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Sample records for characteristics relative contribution

  1. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  2. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  3. How identity crisis, relative deprivation, personal characteristics, and empathy contribute to the engagement of Western individuals in Islamist terrorist behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khouwaga Yusoufzai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing sense of insecurity in the Western world due to home-grown Islamist terrorism prompts further research on the topic. Based on previous literature, the current paper attempts to determine whether factors can be identified which contribute to Western individuals joining Islamic extremist organizations and engaging in terrorist behavior in the West. Four factors are discussed: While extensive scientific literature supports the view that identity crises and relative deprivation play a crucial role in turning Western individuals to terrorism, evidence on the role of personal characteristics and empathy, on the other hand, is still too scarce to allow any clear scientific judgment.

  4. Particulate emissions from road transportation (gasoline and diesel). Chemical and granulometric characteristics; relative contribution; Emissions particulaires par les transports routiers (essence et diesel) caracteristiques chimiques et granulometriques contribution relative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belot, G. [PSA-Peugiot-Citroen, 92 - La Garenne-Colombes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The formation process and chemical composition of diesel, leaded and lead-free gasoline combustion particulates are presented, and the effects of engine technology, post-treatments (oxidative catalysis), automobile speed and fuel type (more especially diesel type), on the granulometry of gasoline and diesel automotive particulates are studied. The emission contributions from the various diesel vehicle types (automobiles, trucks, buses), gasoline and diesel automobiles and other natural and anthropogenic particulate sources, are presented and compared

  5. Partitioning the relative contributions of inorganic plant composition and soil characteristics to the quality of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Ange; Santoni, François; Paolini, Julien; Bernardini, Antoine-François; Mouillot, David; Costa, Jean

    2009-07-01

    Composition of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum essential oil showed chemical variability according to vegetation cycle, environment, and geographic origins. In the present work, 48 individuals of this plant at different development stages and the corresponding root soils were sampled: i) 28 volatile components were identified and measured in essential oil by using GC and GC/MS; ii) ten elements from plants and soils have been estimated using colorimetry in continuous flux, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, or emission spectrometry (FAAS/FAES); iii) texture and acidity (real and potential) of soil samples were also reported. Relationships between the essential-oil composition, the inorganic plant composition, and the soil characteristics (inorganic composition, texture, and acidity) have been established using multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA). This study demonstrates a high level of intraspecific differences in oil composition due to environmental factors and, more particularly, soil characteristics.

  6. Contribution to characteristics of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, R.; Dahlkamp, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium oxides from pegmatitic, metamorphic and metasomatic uranium occurrences were investigated with the objective to check for differences in their physico-chemical properties and, whether such properties are sufficiently distinct to be applied as an exploration tool. Research methods included microscopy, electron microprobe and X-ray diffractometry amended by determinations of reflectance, Vickers hardness, unit-cell dimension and oxidation grade. Tentative research results are as follows: (a) U-oxides (uraninites) of pegmatites always contain significant amounts of Th (1,5-10 wt.% ThO2). (b) U-oxides from metasomatic environments have high, but variable contents of Fe, Ca, Ti, Si and Th (around 10 wt.%), Th being low. (c) U-oxides crystallised during metamorphism contain minor impurities of the above listed elements (total of oxides < 2 wt.%). (d) Redistributed U-oxides have elevated amounts of these elements. (e) Unit-cell dimensions of U-oxides tend to reflect a complex function of formation temperature, oxidation grade and the influence of incorporated elements caused by their radius and electro-negativity. (f) A global negative correlation of unit-cell dimension and oxidation grade of uranium oxides is indicated but based on widely varying ratios of the two parameters. (g) Colloform U-oxide (pitchblende) is characterised by elevated Ca-contents (1-5 wt.% CaO) and an almost complete lack of Th (< 1 wt.% ThO2). (h) Idiomorphic U-oxide (uraninite) is commonly low in Ca (< 1.5 wt.% CaO) but contains relatively high Th values. (i) The reflectance of U-oxides generally correlates positively with Vickers hardness and unit-cell dimension, but the incorporation of other elements in the lattice of U-oxides may cause strong interference. (author)

  7. Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Elizabeth A; Spiers, Jude

    2016-11-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions" found on pages 24-30, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until October 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Define the application of Swanson's Middle Range Theory of Caring in care aides' relational care practices for nursing home

  8. STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Results are highly accurate and promising for all models based on Lewis' criteria. ... hydrological cycle. Future increases in ... STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF OGUN BASIN, NIGERIA. 71 ...

  9. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of Yam In Delta State, Nigeria. ... analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area was male - dominated (78.8%), most of ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  11. Contribution of Patient Characteristics to Differences in Readmission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael L.; Hsu, John; McWilliams, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Importance Medicare penalizes hospitals with higher than expected readmission rates by up to 3% of annual inpatient payments. Expected rates are adjusted only for patients’ age, sex, discharge diagnosis, and recent diagnoses. Objective To assess the extent to which a comprehensive set of patient characteristics accounts for differences in hospital readmission rates. Design and Setting Using survey data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and linked Medicare claims, we assessed 29 patient characteristics from survey data and claims as potential predictors of 30-day readmission when added to standard Medicare adjustments of hospital readmission rates. We then compared the distribution of these characteristics between participants admitted to hospitals with higher vs. lower hospital-wide readmission rates reported by Medicare. Finally, we estimated differences in the probability of readmission between these groups of participants before vs. after adjusting for the additional patient characteristics. Participants HRS participants enrolled in Medicare who were hospitalized from 2009–2012 (n=8,067 admissions). Main Outcomes and Measures All-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge. Results Of the additional 29 patient characteristics assessed, 22 significantly predicted readmission beyond standard adjustments, and 17 of these were distributed differently between hospitals in the highest vs. lowest quintiles of publicly reported hospital-wide readmission rates (p≤0.04 for all). Almost all of these differences (16 of 17) indicated that participants admitted to hospitals in the highest quintile of readmission rates were more likely to have characteristics that were associated with a higher probability of readmission. The difference in the probability of readmission between participants admitted to hospitals in the highest vs. lowest quintile of hospital-wide readmission rates was reduced by 48% from 4.41 percentage points with

  12. Characteristics Contributing to High-Technology Start-Up Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goslin, L.; Brown, W.; Palm, T.

    1993-01-01

    that the professional venture-capital-funded start-up firm will generally reflect the practices of perceptive management regarding: style, team approach, structure of the firm, market definition, culture, vision, and a formal strategy. Nevertheless, there are some questions about differences those characteristics...... by interview to provide insights on: the entrepreneurial-marketing style utilized, cultural characteristics of the firm, and perspectives of the time horizon of strategy. The representative firms (seven firms to a set) from whom information was solicited were drawn from the U.S. Pacific Northwest), Denmark...

  13. Radiological characteristics of AIDS- related lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gloria Maria Martins G.; Marchiori, Edson

    1996-01-01

    The epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increased the incidence of lymphoma, particularly the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The lymphoma in immune deficient patients is usually high-grade, very aggressive and with poor prognostic. We report the radiologic characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma in 19 patients and correlate with the literature. The disease was predominant in homosexual male patients, with mean age of 38 years. The radiological characteristics are nonspecific to differential diagnosis, but we must suspect of lymphoma. We found ring-enhanced lesions in the radiologic studies of central nervous system. Hylar and mediastinal lymphadenopath, nodules and alveolar infiltration were detected on thoracic examinations. Abdominal examinations showed hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hepatic focal lesions and thickneded with distorted mucosa in the alimentary tract. Bone involvement presented as focal and disseminated destructive lesions. (author)

  14. The contribution of work characteristics, home characteristics and gender to burnout in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Hanne; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Prins, Jelle T; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-10-01

    Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and work-home interferences with burnout in male and female medical residents. This study was conducted on a nation-wide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire on burnout, job and home demands and resources and work-home interference. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between job and home characteristics and work-home interference and burnout in both males and females. In total, 2115 (41.1 %) residents completed the questionnaire. In both sexes emotional demands at work and the interference between work and home were important contributors to burnout, especially when work interferes with home life. Opportunities for job development appeared to be an important protective factor. Other contributing and protective factors were different for male and female residents. In females, social support from family or partner seemed protective against burnout. In males, social support from colleagues and participation in decision-making at work seemed important. Effectively handling emotional demands at work, dealing with the interference between work and home, and having opportunities for job development are the most essential factors which should be addressed. However it is important to take gender differences into consideration when implementing preventive or therapeutic interventions for burnout in medical residents.

  15. The relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to determine the relative contributions of climatic elements and environmental factors to urban flooding in Awka urban area of Anambra State. Towards achieving this aim, 10 year (2000-2009) meteorological data of temperature and rainfall of the study area were collected from synoptic ...

  16. Relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...

  17. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; de Haart, Mirjam; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking clinical scores of

  18. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Haart, M. de; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  19. On the relative contribution of the paretic leg to the control of posture after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Geurts, A.C.; de Haart, M.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reduced postural steadiness and asymmetry of weight bearing are characteristic for posture after stroke. Objective: To examine the relative contribution of each leg to postural control in a cohort of 33 stroke patients at 5 stages during 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation, while taking

  20. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2010-12-01

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  1. Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

  2. Temperament and characteristics related to nomophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivencia-Carrión, Maria Angustias; Ferri-García, Ramón; Rueda, María Del Mar; Jiménez-Torres, Manuel Gabriel; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-05-06

    Nomophobia is defined as the fear of being out of mobile phone contact and is considered to be a phobia of the modern age. The current study set out to establish the relationship between temperament and personality and the development of nomophobia. The sample was composed of 968 participants selected from the Andalusian population, of which there were 182 males and 785 females aged from 23.19 years. The instruments used were the Questionnaire to Assess Nomophobia (QANIP; Olivencia-Carrión et al., 2018) and the Temperament and Character Inventory Revised (TCI-R; Cloninger et al., 1993). We found that cooperation is a characteristic that significantly reduces nomophobic levels, particularly for the two factors of Mobile Phone Addiction and Negative Consequences. Furthermore, Reward Dependence appears to be positively related to two of the factors involved in nomophobia, namely Mobile Phone Addiction and Loss of Control, suggesting a relationship between Nomophobia and personality. These findings are discussed in terms of their usefulness for identifying the personality predictors of nomophobia in order to develop preventive and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Infant Positive Emotionality: The Contribution of Maternal Characteristics and Effects on Subsequent Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Laake, Lauren M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Dorn, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of maternal characteristics on the development of infant smiling and laughter, a marker of early positive emotionality (PE) and how maternal characteristics and the development of infant PE contributed to subsequent maternal parenting. One hundred fifty-nine mothers with 4-month-old infants participated.…

  4. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  5. Relational support and person characteristics in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, M.A.G. van; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Branje, S.J.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, an heuristic model of the personality characteristics of adolescents and the supportive dimensions of interactions, relationships and groups is presented. The model takes the concept of developmental tasks as its starting point and it is assumed that developmental tasks can be

  6. Chemical characteristics of fulvic acids from Arctic surface waters: Microbial contributions and photochemical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Rose M.; McKnight, Diane M.; Chin, Yu-Ping; Miller, Penney; Jaros, Chris L.

    2007-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) originating from the extensive Arctic tundra is an important source of organic material to the Arctic Ocean. Chemical characteristics of whole water dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the fulvic acid fraction of DOM were studied from nine surface waters in the Arctic region of Alaska to gain insight into the extent of microbial and photochemical transformation of this DOM. All the fulvic acids had a strong terrestrial/higher plant signature, with uniformly depleted δ13C values of -28‰, and low fluorescence indices around 1.3. Several of the measured chemical characteristics of the Arctic fulvic acids were related to water residence time, a measure of environmental exposure to sunlight and microbial activity. For example, fulvic acids from Arctic streams had higher aromatic contents, higher specific absorbance values, lower nitrogen content, lower amino acid-like fluorescence and were more depleted in δ15N relative to fulvic acids isolated from lake and coastal surface waters. The differences in the nitrogen signature between the lake and coastal fulvic acids compared to the stream fulvic acids indicated that microbial contributions to the fulvic acid pool increased with increasing water residence time. The photo-lability of the fulvic acids was positively correlated with water residence time, suggesting that the fulvic acids isolated from source waters with larger water residence times (i.e., lakes and coastal waters) have experienced greater photochemical degradation than the stream fulvic acids. In addition, many of the initial differences in fulvic acid chemical characteristics across the gradient of water residence times were consistent with changes observed in fulvic acid photolysis experiments. Taken together, results from this study suggest that photochemical processes predominantly control the chemical character of fulvic acids in Arctic surface waters. Our findings show that hydrologic transport in addition to

  7. Peer Relations and Behavioral Characteristics of Isolated Children in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwalk, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    Research clearly shows that heterogeneity exists in the etiology, associated characteristics, and outcomes of social withdrawal/isolation. While individual level characteristics are thought to contribute to withdrawal and isolation, research suggests that peer relations may play an important role in the extent to which social withdrawal/isolation…

  8. Potential characteristics that relate to teachers mathematics-related beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Y. W.; Aziz, T. A.; Pramudiani, P.; Darwis, S.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-01-01

    A characteristic of the persons was very potential to affect the beliefs they held. This study examines whether there was a significant difference between the beliefs factors with characteristics such as gender, teaching experience, certification status, and grade level assignments. There were 325 primary school teachers in East Jakarta who participated in this research. MANOVA was applied to analyze the data. The findings of this study indicate that only on teaching experience, there was a significant difference between the beliefs held by the teachers, i.e. teachers who have 11-20 years teaching experience were more likely to think absolute than constructivism. Moreover, there was no difference between each belief they held with the other characteristics.

  9. Neighborhood characteristics contribute to urban alcohol availability: Accounting for race/ethnicity and social disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role that race/ethnicity and social disorganization play in alcohol availability in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, census block groups. This study estimated negative binomial regression models to examine separately the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic composition and social disorganization levels for (1) total, (2) on-premise, and (3) off-premise alcohol outlets. Results of this study suggest that proportion Hispanic was positively associated with total and with off-premise alcohol outlets. Second, proportion African American was negatively associated with on-premise alcohol outlets and positively associated with off-premise alcohol outlets. Proportion Asian was not associated with total, on-premise, or off-premise alcohol outlets. However, the effects of race/ethnicity on alcohol availability were either unrelated or negatively related to alcohol outlet availability once neighborhood social disorganization levels were taken into account, and social disorganization was positively and significantly associated with all alcohol outlet types. Neighborhood characteristics contribute to alcohol availability and must be considered in any efforts aimed toward prevention of alcohol-related negative health and social outcomes.

  10. The contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Van Lenthe, Frank; Avendano, Mauricio; Mackenbach, Johan

    The current study estimated the contribution of job characteristics to socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) during a 12-year follow-up period. Data were from the working population (aged 25-64 years) in the Netherlands longitudinal GLOBE study (N = 5757).

  11. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  12. Game auction prices are not related to biodiversity contributions of southern African ungulates and large carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, Maria

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for human societies to become environmentally sustainable. Because public policy is largely driven by economic processes, quantifications of the relationship between market prices and environmental values can provide important information for developing strategies towards sustainability. Wildlife in southern Africa is often privately owned and traded at game auctions to be utilized for commercial purposes mostly related to tourism. This market offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate how market prices relate to biologically meaningful species characteristics. In this market, prices were not correlated with species contributions to either phylogenetic or functional diversity, and species contributions to phylogenetic or functional diversity did not influence the trends in prices over time for the past 20 years. Since this economic market did not seem to appreciate evolutionary or ecologically relevant characteristics, we question if the game tourism market may contribute towards biodiversity conservation in southern Africa. We suggest that market prices in general may have limited values as guides for directing conservation and environmental management. We further suggest that there is a need to evaluate what humans value in biological organisms, and how potentially necessary shifts in such values can be instigated.

  13. Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related quality of life and sociodemographic characteristics among Iranian ... for the groups of students due to the modern highly stressful education period. ... of life among the male and female students in the Islamic Azad University of ...

  14. Political Communication: Contributions to the Study of Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.

    Political communication has influenced greatly the study of modern public relations. The development of modern public relations can be traced back to the Ancients of Greece. The definition of "political communication" when applied to public relations is typically corporate in nature. That is, public relations defines the role of…

  15. Contributions of pulmonary hypertension to HIV-related cardiac dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godsent C. Isiguzo

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Immune-suppression affects the cardiac function adversely and coexisting pulmonary hypertension contributes to poor systolic and diastolic function in affected patients. The subtle nature of presentation of pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac dysfunctions in HIV/AIDS patients demand a high-index of suspicion and early intervention if detected, to ensure better care for these emerging threats to our patients.

  16. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Considine

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The

  17. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  18. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  19. Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic, paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2010-07-01

    Genetic factors and the prenatal environment contribute to birth weight. However, very few types of study design can disentangle their relative contribution. To examine maternal genetic and intrauterine contributions to offspring birth weight and head circumference. To compare the contribution of maternal and paternal genetic effects. Mothers and fathers were either genetically related or unrelated to their offspring who had been conceived by in vitro fertilization. 423 singleton full term offspring, of whom 262 were conceived via homologous IVF (both parents related), 66 via sperm donation (mother only related) and 95 via egg donation (father only related). Maternal weight at antenatal booking, current weight and maternal height. Paternal current weight and height were all predictors. Infant birth weight and head circumference were outcomes. Genetic relatedness was the main contributing factor between measures of parental weight and offspring birth weight as correlations were only significant when the parent was related to the child. However, there was a contribution of the intrauterine environment to the association between maternal height and both infant birth weight and infant head circumference as these were significant even when mothers were unrelated to their child. Both maternal and paternal genes made contributions to infant birth weight. Maternal height appeared to index a contribution of the intrauterine environment to infant growth and gestational age. Results suggested a possible biological interaction between the intrauterine environment and maternal inherited characteristics which suppresses the influence of paternal genes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological effects of relational job characteristics: validation of the scale for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alda; Castanheira, Filipa; Chambel, Maria José; Amarante, Michael Vieira; Costa, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    This study validates the Portuguese version of the psychological effects of the relational job characteristics scale among hospital nurses in Portugal and Brazil. Increasing attention has been given to the social dimension of work, following the transition to a service economy. Nevertheless, and despite the unquestionable relational characteristics of nursing work, scarce research has been developed among nurses under a relational job design framework. Moreover, it is important to develop instruments that study the effects of relational job characteristics among nurses. We followed Messick's framework for scale validation, comprising the steps regarding the response process and internal structure, as well as relationships with other variables (work engagement and burnout). Statistical analysis included exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The psychological effects of the relational job characteristics scale provided evidence of good psychometric properties with Portuguese and Brazilian hospital nurses. Also, the psychological effects of the relational job characteristics are associated with nurses' work-related well-being: positively with work engagement and negatively concerning burnout. Hospitals that foster the relational characteristics of nursing work are contributing to their nurses' work-related well-being, which may be reflected in the quality of care and patient safety. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie S Torrance

    Full Text Available Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions. For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  2. The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Jaimie S; Wincenciak, Joanna; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have investigated the facial characteristics that influence perceptions of others' attractiveness and dominance, the majority of these studies have focused on either the effects of shape information or surface information alone. Consequently, the relative contributions of facial shape and surface characteristics to attractiveness and dominance perceptions are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between ratings of original versions of faces and ratings of versions in which either surface information had been standardized (i.e., shape-only versions) or shape information had been standardized (i.e., surface-only versions). For attractiveness and dominance judgments of both male and female faces, ratings of shape-only and surface-only versions independently predicted ratings of the original versions of faces. The correlations between ratings of original and shape-only versions and between ratings of original and surface-only versions differed only in two instances. For male attractiveness, ratings of original versions were more strongly related to ratings of surface-only than shape-only versions, suggesting that surface information is particularly important for men's facial attractiveness. The opposite was true for female physical dominance, suggesting that shape information is particularly important for women's facial physical dominance. In summary, our results indicate that both facial shape and surface information contribute to judgments of others' attractiveness and dominance, suggesting that it may be important to consider both sources of information in research on these topics.

  3. Relational job characteristics and nurses' affective organizational commitment: the mediating role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alda; Chambel, Maria José; Castanheira, Filipa

    2016-02-01

    To study work engagement as a mediator of the associations between relational job characteristics and nurses' affective commitment to the hospital. Earlier research has shown that work engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and affective organizational commitment. However, relational job characteristics, which may be job resources, have not been studied or examined in relation to work engagement and affective organizational commitment in the nursing profession. This study uses a correlational survey design and an online survey for data collection. Data for this correlational study were collected by survey over months (2013) from a sample of 335 hospital nurses. Measures included Portuguese translations of the Relational Job Characteristics' Psychological Effects Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Affective Organizational Commitment Scale. Data analysis supports a full mediation model where relational job characteristics explained affective commitment to the hospital through nurses' work engagement. Relational job characteristics contribute to nurses' work engagement, which in turn contributes to affective organizational commitment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  5. The unique contributions of perceiver and target characteristics in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehman, Eric; Sutherland, Clare A M; Flake, Jessica K; Slepian, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Models of person perception have long asserted that our impressions of others are guided by characteristics of both the target and perceiver. However, research has not yet quantified to what extent perceivers and targets contribute to different impressions. This quantification is theoretically critical, as it addresses how much an impression arises from "our minds" versus "others' faces." Here, we apply cross-classified random effects models to address this fundamental question in social cognition, using approximately 700,000 ratings of faces. With this approach, we demonstrate that (a) different trait impressions have unique causal processes, meaning that some impressions are largely informed by perceiver-level characteristics whereas others are driven more by physical target-level characteristics; (b) modeling of perceiver- and target-variance in impressions informs fundamental models of social perception; (c) Perceiver × Target interactions explain a substantial portion of variance in impressions; (d) greater emotional intensity in stimuli decreases the influence of the perceiver; and (e) more variable, naturalistic stimuli increases variation across perceivers. Important overarching patterns emerged. Broadly, traits and dimensions representing inferences of character (e.g., dominance) are driven more by perceiver characteristics than those representing appearance-based appraisals (e.g., youthful-attractiveness). Moreover, inferences made of more ambiguous traits (e.g., creative) or displays (e.g., faces with less extreme emotions, less-controlled stimuli) are similarly driven more by perceiver than target characteristics. Together, results highlight the large role that perceiver and target variability play in trait impressions, and develop a new topography of trait impressions that considers the source of the impression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The relation between the anthropometric characteristics of fingers and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mardanshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry is a science of human body measurement that could be used for manufacturing artificial limbs or prosthesis, investigating body differences between populations, utilizing in forensics and criminology, or even in the diagnosis of some diseases. Two of the most important anthropometric characteristics are dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length. Many studies have evaluated the relation between these two characteristics in different diseases such as cancers. It assumed that dermatoglyphic patterns and finger length could be used as predictors of some cancers such as gastric, ovarian, prostate, testicular, and breast cancers. In this review, we evaluated the relation between dermatoglyphic variability and finger length in different cancers more precisely.

  7. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G F M; Giltay, Erik J; van Hemert, Albert M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course. Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants with baseline depressive and/or anxiety disorders (n = 1,474, 18-65 years) were collected in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. At baseline, childhood maltreatment was assessed with a semistructured interview. Personality trait questionnaires (Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory, Mastery scale, and Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity), recent stressful life events (List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire), and psychosocial variables were administered. The Life Chart Interview was used to determine the time to remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. At baseline, 846 participants (57.4%) reported any childhood maltreatment. Childhood maltreatment had a negative impact on psychosocial functioning and was predictive of more unfavorable personality characteristics and cognitive reactivity styles (P Childhood maltreatment was a significant predictor of lower likelihood of remission of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (HR = 0.94, P childhood maltreatment and 4-year remission of depressive and anxiety disorders. Certain personality characteristics are key players in the mechanism linking childhood maltreatment to an adverse illness course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Early interventions--reducing neuroticism and hopelessness, and enhancing extraversion and locus of control--might contribute to a better prognosis in a "high-risk" group of depressive and anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Contribution of X-ray crystallography in energy related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, C.A.; Hussain, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallography is concerned with the study of the structure of matter at the atomic level in condensed state. The great practical importance of scientific knowledge of the structure of solid is self evident when consideration is given to the definition of desired physical and chemical properties. The strength of steel girders, the corrosion of alloys, the plasticity of lime, the wearing properties of case hardness steel, the dielectric capacity of materials, the lubricating properties of long chain paraffin's or of graphite, the stretching of rubber and innumerable other practical phenomena of every day life depend upon ultimate structure of these materials. To understand function to control, manipulate and best utilize their properties, and to produce materials with properties meeting a desired set of specification it is essential to understand thoroughly both the characteristics and origin of each property. Origins of materials properties lie in a combination of natural laws with the detailed structure and composition of materials, i.e. the choice, location, bonding, etc. of every atom in the material object. Therefore, to understand their various properties, it is important to explore the structure property relationship in materials. X-ray crystallography is not only helping to develop new materials having desired properties, but also in improving existing materials. Radiation effects, electrolytes, superconductors and catalysts etc. are just a few examples of many areas where crystallography is helping. With the invent of new radiation sources like synchrotron and new detectors materials and techniques, this almost 80 years old discipline continues to capture the interest of solid state physicists and chemists alike. (author)

  9. Market and plan characteristics related to HMO quality and improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Swaminathan, Shailender; Chernew, Michael; Lee, Woolton

    2006-12-01

    Existing research on health plan performance examines whether variation in plans' scores is related to enrollee and health plan traits, primarily using cross-sectional research designs. This study extends that literature by incorporating data on market characteristics using a longitudinal framework. We estimate multivariate growth models that relate plan performance on standard measures to market and HMO characteristics using an unbalanced panel of data for 1998 to 2002. We find that HMO competition is not associated with better performance or greater rates of improvement in performance on the HEDIS chronic care measures. HMO penetration, on the other hand, is positively associated with HEDIS performance in several of the chronic care process-and-outcomes measures but not with a greater rate of improvement through time. Our analysis indicates that a significant percentage of the unexplained variation in quality improvement is because of permanent, unobserved plan-level characteristics that future research should strive to identify.

