretary for Business Transformation DoD...Cartwright USSTRATCOM Disruptive Technologies Study Mr. Alan Shaffer DDR&E Joint Net-Centric Operations LtCol Steve Waller AF/XI 15 FEBRUARY 2005 JROC...Nadolski J-2/JFCOM Analytic Agenda LtCol Bruce Hollywood J-8/SAMD 27 JUNE 2005 DDR&E Perspectives Mr. Alan Shaffer DDR&E WMD Matters Mr. Dick

  5. Progress in Enclave Tourism Study of Overseas:A Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Aili; Liu Jiaming; Liu Min

    2007-01-01

    In response to the"isolated island"phenomenon emerging from the development of tourist resorts in China,this paper reviews the study of enclave tourism overseas,which has similar features to the resort"island".Based on the literatures related to enclave tourism from Tourism Management and Annals of Tourism Research,this paper reviews the study of enclave tourism from the following aspects:definition discussion,theoriesused,causation of enclaves,characteristics and impacts of enclave tourism.The understanding of the overseas researches on enclavetourism would provide instructions for the study on the problems of Chinese resorts,such as enclavity and"island effects",and suggest measures for the sustainable development of resorts in China.This paper is divided into three sections.Section 1 briefly introduces the development of enclave tourism in developing countries and the outline of enclave tourism study.Section 2 elaborates on the content of enclave tourism research and givesdeep insights into the study on concepts,characteristics,causations and effects respectively,which is the key part of this paper,Section 3 concludes the review and proposes suggestions for the enclave tourism study in China.

  6. Cyst initiation, cyst expansion and progression in ADPKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happé, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by large fluid-filled cysts and progressive deterioration of renal function necessitating renal replacement therapy. In this thesis different phases of ADPKD were studied. First, we studied the initiation of cyst formation. We sh

  7. Characterizing the development of students' understandings regarding the second law of thermodynamics: Using learning progressions to illuminate thinking in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin D.

    As demonstrated by their emphasis in the new, national, science education standards, learning progressions (LPs) have become a valuable means of informing teaching and learning. LPs serve this role by isolating the key components of central skills and understandings, and by describing how those abilities and concepts tend to develop over time among students in a particular context. Some LPs also identify common challenges students experience in learning specific content and suggest methods of instruction and assessment, particularly ways in which difficulties can be identified and addressed. LPs are research-based and created through the integration of content analyses and interpretations of student performances with respect to the skills and understandings in question. The present research produced two LPs portraying the development of understandings associated with the second law of thermodynamics as evidenced by the evolving explanations for the spontaneity and irreversibility of diffusion and the cooling of a hot object constructed periodically by twenty students over two consecutive years in high school chemistry. While the curriculum they experienced did not emphasize the processes of diffusion and cooling or the second law and its applications, these students received prolonged instruction regarding key aspects of the particulate nature of matter. Working in small groups and as individuals, they were also taught and regularly expected to create, test, and revise particulate-based, conceptual models to account for the properties and behavior of a wide variety of common phenomena. Although some students quickly exhibited dramatic improvements in explaining and understanding the phenomena of interest, conceptual development for most was evolutionary rather than revolutionary, and success in explaining one phenomenon did not generally translate into successes in explaining related but different phenomena. Few students reached the uppermost learning goals of

  8. Progress in the Study of Molecular Genetic Improvements of Poplar in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Zhi Lin; Zhi-Yi Zhang; Qian Zhang; Yuan-Zhen Lin

    2006-01-01

    The poplar is one of the most economically important and intensively studied tree species owing to its wide application in the timber industry and as a model material for the study of woody plants. The natural resource of poplars in China is replete. Over the past 10 years, the application of molecular biological techniques to genetic improvements in poplar species has been widely studied in China. Recent advances in molecular genetic improvements of poplar, including cDNA library construction, gene cloning and identification, genetic engineering, gene expression, genetic linkage map construction, mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular-assisted selection, are reviewed in the present paper. In addition, the application of modern biotechnology to molecular improvements in the genetic traits of the poplar and some unsolved problems are discussed.