  10. Normal forms for characteristic functions on n-ary relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFunctions of type (n) are characteristic functions on n-ary relations. Keenan established their importance for natural language semantics, by showing that natural language has many examples of irreducible type (n) functions, i.e., functions of type (n) that cannot be represented as

  11. Home Visiting Processes: Relations with Family Characteristics and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carla A.; Roggman, Lori A.; Green, Beth; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Korfmacher, Jon; McKelvey, Lorraine; Zhang, Dong; Atwater, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in dosage, content, and family engagement with Early Head Start (EHS) home visiting services were examined for families participating in the EHS Research and Evaluation Project. Families were grouped by characteristics of maternal age, maternal ethnicity, and level of family risk. All home visiting variables were related differentially…

  12. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Torstveit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.

  14. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635

  15. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jaclyn; Taren, Douglas L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Thomson, Cynthia A; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B

    2006-02-01

    Energy underreporting occurs in 2% to 85% and overreporting in 1% to 39% of various populations. Efforts are needed to understand the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics associated with misreporting to help improve the accuracy of dietary self-reporting. Past research suggests that higher social desirability and greater eating restraint are key factors influencing misreporting, while a history of dieting and being overweight are more moderately associated. Eating disinhibition, body image, depression, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation may be related to energy misreporting, but evidence is insufficient. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the published associations among psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and energy misreporting.

  16. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  17. Non-work-related personal events contribute to depressive symptoms in Japanese discretionary workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, Ayumi; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Toru

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, the number of workers with depressive symptoms has increased recently, and long working hours are considered one of the main contributing factors. Currently, the number of workers engaging in discretionary work is small but is expected to increase, as a diverse method of employment is believed to contribute to workers' well-being. However, the factors related to discretionary workers' depressive symptoms are unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with depressive symptoms in discretionary workers. The subjects were 240 male discretionary workers in a Japanese insurance company. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire that includes demographic characteristics, living and working conditions, work-related and non-work-related stressful events, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depressive symptoms were assessed as more than 16 points on the CES-D. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to estimate odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of depressive symptoms in relation to possible factors. Thirty-six subjects (15.5%) showed depressive symptoms. The depressive symptoms were significantly related to age (p = 0.04), presence of child(ren) (p = 0.02), and length of employment (p = 0.01), but unrelated to working hours. Subjects who reported "financial matters" (OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.89-10.72) and "own event" such as divorce or illness (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.13-7.61) were more likely to show depressive symptoms. In conclusion, mental health measures for discretionary workers should focus on addressing financial difficulties and consultations and assistance in personal health and family issues.

  18. Hospital variation in 30-day mortality after colorectal cancer surgery in denmark: the contribution of hospital volume and patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Borglykke, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This study examines variation between hospitals in 30-day mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Denmark and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals.......This study examines variation between hospitals in 30-day mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Denmark and explores whether hospital volume and patient characteristics contribute to any variation between hospitals....

  19. Cytogenetic, clinical, and cytologic characteristics of radiotherapy-related leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, P.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, we observed eight cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia, three cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously treated exclusively with radiotherapy for other tumor types. The latent period from administration of radiotherapy to development of leukemia varied between 12 and 243 months. Clonal chromosome aberrations reported previously as characteristic of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following therapy with alkylating agents were observed in three of the eight patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (5q- and -7) and in two of the three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (-7 and 12p-). All three patients with radiotherapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia presented a t(9;22)(q34;q11). The results suggest that cytogenetic characteristics may reflect the etiology in radiation-induced acute leukemias, whereas radiation-related chronic myeloid leukemia does not seem to differ chromosomally from de novo cases of the disease

  20. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisswig, Christian; Bishop, Nigel T; Lai, Chi Wai; Thornburg, Jonathan; Szilagyi, Bela

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50

  1. Characteristic evolutions in numerical relativity using six angular patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisswig, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Bishop, Nigel T [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Lai, Chi Wai [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, PO Box 392, Unisa 0003, South Africa (South Africa); Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Szilagyi, Bela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2007-06-21

    The characteristic approach to numerical relativity is a useful tool in evolving gravitational systems. In the past this has been implemented using two patches of stereographic angular coordinates. In other applications, a six-patch angular coordinate system has proved effective. Here we investigate the use of a six-patch system in characteristic numerical relativity, by comparing an existing two-patch implementation (using second-order finite differencing throughout) with a new six-patch implementation (using either second- or fourth-order finite differencing for the angular derivatives). We compare these different codes by monitoring the Einstein constraint equations, numerically evaluated independently from the evolution. We find that, compared to the (second-order) two-patch code at equivalent resolutions, the errors of the second-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of about 2, and the errors of the fourth-order six-patch code are smaller by a factor of nearly 50.

  2. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  3. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Collins, Thomas S; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E; Mills, David A

    2016-06-14

    Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir Wine production is a multi-billion-dollar global industry for which microbial control and wine chemical composition are crucial aspects of quality. Terroir is an important feature of consumer appreciation and wine culture, but the many factors that contribute to terroir are nebulous. We show that grape and wine microbiota exhibit regional patterns that correlate with wine chemical composition, suggesting that the grape microbiome may influence terroir In addition to enriching our understanding of how growing region and wine properties interact, this may provide further economic incentive for agricultural and enological practices that maintain regional

  4. Patients' Non-Medical Characteristics Contribute to Collective Medical Decision-Making at Multidisciplinary Oncological Team Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, Léa; Apostolidis, Thémis; Bouhnik, Anne-Déborah; Garciaz, Sylvain; Aurran, Thérèse; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of patients' non-medical characteristics to individual physicians' decision-making has attracted considerable attention, but little information is available on this topic in the context of collective decision-making. Medical decision-making at cancer centres is currently carried out using a collective approach, at MultiDisciplinary Team (MDT) meetings. The aim of this study was to determine how patients' non-medical characteristics are presented at MDT meetings and how this information may affect the team's final medical decisions. Observations were conducted at a French Cancer Centre during MDT meetings at which non-standard cases involving some uncertainty were discussed from March to May 2014. Physicians' verbal statements and predefined contextual parameters were collected with a non-participant observational approach. Non numerical data collected in the form of open notes were then coded for quantitative analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. In the final sample of patients' records included and discussed (N = 290), non-medical characteristics were mentioned in 32.8% (n = 95) of the cases. These characteristics corresponded to demographics in 22.8% (n = 66) of the cases, psychological data in 11.7% (n = 34), and relational data in 6.2% (n = 18). The patient's age and his/her "likeability" were the most frequently mentioned characteristics. In 17.9% of the cases discussed, the final decision was deferred: this outcome was positively associated with the patients' non-medical characteristics and with uncertainty about the outcome of the therapeutic options available. The design of the study made it difficult to draw definite cause-and-effect conclusions. The Social Representations approach suggests that patients' non-medical characteristics constitute a kind of tacit professional knowledge that may be frequently mobilised in physicians' everyday professional practice. The links observed between patients

  5. Game-specific characteristics of sport-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game-specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool. A total of 3001 participants completed the questionnaires. 18% of the participants answered that they had experienced a concussion which significantly differed depending on the sport practiced (χ2(3)=56.868, Pconcussions on the amateur level, volleyball players experienced most on the professional level and basketball players during leisure play (χ2(9)=112.667, Pconcussions by a collision with another player, volleyball players instead experienced most concussions by hits from the ball (χ2(6)=211.260, Pconcussive incidences (χ2(7)=19.638, Pconcussions (χ2(6)=13.617, Pconcussions are sport-specific and particularly concern amateurs. This indicates that most concussions in ball games appear in situations, where medical care units are not necessarily present. Preventive measures should therefore especially address amateurs in ball sports.

  6. Drought propagation and its relation with catchment biophysical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Garreton, C. D.; Lara, A.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts propagate in the hydrological cycle from meteorological to soil moisture to hydrological droughts. To understand the drivers of this process is of paramount importance since the economic and societal impacts in water resources are directly related with hydrological droughts (and not with meteorological droughts, which have been most studied). This research analyses drought characteristics over a large region and identify its main exogenous (climate forcing) and endogenous (biophysical characteristics such as land cover type and topography) explanatory factors. The study region is Chile, which covers seven major climatic subtypes according to Köppen system, it has unique geographic characteristics, very sharp topography and a wide range of landscapes and vegetation conditions. Meteorological and hydrological droughts (deficit in precipitation and streamflow, respectively) are characterized by their durations and standardized deficit volumes using a variable threshold method, over 300 representative catchments (located between 27°S and 50°S). To quantify the propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought, we propose a novel drought attenuation index (DAI), calculated as the ratio between the meteorological drought severity slope and the hydrological drought severity slope. DAI varies from zero (catchment that attenuates completely a meteorological drought) to one (the meteorological drought is fully propagated through the hydrological cycle). This novel index provides key (and comparable) information about drought propagation over a wide range of different catchments, which has been highlighted as a major research gap. Similar drought indicators across the wide range of catchments are then linked with catchment biophysical characteristics. A thorough compilation of land cover information (including the percentage of native forests, grass land, urban and industrial areas, glaciers, water bodies and no vegetated areas), catchment physical

  7. Physical activity and body mass index: the contribution of age and workplace characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C; Wagner, Gregory R; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Buxton, Orfeu M; Kenwood, Christopher T; Sabbath, Erika L; Hashimoto, Dean M; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-03-01

    The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging, and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility, and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of the contribution of magnetic films on planar inductors characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamet, E.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rouiller, T.; Bayard, B.; Noyel, G.; Rousseau, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose here to use the interesting properties of magnetic thin films in order to improve planar inductors characteristics. Magnetic thin films serve as a way of confining electromagnetic field into the coil.Radio-frequency components require high-quality inductors. But at high frequencies several effects degrade the quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Our investigation deals with planar inductors, and we first try to optimize methodology of inductors design. The inductor area is kept constant (300x300μm 2 ). Characteristics of spiral inductors heavily depend on coils structures (thickness, width, number of loops, shape ...). The impact of spiral inductor parameters on the L and Q factors is studied. Q profit can reach 100% after coils parameters optimization.On the other hand, different designs with magnetic films are tested. The relative permeability (μr) of magnetic material is set to 10 and dielectric/magnetic losses are assumed to be negligeable. Thicknesses of about 10μm of magnetic material are reasonable in terms of technology and especially compatible with integration. At 2GHz, with 10μm under the coils, L and Q values have a profit of 44% and 9%, respectively compared to the non magnetic-structure.The results are based on RL model and are obtained from simulations (Ansoft HFSS) for frequencies up to 5GHz

  9. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nurses-Contribution of personality, job characteristics, coping, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Hatch, Daniel; Pendergast, Jane F; Freude, Gabriele; Rose, Uwe; Burr, Hermann; Müller, Grit; Martus, Peter; Pohrt, Anne; Potter, Guy

    2018-07-01

    Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers. Cohort of nursing workers (N = 281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms. Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect β coefficient 2.44, p < 0.001), but not with within-individual variation in symptoms. Disengagement dimension of burnout was not associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms, but contributed to within-individual variation in depressive symptoms over time (fixed effect β coefficient 0.52, p = 0.01). Participants were nursing workers within a single hospital system. Participants who were excluded due to missing baseline data were more likely of non-white race, which may also limit the generalizability of our results. We used latent variables to represent certain job and coping characteristics, which may make our results less comparable with other studies examining the role of these factors in work-associated depression. Future interventions to prevent depression in healthcare workers should consider multiple job and individual factors. Potential components include strategies to manage negative

  11. What contributes to action plan enactment? Examining characteristics of physical activity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Gardner, Benjamin; Keller, Jan; Lippke, Sonia; Pomp, Sarah; Wiedemann, Amelie U

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with chronic conditions can benefit from formulating action plans to engage in regular physical activity. However, the content and the successful translation of plans into action, so-called plan enactment, are rarely adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the content of user-specified plans and to examine whether participants were more likely to enact their plans if these plans were highly specific, viable, and instrumental. The study presents secondary analyses from a larger behavioural intervention in cardiac and orthopaedic rehabilitation. The content of 619 action plans from 229 participants was evaluated by two independent raters (i.e., qualitative analyses and ratings of specificity) and by participants themselves (i.e., instrumentality and viability). Plan enactment was also measured via self-reports. Multilevel analyses examined the relationship between these plan characteristics and subsequent plan enactment, and between plan enactment and aggregated physical activity. Participants preferred to plan leisure-time physical activities anchored around time-based cues. Specificity of occasion cues (i.e., when to act) and highly instrumental plans were positively associated with plan enactment. Interestingly, individuals who planned less specific behavioural responses (i.e., what to do) were more likely to enact their plans. Plan enactment was positively associated with aggregated behaviour. Interventions should not only emphasize the importance of planning, but also the benefits of formulating specific contextual cues. Planning of the behavioural response seems to require less precision. Allowing for some flexibility in executing the anticipated target behaviour seems to aid successful plan enactment. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Action planning interventions are efficacious in promoting health behaviour. Characteristics of plan content (i.e., specificity) matter for unconditional behaviour

  12. Pregnancy-related mortality in California: causes, characteristics, and improvement opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Elliott K; McCain, Christy L; Morton, Christine H; Holtby, Susan; Lawton, Elizabeth S

    2015-04-01

    To compare specific maternal and clinical characteristics and contributing factors among the five leading causes of pregnancy-related mortality to develop focused clinical and public health prevention programs. California pregnancy-related deaths from 2002-2005 were identified with enhanced surveillance using linked birth and death certificates. A multidisciplinary committee reviewed medical records, autopsy reports, and coroner reports to determine cause of death, clinical and demographic characteristics, chance to alter outcome, contributing factors (at health care provider, facility, and patient levels), and quality improvement opportunities. The five leading causes of death were compared with each other and with the overall California birth population. Among the 207 pregnancy-related deaths, the five leading causes were cardiovascular disease, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage, venous thromboembolism, and amniotic fluid embolism. Among the leading causes of death, we identified differing patterns for race, maternal age, body mass index, timing of death, and method of delivery. Overall, there was a good-to-strong chance to alter the outcome in 41% of deaths, with the highest rates of preventability among hemorrhage (70%) and preeclampsia (60%) deaths. Health care provider, facility, and patient contributing factors also varied by cause of death. Pregnancy-related mortality should not be considered a single clinical entity. Reducing mortality requires in-depth examination of individual causes of death. The five leading causes exhibit different characteristics, degrees of preventability, and contributing factors, with the greatest improvement opportunities identified for hemorrhage and preeclampsia. These findings provide additional support for hospital, state, and national maternal safety programs.

  13. Characteristics and contributions of hyperandrogenism to insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Jun; Li, Shengxian; Tao, Tao; Ma, Jing; Liu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the different characteristics in Chinese Han women with polycystic ovary syndrome, and to analyze the significance of hyperandrogenism in insulin resistance and other metabolic profiles. A cross-sectional study. Medical university hospital. A total of 229 women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 18-45 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria, were divided into four groups according to the quartile intervals of free androgen index levels. Comparisons between groups were performed using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and independent variables. Within the four phenotypes, women with phenotype 1 (hyperandrogenism, oligo/anovulation, and polycystic ovaries) exhibited higher total testosterone, free androgen index, androstenedione, low-density lipoprotein, and lower quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (p polycystic ovaries) showed lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, but higher high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.05). The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance significantly increased, but high-density lipoprotein and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index decreased with the elevation of free androgen index intervals. After adjustment for lipid profiles, free androgen index was significantly associated with homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance in both lean and overweight/obese women (odds ratio 1.302, p = 0.039 in lean vs. odds ratio 1.132, p = 0.036 in overweight/obese). Phenotypes 1 and 4 represent groups with the most and least severe metabolic profiles, respectively. Hyperandrogenism, particularly with elevated free androgen index, is likely a key contributing factor for insulin resistance and for the aggravation

  14. An Assessment of Health Related Quality of Life in a Male Prison Population in Greece Associations with Health Related Characteristics and Characteristics of Detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Togas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL in this population are limited. Aim. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. Results. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population.

  15. An assessment of health related quality of life in a male prison population in Greece associations with health related characteristics and characteristics of detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togas, Constantinos; Raikou, Maria; Niakas, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners constitute a group with increased health and social care needs. Although implementing policies that aim at improving outcomes within this population should be a priority area, studies that attempt to assess health outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in this population are limited. To assess HRQoL in a prison population in Greece and to explore the relationship between HRQoL and a set of individual sociodemographic and health related characteristics and characteristics of detention. A cross-sectional study involving 100 male prisoners was conducted in the prison of Corinth in Greece. HRQoL was assessed through the use of the SF-36 and the EQ-5D. The mean physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 were 55.33 and 46.82, respectively. The EQ-VAS mean score was 76.41%, while the EQ-5D index was 0.72. Multivariate analysis identified a statistical relationship between HRQoL and the conditions of detention, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic characteristics, morbidity, and mental problems. The use of narcotics in particular is significantly associated with lower HRQoL. Implementation of policies that aim at preventing the use of narcotics within the prison environment is expected to contribute to improved HRQoL in this population.

  16. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12 year old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belsky, D.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L.; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in

  17. Seismic ground motion characteristics in the Bucharest area: source and site effects contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, B.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of source vs. site effects on the seismic ground motion in Bucharest is controversial as the previous studies showed. The fundamental period of resonance for the sedimentary cover is emphasized by ambient noise and earthquake measurements, if the spectral ratio method (Nakamura, 1989) is applied (Bonjer et al., 1989). On the other hand, the numerical simulations (Moldoveanu et al., 2000.) and acceleration spectra analysis (Sandi et al., 2001) brought into the light the determinant role of the source effects. We considered all the available instrumental data related to Vrancea earthquakes recorded in Bucharest area to find how the source and site properties control the peak ground motion peculiarities. Our main results are summarized as follows: 1. The resonant period of oscillation, related to the shallow sediment layer, is practically present in all the H/V spectral ratios, no matter we consider ambient noise or earthquakes of any size. This argues in favor of the crucial role played by the sedimentary cover and proves that the ratio method is reasonably removing the source effects. However, the absolute spectra are completely different for earthquakes below and above magnitude 7, namely amplitudes in the range of 1-2 s periods are negligible in the first case, and predominant in the second one. It looks like the resonant amplification by the sedimentary cover becomes effective only for the largest earthquakes (M > 7), when the source radiation coincides with the fundamental resonance range. We conclude that the damage in Bucharest is dramatically amplified when the earthquake size is above a critical value (M ≅ 7); 2. Our analysis shows a rather weak variability of the peak motion values and spectral amplitudes over the study area, in agreement with the relatively small variability of the shallow structure topography. (authors)

  18. Dispositional characteristics, relational well-being and perceived life satisfaction and empowerment of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Pezzuti, Lina; Mebane, Minou; Tomai, Manuela; Benedetti, Maura; Moro, Annalisa

    2017-10-01

    The broad purpose of this research is to identify the key modifiable variables most related to elders' life satisfaction and empowerment in order to improve the efficacy of interventions projects. Our study aims to integrate the theoretical perspectives of personality and community psychology focusing both on dispositional characteristics and relational well-being of elders, investigating triads, composed by an elder, a paid caregiver and the most involved relative. This study explores the impact of (1) some socio-demographic characteristics of elders, (2) some modifiable dispositional variables of elders and (3) elders' relational well-being on elders' empowerment and life satisfaction. The study involved 429 people in 143 triads. Semi-structured interviews with elders, paid caregiver and close relatives were used to construct a new pilot measure of elders' relational well-being. Life Satisfaction, Empowerment, Loneliness, Positivity, Humor and Emotions self-efficacy scales were also administered. Hierarchical multiple regressions were performed. Elders' positivity, relational well-being of elders and living alone were significantly related to empowerment. Elders' relational well-being and positivity significantly contributed to life satisfaction. Interventions to increase empowerment and life satisfaction should focus primarily on augmenting positivity and relational well-being integrating the theoretical premises of both personality and community psychology.

  19. Physical characteristics of the Japanese in relation to reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-i.; Kawamura, H.; Nomura, E.

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical and other characteristics of the human body provides basic data for the estimation of radiation risk and the establishment of dose equivalent in line with the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. ICRP Reference Man is based essentially on data reported on populations in rather limited areas in the world although Committee 2 of ICRP concedes that ''it is neither feasible nor necessary to specify Reference Man as representative of a well-defined population group''. ICRP Reference Man is not necessarily based on the most recent available data. In order to be more realistic and quantitative in dose equivalent estimation in Japan, it is necessary to consider populations which are largely different from those of European and North American countries in physical dimensions and other aspects. Therefore, standard or reference values of mass and size of organs, body and organ content and metabolic parameters of some elements have been studied. These are compared with the values of ICRP Reference Man authorized up to now, with the intention of establishing ''Reference Japanese Man'' and contributing to the improvement of models of man used in radiation protection. Dose equivalent commitment and annual limit of intake have been calculated using the obtained data for the general population in Japan,for some nuclides. (H.K.)

  20. Imaging characteristics of intraparenchymal schwannoma and the related pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyong; Geng Daoying; He Huijin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To Analyze the imaging characteristics of intraparenchymal schwannoma and the related pathology, in order to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and be in favor of the clinics and the prognosis. Methods: Four cases were confirmed to be intraparenchymal schwannoma by pathological and immunohistochemistry examination. One case was examined with precontrast and enhanced CT scanning, one with unenhanced MRI scanning, two with unenhanced and enhanced CT and MRI scanning. Their images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the four cases, three patients were less than 30 years old, with tumors located supratentorially. Cysts were found in all cases, with nodules on the wall in 3 cases. The nodules were enhanced markedly in two cases and moderately in one case. In addition, calcification was detected in one case and prominent peritumoral edema existed in 1 case. The picture of the pathology demonstrated Antoni type A and Antoni type B. Immunostaining showed intense immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and Vim and negative immunoreactivity for GFAP and EMA. Conclusions: Intraparenchymal schwannoma mostly occurred in juvenile, which located supratentorially in most cases. The presence of a cyst and peritumoral edema together with the tumor appears to be characteristic of intraparenchymal schwannoma. Calcification or the enhanced nodule is the helpful sign for the diagnosis. Combining the imaging findings with the pathology and immunohistochemistry results can gain the accurate diagnosis. (authors)

  1. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories. Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation. Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories. Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  2. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories.Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories.Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation.Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories.Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment.Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  3. Driving styles among young novice drivers--the contribution of parental driving styles and personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gila; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2010-03-01

    As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents' driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

  5. The relative importance of relational and scientific characteristics of psychotherapy: Perceptions of community members vs. therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J

    2016-03-01

    Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  7. The relative contributions of parents and siblings to child and adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Updegraff, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, we explore how siblings' and parents' roles, relationships, and activities are intertwined in everyday life, providing unique and combined contributions to development. In a departure from past research that emphasized the separate contributions of siblings and parents to individual development, we find that examining the conjoint or interactive effects of sibling and parent influences promises to extend our understanding of the role of family in children's and adolescents' social, emotional, and cognitive development. Understood within the context of family and sociocultural characteristics, siblings' unique roles as agents of socialization are illuminated.

  8. Study of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Meltwater Contribution to the Total Runoff in the Upper Changjiang River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Melt runoff (MR contributes significantly to the total runoff in many river basins. Knowledge of the meltwater contribution (MCR, defined as the ratio of MR to the total runoff to the total runoff benefits water resource management and flood control. A process-based land surface model, Noah-MP, was used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of MR and MCR in the Upper Changjiang River (as known as Yangtze River Basin (UCRB located in southwestern China. The model was first calibrated and validated using snow cover fraction (SCF, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET data. The calibrated model was then used to perform two numerical experiments from 1981 to 2010: control experiment that considers MR and an alternative experiment that MR is removed. The difference between two experiments was used to quantify MR and MCR. The results show that in the entire UCRB, MCR was approximately 2.0% during the study period; however, MCR exhibited notable spatiotemporal variability. Four sub-regions over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP showed significant annual MCR ranging from 3.9% to 6.0%, while two sub-regions in the low plain regions showed negligible annual MCR. The spatial distribution of MCR was generally consistent with the distribution of glaciers and elevation distribution. Mann-Kendall (M-K tests of the long-term annual MCR indicated that the four sub-regions in QTP exhibited increasing trends ranging from 0.01%/year to 0.21%/year during the study period but only one displayed statistically significant trend. No trends were found for the peak time (PT of MR and MCR, in contrast, advancing trend were observed for the center time (CT of MR, ranging from 0.01 months/year to 0.02 months/year. These trends are related to the changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study area.

  9. Dysthymic disorder: clinical characteristics in relation to age at onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzega, G; Maina, G; Venturello, S; Bogetto, F

    2001-09-01

    The variability in the clinical presentation of dysthymia has given rise to a rich debate in literature, and various hypotheses have been proposed. One is that the clinical presentation differs in relation to age at onset. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in a sample of patients with dysthymia (DSM-IV), in relation to age at onset. 84 consecutive outpatients with a diagnosis of dysthymia (DSM-IV) were studied. All subjects were evaluated by a semistructured clinical interview and the following rating scales: HAM-A, HAM-D, MADRS, Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. 23.8% of the sample had early-onset (dysthymia. Patients with early-onset disorder were significantly younger at the observation, more frequently female and single. They had a significantly longer duration of illness and in a significantly higher percentage had already received a specialist treatment before admission in the present trial. No differences in the frequency of symptoms were observed. A significantly higher percentage of patients with late-onset disease reported at least one stressful event in the year preceding the onset of dysthymia. A positive history of major depression was significantly more common among the early-onset group; social phobia, panic disorder and conversive disorder were also more frequent in this group. The late-onset patients frequently presented generalized anxiety disorder, substance abuse and somatization disorder. The study is retrospective and enrolls a limited number of cases. The present study agrees with other reports on the differences in clinical presentation of dysthymia according to age at onset. Although they are not actually related to age at onset, some interesting findings emerged in the symptomatological characterization of the disorder, referring to the diagnostic criteria proposed in DSM-IV.

  10. Work-related injuries: injury characteristics, survival, and age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Barmparas, Galinos; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-06-01

    Work-related injuries impose a significant burden on society. The goal of this study was to delineate the epidemiology and the effect of age on type and mortality after occupational injuries. Patients 16 years of age or older sustaining work-related injuries were identified from the National Trauma Databank 12.0. The study population was stratified into four age groups: 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years old. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, setting of injury, use of alcohol or other illicit drugs, and mortality were analyzed and related to age strata. Overall 67,658 patients were identified. There were 27,125 (40.1%) patients in the age group 16 to 35 years, 30,090 (44.5%) in the group 36 to 55 years, 6,618 (9.8%) in the group 56 to 65 years, and 3,825 (5.7%) older than 65 years. The injury severity increased significantly with age. Elderly patients were significantly more likely to sustain intracranial hemorrhages, spinal, and other skeletal injuries. The overall mortality was 2.9 per cent (1938) with the latter increasing significantly in a stepwise fashion with progressing age, becoming sixfold higher in patients older than 65 years (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.78 to 7.80; P < 0.001). Our examination illustrates the associations between occupational injury and significant mortality that warrant intervention for mortality reduction. There is a stepwise-adjusted increase in mortality with progressing age.

  11. The relative contribution of patient, provider and organizational influences to the appropriate diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Lisa; McKinlay, John; Shackelton, Rebecca; Link, Carol

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the relative contribution of patient attributes, provider characteristics and organizational features of the doctors' workplace to the diagnosis and management of diabetes. In a factorial experimental design doctors (n = 192) viewed clinically authentic vignettes of 'patients' presenting with identical signs and symptoms. Doctor subjects were primary care doctors stratified according to gender and level of experience. During an in-person interview scheduled between real patients, doctors were asked how they would diagnosis and manage the vignette 'patients' in clinical practice. This study considered the relative contribution of patient, doctor and organizational factors. Taken together patient attributes explained only 4.4% of the variability in diabetes diagnosis. Doctor factors explained only 2.0%. The vast majority of the explained variance in diabetes diagnosis was due to organizational factors (14.3%). Relative contributions combined (patient, provider, organizational factors) explained only 20% of the total variance. Attempts to reduce health care variations usually focus on the education/activation of patients, or increased training of doctors. Our findings suggest that shifting quality improvement efforts to the area which contributes most to the creation and amplification of variations (organizational influences) may produce better results in terms of reduced variations in health care associated with diabetes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Contributing and Damaging Factors Related to the Psychological Capital of Teachers: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Ismail; Özgan, Habib

    2018-01-01

    Over the last two decades, psychological capital has gained prominence in the literature on positive organisational behaviour. However, further investigation is still needed in relation to this issue, particularly in the context of educational organisations. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the contributing and damaging factors relating to…

  13. Relative Contribution of Perception/Cognition and Language on Spatial Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja; Hattrup, Kate

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of perception/cognition and language-specific semantics in nonverbal categorization of spatial relations. English and Korean speakers completed a video-based similarity judgment task involving containment, support, tight fit, and loose fit. Both perception/cognition and language served as resources…

  14. Criminalistic characteristics and detection of crimes related to prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvalova D.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminalistic characteristic of crimes related to prostitution is given (Articles 240, 241 of the RF Criminal Code. Sex industry is represented by three groups of subjects: organizers, perpetrators, services consumers. However, not all these individuals are criminally liable for their actions. Bringing a criminal case is preceded by detection of elements of crime, which is often carried out by a test purchase. Underworld evolution dictates the need for active use of other crime detection actions. The role of rapid and well-coordinated work of the inquiry body, its interaction with the preliminary investigation agency at the stage of detection of these crimes is emphasized. The attributes of these crimes are: advertisements on the recruitment of women to work in the service (leisure sector and personal vehicles drivers; advertisements on the services of an intimate nature; business cards and leaflets advertising the services of an intimate nature (directly or covertly; Internet advertisements offering the services of an intimate nature; groups of girls, constantly residing in baths and saunas, headed by young men or their presence at the same locations along the main streets or busy highways; information received on the law enforcement bodies hotlines; statements and complaints of the people against girls of easy virtue living in adjacent apartments. The issue of the moment of test purchase completion (transfer of money is considered. The problem of proving guilt in cases of reporting involvement in prostitution to the police is analyzed. Information verification is proposed to be implemented by experiment in crime detection.

  15. Inferring general relations between network characteristics from specific network ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardanobile, Stefano; Pernice, Volker; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Different network models have been suggested for the topology underlying complex interactions in natural systems. These models are aimed at replicating specific statistical features encountered in real-world networks. However, it is rarely considered to which degree the results obtained for one particular network class can be extrapolated to real-world networks. We address this issue by comparing different classical and more recently developed network models with respect to their ability to generate networks with large structural variability. In particular, we consider the statistical constraints which the respective construction scheme imposes on the generated networks. After having identified the most variable networks, we address the issue of which constraints are common to all network classes and are thus suitable candidates for being generic statistical laws of complex networks. In fact, we find that generic, not model-related dependencies between different network characteristics do exist. This makes it possible to infer global features from local ones using regression models trained on networks with high generalization power. Our results confirm and extend previous findings regarding the synchronization properties of neural networks. Our method seems especially relevant for large networks, which are difficult to map completely, like the neural networks in the brain. The structure of such large networks cannot be fully sampled with the present technology. Our approach provides a method to estimate global properties of under-sampled networks in good approximation. Finally, we demonstrate on three different data sets (C. elegans neuronal network, R. prowazekii metabolic network, and a network of synonyms extracted from Roget's Thesaurus) that real-world networks have statistical relations compatible with those obtained using regression models.

  16. Neuropsychological functioning related to specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, C; Dhondt, K; Roels, S P; Raes, A; Groen, L-A; Hoebeke, P; Walle, J Vande

    2015-08-01

    There is a high comorbidity demonstrated in the literature between nocturnal enuresis and several neuropsychological dysfunctions, with special emphasis on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the majority of the psychological studies did not include full non-invasive screening and failed to differentiate between monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and non-MNE patients. The present study primarily aimed to investigate the association between nocturnal enuresis and (neuro)psychological functioning in a selective homogeneous patient group, namely: children with MNE and associated nocturnal polyuria (NP). Secondly, the study investigated the association between specific characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (maximum voided volume, number of wet nights and number of nights with NP) and ADHD-inattentive symptoms, executive functioning and quality of life. The psychological measurements were multi-informant (parents, children and teachers) and multi-method (questionnaires, clinical interviews and neuropsychological testing). Thirty children aged 6-16 years (mean 10.43 years, SD 3.08) were included. Of them, 80% had at least one psychological, motor or neurological difficulty. The comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, especially the predominantly inattentive presentation, was most common. According to the teachers, a low maximum voided volume (corrected for age) was associated with more attention problems, and a high number of nights with NP was associated with more behaviour-regulation problems. No significant correlations were found between specific characteristics of enuresis and quality of life. Details are demonstrated in Table. The children were recruited from a tertiary referral centre, which resulted in selection bias. Moreover, NP was defined as a urine output exceeding 100% of the expected bladder capacity for age (EBC), and not according to the expert-opinion-based International Children's Continence Society norm of 130% of EBC. The definition

  17. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  18. CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND THE COURSE OF DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY DISORDERS : THE CONTRIBUTION OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    BackgroundWe investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment on predicting the 4-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders and the possible mediating role of personality characteristics in the association between childhood maltreatment and illness course.MethodsLongitudinal data in a large

  19. Analysing countries' contribution to climate change: scientific and policy-related choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hoehne, Niklas; Trudinger, Cathy; Lowe, Jason; Matthews, Ben; Romstad, Bard; Pires de Campos, Christiano; Andronova, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of different policy-related and scientific choices on the calculated regional contributions to global climate change (the 'Brazilian Proposal'). Policy-related choices include the time period of emissions, the mix of greenhouse gases and different indicators of climate change impacts. The scientific choices include historical emissions and model representations of the climate system. We generated and compared results of several simple climate models. We find that the relative contributions of different nations to global climate change-from emissions of greenhouse gases alone-are quite robust, despite the varying model complexity and differences in calculated absolute changes. For the default calculations, the average calculated contributions to the global mean surface temperature increase in 2000 are about 40% from OECD, 14% from Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union, 24% from Asia and 22% from Africa and Latin America. Policy-related choices, such as time period of emissions, climate change indicator and gas mix generally have larger influence on the results than scientific choices. More specifically, choosing a later attribution start date (1990 instead of 1890) for historical emissions, decreases the contributions of regions that started emitting early, such as the OECD countries by 6 percentage points, whereas it increases the contribution of late emitters such as Asia by 8 percentage points. However, only including the fossil CO 2 emissions instead of the emissions of all Kyoto gases (fossil and land use change), increases the OECD contributions by 21 percentage points and decreases the contribution of Asia by 14 percentage points

  20. Flooding characteristics of pulsed-sieve plate column. Contributed Paper ED-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnu Anand, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Rajeev, R.; Joyakin, C.V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Successful design of a pulsed sieve plate extraction column relies on profound understanding of its hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics. Present work outlines a comprehensive study of flooding velocity, a hydrodynamic parameter, as a function of various operating conditions of the column. Experimental studies were carried out using water-normal paraffin hydrocarbon system, under no mass transfer condition, in a pilot plant pulsed sieve plate column equipped with standard plate cartridges. Flooding velocity is characterized here as a function of phase flow ratio and pulse velocity with the aid of characteristic velocity concept together with an exponential function. Flooding points were experimentally identified with satisfactory accuracy using a quantitative method and dispersed phase hold-up was measured by online sampling. To verify the extent of applicability of some of the reported generalized flooding correlations from a design perspective, an analysis was done using our precisely generated experimental flooding data. (author)

  1. The Characteristics of Thai Movies and Factors Contributing to Becoming Widely Known in International Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tanyatorn Panyasopon

    2012-01-01

    Many Thai movies have been very popular domestically and internationally. Some movies were box office hits and receiving awards. However, there has not yet been research about how Thai movies can sell in international markets The objectives of the research were 1) To analyze the characteristics of Thai movies that can sell to world audiences; 2) To investigate the factors making Thai movies into foreign markets. Thai film professionals were interviewed. Their ideas were a...

  2. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  3. Landscape Characteristics and Variations in Longitudinal Stream Flow Contribution in two Headwater Semi-Arid Mountain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, B.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding what role particular catchment attributes (slope, aspect, landcover, and contributing area) play in the contribution of stream flow is important for land management decisions, especially in the semi-arid western areas of the United States. Our study site is paired small catchments (approximately 9 and 11 km2) in the headwaters of the Weber drainage basin in Northern Utah. These catchments are surrounded by Wasatch formation with loamy textured soils. One catchment is predominantly underlain by quartzite while the other catchment is mostly underlain by limestone. We measured lateral flow gains every 200 to 400 meters using salt dilution gauging techniques throughout the ~5 km long streams. These measurements were taken synoptically 3 times during the seasonal discharge recession (summer 2005). The flows ranged spatially from 4 L s-1 to 55 L s-1 and varied temporally by as much as 50% when comparing the same reaches. Using GIS software, landscape analysis of slope, aspect, contributing area, topographic convergence, riparian and hillslope area, and landcover was performed for each of the delineated stream reach contributing areas. The results were tested for correlations between lateral flow gains measured in the field and different landscape characteristics. Each of the synoptic events was compared with each other to explore effects of seasonal recession on the relationships between flow gain and landscape characteristics.

  4. Relative Contributions of Planned Behaviour and Social Capital on Educational Continuation Decisions of Disadvantaged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edannur, Sreekala

    2018-01-01

    The present study is conducted to understand the relative contributions of planned behavior and social capital on educational continuation decisions of VIII standard students belonging to backward class in India. Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Classes (OBC) are the three social groups dealt as backward classes in…

  5. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Li; J. Zhu; H. Hu; Z. Guo; Y. Pan; R. Birdsey; J. Fang

    2016-01-01

    Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area) and forest growth (increase in biomass density). Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms...

  6. Examining the Relative Contributions of Content Knowledge and Strategic Processing to Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Maren; Brown, Rachel; Mokhtari, Kouider; Valencia, Sheila; Palincsar, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The essays below were prepared following the LRA session organized by Janice Almasi entitled, "Examining the relative contributions of content knowledge and strategic processing to comprehension." What unites these essays are the personal and historical stances that each writer has taken; in addition, the essays are rich with…

  7. Chemical characteristics of ambient aerosols contributed by cooking process at Noorpur village near Delhi (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2013-05-01

    Combustion of fuels such as wood, crop residue and dung cakes etc. is one of the major sources of air pollution in developing countries. These fuels are still used commonly for cooking purpose in rural India. This study investigates the chemical composition of the ambient aerosols during cooking hours at a village called Noorpur (28.470 N, 77.030 E) which lies near Delhi city. Aerosol sampling was carried out during August 2011-May 2012 by using handy sampler (Envirotech model APM 821) installed at the terrace of a building (˜6m). The samples were collected on 8 hourly basis using Teflon filters. The water extract of these filters was analyzed for major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and major cations (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+ Mg2+) by ion chromatography (Metrohm 883 Basic IC Plus). Results highlighted that cooking process contributed significant amount of SO42- and K+ṡ. Biomass burning is considered as a potential source of K+ in air. The high concentration of SO42- might be due to oxidation of SO2 contributed by the combustion of dung cakes. Further, the detailed results will be discussed during the conference.

  8. Contribution of case-mix classification to profiling hospital characteristics and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Shinya; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Hayashida, Kenshi; Fujimori, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Case-mix classification has made it possible to analyze acute care delivery case volumes and resources. Data arising from observed differences have a role in planning health policy. Aggregated length of hospital stay (LOS) and total charges (TC) as measures of resource use were calculated from 34 case-mix groups at 469 hospitals (1,721,274 eligible patients). The difference between mean resource use of all hospitals and the mean resource use of each hospital was subdivided into three components: amount of variation attributable to hospital practice behavior (efficiency); amount attributable to hospital case-mix (complexity); and amount attributable to the interaction. Hospital characteristics were teaching status (academic or community), ownership, disease coverage, patients, and hospital volume. Multivariate analysis was employed to determine the impact of hospital characteristics on efficiency. Mean LOS and TC were greater for academic than community hospitals. Academic hospitals were least associated with LOS and TC efficiency. Low disease coverage was a predictor of TC efficiency while low patient volume was a predictor of unnecessarily long hospital stays. There was an inverse correlation between complexity and efficiency for both LOS and TC. Policy makers should acknowledge that differentiation of hospital function needs careful consideration when measuring efficiency. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Associations among Wine Grape Microbiome, Metabolome, and Fermentation Behavior Suggest Microbial Contribution to Regional Wine Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Collins, Thomas S.; Masarweh, Chad; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir. PMID:27302757

  10. Characteristics of storms that contribute to extreme precipitation events over the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Ordoñez, Paulina; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Floods correspond to one of the most deadly natural disasters in the Iberian Peninsula during the last century. Quite often these floods are associated to intense low pressure systems with an Atlantic origin. In recent years a number of episodes have been evaluated on a case-by-case approach, with a clear focus on extreme events, thus lacking a systematic assessment. In this study we focus on the characteristics of storms for the extended winter season (October to March) that are responsible for the most extreme rainfall events over large areas of the Iberian Peninsula. An objective method for ranking daily precipitation events during the extended winter is used based on the most comprehensive database of high resolution (0.2º latitude by 0.2º longitude) gridded daily precipitation dataset available for the Iberian Peninsula. The magnitude of an event is obtained after considering the total area affected as well as its intensity in every grid point (taking into account the daily normalised departure from climatology). Different precipitation rankings are studied considering the entire Iberian Peninsula, Portugal and also the six largest river basins in the Iberian Peninsula (Duero, Ebro, Tagus, Minho, Guadiana and Guadalquivir). Using an objective cyclone detecting and tracking scheme [Trigo, 2006] the storm track and characteristics of the cyclones were obtained using the ERA-Interim reanalyses for the 1979-2008 period. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclone positions when the precipitation extremes occur will be analysed over the considered sub-domains (Iberia, Portugal, major river basins). In addition, we distinguish the different cyclone characteristics (lifetime, direction, minimum pressure, position, velocity, vorticity and radius) with significant impacts in precipitation over the different domains in the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa

  11. Relating Eye Activity Measures to Human Controller Remnant Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, A; Zaal, P.M.T.; Pool, D.M.; Mulder, M.; Sawaragi, T

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to partially explain the characteristics of the human perceptual remnant, following Levison’s representation of the remnant as an equivalent observation noise. Eye activity parameters are recorded using an eye tracker in two compensatory tracking tasks in which the visual

  12. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Methods: Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Results: Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Discussion and Conclusion: Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members. PMID:29276591

  13. Job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals: The respective contributions of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the respective contribution of professional characteristics, team attributes, team processes, and team emergent states on the job satisfaction of 315 mental health professionals from Quebec (Canada). Job satisfaction was measured with the Job Satisfaction Survey. Independent variables were organized into four categories according to a conceptual framework inspired from the Input-Mediator-Outcomes-Input Model. The contribution of each category of variables was assessed using hierarchical regression analysis. Variations in job satisfaction were mostly explained by team processes, with minimal contribution from the other three categories. Among the six variables significantly associated with job satisfaction in the final model, four were team processes: stronger team support, less team conflict, deeper involvement in the decision-making process, and more team collaboration. Job satisfaction was also associated with nursing and, marginally, male gender (professional characteristics) as well as with a stronger affective commitment toward the team (team emergent states). Results confirm the importance for health managers of offering adequate support to mental health professionals, and creating an environment favorable to collaboration and decision-sharing, and likely to reduce conflicts between team members.

  14. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF12 in working populations: associations with psychosocial work characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Hanebuth, Dirk; von Känel, Roland; Gander, Marie-Louise; Grande, Gesine; Fischer, Joachim E

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, job demand, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance) to health-related quality of life. Data were derived from 2 aircraft manufacturing plants (N=1,855) at the start of a longitudinal study. Regression analysis showed that work characteristics (1st model) explained 19% of the variance in the mental summary score of the Short Form-12 Health Survey. R2 change for work characteristics decreased to 13%, accounting for demographics, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and medical condition (5th model). Including health behavior and personality factors (full model), R2 change for work characteristics remained significant. Psychosocial work characteristics account for relevant proportions in the subjective perception of mental health beyond a wide array of medical variables and personality factors. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Group contribution modelling for the prediction of safety-related and environmental properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    warming potential and ozone depletion potential. Process safety studies and environmental assessments rely on accurate property data. Safety data such as flammability limits, heat of combustion or auto ignition temperature play an important role in quantifying the risk of fire and explosions among others......We present a new set of property prediction models based on group contributions to predict major safety-related and environmental properties for organic compounds. The predicted list of properties includes lower and upper flammability limits, heat of combustion, auto ignition temperature, global...... models like group contribution (GC) models can estimate data. However, the estimation needs to be accurate, reliable and as little time-consuming as possible so that the models can be used on the fly. In this study the Marrero and Gani group contribution (MR GC) method has been used to develop the models...

  16. Job stress and behavioral characteristics in relation to coronary heart disease risk among Japanese police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Maki; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Morioka, Ikuharu; Utsumi, Miyoko; Hattori, Sonomi; Koike, Hiroaki; Arita, Mikio; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-08

    This study examined the association between job-related behavioral characteristics and the risk of coronary heart diseases (CHD) in Japanese male police officers. Compared to office clerks, police officers exhibited greater age-related increases of the prevalence of CHD risk factors, and a clustering number of CHD risk factors was significantly higher in the group of those over 45 yr of age. Among the police officers, coronary-prone behavior was more frequent than that seen in office clerks. The police officers with coronary-prone behavior tended to engage in shift work and to work overtime more; yet they were less likely to perceive job stress and to express the relevant physical and psychological symptoms than those without coronary-prone behavior. The subjects with such behavioral characteristics had a significantly greater number of CHD risk factors. In a multiple regression analysis, coronary-prone behavior together with age, social support, walking hours per day, and amount of alcohol consumption were selected as significant determinants of a cluster of CHD risk factors. These results suggest that coronary-prone behavior may contribute to the higher prevalence of CHD risk factors in police officers via leading the long working hours and the work-related unfavorable lifestyles, such as alcohol drinking and physical inactivity.

  17. Impact of childhood trauma on course of panic disorder: contribution of clinical and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, M; Van Den Eede, F; Pattyn, T; Wouters, K; Veltman, D J; Penninx, B W J H; Sabbe, B G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of panic disorder and possible contributing factors. Longitudinal data of 539 participants with a current panic disorder were collected from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Childhood trauma was assessed with a structured interview and clinical course after 2 years with a DSM-IV-based diagnostic interview and the Life Chart Interview. At baseline, 54.5% reported childhood trauma, but this was not predictive of persistence of panic disorder. Emotional neglect and psychological abuse were associated with higher occurrence of anxiety disorders other than panic disorder (social phobia) and with higher chronicity of general anxiety symptoms (anxiety attacks or episodes and avoidance). Baseline clinical features (duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms) and personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) accounted for roughly 30-60% of the total effect of childhood trauma on chronicity of anxiety symptoms and on occurrence of other anxiety disorders. After two years, childhood trauma is associated with chronicity of anxiety symptoms and occurrence of social phobia, rather than persistence of panic disorder. These relationships are partially accounted for by duration and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and neuroticism and extraversion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Relations between Some Characteristic Lengths in a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Wolfram; Brede, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The paper's aim is to note a remarkable (and apparently unknown) relation for right triangles, its generalisation to arbitrary triangles and the possibility to derive these and some related relations by elimination using Groebner basis computations with a modern computer algebra system. (Contains 9 figures.)

  19. Generalized uncertainty relations and characteristic invariants for the multimode states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Chiu, C.B.; Bhamathi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero-point energy, the uncertainty relation, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group theoretic perspective of the problem enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. A simple and efficient method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented. Implication of canonical commutation relations for correlations are not exhausted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, not even by the Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty inequality, but there are relations in the multimode case that are the generalization of the Schroedinger-Robertson relation

  20. DFT/GIAO calculations of the relative contributions of hyperconjugation to the chemical shifts of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J. Walkimar de M.; Dias, Jacques F.; Seidl, Peter R.; Tostes, J. Glauco R.