  9. Development of an apparatus to study chemical reactions at high temperature - a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturzenegger, M.; Schelling, Th.; Steiner, E.; Wuillemin, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    TREMPER is an apparatus that was devised to study kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature reactions under concentrated solar irradiation. The design allows investigations on solid or liquid samples under inert or reactive atmospheres. The working temperature is adjustable; the upper limit that has yet been reached is about 1900 K. TREMPER will facilitate chemical reactivity studies on a temperature level that is difficult to access by other means. First experiments were conducted to study the decomposition of manganese oxide MnO{sub 2}. Chemical analysis of exposed samples confirmed that the parent MnO{sub 2} was decomposed to mixtures of Mn O and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The amount of Mn O ranged from 60 mol-% in air to 86 mol-% under inert atmosphere. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  10. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    indicators and an update on the general LCIA framework will be discussed and agreed on. With the diversity in results and the multi-tier supply chains, the rice LCA case study is well suited to test candidate recommended indicators and to ensure their applicability in common LCA case studies....... the practicality of the finally recommended impact category indicators. Results and discussion The global warming TF concludes that analysts should explore the sensitivity of LCA results to metrics other than GWP. The particulate matter TF attained initial guidance of how to include health effects from PM2...

  11. Semiempirical studies of atomic structure. Progress report, 1 September 1990--1 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The energy level structure, transition probabilities, and general spectroscopic properties of highly-ionized many-electron systems are studied through the combined use of sensitive semiempirical data systematizations, selected precision experimental measurements, and specialized theoretical computations. Measurements are made primarily through the use of fast ion beam excitation methods, which are combined with available data from laser- and tokamak-produced plasmas, astrophysical sources, and conventional light sources. The experimental studies are strengthened through large scale ab initio calculations. Large blocks of data are predictively systematized and parameterized along isoelectric, homologous, isoionic, Rydberg, and yrast series, to provide a comprehensive and reliable data base.

  12. Progress on Clinical Study of Acupuncture Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-jie; HUANG Guo-qi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chronic pelvic inflammation is mostly caused byincomplete treatment of acute pelvic inflammation orby transference from pathologic condition due to poorbody constitution, including chronic endometritis,chronic salpingo-oophoritis and chronic inflammationof connective tissue, and is a commonly andfrequently encountered disease in the gynecologydepartment. Due to long duration, intractablecondition and high recurrent rate, it is also acommonly encountered reason to induce heterotopicpregnancy, sterility, pelvic pain and pelvic adhesivediseases. In the investigative study on the domesticliterature about acupuncture treatment of chronicpelvic inflammation in the recent five years, theauthor hopes to summarize the information forreference in the clinical treatment and to point outsome issues existing in the current clinical study.

  13. Synovial TGF-β1 and MMP-3 levels and their correlation with the progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis combined with disc displacement: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slow progressing degenerative disease that affects the joints, including the temporomandibular joint. In the present study, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in synovial fluid (SF) were examined in detecting cartilage synthesis and degradation in progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) combined with disc displacement (DD) diseases. SF was obtained from 16 patients with TMJ OA combined with DD and 10 no...

  14. Technical progress report on the metabolic studies of plutonium for month of August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1945-12-31

    This monthly report briefly describes ongoing studies including urinary and fecal excretion of Plutonium 238 by human subjects and by rats, exploring way to facilitate the removal of Plutonium 238 from rat bone, the absorption of Plutonium 238 by barley plants, and use of inert iodine to block absorption of Iodine-131 in the rat.