    2002-01-01

    Our previous DFT/GIAO calculations on different types of alcohols reveal that the rotation of the hydroxyl group can affect the chemical shift of carbons and hydrogens close to the substituent in different ways. Besides the steric and electrostatic effects that have been widely studied, hyperconjugation with the lone pairs on oxygen of the hydroxyl group leads to changes in bond lengths and angles as well as to different charge distributions. As all three of these factors also affect chemical shifts, we undertook a systematic investigation of their relative contributions to the chemical shifts of ethanol, a molecule in which there is minimum interference among these factors. Calculations by the B3LYP method at the 6-31G(d) level for ethanol conformers corresponding to a rotation around the carbon-oxygen bond at 30 dec increments are used to show how relative contributions vary with the dihedral angle formed between the carbon-carbon and oxygen-hydrogen bonds (C-C-O-H). Largest contributions to carbon chemical shifts can be attributed to changes in bond lengths while for hydrogen chemical shifts also contribute significantly differences in charge distribution. (author)

  1. The relative contributions of social cognition and self-reflectiveness to clinical insight in enduring schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béland, Sophie; Lepage, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Poor clinical insight represents a major barrier to recovery in schizophrenia. Research suggests that higher-order social cognitive abilities such as theory of mind (TOM) and metacognition contribute to levels of clinical insight. However, few studies have examined whether social cognitive abilities other than TOM are related to clinical insight. Moreover, to date, no investigation has attempted to determine whether the contribution of metacognitive ability to clinical insight can be differentiated from the contribution of higher-order social cognition, despite their conceptual similarity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative contribution of different social cognitive abilities, as well as metacognition, to clinical insight in a large sample of 139 enduring schizophrenia patients, and controlling for established predictors of clinical insight. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate the portion of variance explained by 3 social cognitive abilities: emotion recognition, TOM, and affective empathy, and the metacognitive ability of self-reflectiveness. Clinical insight levels were assessed using the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded version. Results indicated that affective empathy and self-reflectiveness are the strongest predictors of clinical insight. These results provide insights on the development of targeted interventions for improving clinical insight in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in elderly Koreans and its symptomatic contribution in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung Joon; Gn, Kiran Kumar; Kang, Jong Yeal; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) but have invariably focused on the tibiofemoral (TF) joint and overlooked the patellofemoral (PF) joint. Accordingly, little epidemiological information is available regarding the PF OA. The purpose of the current study was to document the epidemiological characteristics of PF OA in elderly Koreans. Radiographic assessment was performed for 681 elderly (≥65 years old) Koreans recruited from a community, and symptom severity was evaluated using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scales. Prevalence of different categories of knee OA (isolated PF OA, isolated TF OA and combined PF and TF OA) was calculated. The symptoms of isolated PF OA group and non-OA group were compared. The overall prevalence of OA was 22.0% in the PF compartment and 34.1% in the TF compartment. The prevalence of isolated PF OA, isolated TF OA, and combined PF and TF OA was 3.8%, 17.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. Female sex, aging, and obesity were not associated with isolated PF OA. No significant differences were found in any clinical outcome scales between the isolated PF and non-OA groups. This study documents that OA in the PF joint is common in elderly Koreans, but isolated PF OA is rare. Demographic risk factors are not associated with isolated PF OA, suggesting that isolated PF OA may have a different pathophysiology from other types of knee OA. Our study also indicates that the presence of isolated PF OA should not be construed to be responsible for clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individuals with affected first-degree and second-degree relatives and relative contributions of genes (heritability), common environment shared by family members and non-shared environment to gout susceptibility. RRs for gout were significantly higher in individuals with affected first-degree relatives (men, 1.91 (95% CI 1.90 to 1.93); women, 1.97 (95% CI 1.94 to 1.99)) and also in those with affected second-degree relatives (men, 1.27 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.31); women, 1.40 (95% CI 1.35 to 1.46)). RRs (95% CIs) for individuals with an affected twin, sibling, offspring, parent, grandchild, nephew/niece, uncle/aunt and grandparent were 8.02 (6.95 to 9.26), 2.59 (2.54 to 2.63), 1.96 (1.95 to 1.97), 1.93 (1.91 to 1.94), 1.48 (1.43 to 1.53), 1.40 (1.32 to 1.47), 1.31 (1.24 to 1.39), and 1.26 (1.21 to 1.30), respectively. The relative contributions of heritability, common and non-shared environmental factors to phenotypic variance of gout were 35.1, 28.1 and 36.8% in men and 17.0, 18.5 and 64.5% in women, respectively. This population-based study confirms that gout aggregates within families. The risk of gout is higher in people with a family history. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to gout aetiology, and the relative contributions are sexually dimorphic. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Characteristics of alprazolam-related deaths compiled by a centralized state medical examiner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel A; Abate, Marie A; Smith, Michael J; Kaplan, James A; Kraner, James C; Clay, David J

    2012-11-01

    Unintentional drug poisoning deaths represent a major health concern, particularly in rural areas. Although alprazolam is frequently detected in drug-related deaths, characterization of its involvement is limited. Our objective was to compare the characteristics of alprazolam-related deaths with nonalprazolam deaths in a predominantly rural state. A comprehensive forensic drug database (FDD) was developed in 2005 to compile demographic, toxicology, and co-morbidity information from all West Virginia (WV) drug-related deaths. All FDD data from 2005 to mid-November 2007 were analyzed. Alprazolam contributed to 204 (17.0%) of the 1,199 drug-related deaths and was identified in 7.2% of the 363 deaths occurring during 2005 and in 27.5% of the 422 deaths entered in the database during 2007. At least one other drug, predominantly an opioid, was identified in 97.5% of the alprazolam cases, with concurrent benzodiazepines also found. Compared to nonalprazolam deaths, alprazolam decedents were significantly more likely to be obese and to have preexisting cardiovascular disease, but were less likely to have documented substance abuse. An alprazolam prescription existed in 52.5% of the alprazolam deaths, with 77.6% having a prescription for all drugs identified. Alprazolam was a contributing cause of death in a substantial and increasing number of drug-related deaths. Prescriptions for alprazolam and the other drugs detected were often present in these cases. Controlled substance monitoring programs should be routinely used as one mechanism to help prevent potential drug misuse/abuse. Our findings provide a baseline for ongoing alprazolam-related death surveillance. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Relative expression of the products of glyoxylate bypass operon: contributions of transcription and translation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, T; Resnik, E; Stueland, C; LaPorte, D C

    1993-01-01

    Although the genes of the aceBAK operon are expressed from the same promoter, the relative cellular levels of their products are approximately 0.3:1:0.003. Gene and operon fusions with lacZ were constructed to characterize this differential expression. The upshift in expression between aceB and aceA resulted from differences in translational efficiency. In contrast, inefficient translation and premature transcriptional termination contributed to the downshift in expression between aceA and ac...

  6. Familial aggregation of gout and relative genetic and environmental contributions: a nationwide population study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J.; See, Lai-Chu; Yu, Kuang-Hui; Luo, Shue-Fen; Valdes, Ana M.; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine familial aggregation of gout and to estimate the heritability and environmental contributions to gout susceptibility in the general population. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database in Taiwan, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of data collected from 22 643 748 beneficiaries of the NHI in 2004; among them 1 045 059 individuals had physician-diagnosed gout. We estimated relative risks (RR) of gout in individual...

  7. Hecke symmetries and characteristic relations on reflection equation algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, D.I.; Pyatov, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss how properties of Hecke symmetry (i.e., Hecke type R-matrix) influence the algebraic structure of the corresponding Reflection Equation (RE) algebra. Analogues of the Newton relations and Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix of generators of the RE algebra related to a finite rank even Hecke symmetry are derived. 10 refs

  8. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Kathrin M; Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now. This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Pobese (Pobesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  9. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can detect, generally a few tens of hertz. Audi- ... paper, audible thunder signals have been obtained and analysed. Thunder ... thunder data when the optical spectrum of light- ning could .... finally a relatively weak sound of long duration and.

  10. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Demmler

    Full Text Available While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD, typically associated with high body mass index (BMI, is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people's health have not been analyzed up till now.This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people's BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG, blood pressure (BP, and the metabolic syndrome.This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality.Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2 (P<0.01 and an increased probability (+ 20 percentage points of being overweight or obese (P<0.01. Purchasing food in supermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L (P<0.01 and a higher likelihood (+ 16 percentage points of suffering from pre-diabetes (P<0.01 and the metabolic syndrome (+ 7 percentage points (P<0.01. Effects on BP could not be observed.Supermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people's health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people's food choices.

  11. Supermarket purchase contributes to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan; Nzuma, Jonathan M.; Qaim, Matin

    2017-01-01

    Background While undernutrition and related infectious diseases are still pervasive in many developing countries, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD), typically associated with high body mass index (BMI), is rapidly rising. The fast spread of supermarkets and related shifts in diets were identified as possible factors contributing to overweight and obesity in developing countries. Potential effects of supermarkets on people’s health have not been analyzed up till now. Objective This study investigates the effects of purchasing food in supermarkets on people’s BMI, as well as on health indicators such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure (BP), and the metabolic syndrome. Design This study uses cross-section observational data from urban Kenya. Demographic, anthropometric, and bio-medical data were collected from 550 randomly selected adults. Purchasing food in supermarkets is defined as a binary variable that takes a value of one if any food was purchased in supermarkets during the last 30 days. In a robustness check, the share of food purchased in supermarkets is defined as a continuous variable. Instrumental variable regressions are applied to control for confounding factors and establish causality. Results Purchasing food in supermarkets contributes to higher BMI (+ 1.8 kg/m2) (Psupermarkets also contributes to higher levels of FBG (+ 0.3 mmol/L) (PSupermarkets and their food sales strategies seem to have direct effects on people’s health. In addition to increasing overweight and obesity, supermarkets contribute to nutrition-related NCDs. Effects of supermarkets on nutrition and health can mainly be ascribed to changes in the composition of people’s food choices. PMID:28934333

  12. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Detecting Explosives-related Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, Mark E; Venzin, Alexander M

    2012-11-14

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) are interested in developing a standardized testing procedure for determining the performance of candidate detection systems. This document outlines a potential method for judging detection system performance as well as determining if combining the information from a legacy system with a new system can signicantly improve performance. In this document, performance corresponds to the Neyman-Pearson criterion applied to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of the detection systems in question. A simulation was developed to investigate how the amount of data provided by the vendor in the form of the ROC curve eects the performance of the combined detection system. Furthermore, the simulation also takes into account the potential eects of correlation and how this information can also impact the performance of the combined system.

  13. Esthetics and smile-related characteristics assessed by laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Hu, Wen-Jie; Liang, Ling-Zhi; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the characteristics of full-smile images assessed by laypersons using visual analog scale measurement. A total of 176 young Chinese subjects (88 males and 88 females; 20-35 years of age) with healthy dentogingival tissue were recruited to have their dynamic smiles captured using digital technology. A full-smile frame image of each subject was selected and evaluated by 22 laypersons (11 males and 11 females; 20-35 years of age) using visual analog scale measurement. Unattractive and attractive groups were designated according to the 25th percentile and 75th percentile of average visual analog scale score for the subjects, respectively. Eight smile variables were used to measure the characteristics of the full-smile images. Pearson's Chi-square test and unpaired t tests were used to analyze the data with significance level α = 0.05. The visual analog scale measurement scores of unattractive and attractive subgroups, respectively, were 37.89 ± 2.12 and 50.67 ± 2.75 (male subjects), and 37.14 ± 2.80 and 51.92 ± 1.99 (female subjects). VAS scores were significantly different between subgroups for both male and female subjects (P  .05). Attractive full-smiles in young Chinese subjects demonstrated higher frequencies of average or low anterior smile line, average or low posterior smile line, upward upper lip curvature, and "broad and short" smile with high smile index. The smile variables of anterior smile line, posterior smile line, upper lip curvature, and smile index are predominant factors of smile attractiveness, which should be given priority to consider and manage in the anterior esthetic treatment plan. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pathomorphological characteristic of IgG4-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyadyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related diseases are a relatively new group of diseases of unknown etiology which are characterized by the development of fibrosis of organs with the presence of big amounts of IgG4-positive plasma-cells in the area of the lesions and increased levels of IgG4 in serum. The organs that may be affected are pancreas, salivary gland, and others, clinical cases of kidney damage are described as well. Renal involvement in IgG4-related diseases most often occurs on the type of tubulointerstitial nephritis, with the further development of acute or chronic kidney injury. The clinic may be represented by the pseudotumor of kidney, renal tissue heterogeneity on the results of CT-studies; acute or chronic renal disease; combination with other organ damage (autoimmune pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis, colitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, etc.. Laboratory findings include an increased level of IgG4 in the blood serum, hypocomplementemia, eosinophilia. Histologically, there is interstitial inflammation with many plasma cells, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, thickening of the tubular basement membrane, some cases are a type of membranous glomerulonephritis. The aim of the study is to identify the patients with IgG4-related diseases with renal impairment and widening the pathological database of such patients with renal impairment to determine the classification criteria of this pathological condition. Materials and methods will include the deceased kidney screening, screening of patients with autoimmune and allergic diseases, nephrological patients screening with the lifetime biopsy (in some cases – repeat biopsy with chronic or acute kidney impairment. There will be clinical and pathological comparison in kidney damage and other diseases with the development of criteria for the classification of lesions in the presence of IgG4-positive substrates and further development of practical

  15. Antagonistic pleiotropy and mutation accumulation contribute to age-related decline in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Elizabeth R; Morgan, Theodore J

    2018-02-01

    As organisms age, the effectiveness of natural selection weakens, leading to age-related decline in fitness-related traits. The evolution of age-related changes associated with senescence is likely influenced by mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). MA predicts that age-related decline in fitness components is driven by age-specific sets of alleles, nonnegative genetic correlations within trait across age, and an increase in the coefficient of genetic variance. AP predicts that age-related decline in a trait is driven by alleles with positive effects on fitness in young individuals and negative effects in old individuals, and is expected to lead to negative genetic correlations within traits across age. We build on these predictions using an association mapping approach to investigate the change in additive effects of SNPs across age and among traits for multiple stress-response fitness-related traits, including cold stress with and without acclimation and starvation resistance. We found support for both MA and AP theories of aging in the age-related decline in stress tolerance. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of age-related decline in stress tolerance is driven by a combination of alleles that have age-specific additive effects, consistent with MA, as well as nonindependent and antagonistic genetic architectures characteristic of AP. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Contribution to the study of the mechanisms of turbulent diffusion and of related matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailliat, Alain.

    1980-12-01

    The subject of this paper is the study of turbulent diffusion mechanisms and the related problems. The diffusion mechanisms considered here are those which concern a passive scalar contaminant not subject to molecular effects. The reason for this latter character is that it makes it possible to isolate in the diffusion phenomenon that which is inherent in the turbulent dispersion. The present state of this question is reviewed in Chapter I. The system of natural coordinates for following the movement of a particle and hence for describing the dispersion is that of Lagrange. For our purpose this description must be statistical. Hence, the specific properties of the probability densities of the velocities and movements in this type of coordinate are examined in Chapter II. The expressions of the probability densities of the concentration and turbulent flow of a contaminant are sought. These expressions make it possible to formulate the diffusion laws linking the mean flow and concentration to the statistical characteristics of the velocity field. These matters form the central subject of this paper and are developed in Chapter III. Although the use of Lagrange's coordinates makes it possible fairly easily to obtain the probability densities mentioned above, it does, on the other hand, rule out on examination the relations existing between Lagrangian and Eulerian probability characteristics of the velocity field moments. The experimental determination in a Lagrangian system of the probability characteristics is in fact very tricky. These questions are discussed in Chapter IV of this paper [fr

  17. Socio-demographic characteristics and sexual health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work with MSM in these settings where MSM is illegal. ... sexual health related attitudes and practices. It is envisaged that this .... 27 (81.8). Did anything to protect self from HIV/AIDS and other sexu- ... friends, 12 (12.4%) to workmates, 6 (6.2%) to family members .... The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  18. EI competencies as a related but different characteristic than intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Fernández-i-Marín, Xavier; Truninger, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Amid the swarm of debate about emotional intelligence (EI) among academics are claims that cognitive intelligence, or general mental ability (g), is a stronger predictor of life and work outcomes as well as the counter claims that EI is their strongest predictor. Nested within the tempest in a teapot are scientific questions as to what the relationship is between g and EI. Using a behavioral approach to EI, we examined the relationship of a parametric measure of g as the person’s GMAT scores and collected observations from others who live and work with the person as to the frequency of his or her EI behavior, as well as the person’s self-assessment. The results show that EI, as seen by others, is slightly related to g, especially for males with assessment from professional relations. Further, we found that cognitive competencies are more strongly related to GMAT than EI competencies. For observations from personal relationships or self-assessment, there is no relationship between EI and GMAT. Observations from professional relations reveal a positive relationship between cognitive competencies and GMAT and EI and GMAT for males, but a negative relationship between EI and GMAT for females. PMID:25713545

  19. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  20. Characteristics of potential drug-related problems among oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, Arjan; Imholz, Alex L. T.; Brouwers, Jacobus R. B. J.; Jansman, Frank G. A.

    Background Oncology patients are more at risk for drug related problems because of treatment with (combinations of) anticancer drugs, as they have a higher risk for organ failure or altered metabolism with progression of their disease. Objective The aim of this study was to characterize and to

  1. The relative contributions of thermo-solutal Marangoni convections on flow patterns in a liquid bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, H.; Takagi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Gima, S.; Dost, S.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical simulation study was carried out to investigate the relative contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convections on transport structures in a liquid bridge under zero gravity. The liquid bridge in the model represents a three dimensional half-zone configuration of the Floating Zone (FZ) growth system. Three dimensional field equations of the liquid zone, i.e. continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations, were solved by the PISO algorithm. Computations were performed using the open source software OpenFOAM. The numerical simulation results show that the flow field becomes three-dimensional and time-depended when the solutal Marangoni number is larger than the critical value. It was also shown that not only flow patterns but also the azimuthal wave number (m) changes due to the competing contributions of thermal and solutal Marangoni convective flows.

  2. Biogeochemical cycling of lignocellulosic carbon in marine and freshwater ecosystems: relative contributions of procaryotes and eucaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Moran, M.A.; Hodson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The relative contributions of procaryotes and eucaryotes to the degradation of the lignin and polysaccharide components of lignocellulosic detritus in two marine and two freshwater wetland ecosystems were determined. Two independent methods - physical separation of bacteria from fungi and other eucaryotes by size fractionation, and antibiotic treatments - were used to estimate procaryotic and eucaryotic contributions to the degradation of [ 14 C-lignin]lignocelluloses and [ 13 C-polysaccharide]lignocelluloses in samples of water and decaying plant material from each environment. Both methods yielded similar results; bacteria were the predominant degraders of lignocellulose in each of the aquatic ecosystems. These results indicate a basic difference between the microbial degradation of lignocellulosic material in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Fungi have long been considered the predominant degraders of lignocellulose in terrestrial systems; our results indicate that in aquatic systems bacteria are the predominant degraders of lignocellulose

  3. Transcriptomic effects-based monitoring for endocrine active chemicals: Assessing relative contribution of treated wastewater to downstream pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, Larry B.; Lee, Kathy E.; King, Ryan J.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a combination of targeted analytical chemistry information with unsupervised, data-rich biological methodology (i.e., transcriptomics) could be utilized to evaluate relative contributions of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents to biological effects. The effects of WWTP effluents on fish exposed to ambient, receiving waters were studied at three locations with distinct WWTP and watershed characteristics. At each location, 4 d exposures of male fathead minnows to the WWTP effluent and upstream and downstream ambient waters were conducted. Transcriptomic analyses were performed on livers using 15 000 feature microarrays, followed by a canonical pathway and gene set enrichment analyses. Enrichment of gene sets indicative of teleost brain–pituitary–gonadal–hepatic (BPGH) axis function indicated that WWTPs serve as an important source of endocrine active chemicals (EACs) that affect the BPGH axis (e.g., cholesterol and steroid metabolism were altered). The results indicated that transcriptomics may even pinpoint pertinent adverse outcomes (i.e., liver vacuolization) and groups of chemicals that preselected chemical analytes may miss. Transcriptomic Effects-Based monitoring was capable of distinguishing sites, and it reflected chemical pollution gradients, thus holding promise for assessment of relative contributions of point sources to pollution and the efficacy of pollution remediation.

  4. Characteristic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Honda, Kazuho; Yamanaka, Nobuaki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Nagata, Michio

    2012-04-01

    Nephropathy associated with IgG4-related disease is characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis. To better identify its pathology, the present study analyzed clinicopathologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis cases from across Japan. Sixteen cases were identified as IgG4-related nephropathy using the criterion of high serum IgG4 levels (>135 mg/dL) with abnormal kidney computed tomography or elevated serum creatinine levels. Male predominance (75%) and advanced age (average, 62.0 years) were noted. Eight cases displayed no autoimmune pancreatitis. Renal computed tomography abnormalities were found in 12 of 13 cases examined. Renal dysfunction was found in 15 of 16 cases at biopsy. Distinctive features of tubulointerstitial lesions included (1) well-demarcated borders between involved and uninvolved areas; (2) involvement of the cortex and medulla, often extending beyond the renal capsule and with occasional extension to retroperitoneal fibrosis; (3) interstitial inflammatory cells comprising predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes, with a high prevalence of IgG4-positive cells often admixed with fibrosis; (4) peculiar features of interstitial fibrosis resembling a "bird's-eye" pattern comprising fibrosis among inter-plasma cell spaces; and (5) deposits visible by light and immunofluorescent microscopy in the tubular basement membrane, Bowman capsule, and interstitium that are restricted to the involved portion, sparing normal parts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of myofibroblasts with intracellular/pericellular collagen accompanied by plasma cell accumulation from an early stage. Histology could not discriminate between IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with and without autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the distinctive histologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis can facilitate the differential diagnosis of tubulointerstitial nephritis, even without autoimmune pancreatitis or an abnormal

  5. Relations of Mothers' and Fathers' Reports of Infant Temperament, Parents' Psychological Functioning, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jaqueline N.; Stevenson, Marguerite B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines 95 parents' reports of relations between infant termperament and parental psychological conditions, as well as familiy characteristics of socioeconomic status, birth order, and infant gender. (HOD)

  6. Contributing risk factors for orthopedic device related infections in sina hospital, tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadi, A; Zehtab, M J; Babagolzadeh, H; Ashraf, H

    2011-02-01

    In spite of decreasing incidence of orthopedic device-related infections to 1%, nowadays, device-related infection still remains a diagnostic, therapeutic and cost-related problem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the contributing risk factors for orthopedic device-related infections in Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Three hundred and thirty patients who underwent orthopedic device implantation from 2002-2006 were enrolled; among them, 110 patients were complicated with infection. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for device related infections. Patients with infection were older compared to those without infection. The Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism. A correlation was observed between wound infection and external fixation, an underlying health condition, and addiction which were independent risk factors for a device related infection. Orthopedic device-related infection puts a great financial burden on patients and hospital resources and could lead to morbidity and mortality in patients. So, appropriate pre and postoperative wound care for dirty wounds, especially when external fixators are used, and in patients with poor conditions or addiction should be done with more caution.

  7. General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico

    2017-04-01

    The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.

  8. Characteristics of retractions related to faked peer reviews: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun; Deng, Han; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2017-08-01

    A faked peer review is a novel cause for retraction. We reviewed the characteristics of papers retracted due to a faked peer review. All papers retracted due to faked peer reviews were identified by searching the Retraction Watch website and by conducting a manual search. All identified papers were confirmed in published journals. The information of retracted papers was collected, which primarily included publisher, journal, journal impact factor, country, as well as publication and retraction year. Overall, 250 retracted papers were identified. They were published in 48 journals by six publishers. The top 5 journals included the Journal of Vibration and Control (24.8%), Molecular Biology Reports (11.6%), Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology (8.0%), Tumour Biology (6.8%) and European Journal of Medical Research (6.4%). The publishers included SAGE (31%), Springer (26%), BioMed Central (18%), Elsevier (13%), Informa (11%) and LWW (1%). A minority (4%) of retracted papers were published in Science Citation Index (SCI) journals with an impact factor of >5. A majority (74.8%) of retracted papers were written by Chinese researchers. In terms of the publication year, the retracted papers were published since 2010, and the number of retracted papers peaked in 2014 (40.8%). In terms of the retraction year, the retractions started in 2012, and the number of retractions peaked in 2015 (59.6%). The number of papers retracted due to faked peer reviews differs largely among journals and countries. With the improvement of the peer review mechanism and increased education about publishing ethics, such academic misconduct may gradually disappear in future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Relative Contribution of Arms and Legs in 30 s Fully Tethered Front Crawl Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Morouço

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative contribution of arm stroke and leg kicking to maximal fully tethered front crawl swimming performance remains to be solved. Twenty-three national level young swimmers (12 male and 11 female randomly performed 3 bouts of 30 s fully tethered swimming (using the whole body, only the arm stroke, and only the leg kicking. A load-cell system permitted the continuous measurement of the exerted forces, and swimming velocity was calculated from the time taken to complete a 50 m front crawl swim. As expected, with no restrictions swimmers were able to exert higher forces than that using only their arm stroke or leg kicking. Estimated relative contributions of arm stroke and leg kicking were 70.3% versus 29.7% for males and 66.6% versus 33.4% for females, with 15.6% and 13.1% force deficits, respectively. To obtain higher velocities, male swimmers are highly dependent on the maximum forces they can exert with the arm stroke (r=0.77, P<0.01, whereas female swimmers swimming velocity is more related to whole-body mean forces (r=0.81, P<0.01. The obtained results point that leg kicking plays an important role over short duration high intensity bouts and that the used methodology may be useful to identify strength and/or coordination flaws.

  10. Assessing errors related to characteristics of the items measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggett, W.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that are related to some intrinsic property of the items measured are often encountered in nuclear material accounting. An example is the error in nondestructive assay measurements caused by uncorrected matrix effects. Nuclear material accounting requires for each materials type one measurement method for which bounds on these errors can be determined. If such a method is available, a second method might be used to reduce costs or to improve precision. If the measurement error for the first method is longer-tailed than Gaussian, then precision might be improved by measuring all items by both methods. 8 refs

  11. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheier, P.; Maerk, T.

    2002-01-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  12. SASP. Contributions to the 13. Symposium on atomic and surface physics and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheier, P; Maerk, T [eds.

    2002-07-01

    The XIII symposium on Atomic and Surface Physics and related Topics (SASP) is devoted to cover the research of interactions between ions, electrons, photons, atoms, molecules and clusters and their interaction with surfaces. This year there was a special session dedicated to proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry covering its applications in different fields and a mini symposium on the radiation action on bio-molecules such as uracil. The contributions included in the proceeding correspond to invited lectures and poster sessions, consisting of short and extended abstracts as well as short articles. (nevyjel)

  13. Contribution of WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX genes to identify the phylogenetic relationships among Petunia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto

    Full Text Available Abstract Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes. We obtained phylogenetic relationships consistent with other phylogenies based on nuclear markers, but with higher statistical support, resolution in terminals, and compatibility with flower morphological changes.

  14. Use of spatiotemporal characteristics of ambient PM2.5 in rural South India to infer local versus regional contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Kishore; Sreekanth, V; Salmon, Maëlle; Tonne, Cathryn; Marshall, Julian D

    2018-05-08

    This study uses spatiotemporal patterns in ambient concentrations to infer the contribution of regional versus local sources. We collected 12 months of monitoring data for outdoor fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in rural southern India. Rural India includes more than one-tenth of the global population and annually accounts for around half a million air pollution deaths, yet little is known about the relative contribution of local sources to outdoor air pollution. We measured 1-min averaged outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations during June 2015-May 2016 in three villages, which varied in population size, socioeconomic status, and type and usage of domestic fuel. The daily geometric-mean PM 2.5 concentration was ∼30 μg m -3 (geometric standard deviation: ∼1.5). Concentrations exceeded the Indian National Ambient Air Quality standards (60 μg m -3 ) during 2-5% of observation days. Average concentrations were ∼25 μg m -3 higher during winter than during monsoon and ∼8 μg m -3 higher during morning hours than the diurnal average. A moving average subtraction method based on 1-min average PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that local contributions (e.g., nearby biomass combustion, brick kilns) were greater in the most populated village, and that overall the majority of ambient PM 2.5 in our study was regional, implying that local air pollution control strategies alone may have limited influence on local ambient concentrations. We compared the relatively new moving average subtraction method against a more established approach. Both methods broadly agree on the relative contribution of local sources across the three sites. The moving average subtraction method has broad applicability across locations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors contributing to work related low back pain among personal care workers in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to preliminary explore the work related and individual factors that contributed to the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) that affected work activities of Personal Care Workers (PCWs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to 36 PCWs in an old age home of Hong Kong. The study is divided into three parts: 1) a questionnaire to document the workload exposure factors and the musculoskeletal symptoms survey of the PCWs, 2) work posture evaluation; and 3) an evaluation of the physical fitness and lifting capacity of the PCWs. Univariate analyses were used to explore the risk factors associated with LBP that affected work activities. The results indicated that individual physical profile and lifting capacities did not contribute to occurrence of low back pain at work. For the work demand factors, the perceived physical demands in lifting and lowering heavy objects, awkward sustain neck and back postures, loading on the back, and perceived effort of cleaning task contributed to the occurrence of LBP. For the physical environment factors, thermal stress and improper ventilation were associated with the occurrence of LBP cases. For the individual factor, LBP cases were associated with workers' self perceived muscular effort, and perceived risk of mental illness in response to work requirements.

  16. Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farič, Nuša; Potts, Henry W W

    2014-12-03

    Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health. The aim was to characterize individuals' motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia. A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach. A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and rewarding activity), and positive attitude to

  17. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  18. Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: two-pion contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, Gilberto [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hoferichter, Martin [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Procura, Massimiliano [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Stoffer, Peter [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theory)and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-04-27

    In this third paper of a series dedicated to a dispersive treatment of the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) tensor, we derive a partial-wave formulation for two-pion intermediate states in the HLbL contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g−2){sub μ}, including a detailed discussion of the unitarity relation for arbitrary partial waves. We show that obtaining a final expression free from unphysical helicity partial waves is a subtle issue, which we thoroughly clarify. As a by-product, we obtain a set of sum rules that could be used to constrain future calculations of γ{sup ∗}γ{sup ∗}→ππ. We validate the formalism extensively using the pion-box contribution, defined by two-pion intermediate states with a pion-pole left-hand cut, and demonstrate how the full known result is reproduced when resumming the partial waves. Using dispersive fits to high-statistics data for the pion vector form factor, we provide an evaluation of the full pion box, a{sub μ}{sup π-box}=−15.9(2)×10{sup −11}. As an application of the partial-wave formalism, we present a first calculation of ππ-rescattering effects in HLbL scattering, with γ{sup ∗}γ{sup ∗}→ππ helicity partial waves constructed dispersively using ππ phase shifts derived from the inverse-amplitude method. In this way, the isospin-0 part of our calculation can be interpreted as the contribution of the f{sub 0}(500) to HLbL scattering in (g−2){sub μ}. We argue that the contribution due to charged-pion rescattering implements corrections related to the corresponding pion polarizability and show that these are moderate. Our final result for the sum of pion-box contribution and its S-wave rescattering corrections reads a{sub μ}{sup π-box}+a{sub μ,J=0}{sup ππ,π-pole} {sup LHC}=−24(1)×10{sup −11}.

  19. Alveolar and exhaled NO in relation to asthma characteristics--effects of correction for axial diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, C; Nordvall, L; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Alving, K; Malinovschi, A

    2014-08-01

    Inflammation in the small airways might contribute to incomplete asthma disease control despite intensive treatment in some subgroups of patients. Exhaled NO (FeNO) is a marker of inflammation in asthma and the estimated NO contribution from small airways (CalvNO ) is believed to reflect distal inflammation. Recent studies recommend adjustments of CalvNO for trumpet model and axial diffusion (TMAD-adj). This study aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of CalvNO , both TMAD-adjusted and unadjusted. Asthma symptoms, asthma control, lung function, bronchial responsiveness, blood eosinophils, atopy and treatment level were assessed in 410 subjects, aged 10-35 years. Exhaled NO was measured at different flow-rates and CalvNO calculated, with TMAD-adjustment according to Condorelli. Trumpet model and axial diffusion-adjusted CalvNO was not related to daytime wheeze (P = 0.27), FEF50 (P = 0.23) or bronchial responsiveness (P = 0.52). On the other hand, unadjusted CalvNO was increased in subjects with daytime wheeze (P < 0.001), decreased FEF50 (P = 0.02) and with moderate-to-severe compared to normal bronchial responsiveness (P < 0.001). All these characteristics correlated with increased FeNO (all P < 0.05). Unadjusted CalvNO was positively related to bronchial NO flux (J'awNO ) (r = 0.22, P < 0.001) while TMAD-adjCalvNO was negatively related to J'awNO (r = -0.38, P < 0.001). Adjusted CalvNO was not associated with any asthma characteristics studied in this large asthma cohort. However, both FeNO and unadjusted CalvNO related to asthma symptoms, lung function and bronchial responsiveness. We suggest a potential overadjustment by current TMAD-corrections, validated in healthy or unobstructed asthmatics. Further studies assessing axial diffusion in asthmatics with different degrees of airway obstruction and the validity of proposed TMAD-corrections are warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Axisymmetric core collapse simulations using characteristic numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebel, Florian; Mueller, Ewald; Font, Jose A.; Papadopoulos, Philippos

    2003-01-01

    We present results from nonrotating axisymmetric stellar core collapse simulations in general relativity. Our hydrodynamics code has proved robust and accurate enough to allow for a detailed analysis of the global dynamics of the collapse. Contrary to traditional approaches based on the 3+1 formulation of the gravitational field equations, our framework uses a foliation based on a family of outgoing light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. Such a coordinate system is well adapted to the study of interesting dynamical spacetimes in relativistic astrophysics such as stellar core collapse and neutron star formation. Perhaps most importantly this procedure allows for the extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity, along with the commonly used quadrupole formalism for the gravitational wave extraction. Our results concerning the gravitational wave signals show noticeable disagreement when those are extracted by computing the Bondi news at future null infinity on the one hand and by using the quadrupole formula on the other hand. We have a strong indication that for our setup the quadrupole formula on the null cone does not lead to physical gravitational wave signals. The Bondi gravitational wave signals extracted at infinity show typical oscillation frequencies of about 0.5 kHz

  1. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: pathogenesis, pathologic, clinical characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Sheng, Zitong; Yao, Li

    2017-09-01

    In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies. The mechanisms under ORG are complex, especially hemodynamic changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and reduced functioning nephrons. These mechanisms synergize with obesity to induce end-stage renal disease. A slow increase of subnephrotic proteinuria ( < 3.5 g/d) is the most common clinical manifestation of ORG. Several treatment methods for ORG have been developed. Of these methods, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and weight loss are proven effective. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for ORG therapy. Nevertheless, more research is needed to further understand ORG.

  2. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fisher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A previous study on university students reported that personal, communal, and environmental spiritual well-being contributed to happiness over and above personality but that relating with God did not. In this study, happiness was assessed using a modified Oxford Happiness Inventory. Personality scores were obtained using forms of Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. Four domains of spiritual well-being were determined using Fisher’s Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Relationship with God was reflected by the Transcendental domain of spiritual well-being in this instrument. Studies with 466 university students from Australia, Northern Ireland, and England, 494 people attending churches in Ballarat, and 1002 secondary school students in Victoria showed that relating with God accounts for variance on happiness, over and above personality, and age.

  3. Quantifying the relative contributions of divisive and subtractive feedback to rhythm generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Tabak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems are characterized by a high number of interacting components. Determining the role of each component is difficult, addressed here in the context of biological oscillations. Rhythmic behavior can result from the interplay of positive feedback that promotes bistability between high and low activity, and slow negative feedback that switches the system between the high and low activity states. Many biological oscillators include two types of negative feedback processes: divisive (decreases the gain of the positive feedback loop and subtractive (increases the input threshold that both contribute to slowly move the system between the high- and low-activity states. Can we determine the relative contribution of each type of negative feedback process to the rhythmic activity? Does one dominate? Do they control the active and silent phase equally? To answer these questions we use a neural network model with excitatory coupling, regulated by synaptic depression (divisive and cellular adaptation (subtractive feedback. We first attempt to apply standard experimental methodologies: either passive observation to correlate the variations of a variable of interest to system behavior, or deletion of a component to establish whether a component is critical for the system. We find that these two strategies can lead to contradictory conclusions, and at best their interpretive power is limited. We instead develop a computational measure of the contribution of a process, by evaluating the sensitivity of the active (high activity and silent (low activity phase durations to the time constant of the process. The measure shows that both processes control the active phase, in proportion to their speed and relative weight. However, only the subtractive process plays a major role in setting the duration of the silent phase. This computational method can be used to analyze the role of negative feedback processes in a wide range of biological rhythms.

  4. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged.

  5. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  6. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  7. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  8. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  9. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfley DE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Denise E Wilfley,1 Leslie Citrome,2 Barry K Herman3 1Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, 2Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 3Global Medical Affairs, Shire, Lexington, MA, USA Abstract: The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional

  10. Generalized Bondi-Sachs equations for characteristic formalism of numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhoujian; He, Xiaokai

    2013-11-01

    The Cauchy formalism of numerical relativity has been successfully applied to simulate various dynamical spacetimes without any symmetry assumption. But discovering how to set a mathematically consistent and physically realistic boundary condition is still an open problem for Cauchy formalism. In addition, the numerical truncation error and finite region ambiguity affect the accuracy of gravitational wave form calculation. As to the finite region ambiguity issue, the characteristic extraction method helps much. But it does not solve all of the above issues. Besides the above problems for Cauchy formalism, the computational efficiency is another problem. Although characteristic formalism of numerical relativity suffers the difficulty from caustics in the inner near zone, it has advantages in relation to all of the issues listed above. Cauchy-characteristic matching (CCM) is a possible way to take advantage of characteristic formalism regarding these issues and treat the inner caustics at the same time. CCM has difficulty treating the gauge difference between the Cauchy part and the characteristic part. We propose generalized Bondi-Sachs equations for characteristic formalism for the Cauchy-characteristic matching end. Our proposal gives out a possible same numerical evolution scheme for both the Cauchy part and the characteristic part. And our generalized Bondi-Sachs equations have one adjustable gauge freedom which can be used to relate the gauge used in the Cauchy part. Then these equations can make the Cauchy part and the characteristic part share a consistent gauge condition. So our proposal gives a possible new starting point for Cauchy-characteristic matching.

  11. Relative contributions of synoptic and intraseasonal variations to strong cold events over eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lei; Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2018-06-01

    The present study investigates the relative roles of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) and synoptic variations in strong cold events over eastern China during the boreal winter. The ISOs and synoptic variations explain about 55% and 20% of the total area-mean temperature anomaly in eastern China, respectively. The advection of synoptic winds on synoptic temperature gradients has a leading contribution to the temperature decrease before the cold events and thus the synoptic variations are important in determining the time of peak cold anomalies. The ISOs have a larger role in sustaining the cold events. The height anomalies associated with ISOs and synoptic variations are manifested as Rossby wave trains propagating along the polar front jet over the Eurasian continent before the cold events. They both contribute to the deepening of the East Asian trough and the development of cold events. Compared to the ISO wave train, the synoptic wave train has a smaller spatial scale and moves faster. There are obvious intraseasonal signals in the stratosphere about 1 week before the cold events over eastern China. Large negative height anomalies associated with the weakening of the polar vortex are observed over the North Atlantic. These anomalies move eastwards and propagate downwards after reaching the west coast of Europe. The downward moving stratospheric signal triggers height anomalies in the troposphere over the entrance region of the polar front jet. Then the anomalies propagate towards East Asia along the wave train, contributing to the intensification of the Siberian high and the East Asian trough and the occurrence of cold events over eastern China.

  12. On the relative contributions of multisensory integration and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention to multisensory response enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stoep, N; Spence, C; Nijboer, T C W; Van der Stigchel, S

    2015-11-01

    Two processes that can give rise to multisensory response enhancement (MRE) are multisensory integration (MSI) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention. It is, however, currently unclear what the relative contribution of each of these is to MRE. We investigated this issue using two tasks that are generally assumed to measure MSI (a redundant target effect task) and crossmodal exogenous spatial attention (a spatial cueing task). One block of trials consisted of unimodal auditory and visual targets designed to provide a unimodal baseline. In two other blocks of trials, the participants were presented with spatially and temporally aligned and misaligned audiovisual (AV) targets (0, 50, 100, and 200ms SOA). In the integration block, the participants were instructed to respond to the onset of the first target stimulus that they detected (A or V). The instruction for the cueing block was to respond only to the onset of the visual targets. The targets could appear at one of three locations: left, center, and right. The participants were instructed to respond only to lateral targets. The results indicated that MRE was caused by MSI at 0ms SOA. At 50ms SOA, both crossmodal exogenous spatial attention and MSI contributed to the observed MRE, whereas the MRE observed at the 100 and 200ms SOAs was attributable to crossmodal exogenous spatial attention, alerting, and temporal preparation. These results therefore suggest that there may be a temporal window in which both MSI and exogenous crossmodal spatial attention can contribute to multisensory response enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  14. Breast-related stereotype threat contributes to a symptom cluster in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Gao, Wei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhu, Song-Ying; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of breast-related stereotype threat and its effects on a symptom cluster consisting of anxiety, depression and fatigue and on each symptom. The stereotype that breasts are a sign of women's femininity results in patients with breast cancer fearing diminished femininity and rejection, which may induce psychological problems that co-occur as a symptom cluster. Cross-sectional study. A total of 131 patients with breast cancer postmastectomy completed the study. A question measuring breast-related stereotype threat, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale were used to assess their breast-related stereotype threat and symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue. Of the 131 patients who answered the breast-related stereotype threat question, 86 (65·6%) reported breast-related stereotype threat. They did not differ significantly in social and clinical characteristics compared with those without the stereotype, but did report significantly higher levels of the symptom cluster and each symptom (anxiety, depression and fatigue). The odds ratios of the stereotype were significant for the symptom cluster, depression and fatigue (odds ratios = 2·52-3·98, p stereotype threat was common in patients with breast cancer. There was about a twofold increase in their risk of experiencing the symptom cluster and symptoms of depression and fatigue. In clinical practice, breast-related stereotype threat should be measured together with prevalent symptoms (e.g. anxiety, depression and fatigue) in patients with breast cancer. Our findings will aid the development of interventions for improving the mental health of women with breast cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavric, Anja; Mirceta, Dubravka; Jakobovic, Mario; Pavlic, Andrej; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Spalj, Stjepan

    2015-06-01

    Self-esteem is a psychological trait that may develop in interaction with craniodentofacial esthetics. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among craniodentofacial characteristics, dental esthetics-related quality of life, and self-esteem in adolescents and young adults. The study was cross-sectional; the sample included 200 pupils and university students (58% female) aged 13 to 33 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire were used. Craniodentofacial features were estimated by the method of Martin and Saller, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need. When malocclusion severity increases, dental esthetics-related quality of life decreases. The multiple linear regression showed that with the control of all other predictors in the model, the social impact of dental esthetics, borderline dental self-confidence, and facial type contribute the most to explain the variability of self-esteem, accounting for 3.2%, 1.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, of the variability values. The whole model accounts for 24.2% of the variability of self-esteem. In adolescents and young adults, self-esteem appears to be more influenced by the self-perceived psychosocial impacts of dental esthetics than the normative level of malocclusion, craniofacial typology, sex, or age. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribution of attachment insecurity to health-related quality of life in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Drannikov, Angela

    2013-06-22

    To examine the individual contributions of insecure attachment styles and depression symptom severity to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder (AJD) with depressed mood. Participants were 67 patients diagnosed with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth edition AJD with depressed mood, who completed standardised self-report questionnaires measuring study variables. Mean scores and SDs were computed for the outcome and predictor measures. Pearson correlations among the measures were computed. The study hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analyses. All analyses were performed using the SPSS-17 software package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, United States). ANOVA showed a significant main effect of the insecure attachment styles on depression symptom severity and life satisfaction scores. The results suggest that depressive symptoms were more severe (F = 4.13, df = 2.67, P insecure groups did not significantly differ by these variables. The anxious/ambivalent attachment style and depression symptom severity significantly contributed to HRQoL, accounting for 21.4% and 29.7% of the total variance, respectively [R(2) = 0.79; Adjusted R(2) = 0.77; F (5, 67) = 33.68, P < 0.0001], even after controlling for gender, marital and employment status confounders. The results show that the anxious/ambivalent attachment style together with depression symptom severity substantially and independently predict the HRQoL outcome in AJD with depressed mood.

  17. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  18. Relative contribution of matrix metalloprotease and cysteine protease activities to cytokine-stimulated articular cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, B C; Henriksen, K; Wulf, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity and cathepsin K (CK) activity have been implicated in cartilage turnover. We investigated the relative contribution of MMP activity and CK activity in cartilage degradation using ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: Bovine articular cartilage...... explants were stimulated with oncostatin M (OSM) 10 ng/ml and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) 20 ng/ml in the presence or absence of the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 and the cysteine protease inhibitor, E64. Cartilage degradation was evaluated in the conditioned medium by glycosaminoglycans...... was measured from CK-deficient mice. RESULTS: OSM and TNF-alpha combined induced significant (Pcartilage degradation products measured by hydroxyproline and CTX-II compared to vehicle control. The cytokines potently induced MMP expression, assessed by zymography, and CK expression...

  19. Survey of environment related monitoring programmes of international organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report is a summary of environment-related monitoring programmes of international governmental organizations and their contribution to international monitoring programmes. it presents the situation as of November 1986: This survey has been prepared by a consultant for the Secretariat as a background document for the second meeting of the Environment Experts, Economic Summit in Munich, November 1986. It serves information purposes only. No claim for completeness is intended. This report may also prove to be helpful for administrators and the scientific community as regards gaining knowledge on present arrangements, approaches and environmental activities in the framework of international organizations. In this light, the present report could facilitate communication and progress in solving pressing environmental problems on the international level. (orig.)

  20. Drought response strategies define the relative contributions of hydraulic dysfunction and carbohydrate depletion during tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T; White, Donald A; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Plant survival during drought requires adequate hydration in living tissues and carbohydrate reserves for maintenance and recovery. We hypothesized that tree growth and hydraulic strategy determines the intensity and duration of the 'physiological drought', thereby affecting the relative contributions of loss of hydraulic function and carbohydrate depletion during mortality. We compared patterns in growth rate, water relations, gas exchange and carbohydrate dynamics in three tree species subjected to prolonged drought. Two Eucalyptus species (E. globulus, E. smithii) exhibited high growth rates and water-use resulting in rapid declines in water status and hydraulic conductance. In contrast, conservative growth and water relations in Pinus radiata resulted in longer periods of negative carbon balance and significant depletion of stored carbohydrates in all organs. The ongoing demand for carbohydrates from sustained respiration highlighted the role that duration of drought plays in facilitating carbohydrate consumption. Two drought strategies were revealed, differentiated by plant regulation of water status: plants maximized gas exchange, but were exposed to low water potentials and rapid hydraulic dysfunction; and tight regulation of gas exchange at the cost of carbohydrate depletion. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between hydraulic regulation of water status and carbohydrate depletion during terminal drought. © 2012 CSIRO. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Analysis of contributing factors associated to related patients safety incidents in Intensive Care Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Delgado, M C; Merino de Cos, P; Sirgo Rodríguez, G; Álvarez Rodríguez, J; Gutiérrez Cía, I; Obón Azuara, B; Alonso Ovies, Á

    2015-01-01

    To explore contributing factors (CF) associated to related critical patients safety incidents. SYREC study pos hoc analysis. A total of 79 Intensive Care Departments were involved. The study sample consisted of 1.017 patients; 591 were affected by one or more incidents. The CF were categorized according to a proposed model by the National Patient Safety Agency from United Kingdom that was modified. Type, class and severity of the incidents was analyzed. A total 2,965 CF were reported (1,729 were associated to near miss and 1,236 to adverse events). The CF group more frequently reported were related patients factors. Individual factors were reported more frequently in near miss and task related CF in adverse events. CF were reported in all classes of incidents. The majority of CF were reported in the incidents classified such as less serious, even thought CF patients factors were associated to serious incidents. Individual factors were considered like avoidable and patients factors as unavoidable. The CF group more frequently reported were patient factors and was associated to more severe and unavoidable incidents. By contrast, individual factors were associated to less severe and avoidable incidents. In general, CF most frequently reported were associated to near miss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. The Related Effects of Item Characteristics in Measures of Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kathryn J.; Mooney, Gillian A.

    2016-01-01

    Personal epistemology is concerned with people's beliefs or assumptions about the nature of knowledge and knowing. Whilst contributions in this field can be traced back to the 1970s, fundamental questions about the ontology and epistemology of the construct still remain. The current study explored the effects of three characteristics of questions…

  3. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  4. [Description of contributing factors in adverse events related to patient safety and their preventability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, María Mercedes; Campos-Rivas, Beatriz; Sanmarful-Schwarz, Alexandra; Vírseda-Sacristán, Alicia; Dorrego-López, M Aránzazu; Charle-Crespo, Ángeles

    2017-11-25

    To assess the extent of healthcare related adverse events (AEs), their effect on patients, and their seriousness. To analyse the factors leading to the development of AEs, their relationship with the damage caused, and their degree of preventability. Retrospective descriptive study. Porriño, Pontevedra, Spain, Primary Care Service, from January-2014 to April-2016. Reported AEs were entered into the Patient Safety Reporting and Learning System (SiNASP). The variables measured were: Near Incident (NI) an occurrence with no effect or harm on the patient; Adverse Event (AE) an occurrence that affects or harms a patient. The level of harm is classified as minimal, minor, moderate, critical, and catastrophic. Preventability was classified as little evidence of being preventable, 50% preventable, and sound evidence of being preventable. percentages and Chi-squared test for qualitative variables; P<.05 with SPSS.15. SiNASP. Ethical considerations: approved by the Research Ethics Committee (2016/344). There were 166 recorded AEs (50.6% in males, and 46.4% in women. The mean age was 60.80years). Almost two-thirds 62.7% of AEs affected the patient, with 45.8% causing minimal damage, while 2.4% caused critical damages. Healthcare professionals were a contributing factor in 71.7% of the AEs, with the trend showing that poor communication and lack of protocols were related to the damage caused. Degree of preventability: 96.4%. Most AEs affected the patient, and were related to medication, diagnostic tests, and laboratory errors. The level of harm was related to communication problems, lack of, or deficient, protocols and a poor safety culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Work-related fatigue and recovery: the contribution of age, domestic responsibilities and shiftwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Peter C; Winefield, Antony H; Lushington, Kurt

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of the relationship between age, domestic responsibilities (being partnered and having dependents), recovery from shiftwork-related fatigue and the evolution of maladaptive health outcomes among full-time working female nurses. Several studies have suggested that full-time working women with family responsibilities are at greater risk of developing work-related fatigue problems than single women without these responsibilities. A questionnaire was distributed in 2004 to 2400 nurses at two hospitals in Australia, and 1280 responses were obtained (response rate 54%). The data from a purposive sample of 846 full-time working nurses are reported here. Domestic responsibilities were not related to differences in fatigue and recovery. Our results suggested that for full-time shiftworking nurses, being part of a family structure, may actually be protective against the development of maladaptive fatigue. The most important factor determining maladaptive fatigue outcome was shift pattern worked, particularly rotation including night duty. The effect of age was equivocal. The youngest age group reported the highest fatigue and poorest recovery compared to the oldest group, who reported the best characteristics. However, this latter group may represent a particularly well-adapted 'survivor cohort'. The relationship between age and fatigue was partly confounded by older, experienced, nurses with greater job responsibilities, working fewer multiple shifts including night duty. In general, increasing age was not associated with poorer recovery or higher maladaptive fatigue. Unpredictable internal shift rotations, including night duty, which are traditional and typical in nursing, are inimical to maintaining nurses' health. More creative approaches to rostering for nurses working multiple shifts are a necessary step towards reducing wastage from the profession due to chronic work-related fatigue. Younger nurses in particular, may need more support than

  6. Teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues: complexity, contributions and limitations of an educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariuce Campos de Moraes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This reflection refers to teacher formation related to socio-scientific issues. Whereas such matters take into account the impact of scientific development in society, including ethical aspects and encompass dilemmas involving a wide range of prospects for its resolution, we propose analysis of the complexity that is inherent in their teaching. Thus, we aimed to analyze different spaces and teaching time that produce and are produced in close linkage between theory and practice, as well as their contributions and limitations. The study required a dynamic conversation system that led to the analysis indicators. The issue of sustainability was shown to be feasible for educational planning as cover technical and scientific knowledge, ethical, social and economic pressures. The collective production allowed understand arguments and reflective-creative processes. The lived relations in schools has accompanied and limited the ideas expressed on the socio-scientific issues. We understand that the simultaneity of research and reflection in the sociocultural context has strengthened teacher formation.