  15. Reflections on Modern China and the Progressive Power of Educational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong

    2011-01-01

    The turn towards using domestic experience in contemporary Chinese educational studies has led to the development of theoretical frames rooted in the reality of Chinese society. This article identifies four ways of understanding and reforming Chinese society that have been developed by 20th century Chinese educators. By reflecting on these four…

  16. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report and publications, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L

    1980-01-01

    Research programs for the years 1978-1980 is reported. The following subject areas are discussed: (1) iodine 131 monitoring in thyroids of sheep, cattle and humans; (2) radium monitoring in cattle thyroids; (3) the relationship of thyroid function to seizures in rats; (4) the effect of KSCN on thyroglobulin in mice; and (5) studies on excessive iodide intake. (ACR)

  17. Chronotype, sleep quality and sleep duration in adult distance education: Not related to study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Research in traditional education shows chronotype, sleep duration and sleep quality to be related to learning performance. Research in adult students participating in distance education (DE) is scarce. This study aims to provide knowledge on these relationships in this educational setting. In an ob

  18. Reading Instruction for Talented Readers: Case Studies Documenting Few Opportunities for Continuous Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sally M.; Gubbins, E. Jean; Briggs, Christine J.; Schreiber, Fredric J.; Richards, Susannah; Jacobs, Joan K.; Eckert, Rebecca D.; Renzulli, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a team of researchers conducted multiple observations in 12 third- and seventh-grade reading classrooms in both urban and suburban school districts over a 9-month period. These observations focused on whether talented readers received differentiated reading curriculum and or instructional strategies. Talented readers were defined as…

  19. COLLABORATIVE PROSPECTIVE-STUDY OF THE FRAGILE-X SYNDROME - ONE-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHERMAN, SL; BARBI, G; BRONDUMNIELSEN, K; BROWN, WT; CARPENTER, NJ; CHUDLEY, AE; FERRAZ, OP; FERREIRA, P; GUSTAVSON, KH; HALLIDAY, J; HOCKEY, A; HOWARDPEEBLES, PN; JENKINS, E; KENNERKNECHT, [No Value; KAHKONEN, M; LADAIQUE, P; LEISTI, J; MADDALENA, A; MAZURCZAK, T; MATTEI, JF; MATTINA, T; MCKINLEY, MJ; MURPHY, P; PELLISSIER, MC; PURVISSMITH, S; ROBINSON, H; SCAPAGNINI, U; SCHAAP, T; SHAPIRO, LR; SMITS, APT; STEINBACH, P; TURNER, G; UCHIDA, IA; VANOOST, BA; VOELCKEL, MA; WEAVER, DD; WEBB, T

    1992-01-01

    A prospective study of the fragile X syndrome [fra(X)] was initiated one year ago to refine the estimates of recurrence risks based on the phenotype of the mother and the family history of the syndrome. The basic unit of data consists of the description of the conceptus of women known to carry the f

  20. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates. Technical progress report, November 1, 1975--November 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan, L.

    1976-11-01

    During the past year we have focused on the development of new experimental electron magnetic resonance methods and new theoretical models to study reactive reaction intermediates and on the application of these and other methods to study radical and ionic intermediates produced by high energy radiation. We have continued development of electron spin echo spectrometry for studying molecular orientation around trapped radicals, have suggested a new electron spin-lattice relaxation mechanism applicable to glasses, have shown a correlation between electron spin-lattice relaxation times and trapped radical decay and have shown how electron-electron double resonance measurements of cross relaxation can be analyzed to give radical-radical correlation distances. A new model of electron localization in alkanes has been developed, electron solvation in alcohol-alkane mixtures has been studied theoretically and an improved model of electron solvation times has been formulated. Radical reaction intermediates have been detected and identified by spin trapping in methanol, cyanoalkyl and fluoroalcohol liquids, and by X and Q band ESR in methyltetrahydrofuran glass. In aqueous glasses the electronic structure of O/sup -/ and the first solvation shell geometry of e/sup -//sub t/ have been deduced by /sup 17/O substitution. Electron tunneling as a function of the e/sup -//sub t/ energy state and the photoionization mechanism of indole in solution have been investigated.