  7. Comparative study of the contribution of various PWR spacer grid components to hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi, E-mail: saptarshi.bhattacharjee@outlook.com [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France); Ricciardi, Guillaume [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Viazzo, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Complex geometry inside a PWR fuel assembly is simulated using simplified 3D models. • Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. • Fluctuating hydrodynamic and wall pressure field are analyzed using LES. • Comparative studies between square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and mixing vanes are presented. • Simulations are compared with experimental data. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in fuel rods. These vibrations can compromise safety of a nuclear reactor. So, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods which cause these vibrations. In this paper, simplified 3D models like square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and symmetric mixing vanes have been used inside an annular pipe. Hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics are evaluated using large eddy simulations (LES). Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. Simulations are compared with an experiment. Results show that the grid and vanes have a combined effect: grid accelerates the flow whereas the vanes contribute to the swirl structures. Spectral analysis of the simulations illustrate vortex shedding phenomenon in the wake of spacer grids. This initial study opens up interesting perspectives towards improving the modeling strategy and understanding the complex phenomenon inside a PWR core.

  8. Comparative study of the contribution of various PWR spacer grid components to hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi; Ricciardi, Guillaume; Viazzo, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Complex geometry inside a PWR fuel assembly is simulated using simplified 3D models. • Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. • Fluctuating hydrodynamic and wall pressure field are analyzed using LES. • Comparative studies between square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and mixing vanes are presented. • Simulations are compared with experimental data. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in fuel rods. These vibrations can compromise safety of a nuclear reactor. So, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods which cause these vibrations. In this paper, simplified 3D models like square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and symmetric mixing vanes have been used inside an annular pipe. Hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics are evaluated using large eddy simulations (LES). Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. Simulations are compared with an experiment. Results show that the grid and vanes have a combined effect: grid accelerates the flow whereas the vanes contribute to the swirl structures. Spectral analysis of the simulations illustrate vortex shedding phenomenon in the wake of spacer grids. This initial study opens up interesting perspectives towards improving the modeling strategy and understanding the complex phenomenon inside a PWR core.

  9. Relative contributions of pituitary-adrenal hormones to the ontogeny of behavioral inhibition in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kim, H

    1995-04-01

    Recent investigations revealed that adrenalectomized (ADX) rat pups exhibit deficits in behavioral inhibition. Furthermore, administration of exogenous corticosterone (CORT) restores behavioral inhibition in ADX pups. Although these studies suggest that CORT has an important role in the development of behavioral inhibition, the relative behavioral effects of elevated pituitary hormone secretion induced by ADX are not known. Therefore, experiments were conducted to assess the potential behavioral effects of elevated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion induced by ADX and to further evaluate the contribution of endogenous CORT to the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 1., we verified that 10-day-old ADX rats exhibit high levels of plasma ACTH throughout the preweaning period associated with the development of behavioral inhibition. In Experiment 2, 10-day-old pups were hypophysectomized (HYPOX) and ADX and were compared behaviorally to sham-operated controls on day 14. When tested in the presence of an anesthetized unfamiliar adult male rat, HYPOX + ADX pups exhibited low levels of freezing accompanied by ultrasonic vocalizations. These pups also had reduced concentrations of plasma ACTH and CORT. In Experiment 3, 10-day-old pups were HYPOX and tested for behavioral inhibition on day 14. In comparison to sham-operated controls, HYPOX rats exhibited significantly lower levels of freezing and had reduced plasma concentrations of ACTH and CORT. Results demonstrate clearly that deficits in freezing occur even in the presence of low plasma ACTH concentrations. Therefore, elevated secretion of pituitary hormones is not a major factor that contributes to the ADX-induced deficits in behavioral inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Relative contributions of visual and auditory spatial representations to tactile localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jean-Paul; Wallace, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Spatial localization of touch is critically dependent upon coordinate transformation between different reference frames, which must ultimately allow for alignment between somatotopic and external representations of space. Although prior work has shown an important role for cues such as body posture in influencing the spatial localization of touch, the relative contributions of the different sensory systems to this process are unknown. In the current study, we had participants perform a tactile temporal order judgment (TOJ) under different body postures and conditions of sensory deprivation. Specifically, participants performed non-speeded judgments about the order of two tactile stimuli presented in rapid succession on their ankles during conditions in which their legs were either uncrossed or crossed (and thus bringing somatotopic and external reference frames into conflict). These judgments were made in the absence of 1) visual, 2) auditory, or 3) combined audio-visual spatial information by blindfolding and/or placing participants in an anechoic chamber. As expected, results revealed that tactile temporal acuity was poorer under crossed than uncrossed leg postures. Intriguingly, results also revealed that auditory and audio-visual deprivation exacerbated the difference in tactile temporal acuity between uncrossed to crossed leg postures, an effect not seen for visual-only deprivation. Furthermore, the effects under combined audio-visual deprivation were greater than those seen for auditory deprivation. Collectively, these results indicate that mechanisms governing the alignment between somatotopic and external reference frames extend beyond those imposed by body posture to include spatial features conveyed by the auditory and visual modalities - with a heavier weighting of auditory than visual spatial information. Thus, sensory modalities conveying exteroceptive spatial information contribute to judgments regarding the localization of touch. Copyright © 2016

  11. Relative source contributions for perchlorate exposures in a lactating human cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [University of North Texas Health Sciences Center (United States); Dyke, Jason V. [University of Texas at Arlington (United States); Ohira, Shin-Ichi [Kumamoto University (Japan); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Perchlorate is an iodine-uptake inhibitor and common contaminant of food and drinking water. Understanding the amount of perchlorate exposure occurring through non-water sources is essential for accurate estimates of human exposure levels, and establishment of drinking water limits for this pervasive contaminant. The study objective was to determine the amount of perchlorate intake derived from diet rather than water. Subjects provided drinking water samples, detailed fluid-intake records, 24 h urine collections and four milk samples for nine days. Samples were analyzed for perchlorate by isotope dilution ion chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Amounts of perchlorate derived from drinking water and dietary sources were calculated for each individual. Water of local origin was found to contribute a minor fraction of perchlorate intake. Estimated fraction intake from drinking water ranged from 0 to 36%. The mean and median dose of perchlorate derived from non-water sources by lactating women was 0.18 μg/kg/day (range: 0.06 to 0.36 μg/kg/day.) Lactating women consumed more fluid (mean 2.424 L/day) than has been assumed in recent risk assessments for perchlorate. The data reported here indicate that lactating women may be exposed to perchlorate through dietary sources at markedly higher levels than estimated previously. Exposures to perchlorate from non-water sources may be higher than recent estimates, including those used to develop drinking water standards. - Highlights: ► Residence in an area with perchlorate-contaminated water may be a poor predictor of exposure. ► Exposures to perchlorate from food are likely underestimated. ► The relative contributions for human perchlorate exposures should be weighted more heavily towards non-water sources.

  12. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  14. Characteristics and Classification of Topological Spatial Relations in 3-D Cadasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of a 3-D topology to cadasters is becoming increasingly important as 3-D cadasters continue to develop and cadastral data applications increase. This study discusses spatial topological relations related to 3-D cadasters, the geometric objects used in 3-D cadastral spatial modelling, and the characteristics of the spatial data. The characteristics of the topological relations for a 3-D cadaster are summarized, and a classification method is proposed. Research on the classification of topological spatial relations in 3-D cadasters provides guidance for the analysis and computation of the topological spatial relations, changing of cadastral parcels, and topological consistency in cadastral spatial data.

  15. Contributions of polygenic risk for obesity to PTSD-related metabolic syndrome and cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J; Miller, Danielle R; Logue, Mark W; Sumner, Jennifer; Stoop, Tawni B; Leritz, Elizabeth C; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Miller, Mark W

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and that PTSD-associated MetS is related to decreased cortical thickness. However, the role of genetic factors in these associations is unclear. This study evaluated contributions of polygenic obesity risk and PTSD to MetS and of MetS and polygenic obesity risk to cortical thickness. 196 white, non-Hispanic veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan underwent clinical diagnostic interviews, physiological assessments, and genome-wide genotyping; 168 also completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for obesity were calculated from results of a prior genome-wide association study (Speliotes et al., 2010) and PTSD and MetS severity factor scores were obtained. Obesity PRS (β=0.15, p=0.009) and PTSD (β=0.17, p=0.005) predicted MetS and interacted such that the association between PTSD and MetS was stronger in individuals with greater polygenic obesity risk (β=0.13, p=0.02). Whole-brain vertex-wise analyses suggested that obesity PRS interacted with MetS to predict decreased cortical thickness in left rostral middle frontal gyrus (β=-0.40, pobesity genetic risk increases stress-related metabolic pathology, and compounds the ill health effects of MetS on the brain. Genetic proclivity towards MetS should be considered in PTSD patients when prescribing psychotropic medications with adverse metabolic profiles. Results are consistent with a growing literature suggestive of PTSD-related accelerated aging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. THE SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PROMOTIONAL JOURNALISM – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH OTHER RELATED CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRINA ANIŞOARA TRIFAN (LICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose statement – This paper’s purpose is to contribute to the development of a specific know-how through the establishment of a theoretical framework of reference. This can facilitate the research steps which follow the identification; analysis; and interpretation of a new marketing instrument – promotional journalism. The objectives, of this study, relate not only to the establishment of theoretical but, also, to the practical characteristics, of promotional journalism. These are based on a comparative analysis with other related concepts and, also, on a qualitative analysis of the contents of the specific materials. Design – The research problem imposes a methodological interdisciplinary approach; this enables the identification; systematization; analysis; and theoretical interpretation of the fundamental concepts, theories and ideas, from the specialized literature, to be orientated towards studies and articles from separate fields. From the perspective of the research objectives and this interdisciplinary study of specilized literature, there was added a qualitative analysis of the content of the materials specific to promotional journalism found between 2002 and 2006, in the fashion magazine, Elle Romania. Overview - The specialized literature presented key-concepts; different terminologies; and meanings apparently for the same studied “reality“. This made the achievement of the process of conceptual delimitations even more difficult to the extent that promotional journalism was situated at the intersection of various sciences and the acknowledgment, of its related terms, were either similar or stated vaguely. Originality – This paper’s originality stems from the interdisciplinary perspective to the approach to the problematical aspect and the analysis and interpretitive complexity of the research results. These might prove useful both to the accomplishment of the studies in the field and for the practitioners and

  17. Phenolic Composition and Related Properties of Aged Wine Spirits: Influence of Barrel Characteristics. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Canas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshly distilled wine spirit has a high concentration of ethanol and many volatile compounds, but is devoid of phenolic compounds other than volatile phenols. Therefore, an ageing period in the wooden barrel is required to attain sensory fullness and high quality. During this process, several phenomena take place, namely the release of low molecular weight phenolic compounds and tannins from the wood into the wine spirit. Research conducted over the last decades shows that they play a decisive role on the physicochemical characteristics and relevant sensory properties of the beverage. Their contribution to the antioxidant activity has also been emphasized. Besides, some studies show the modulating effect of the ageing technology, involving different factors such as the barrel features (including the wood botanical species, those imparted by the cooperage technology, and the barrel size, the cellar conditions, and the operations performed, on the phenolic composition and related properties of the aged wine spirit. This review aims to summarize the main findings on this topic, taking into account two featured barrel characteristics—the botanical species of the wood and the toasting level.

  18. Work-home interference in relation to work, organizational, and home characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we examine work-home interference in relation to work, organizational, and home characteristics. The study is guided by the following three research questions: i) how are workload and negative WHI temporally related? (research question 1); ii) is work-home culture related to the use

  19. Chemical constituents of Sweetpotato genotypes in relation to textural characteristics of processed French fries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity but limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics...

  20. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative contributions of plantar fascia and ligaments on the arch static stability: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Ji, Wen-Ting; Wang, Dong-Mei; Wang, Cheng-Tao; Wang, Xu

    2010-10-01

    The plantar fascia (PF) and major ligaments play important roles in keeping the static foot arch structure. Their functions and relative contributions to the arch stability have not been well studied. A three-dimensional finite element foot model was created based on the reconstruction of magnetic resonance images. During balanced standing, four cases after individual releases of the PF, spring ligament (SL), and long and short plantar ligaments (LPL and SPL) were simulated, to compare their biomechanical consequences with the normal predictions under the intact structure. Although the predictions showed the arch did not collapse obviously after each structure sectioning, the internal mechanical behaviors changed considerably. The PF release resulted in the maximal increases of approximately 91%, 65% and 47% in the tensions of the LPF, SPL and SL, produced the largest changes in all bone rotations, and brought an obvious shift of high stress from the medial metatarsals to the lateral metatarsals. The SL release mainly enhanced bone rotation angles and weakened the joint stability of the arch structure. The LPL and the SPL performed the roles of mutual compensation as either one was released. The influence of the LPL on the load distribution among metatarsals was greater than for the SPL and the SL.

  2. Quantifying the relative contributions of different solute carriers to aggregate substrate transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimifar, Mehdi; Oparija, Lalita; Verrey, Francois; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Olgac, Ufuk; Makrides, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Determining the contributions of different transporter species to overall cellular transport is fundamental for understanding the physiological regulation of solutes. We calculated the relative activities of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters using the Michaelis-Menten equation and global fitting to estimate the normalized maximum transport rate for each transporter (Vmax). Data input were the normalized measured uptake of the essential neutral amino acid (AA) L-leucine (Leu) from concentration-dependence assays performed using Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our methodology was verified by calculating Leu and L-phenylalanine (Phe) data in the presence of competitive substrates and/or inhibitors. Among 9 potentially expressed endogenous X. laevis oocyte Leu transporter species, activities of only the uniporters SLC43A2/LAT4 (and/or SLC43A1/LAT3) and the sodium symporter SLC6A19/B0AT1 were required to account for total uptake. Furthermore, Leu and Phe uptake by heterologously expressed human SLC6A14/ATB0,+ and SLC43A2/LAT4 was accurately calculated. This versatile systems biology approach is useful for analyses where the kinetics of each active protein species can be represented by the Hill equation. Furthermore, its applicable even in the absence of protein expression data. It could potentially be applied, for example, to quantify drug transporter activities in target cells to improve specificity. PMID:28091567

  3. [From surveillance to work-related accident prevention: the contribution of the ergonomics of the activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz de; Mendes, Renata Wey Berti

    2012-10-01

    Work-related accidents are complex phenomena determined by the work organization process, the dimensions of which are usually invisible to surveillance agents. The scope of this paper was a case study based on documentary evidence to analyze and compare the success of an intervention conducted at a meat processing and packaging factory, by focusing on checking health and safety norms in 1997, and incorporating ergonomic concepts in 2008. In 1997, surveillance actions focused primarily on visible risk factors. Despite fulfilling sanitation requirements, the company still had an annual accident rate of 26% in 2008, which motivated the search for a new approach. In 2008, it was seen that accidents were caused by a vicious cycle involving intense work, technical inadequacy, absenteeism and high turnover (84%) that led the company to recruit inexperienced workers. This scenario was aggravated by authoritarian management practices. The ergonomics of the activity contributed to the understanding of organizational causes -thus superseding the normative aspects of traditional surveillance - which revealed the importance of ensuring that surveillance actions for prevention are more effective.

  4. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  5. Potential contribution of aromatase inhibition to the effects of nicotine and related compounds on the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eBiegon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a major public health problem, and while smoking rates in men have shown some decrease over the last few decades, smoking rates among girls and young women are increasing. Practically all of the important aspects of cigarette smoking are sexually dimorphic. Women become addicted more easily than men, while finding it harder to quit. Nicotine replacement appears to be less effective in women. This may be linked to the observation that women are more sensitive than men to non-nicotine cues or ingredients in cigarettes. The reasons for these sex differences are mostly unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that many of the reported sex differences related to cigarette smoking may stem from the inhibitory effects of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids on estrogen synthesis via the enzyme aromatase (cyp19a gene product. Aromatase is the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, catalyzing the conversion of androgens to estrogens. This review provides a summary of experimental evidence supporting brain aromatase as a potential mediator and/or modulator of nicotine actions in the brain, contributing to sex differences in smoking behavior. Additional research on the interaction between tobacco smoke, nicotine and aromatase may help devise new, sex specific methods for prevention and treatment of smoking addiction.

  6. Ultrasonic delineation of aortic microstructure: The relative contribution of elastin and collagen to aortic elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jon N.; Takiuchi, Shin; Lin, Shiow Jiuan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2004-05-01

    Aortic elasticity is an important factor in hemodynamic health, and compromised aortic compliance affects not only arterial dynamics but also myocardial function. A variety of pathologic processes (e.g., diabetes, Marfan's syndrome, hypertension) can affect aortic elasticity by altering the microstructure and composition of the elastin and collagen fiber networks within the tunica media. Ultrasound tissue characterization techniques can be used to obtain direct measurements of the stiffness coefficients of aorta by measurement of the speed of sound in specific directions. In this study we sought to define the contributions of elastin and collagen to the mechanical properties of aortic media by measuring the magnitude and directional dependence of the speed of sound before and after selective isolation of either the collagen or elastin fiber matrix. Formalin-fixed porcine aortas were sectioned for insonification in the circumferential, longitudinal, or radial direction and examined using high-frequency (50 MHz) ultrasound microscopy. Isolation of the collagen or elastin fiber matrices was accomplished through treatment with NaOH or formic acid, respectively. The results suggest that elastin is the primary contributor to aortic medial stiffness in the unloaded state, and that there is relatively little anisotropy in the speed of sound or stiffness in the aortic wall.

  7. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  8. Beyond dreams: do sleep-related movements contribute to brain development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Blumberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom has long held that the twitches of sleeping infants and adults are by-products of a dreaming brain. With the discovery of active (or REM sleep in the 1950s and the recognition soon thereafter that active sleep is characterized by inhibition of motor outflow, researchers elaborated on conventional wisdom and concluded that sleep-related twitches are epiphenomena that result from incomplete blockade of dream-related cortical activity. This view persists despite the fact that twitching is unaffected in infant and adults when the cortex is disconnected from the brainstem. In 1966, Roffwarg and colleagues introduced the ontogenetic hypothesis, which addressed the preponderance of active sleep in early infancy. This hypothesis posited that the brainstem mechanisms that produce active sleep provide direct ascending stimulation to the forebrain and descending stimulation to the musculature, thereby promoting brain and neuromuscular development. However, this hypothesis and the subsequent work that tested it did not directly address the developmental significance of twitching or sensory feedback as a contributor to activity-dependent development. Here I review recent findings that have inspired an elaboration of the ontogenetic hypothesis. Specifically, in addition to direct brainstem activation of cortex during active sleep, sensory feedback arising from limb twitches produces discrete and substantial activation of somatosensory cortex and, beyond that, of hippocampus. Delineating how twitching during active sleep contributes to the establishment, refinement, and maintenance of neural circuits may aid our understanding of the early developmental events that make sensorimotor integration possible. In addition, twitches may prove to be sensitive and powerful tools for assessing somatosensory function in humans across the lifespan as well as functional recovery in individuals with injuries or conditions that affect sensorimotor function.

  9. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  10. Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency make distinct contributions to dysregulated drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbanee, Jason M; Stritzke, Werner G K; Wiers, Reinout W; MacLeod, Colin

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether alcohol-related biases in selective-attention and action tendency uniquely or concurrently predict the ability to regulate alcohol consumption. Two groups of undergraduate social drinkers (total n = 55) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel Selective-Attention/Action-Tendency Task (SA/ATT), which assessed separately alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency. University of Western Australia, Australia. Dysregulated drinking was operationalized as a self-reported high level of alcohol consumption on the Alcohol Consumption Questionnaire, and a high desire to reduce consumption on the Brief Readiness to Change Algorithm. Selective attention and action tendency were assessed using the SA/ATT, working memory was assessed using the operation-span task and participant characteristics were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results indicated that (i) there was no significant association between alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency, r = 0.16, P = 0.274, and (ii) biases towards alcohol, in both selective attention, β = 1.01, odds ratio = 2.74, P = 0.022, and action tendency, β = 1.24, odds ratio = 3.45, P = 0.015, predicted independent variance in dysregulated-drinker status. Biases in selective attention and action tendency appear to be distinct mechanisms that contribute independently to difficulty regulating alcohol consumption. Treatment components that could be combined to target both mechanisms could enhance treatment outcomes for alcohol-use disorders. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The relative contribution of ferroelastic and ferroelectric texture to the character of a hard PZT ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Thomas Stallings

    The development of ferroelastic (90°) texture in addition to ferroelectric (180°) texture is essential to maximizing the piezoelectric properties of many hard tetragonal PZTs, including Piezoetechnologies K270. Ferroelastic texture results from motion of domain walls that is dependent on an individual crystals orientation. Increases in ferroelastic texture raises the maximum net polarization that can be achieved by changes in ferroelectric texture. By studying a hard PZT poled under various temperature conditions, insight was gained into factors affecting the development of ferroelastic texture and how ferroelastic texture contributes to piezoelectric properties. Depinning proved to be the major barrier to preventing ferroelastic domain wall motion where strain based domain interactions and polar defect complexes on the domain level appear to be the dominant factors. Insight into the affect of increased domain texture on the relationship between the increasing magnitude of the remnant polarization (|Pr|) and the magnitude of the coercive field (|EC|) was gained by plotting |EC| vs. |Pr| as a function of poling time for a variety of poling temperatures. At low |Pr| values, |EC| increased rapidly as a function of increases in |Pr| regardless of the poling temperature. This relationship was characteristic of samples poled at 25 °C where increases in ferroelastic texture were largely suppressed. Because increases in polarization were still observable changes in ferroelectric texture most responsible for the polarization increase and like play a strong role in the initial |EC| vs. |Pr| relationship. As |Pr| increased beyond 5 to 8 iC/cm2, the slope of |EC| vs. |Pr| decreased where the reduction in slope increased with poling temperature. This only occurred in samples poled at elevated temperatures where ferroelastic texture was know to ultimately develop during the poling process, leading to the suggestion that the change in slope was due to increases in combined

  12. Explaining local-scale species distributions: relative contributions of spatial autocorrelation and landscape heterogeneity for an avian assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady J Mattsson

    Full Text Available Understanding interactions between mobile species distributions and landcover characteristics remains an outstanding challenge in ecology. Multiple factors could explain species distributions including endogenous evolutionary traits leading to conspecific clustering and endogenous habitat features that support life history requirements. Birds are a useful taxon for examining hypotheses about the relative importance of these factors among species in a community. We developed a hierarchical Bayes approach to model the relationships between bird species occupancy and local landcover variables accounting for spatial autocorrelation, species similarities, and partial observability. We fit alternative occupancy models to detections of 90 bird species observed during repeat visits to 316 point-counts forming a 400-m grid throughout the Patuxent Wildlife Research Refuge in Maryland, USA. Models with landcover variables performed significantly better than our autologistic and null models, supporting the hypothesis that local landcover heterogeneity is important as an exogenous driver for species distributions. Conspecific clustering alone was a comparatively poor descriptor of local community composition, but there was evidence for spatial autocorrelation in all species. Considerable uncertainty remains whether landcover combined with spatial autocorrelation is most parsimonious for describing bird species distributions at a local scale. Spatial structuring may be weaker at intermediate scales within which dispersal is less frequent, information flows are localized, and landcover types become spatially diversified and therefore exhibit little aggregation. Examining such hypotheses across species assemblages contributes to our understanding of community-level associations with conspecifics and landscape composition.

  13. Contribution of renal impairment to potentially preventable medication-related hospital admissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Leendertse (Anne); E.A. van Dijk (Elisabeth); P.A. de Smet (Peter); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. Objective: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent

  14. The Relative Contributions of Parents and Siblings to Child and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Updegraff, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, we explore how siblings' and parents' roles, relationships, and activities are intertwined in everyday life, providing unique and combined contributions to development. In a departure from past research that emphasized the separate contributions of siblings and parents to individual development, we find that…

  15. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors in relation to early retirement - Results from a longitudinal study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Blatter, Birgitte M.; Burdorf, Alex; Bongers, Paulien M.; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors to the transition from work to (non-disability) early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59-63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  16. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors in relation to early retirement - results from a longitudinal study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wind, A.; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors to the transition from work to (non-disability) early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59-63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  17. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors in relation to early retirement: results from a longitudinal study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A. de; Geuskens, G.A.; Ybema, J.F.; Blatter, B.M.; Burdorf, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of health, job characteristics, skills and knowledge, and social and financial factors to the transition from work to (non-disability) early retirement. Methods Employees aged 59–63 years (N=2317) were selected from the Study on

  18. Typical winter haze pollution in Zibo, an industrial city in China: Characteristics, secondary formation, and regional contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ma, Yongliang; Duan, Fengkui; He, Kebin; Zhu, Lidan; Huang, Tao; Kimoto, Takashi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Tao; Xu, Lili; Xu, Beiyao; Yang, Shuo; Ye, Siqi; Sun, Zhenli; An, Jiutao; Zhang, Zhaolu

    2017-10-01

    Heavy haze pollution occurs frequently in northern China, most critically in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (BTH). Zibo, an industrial city located in Shandong province, is often listed as one of the top ten most polluted cities in China, particularly in winter. However, no studies of haze in Zibo have been conducted, which limits the understanding of the source and formation of haze pollution in this area, as well as mutual effects with the BTH area. We carried out online and continuous integrated field observation of particulate matter in winter, from 11 to 25 January 2015. SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + (SIA) and organics were the main constituents of PM 2.5 , contributing 59.4% and 33.6%, respectively. With the increasing severity of pollution, the contribution of SIA increased while that of organics decreased. Meteorological conditions play an important role in haze formation; high relative humidity (RH) and low wind speed increased both the accumulation of pollutants and the secondary transition from gas precursors (gas-particle phase partitioning). Since RH and the presence of O 3 can indicate heterogeneous and photochemistry processes, respectively, we carried out correlation analysis and linear regression to identify their relative importance to the three main secondary species (sulfate, nitrate, and secondary organic carbon (SOC)). We found that the impact of RH is in the order of SO 4 2-  > NO 3 -  > SOC, while the impact of O 3 is reversed, in the order of SOC > NO 3 -  > SO 4 2- , indicating different effect of these factors on the secondary formation of main species in winter. Cluster analysis of backward trajectories showed that, during the observation period, six directional sources of air masses were identified, and more than 90% came from highly industrialized areas, indicating that regional transport from industrialized areas aggravates the haze pollution in Zibo. Inter-regional joint prevention and control is necessary to prevent further

  19. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  20. Relative contributions of norspermidine synthesis and signaling pathways to the regulation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin K Wotanis

    Full Text Available The polyamine norspermidine is one of the major polyamines synthesized by Vibrionales and has also been found in various aquatic organisms. Norspermidine is among the environmental signals that positively regulate Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation. The NspS/MbaA signaling complex detects extracellular norspermidine and mediates the response to this polyamine. Norspermidine binding to the NspS periplasmic binding protein is thought to inhibit the phosphodiesterase activity of MbaA, increasing levels of the biofilm-promoting second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate, thus enhancing biofilm formation. V. cholerae can also synthesize norspermidine using the enzyme NspC as well as import it from the environment. Deletion of the nspC gene was shown to reduce accumulation of bacteria in biofilms, leading to the conclusion that intracellular norspermidine is also a positive regulator of biofilm formation. Because V. cholerae uses norspermidine to synthesize the siderophore vibriobactin it is possible that intracellular norspermidine is required to obtain sufficient amounts of iron, which is also necessary for robust biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to assess the relative contributions of intracellular and extracellular norspermidine to the regulation of biofilm formation in V. cholerae. We show the biofilm defect of norspermidine synthesis mutants does not result from an inability to produce vibriobactin as vibriobactin synthesis mutants do not have diminished biofilm forming abilities. Furthermore, our work shows that extracellular, but not intracellular norspermidine, is mainly responsible for promoting biofilm formation. We establish that the NspS/MbaA signaling complex is the dominant mediator of biofilm formation in response to extracellular norspermidine, rather than norspermidine synthesized by NspC or imported into the cell.

  1. Range dependent characteristics in the head-related transfer functions of a bat-head cast: part 1. Monaural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S; Allen, R; Rowan, D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of biological sonar systems has revolutionized many aspects of sonar engineering and further advances will benefit from more detailed understanding of their underlying acoustical processes. The anatomically diverse, complex and dynamic heads and ears of bats are known to be important for echolocation although their range-dependent properties are not well understood, particularly across the wide frequency range of some bats' vocalizations. The aim of this and a companion paper Kim et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim.) is to investigate bat-head acoustics as a function of bat-target distance, based on measurements up to 100 kHz and more robust examination of hardware characteristics in measurements than previously reported, using a cast of a bat head. In this first paper, we consider the spectral features at either ear (i.e. monaural head-related transfer functions). The results show, for example, that there is both higher magnitude and a stronger effect of distance at close range at relatively low frequencies. This might explain, at least in part, why bats adopt a strategy of changing the frequency range of their vocalizations while approaching a target. There is also potential advantage in the design of bio-inspired receivers of using range-dependent HRTFs and utilizing their distinguished frequency characteristics over the distance. (paper)

  2. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: a case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas; van Leenders, Geert; Verheij, Joanne; van Onna, Ilze; Hansen, Bettina; van Heerde, Marianne; Krak, Nanda; Beuers, Ulrich; Bruno, Marco; van Buuren, Henk

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-associated

  3. Immunoglobulin G4-related prostatitis: A case-control study focusing on clinical and pathologic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Buijs (Jorie); L. Maillette De Buy Wenniger (Lucas); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); J. Verheij (Joanne); I. van Onna (Ilze); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); M. van Heerde (Marianne); N.C. Krak (Nanda); U. Beuers (Ulrich); M.J. Bruno (Marco); H.R. van Buuren (Henk)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVE To evaluate the occurrence and histopathologic characteristics of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)- related prostatic involvement in patients diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. METHODS Nine cases of IgG4-related prostatitis were identified among 117 men in the

  4. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  5. Contribution of soil electric resistivity measurements to the studies on soil/grapevine water relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2006-06-01

    vine. As soil electric resistivity depends on soil parameters (texture, structure, humidity or temperatures that explain most of vine development and berry ripening variations, relationships between some physiological variables and electric resistivity measurements have also been tested with promising results. Geophysical techniques such as soil electric resistivity constitute a tool for scientists and recent technological developments are now facilitating the use of these equipments. The measurement of soil electric resistivity could be applied on many agronomic studies. Electric imagery could contribute to a better characterisation of the available soil water content and, as an integrative method, this one could also be used to explain interactions between soil characteristics and vine development. However, electric tomography is not to replace classical methods of water availability measurement but it has to take part to the elaboration of global indices.

  6. Fall-related gait characteristics on the treadmill and in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Sietse M; Van Dieën, Jaap H; Van Schooten, Kimberley S; Cofré Lizama, L Eduardo; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    2016-02-02

    Body-worn sensors allow assessment of gait characteristics that are predictive of fall risk, both when measured during treadmill walking and in daily life. The present study aimed to assess differences as well as associations between fall-related gait characteristics measured on a treadmill and in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, trunk accelerations of 18 older adults (72.3 ± 4.5 years) were recorded during walking on a treadmill (Dynaport Hybrid sensor) and during daily life (Dynaport MoveMonitor). A comprehensive set of 32 fall-risk-related gait characteristics was estimated and compared between both settings. For 25 gait characteristics, a systematic difference between treadmill and daily-life measurements was found. Gait was more variable, less symmetric, and less stable during daily life. Fourteen characteristics showed a significant correlation between treadmill and daily-life measurements, including stride time and regularity (0.48  0.25). Gait characteristics revealed less stable, less symmetric, and more variable gait during daily life than on a treadmill, yet about half of the characteristics were significantly correlated between conditions. These results suggest that daily-life gait analysis is sensitive to static personal factors (i.e., physical and cognitive capacity) as well as dynamic situational factors (i.e., behavior and environment), which may both represent determinants of fall risk.

  7. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  8. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-12-01

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  9. 29 CFR 2509.94-3 - Interpretive bulletin relating to in-kind contributions to employee benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee benefit plans. 2509.94-3 Section 2509.94-3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL INTERPRETIVE BULLETINS RELATING TO...-kind contributions to employee benefit plans. (a) General. This bulletin sets forth the views of the...

  10. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  11. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  12. Impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress contributes to aging-related ischemic intolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Gu

    Full Text Available Reactive aldehydes can initiate protein oxidative damage which may contribute to heart senescence. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is considered to be a potential interventional target for I/R injury management in the elderly. We hypothesized that aldehyde mediated carbonyl stress increases susceptibility of aged hearts to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanisms with a focus on SIRT1. Male C57BL/6 young (4-6 mo and aged (22-24 mo mice were subjected to myocardial I/R. Cardiac aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, SIRT1 activity and protein carbonyls were assessed. Our data revealed that aged heart exhibited increased endogenous aldehyde/carbonyl stress due to impaired ALDH2 activity concomitant with blunted SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Exogenous toxic aldehydes (4-HNE exposure in isolated cardiomyocyte verified that aldehyde-induced carbonyl modification on SIRT1 impaired SIRT1 activity leading to worse hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R injury, which could all be rescued by Alda-1 (ALDH2 activator (all P<0.05. However, SIRT1 inhibitor blocked the protective effect of Alda-1 on H/R cardiomyocyte. Interestingly, myocardial I/R leads to higher carbonylation but lower activity of SIRT1 in aged hearts than that seen in young hearts (P<0.05. The application of Alda-1 significantly reduced the carbonylation on SIRT1 and markedly improved the tolerance to in vivo I/R injury in aged hearts, but failed to protect Sirt1(+/- knockout mice against myocardial I/R injury. This was verified by Alda-1 treatment improved postischemic contractile function recovery in ex vivo perfused aged but not in Sirt1(+/- hearts. Thus, aldehyde/carbonyl stress is accelerated in aging heart. These results provide a new insight that impaired cardiac SIRT1 activity by carbonyl stress plays a critical role in the increased susceptibility of aged heart to I/R injury. ALDH2 activation can restore this aging-related myocardial ischemic intolerance.

  13. Socioeconomic characteristics of the population living in Roma settlements and their association with health and health-related behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Babinská, Ingrid; Bobáková, Daniela; Veselská, Zuzana Dankulincová; Bosáková, Lucia; Kolarcik, Peter; Jarcuska, Peter; Pella, Daniel; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare socioeconomic characteristics of the Roma population living in Roma settlements with the majority population. Moreover, it was aimed to assess socioeconomic differences in health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. Data from the cross-sectional HepaMeta study conducted in Slovakia in 2011 were used. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. Roma in selected settlements were recruited by local Roma community workers. Respondents from the major population were randomly selected from a list of patients from general practitioners. Data were collected via questionnaire, anthropometric measures and analysed blood samples. Differences in socioeconomic characteristics between the population living in Roma settlements and the majority population were tested using the chi-square test. The contribution of selected socioeconomic characteristics on health and health-related behaviour of the population living in Roma settlements was assessed by logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. The population living in Roma settlements is characterised by significantly lower socioeconomic standards, and the living conditions are significantly worse compared with the majority. With few exceptions, the study did not confirm any significant association between socioeconomic indicators and health and health-related behaviour within the population living in Roma settlements. The deteriorating effect of living in Roma settlement on health and health-related behaviour seems to be immense regardless differences in socioeconomic characteristics or living condition within the settlement population.

  14. Relative contribution of lateral inhibition to the Delboeuf and Wundt-Hering illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, S

    1999-06-01

    It has been suggested that lateral neural interactions contribute to some illusions with intersecting or converging line elements but cannot be present in figures that lack these components. Most attempts to ascertain the contribution of neural interactions in visual illusions have involved changes in the actual pattern of illusion. It has now been demonstrated that certain forms of intermittent light stimulation can enhance lateral inhibitory activity. The Wundt-Hering and the Delboeuf illusions were tested under continuous illumination and "shaped" intermittent illumination which augments lateral inhibition. As expected, the Delboeuf illusion was unchanged with increased lateral inhibition while the magnitude of the Wundt-Hering illusion increased.

  15. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  16. The contribution of work engagement to self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan J W; Schaufeli, Wilmar; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether work engagement influences self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence beyond health behaviors and work-related characteristics. Employees of two organizations participated in a 6-month longitudinal study (n = 733). Using questionnaires, information was collected on health behaviors, work-related characteristics, and work engagement at baseline, and self-perceived health, work ability, and sickness absence at 6-month follow-up. Associations between baseline and follow-up variables were studied using multivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses and changes in R2 were calculated. Low work engagement was related with low work ability (odds ratio: 3.68; 95% confidence interval: 2.15 to 6.30) and long-term sickness absence (odds ratio: 1.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 3.27). Work engagement increased the explained variance in work ability and sickness absence with 4.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Work engagement contributes to work ability beyond known health behaviors and work-related characteristics.

  17. Trajectories of Classroom Externalizing Behavior: Contributions of Child Characteristics, Family Characteristics, and the Teacher-Child Relationship during the School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, R.B.; Measelle, J.R.; Armstrong, J.M.; Essex, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The unique and interactive contributions of past externalizing behavior, negative parenting, and teacher-child relationship quality to externalizing behavior trajectories after the transition to school were examined. In a sample of 283 children, random regression analyses indicated that conflict in the teacher-child relationship during the school…

  18. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  19. Estimation of the Relative Contribution of Postprandial Glucose Exposure to Average Total Glucose Exposure in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ahrén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the relative contribution of fasting plasma glucose (FPG versus postprandial plasma glucose (PPG to glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c could be calculated using an algorithm developed by the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG study group to make HbA1c values more clinically relevant to patients. The algorithm estimates average glucose (eAG exposure, which can be used to calculate apparent PPG (aPPG by subtracting FPG. The hypothesis was tested in a large dataset (comprising 17 studies from the vildagliptin clinical trial programme. We found that 24 weeks of treatment with vildagliptin monotherapy (n=2523 reduced the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG from 8.12% to 2.95% (by 64%, p<0.001. In contrast, when vildagliptin was added to metformin (n=2752, the relative contribution of aPPG to eAG insignificantly increased from 1.59% to 2.56%. In conclusion, glucose peaks, which are often prominent in patients with type 2 diabetes, provide a small contribution to the total glucose exposure assessed by HbA1c, and the ADAG algorithm is not robust enough to assess this small relative contribution in patients receiving combination therapy.

  20. Relational Aggressive Behaviour: The Contributions of Status Stress and Status Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Relational aggression is a destructive behaviour that increases during adolescence. In order to develop effective interventions aimed to combat relational aggression, there is an urgent need to study what motivates this behaviour. This study investigates the association between status stress, status goals, and relational aggressive behaviour in a…

  1. An Exploration of Adolescent Emotional Intelligence in Relation to Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Nicholas R.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2005-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) was measured in 200 youth ages 16-19. EI scores were compared to demographic characteristics of the individuals (age, sex, household income, parents' level of education, and location of residence). Findings indicate that EI levels were positively related to females, parents' education, and household income. The study…

  2. Decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate in Chinese loess soil under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Wang, Fei; Martins Bento, Celia; Meng, L.; Dam, van R.C.J.; Mol, J.G.J.; Liu, Guobin; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The decay characteristics and erosion-related transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were monitored for 35 d at different slope gradients and rates of application in plots with loess soil on the Loess Plateau, China. The initial glyphosate decayed rapidly (half-life of 3.5 d)

  3. Cutaneous wart-associated HPV types: prevalence and relation with patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, S.C.; de Koning, M.N.; Gussekloo, J.; Egberts, P.F.; Ter Schegget, J.; Feltkamp, M.C.; Bavinck, J.N.; Quint, W.G.V.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Eekhof, J.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on cutaneous wart-associated HPV types are rare. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous wart-associated HPV types and their relation with patient characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: Swabs were taken from all 744 warts of 246 consecutive immunocompetent

  4. The relative influence of body characteristics on humid heat stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Luttikholt, V. G.; Vrijkotte, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relative importance of individual characteristics such as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), adiposity, DuBois body surface area (AD), surface to mass ratio (AD: mass) and body mass, for the individual's reaction to humid heat stress. For this purpose 27

  5. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  6. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  7. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  8. Personality Characteristics and Self-Concept of Preservice Teachers Related to Their Pupil Control Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Glennelle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In a study of teacher trainees' personality characteristics related to pupil control, humanistically oriented educators tended to be emotionally stable, expedient, positive, imaginative, venturesome, relaxed and had high self-concepts. Authoritarian educators were more affected by feelings, conscientious, sober, practical, shy, reserved, tense and…

  9. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  10. Student Characteristics and Motivational and Process Factors in Relation to Styles of Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokan, Janice J.; Biggs, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated student characteristics in relation to affective and cognitive aspects of adolescent career development. Questionnaire results indicated three styles of career development: intellective or deliberative; concerned and personally involved with high or low aspirations; and uncertain or confused. Suggests motives and strategies that might…

  11. On the relationships among work characteristics and learning-related behavior : Does age matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, Annet H.; Taris, Toon W.; Jansen, Paul; Kompier, Michiel A. J.; Houtman, Irene L. D.; Bongers, Paulien M.

    2010-01-01

    This 3-wave longitudinal study examined (a) the causal direction of the relationships among psychosocial work characteristics (e.g., job demands, job control, and supervisor support) and indicators of learning-related behavior (e.g., motivation to learn and active problem solving), and (b) whether

  12. Ambulance Work : Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Aasa, Ulrika

    2005-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel. A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a nat...

  13. PREDICTIVE CONTRIBUTION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES ON THE RESULT OF RUNNING THE 60m HURDLES IN BOYS AGED 12 - 13 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Bujak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is to determine predictive contributions of morphological characteristics and motor abilities on the 60m hurdles, with an aim to form a group of easily applicable field tests so as to identify boys who are talented in hurdl e racing . The subject sample of this study was comprised of 60 boys aged 12 - 13. The variable sample consisted of a 60m hurdles criterion variable and a set of 13 p re dictor variables comprising of morphological characteristics, speed - strength abilities and the subjects' coordina tion qualities . Applying the regression analysis , the predictive contribution of a complete variable s et of morpholog ical characteristics and motor abilities was determined as an above average statistical significance, influencing 60m hurdle outcome. The greatest individual statistically significant predictive contribution was achieved by the variables of speed - strength quality assessment: 20m flying start r ace result with a standing long jump; and only one variable from the field of morphological characteristics: the shin length. The results support the following conclusion: the two specific variables of speed - strength quality, and 20m flying start race results along with standing long jump , can be relevant predictors of successful outcome in hurdle races .

  14. Aggressiveness and characteristics of object-relations in students at risk of migrainous headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research, carried out in a sample of Slovene students, was to determine how subjects with migraine differ from subjects with migrainous disorder, subjects with non-migrainous headaches and subjects without recurrent headaches. The existence of migraine was assessed by UCSD migraine questionnaire, aggressiveness by Buss-Durkee hostility inventory and characteristics of object-relations by Bell object relations and reality testing inventory - form O. Subjects with migraine express significantly more negativism, indirect aggressiveness, irritability, hostility, suspicion and feelings of guilt than subject without recurrent headaches, while there are no differences in physical and verbal aggressiveness. There are less significant differences among subjects with different types of headache (migraine, migrainous disorder, non-migrainous headaches. Subjects with migraine and subjects without recurrent headaches differ significantly in characteristics of object-relations, subjects with migraine having more disturbed object-relations. Subject with different types of headaches do not differ in characteristics of object-relations. It is concluded that subjects with migraine have a raised level of aggressiveness, especially of indirect forms, which can indicate non-neutralized aggressiveness, and their object-relations are more disturbed.

  15. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  16. Work-Related Noise Exposure in a Cohort of Patients with Chronic Tinnitus: Analysis of Demographic and Audiological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralli, Massimo; Balla, Maria Paola; Greco, Antonio; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Ricci, Pasquale; Turchetta, Rosaria; de Virgilio, Armando; de Vincentiis, Marco; Ricci, Serafino; Cianfrone, Giancarlo

    2017-09-08

    Work-related noise exposure is one of the major factors contributing to the development of adult-onset hearing loss and tinnitus. The aim of this study was to analyze, in patients with chronic tinnitus and long-term occupational noise exposure, (A) characteristics of hearing loss, tinnitus, comorbidities, demographic characteristics and a history of work-related noise exposure and (B) differences among individuals employed in occupations with high and low risk of developing work-related noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). One hundred thirty six patients with chronic tinnitus and at least a 10 year-long working history were divided into two groups based on the risk of their profession to induce NIHL. Individuals employed in jobs at high risk for NIHL were mostly males and exhibited a poorer hearing threshold, more evident in the left ear. Tinnitus was mostly bilateral; the next largest presentation was left-sided; patients described their tinnitus as buzzing or high-pitched. Correlation between age, length of tinnitus and worse hearing was found. Patients with a higher degree of hearing impairment were mostly males and were more likely to have a family history of hearing loss and at least one cardiovascular comorbidity. Our study shows some differences in individuals with tinnitus and a history of a profession associated with increased exposure to NIHL compared to those without such a history.

  17. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper discusses lessons learned from Thailand's burden of disease (BOD) study on capacity development on NHEs and discusses the contributions and limitations of GHEs in informing policies at the country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and subnational levels. Initially, the quality of cause-of-death reporting in death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This method helped to improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and an effective interface between researchers and decision-makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, whereas subnational data are intended to be used by various subnational partners. Although GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  18. Product-related research: how research can contribute to successful life-cycle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, Peter; Ziegelbauer, Karl

    2008-05-01

    Declining productivity with decreasing new molecular entity output combined with increased R&D spending is one of the key challenges for the entire pharmaceutical industry. In order to offset decreasing new molecular entity output, life-cycle management activities for established drugs become more and more important to maintain or even expand clinical indication and market opportunities. Life-cycle management covers a whole range of activities from strategic pricing to a next generation product launch. In this communication, we review how research organizations can contribute to successful life-cycle management strategies using phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as an example.

  19. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav Gulis; Keller Suberkropp

    2003-01-01

    The relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decaying plant litter at different levels of inorganic nutrients (N and P) were studied. We estimated leaf mass loss, fungal and bacterial biomass and production, and microbial respiration and constructed partial carbon budgets for red maple leaf disks precolonized in a stream and then...

  20. Explaining educational differences in leisure-time physical activity in Europe: the contribution of work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. E.; Sippola, R.; Borodulin, K.; Rahkonen, O.; Kunst, A.; Klumbiene, J.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Mackenbach, J.; Prättälä, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status, and

  1. The Contribution of School-Related Parental Monitoring, Self-Determination, and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Gaetana; Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of school-related parental monitoring (SR-PM), self-determined motivation, and academic self-efficacy to academic achievement across time. The authors hypothesized that SR-PM would affect academic achievement indirectly via its effects on self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy…

  2. Left-cut contribution to the dispersion relation for the elastic electron - atomic-hydrogen scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kuchiev, M.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The jump in the electron - atomic-hydrogen forward scattering amplitude at the cut extending to the left from E = -0.5 au is calculated as a function of the incident electron energy, E, by using the second Born approximation. The contribution from this singularity to the dispersion relation is determined. (Auth.)

  3. Deliberate Practice in Medicine: The Motivation to Engage in Work-Related Learning and Its Contribution to Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2013-01-01

    This study examined physicians' motivation to engage in work-related learning and its contribution to expertise development beyond work experience. Based on deliberate practice theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 residents and 28 experienced physicians in internal medicine, focusing on the activities they engaged in during…

  4. Comparing the Contribution of Two Tests of Working Memory to Reading in Relation to Phonological Awareness and Rapid Naming Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Hayward, Denyse V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the contribution of two different versions of working memory to word reading and reading comprehension in relation to phonological awareness and rapid naming speed. Fifty children were administered two measures of working memory, namely an adaptation of the Daneman and Carpenter sentence span task and…

  5. Beliefs Contributing to HIV-related Stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean Communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Kesteren, van N.M.C.; Shiripinda, I.; Pryor, J.B.; Bruin, de M.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the first diagnosis, people living with HIV (PLWH) around the world continue to report stigmatizing experiences. In this study, beliefs contributing to HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities and their cultural context were explored through

  6. Phase characteristics of rheograms. Original classification of phase-related changes of rheos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Y. Rudenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The phase characteristics of a rheogram are described in literature in general only. The existing theory of impedance rheography is based on an analysis of the form of rheogram envelopes, but not on the phase-related processes and their interpretation according to the applicable laws of physics. The aim of the present paper is to describe the phase-related characteristics of a rheogram of the ascending aorta. The method of the heart cycle phase analysis has been used for this purpose. By synchronizing an ECG of the aorta and a rheogram, an analysis of specific changes in the aorta blood filling in each phase is provided. As a result, the phase changes of a rheogram associated with the ECG phase structure are described and tabulated for first time. The author hereof offers his own original classification of the phase-related changes of rheograms.

  7. Altering length and velocity feedback during a neuro-musculoskeletal simulation of normal gait contributes to hemiparetic gait characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Karen; De Groote, Friedl; Aerts, Wouter; De Schutter, Joris; Duysens, Jacques; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-04-30

    Spasticity is an important complication after stroke, especially in the anti-gravity muscles, i.e. lower limb extensors. However the contribution of hyperexcitable muscle spindle reflex loops to gait impairments after stroke is often disputed. In this study a neuro-musculoskeletal model was developed to investigate the contribution of an increased length and velocity feedback and altered reflex modulation patterns to hemiparetic gait deficits. A musculoskeletal model was extended with a muscle spindle model providing real-time length and velocity feedback of gastrocnemius, soleus, vasti and rectus femoris during a forward dynamic simulation (neural control model). By using a healthy subject's base muscle excitations, in combination with increased feedback gains and altered reflex modulation patterns, the effect on kinematics was simulated. A foot-ground contact model was added to account for the interaction effect between the changed kinematics and the ground. The qualitative effect i.e. the directional effect and the specific gait phases where the effect is present, on the joint kinematics was then compared with hemiparetic gait deviations reported in the literature. Our results show that increased feedback in combination with altered reflex modulation patterns of soleus, vasti and rectus femoris muscle can contribute to excessive ankle plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, knee hyperextension/inadequate flexion and increased hip extension/inadequate flexion during dedicated gait cycle phases. Increased feedback of gastrocnemius can also contribute to excessive plantarflexion/inadequate dorsiflexion, however in combination with excessive knee and hip flexion. Increased length/velocity feedback can therefore contribute to two types of gait deviations, which are both in accordance with previously reported gait deviations in hemiparetic patients. Furthermore altered modulation patterns, in particular the reduced suppression of the muscle spindle feedback during

  8. Advancing Understanding on Industrial Relations in Multinational Companies: Key Research Challenges and the INTREPID Contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnigle, Patrick; Valeria, Pulignano; Edwards, Tony

    2015-01-01

    companies using INTREPID (Investigation of Transnationals’ Employment Practices: an International Database) data. Finally, the paper identifies some of the main industrial relations issues that remain to be addressed, in effect charting a form of research agenda for future work using the INTREPID data......This paper has three principal aims. It firstly provides some theoretical background on the key current research issues and challenges in regard to industrial relations in multinational companies. It then presents a concise review of scholarship to date on industrial relations in multinational...

  9. Depression among unaccompanied minor refugees: the relative contribution of general and acculturation-specific daily hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Serap; Friborg, Oddgeir; Idsøe, Thormod; Sirin, Selcuk; Oppedal, Brit

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to provide an empirical conceptualization of daily hassles among unaccompanied refugees, and whether they might affect mental health of young refugees after resettlement. First, we examined the underlying structure of daily hassles conceptualized as measuring general and acculturation-specific hassles. Second, we examined whether these two distinct categories of daily hassles significantly contribute to depression above and beyond the impact of premigration trauma. The study was based on self-report questionnaire data collected from 895 unaccompanied refugees who had been granted residence in Norway. Using structural equation modeling, the results confirmed the grouping of hassles in two general categories, which explained 43% of the variance in depression. The findings underscore the importance of current life conditions for unaccompanied refugees' mental health.

  10. Unravelling the relative contribution of bed and suspended sediment load on a large alluvial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.

    2017-12-01

    The world's largest rivers transport 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, often supporting large deltas that rely on this sediment load to maintain their elevation in the face of rising sea level, and to sustain high levels of agricultural productivity and biodiversity. However, the majority of estimates of sediment delivery to coastal regions pertain solely to the suspended fraction of the sediment load, with the bedload fraction often being neglected due to the difficulty in estimating bedload flux and the assumption that bedload contributes a minor (management plans, improved estimates of all fractions of the sediment load are essential. Recent advances in non-intrusive, high-resolution, technology have begun to enable more accurate estimates of bedload transport rates. However, the characterisation of the holistic sediment transport regime of large alluvial rivers is still lacking. Here, we develop a sediment transport rating curve, combining both suspended- and bed- load sediment fractions, for the Lower Mekong River. We define suspended sediment rating curves using the inversion of acoustic return data from a series of acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys conducted through the Lower Mekong River in Cambodia, and into the bifurcating channels of the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Additionally, we detail estimates of bed-load sediment transport determined using repeat multibeam echo sounder surveys of the channel bed. By combining estimates of both fractions of the sediment load, we show the spatial and temporal contribution of bedload to the total sediment load of the Mekong and refine estimates of sediment transport to the Mekong delta. Our results indicate that the time-averaged suspended load transport rates for the Mekong River are 87 MT/yr, whilst bedload transport forms c. management within this highly threatened river basin.

  11. Relative contributions of microbial and infrastructure heat at a crude oil-contaminated site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2018-04-01

    Biodegradation of contaminants can increase the temperature in the subsurface due to heat generated from exothermic reactions, making temperature observations a potentially low-cost approach for determining microbial activity. For this technique to gain more widespread acceptance, it is necessary to better understand all the factors affecting the measured temperatures. Biodegradation has been occurring at a crude oil-contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota for 39 years, creating a quasi-steady-state plume of contaminants and degradation products. A model of subsurface heat generation and transport helps elucidate the contribution of microbial and infrastructure heating to observed temperature increases at this site. We created a steady-state, two-dimensional, heat transport model using previous-published parameter values for physical, chemical and biodegradation properties. Simulated temperature distributions closely match the observed average annual temperatures measured in the contaminated area at the site within less than 0.2 °C in the unsaturated zone and 0.4 °C in the saturated zone. The model results confirm that the observed subsurface heat from microbial activity is due primarily to methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone resulting in a 3.6 °C increase in average annual temperature. Another important source of subsurface heat is from the active, crude-oil pipelines crossing the site. The pipelines impact temperatures for a distance of 200 m and contribute half the heat. Model results show that not accounting for the heat from the pipelines leads to overestimating the degradation rates by a factor of 1.7, demonstrating the importance of identifying and quantifying all heat sources. The model results also highlighted a zone where previously unknown microbial activity is occurring at the site.

  12. The relative contribution of genes and environment to alcohol use in early adolescents: are similar factors related to initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, Evelien A. P.; Derks, Eske M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual differences in

  13. The Relative Contribution of Genes and Environment to Alcohol Use in Early Adolescents : Are Similar Factors Related to Initiation of Alcohol Use and Frequency of Drinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Derks, E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Willemsen, A.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual

  14. The relative contribution of genes and environment to alcohol use in early adolescents: Are similar factors related to initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Derks, E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, J.F.J.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual

  15. The relation between umbilical cord characteristics and the outcome of external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Simone M I; Waerenburgh, Evelyne R; Kooistra, Libbe; van der Donk, Riet W P; Hasaart, Tom H M; Pop, Victor J M

    2011-05-01

    Umbilical cords of fetuses in breech presentation differ in length and coiling from their cephalic counterparts and it might be hypothesised that these cord characteristics may in turn affect ECV outcome. To investigate the relation between umbilical cord characteristics and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV). Prospective cohort study. Women (>35 weeks gestation) with a singleton fetus in breech presentation, suitable for external cephalic version. Demographic, lifestyle and obstetrical parameters were assessed at intake. ECV success was based on cephalic presentation on ultrasound post-ECV. Umbilical cord length (UCL) and umbilical coiling index (UCI) were measured after birth. The relation between umbilical cord characteristics (cord length and coiling) and the success of external cephalic version. ECV success rate was overall 79/146 (54%), for multiparas 37/46(80%) and for nulliparas 42/100 (42%). Multiple logistic regression showed that UCL (OR: 1.04, CI: 1.01-1.07), nulliparity (OR: 0.20, CI: 0.08-0.51), frank breech (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.90), body mass index (OR: 0.85, CI: 0.76-0.95), placenta anterior (OR: 0.27, CI: 0.12-0.63) and birth weight (OR: 1.002, CI: 1.001-1.003) were all independently related to ECV success. Umbilical cord length is independently related to the outcome of ECV, whereas umbilical coiling index is not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating small area health-related characteristics of populations: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rahman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of health-related characteristics at a fine local geographic level is vital for effective health promotion programmes, provision of better health services and population-specific health planning and management. Lack of a micro-dataset readily available for attributes of individuals at small areas negatively impacts the ability of local and national agencies to manage serious health issues and related risks in the community. A solution to this challenge would be to develop a method that simulates reliable small-area statistics. This paper provides a significant appraisal of the methodologies for estimating health-related characteristics of populations at geographical limited areas. Findings reveal that a range of methodologies are in use, which can be classified as three distinct set of approaches: i indirect standardisation and individual level modelling; ii multilevel statistical modelling; and iii micro-simulation modelling. Although each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses, it appears that microsimulation- based spatial models have significant robustness over the other methods and also represent a more precise means of estimating health-related population characteristics over small areas.

  17. Adipocyte-derived factors in age-related dementia and their contribution to vascular and Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The contribution of personality and workplace characteristics in predicting turnover intention among sexual assault nurse examiners: a path analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kathleen C; Strunk, Kamden K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how personality characteristics, sense of organizational empowerment, and job satisfaction combine to predict turnover intention among a population of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners (SANEs). Data were collected from 161 SANEs from 23 SANE organizations across the central and west United States through standardized tools and a demographic questionnaire. Both personality, namely agreeableness and workplace characteristics, particularly perceived empowerment and job satisfaction, combine to predict intention to leave the job of these sampled SANEs. One particularly curious finding was the positive prediction of agreeableness on turnover intention - that is, more agreeable people would be more likely to leave their jobs as SANEs. Professionals can gain insight from the path analysis results that show the need to address both personal and organizational factors in mitigating turnover intention among SANEs. This appears to be particularly true in providing a sense of empowerment and opportunity within the organization. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  19. What Factors Contribute to Headache-Related Disability in Teens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Heyer, Geoffrey; Pakalnis, Ann; Binkley, Philip F

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the relationship between risk factors, such as stress, depression, and anxiety, and potentially protective factors against pediatric headache-related disability, such as mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion, and to determine teens' interest in mind-body skills training to help reduce headache-related disability. This was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents seen in an academic neurology clinic reporting four or more headaches monthly using standardized instruments to determine the relationship between putative risk and protective factors as well as physiologic markers of inflammation and vagal tone and headache-related disability. Among the 29 participants, 31% were male, the average age was 14.8 years, average headache frequency was 11.6 per month, and the most commonly reported trigger was stress (86%). The only risk or protective factor significantly associated with headache-related disability was depression (r = 0.52, P = 0.004). Depression was negatively correlated with mindfulness, resilience, and self-compassion (P stress, sleep disturbance, and anxiety (P headache-related disability or depression. There was strong interest in learning skills like slow, deep breathing practices supported by a smart phone application to reduce stress and the negative impact of headaches on daily life. Among teens with frequent migraine headaches, depression is the strongest risk factor for headache-related disability. Stress is viewed as a headache trigger, and teens reported wanting to learn simple stress management strategies supported by a smart phone application to help reduce headache-related disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Change of awareness level of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top and relation with sociodemographic and health-related characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaizumi, Kanae; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sociodemographic and health-related characteristics of those who are unaware of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (Food Guide). A longitudinal study was conducted using an Internet-based questionnaire with 1,012 Japanese adults (40.2 +/- 10.0 years, mean +/- SD) recruited from registrants of a Japanese social research company. Conducted between November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2), the survey included items on awareness level ("I know the contents." "I have heard of this Guide." or "I have not heard of this Guide.") of the Food Guide as the dependent variable, and demographics factors (e.g., age, education status, marital status, household income, and employment status) and health-related characteristics (obesity, abdominal obesity, and insufficient physical activity) as the independent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between awareness level and each variable. The relation between change of awareness level (T1-T2) and each variable was analyzed using a chi-square test. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for all variables, men with a household income of 5,000,000-10,000,000 yen (OR=1.78; 95% CI=1.10-2.88) were positively associated with awareness level ("I have heard of this Guide."). In contrast, unmarried women were negatively associated with awareness level in T1 ("I know the contents"; OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.17-0.70. "I have heard of this Guide"; OR=0.50; 95% CI=0.27-0.92). In men, the awareness level of the Food Guide increased from T1 to T2, change of awareness level (T1; "I have not heard of this Guide") and education status being related (P=0.023). In women, the awareness levels overall did not improve from T1 to T2, but change of awareness level (T1; "I have heard of this Guide") was associated with household income (Plevel was not associated with health-related characteristics. The results

  1. Parental and Child Characteristics Related to Early-Onset Disordered Eating: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Micali, Nadia; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to: Evaluate the evidence regarding parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Eating disorders are rare in children, but disordered eating is common. Understanding the phenomenology of disordered eating in childhood can aid prevention of full-blown eating disorders. The purpose of this review is to systematically extract and synthesize the evidence on parental and child characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using the following search terms: eating disorder, disordered eating, problem eating, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating, child, preadolescent, and early onset. Studies published from 1990 to 2013 addressing parental and child characteristics of disordered eating in children aged 6 to 12 years were eligible for inclusion. The search was restricted to studies with cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal designs, studies in English, and with abstracts available. Forty-four studies fit these criteria. Most studies were based on community samples with a cross-sectional design. The included studies varied considerably in size, instruments used to assess early-onset disordered eating, and parental and child characteristics investigated. Important determinants included the following: higher body weight, previously reported disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, parental disordered eating, and parental comments/concerns about child's weight and eating. The findings were inconsistent for sex, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-esteem/worth, and parental body weight. In conclusion, characteristics related to early-onset disordered eating have mainly been explored with a cross-sectional design. Full understanding of causal pathways will require good-quality longitudinal studies designed to address the influence of parental eating

  2. Biofilm Formation and Its Relationship with the Molecular Characteristics of Food-Related Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Alberto; Normanno, Giovanni; Di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Parisi, Antonio; Santagada, Gianfranco; Colagiorgi, Angelo; Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Ianieri, Adriana

    2017-10-01

    The capability to produce biofilm is an important persistence and dissemination mechanism of some foodborne bacteria. This paper investigates the relationship between some molecular characteristics (SCCmec, ST, spa-type, agr-type, cna, sarA, icaA, icaD, clfA, fnbA, fnbB, hla, hlb) of 22 food-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains and their ability to form biofilm on stainless steel and polystyrene. Five (22.7%, 5/22) strains were able to synthesize biofilm on polystyrene, and one of these (4.5%, 1/22) strains was also able to synthesize biofilm on stainless steel. The largest amount of biofilm was formed on polystyrene by 2 MRSA strains isolated from cows' milk, thus raising concern about the dairy industry. The majority of MRSA biofilm producers carried SCCmec type IVa, suggesting that the presence of SCCmecIVa and/or agr type III could be related to the ability to form biofilm. In conclusion, in order to achieve an acceptable level of food safety, Good Hygiene Practices should be strictly implemented along the food chain to reduce the risk of colonization and dissemination of MRSA biofilm-producing strains in the food industry. In this study, some assayed isolates of food-related MRSA demonstrated the capacity to form biofilm. Biofilm formation differed according to surface characteristics and MRSA strains. A relationship was observed between some molecular characteristics and the ability to form biofilms. Few studies have investigated the ability of MRSA to form biofilms, and the majority of these studies have investigated clinical aspects. This work was performed to investigate whether or not there is a difference between MRSA food isolates and MRSA clinical isolates in their ability to form biofilm. These initial findings could provide information that will contribute to a better understanding of these aspects. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Group-Contribution based Property Estimation and Uncertainty analysis for Flammability-related Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Marcarie, Camille; Abildskov, Jens

    2016-01-01

    regression and outlier treatment have been applied to achieve high accuracy. Furthermore, linear error propagation based on covariance matrix of estimated parameters was performed. Therefore, every estimated property value of the flammability-related properties is reported together with its corresponding 95......%-confidence interval of the prediction. Compared to existing models the developed ones have a higher accuracy, are simple to apply and provide uncertainty information on the calculated prediction. The average relative error and correlation coefficient are 11.5% and 0.99 for LFL, 15.9% and 0.91 for UFL, 2...

  5. Factors contributing to perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders: the role of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and social disorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Deeanna M; Tewksbury, Richard; Mustaine, Elizabeth E; Payne, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore factors contributing to perceptions about electronic monitoring policies governing sex offenders. Guided by Tannenbaum's theory of attribution and Shaw and McKay's theory of social disorganization, the authors examine the influence of demographic characteristics, victimization experiences, and neighborhood characteristics on perceptions about policies regarding the electronic monitoring of sex offenders. Ordinary least squares regression and logistic regression analyses of stratified telephone survey data reveal that factors associated with favorable views on the use of global positioning satellite monitoring for registered sex offenders appear to stem primarily from individuals' demographic characteristics. Experiential and neighborhood factors do provide some influence over individuals' views of electronic monitoring policies for sex offenders. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

  6. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci from 8 human cases of psittacosis and 4 related birds in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadario, María E; Frutos, María C; Arias, Maite B; Origlia, Javier A; Zelaya, Vanina; Madariaga, María J; Lara, Claudia S; Ré, Viviana; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    In Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci infections are still not sufficiently known. A total of 846 respiratory and 10 ocular samples from patients with suspected human psittacosis were tested for C. psittaci from January 2010 to March 2015. Four samples of birds related to these patients were also studied. Forty-eight samples were positive for C. psittaci by a nested PCR. The molecular characterization of twelve C. psittaci PCR-positive samples received in the National Reference Laboratory INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán", Buenos Aires, Argentina was performed. Eight positive samples from humans and four from birds were genotyped by ompA gene sequencing. C. psittaci genotype A was found in all human samples and in the related birds. This report contributes to our increasing knowledge of the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of C. psittaci to conduct effective surveillance of its zoonotic infections. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  8. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  9. Enhanced fire-related traits may contribute to the invasiveness of Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although several invasive species have induced changes to the fire regime of invaded ecosystems, potential intraspecific shifts in fire-related traits that might enhance their invasion success, have never been addressed. We assumed that traits conferring persistence and competitiveness in post-fire ...

  10. Factors contributing to the health-related quality of life of people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified factors that influence the health-related quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH). A qualitative research approach was used for this study and focus group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection, while grounded theory informed the data analysis. The key finding of this study is that ...

  11. Relative Contributions of Goal Representation and Kinematic Information to Self-Monitoring by Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    It is important to monitor feedback related to the intended result of an action while executing that action. This monitoring process occurs hierarchically; that is, sensorimotor processing occurs at a lower level, and conceptual representation of action goals occurs at a higher level. Although the hierarchical nature of self-monitoring may derive…

  12. Aging of marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells and their contribution to age-related bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantuono, Ilaria; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2009-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSC) are thought to be stem cells with osteogenic potential and therefore responsible for the repair and maintenance of the skeleton. Age related bone loss is one of the most prevalent diseases in the elder population. It is controversial whether MSC undergo a process of agi...

  13. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut-down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut-downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S., and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  14. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  15. What makes champions? A review of the relative contribution of genes and training to sporting success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Collins, Malcolm

    2012-06-01

    Elite sporting performance results from the combination of innumerable factors, which interact with one another in a poorly understood but complex manner to mould a talented athlete into a champion. Within the field of sports science, elite performance is understood to be the result of both training and genetic factors. However, the extent to which champions are born or made is a question that remains one of considerable interest, since it has implications for talent identification and management, as well as for how sporting federations allocate scarce resources towards the optimisation of high-performance programmes. The present review describes the contributions made by deliberate practice and genetic factors to the attainment of a high level of sporting performance. The authors conclude that although deliberate training and other environmental factors are critical for elite performance, they cannot by themselves produce an elite athlete. Rather, individual performance thresholds are determined by our genetic make-up, and training can be defined as the process by which genetic potential is realised. Although the specific details are currently unknown, the current scientific literature clearly indicates that both nurture and nature are involved in determining elite athletic performance. In conclusion, elite sporting performance is the result of the interaction between genetic and training factors, with the result that both talent identification and management systems to facilitate optimal training are crucial to sporting success.

  16. Neglect and hereditary risk: Their relative contribution to schizophrenia with negative symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J

    2016-05-01

    There is evidence that genetic and environmental stressors contribute to the genesis of schizophrenia. However, the relevant impact of each factor remains unclear. We tested for an interactive effect between childhood neglect and family history of serious mental illness. Data were further analyzed for a possible connection to type of schizophrenic symptoms. Data for the study are taken from the medical records of 641 patients with schizophrenia from a large state hospital in the northeastern United States. Clinical assessments were divided into positive and negative symptomatology through application of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Detailed information about childhood neglect and family history of serious mental illness was obtained through Social Service Assessment interviews at intake and during hospital stay. Among clients with no family history of mental illness, childhood neglect does not meaningfully affect the risk of negative versus positive schizophrenia. For clients with such history, on the other hand, neglect significantly raises the risk of schizophrenia with negative symptomatology. Our central finding is that risk for negative symptoms of schizophrenia are elevated by childhood neglect combined with a history of serious mental illness within the family. This is the only report to combine schizophrenic symptoms, familial risk and childhood neglect to date. Implications for primary prevention and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. GENDER RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CRITICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dadico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.

  18. Contribution of double-labelling scintigraphy to the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (relative to 50 observations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmas, Jacques.

    1975-01-01

    This study, after a short anatomical and anatomo-pathological survey, outlines the main stages in the discovery of the pancreatic label and attempts to define the practical problems encountered in the application of scintigraphic methods. The choice of pancreatic indicator is shown to have been very difficult and the substance used, after much research, is still imperfect: Se75-labelled methionine. To offset the defects of this tracer some remarkable techniques have been developed, for example electronic subtraction to cut out the liver image. The equipment used is then described, together with the working procedure adopted at the Angers U.H.C. The results obtained on 50 observations are given in table form. In the discussion the following points are dealt with in turn: scintigraph interpretation criteria, the diagnostic contribution of scintigraphy, the place of this examination in the positive diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. Examination of a limited number of observations leads to certain conclusions in agreement with those formulated by many authors. The scintigram is first and foremost a 'function of the active parenchyma mass'. According to LEGER it is limited by the fact that the scintigraph cannot distinguish between different pathological processes. Nevertheless this examination is considered to have real diagnostic value in pancreatic diseases, especially when all abnormal images exist [fr

  19. The impact of road improvements on road safety and related characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Francis John Gichaga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the historical and cultural background relating to road improvement and road safety characteristics in Kenya, a developing country in East Africa. Some who come from low-developed areas of developing countries often take time to comprehend the modern transportation infrastructure, especially roads, and have difficulty assimilating and customizing the same to their culturally tailored modes. This paper discusses two case studies: one on the socio-economic impact followin...

  20. Physician characteristics and prescribing for elderly people in New Brunswick: relation to patient outcomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, W; Molloy, D W; Bédard, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between physician characteristics, prescribing behaviour and patient outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study linking four provincial databases. SETTING: New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS: All 366 general practitioners (GPs) (accounting for 40% of all physicians with a general licence in New Brunswick) who ordered at least 200 prescriptions for elderly beneficiaries of the New Brunswick Prescription Drug Program and saw at least 20 elderly patients in an office setting...

  1. Reexamining the empirical relation between loan risk and collateral: The roles of collateral characteristics and types

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Allen N.; Frame, Scott; Ioannidou, Vasso

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting empirical results in the literature concerning the relation between loan risk and collateral. Specifically, we posit that different economic characteristics or types of collateral pledges may be associated with the empirical dominance of the four different risk-collateral channels implied by economic theory. For our sample, collateral overall is associated with lower loan risk premiums and a higher probability of ex post loan nonper...

  2. Mineralogical characteristics of the silica polymorphs in relation to their biological activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heaney, P.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geological and Geophysical Sciences

    1993-10-01

    Numerous aspects of minerals (including the silica polymorphs) can effect their biological activities. These include periodic structures, compositional variations, dissolution characteristics, surface properties, and particle size/shape. In order to understand mineral-induced pathogenesis in a mechanistic way, the links between these properties and biochemical processes must be elucidated. This paper presents some of the basic properties of the silica polymorphs that may relate to pathogenicity and mineralogical strategies for designing biological assays to evaluate these properties.

  3. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  4. Hard x ray imaging and the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal emission in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether the impulsive 25 to 100 keV x ray emission from solar flares is thermal or nonthermal has been a long-standing controversy. Both thermal and nonthermal (beam) models have been developed and applied to the hard x ray data. It now seems likely that both thermal and nonthermal emission have been observed at hard x ray energies. The Hinotori classification scheme, for example, is an attempt to associate the thermal-nonthermal characteristics of flare hard x ray emission with other flare properties. From a theoretical point of view, it is difficult to generate energetic, nonthermal electrons without dumping an equal or greater amount of energy into plasma heating. On the other hand, any impulsive heating process will invariably generate at least some nonthermal particles. Hence, strictly speaking, although thermal or nonthermal emission may dominate the hard x ray emission in a given energy range for a given flare, there is no such thing as a purely thermal or nonthermal flare mechanism

  5. Resistivity method contribution in determining of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of carbonate aquifer, eastern desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kamal, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determination of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifers are complicated, because their fractures are controlled by different factors. Therefore, 60 VESs were carried out as well as 17 productive wells for determining the locations of the fault zones and the characteristics of the carbonate aquifer at the eastern desert, Egypt. The general curve type of the recorded rock units was QKH. These curves were used in delineating the zones of faults according to the application of the new assumptions. The main aquifer was included at end of the K-curve type and front of the H-curve type. The subsurface layers classified into seven different geoelectric layers. The fractured shaly limestone and fractured limestone layers were the main aquifer and their resistivity changed from low to medium (11-93 Ω m). The hydro-geophysical properties of this aquifer such as the areas of very high, high, and intermediate fracture densities of high groundwater accumulations, salinity, shale content, porosity distribution, and recharging and flowing of groundwater were determined. The statistical analysis appeared that depending of aquifer resistivity on the water salinities (T.D.S.) and water resistivities add to the fracture density and shale content. The T.D.S. increasing were controlled by Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and then (SO4)2-, respectively. The porosity was calculated and its average value was 19%. The hydrochemical analysis of groundwater appeared that its type was brackish and the arrangements of cation concentrations were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and anion concentrations were Cl- > (SO4)2- > HCO3 - > CO3 -. The groundwater was characterized by sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-sulfate genetic water types and meteoric in origin. Hence, it can use the DC-resistivity method in delineating the fault zone and determining the hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifer with taking into account the quality of measurements and interpretation.

  6. Methodological quality and descriptive characteristics of prosthodontic-related systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, T; Compton, S; Nassar, U; Matthews, D; Ansari, K; Flores-Mir, C

    2013-04-01

    Ideally, healthcare systematic reviews (SRs) should be beneficial to practicing professionals in making evidence-based clinical decisions. However, the conclusions drawn from SRs are directly related to the quality of the SR and of the included studies. The aim was to investigate the methodological quality and key descriptive characteristics of SRs published in prosthodontics. Methodological quality was analysed using the Assessment of Multiple Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Several electronic resources (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and American Dental Association's Evidence-based Dentistry website) were searched. In total 106 SRs were located. Key descriptive characteristics and methodological quality features were gathered and assessed, and descriptive and inferential statistical testing performed. Most SRs in this sample originated from the European continent followed by North America. Two to five authors conducted most SRs; the majority was affiliated with academic institutions and had prior experience publishing SRs. The majority of SRs were published in specialty dentistry journals, with implant or implant-related topics, the primary topics of interest for most. According to AMSTAR, most quality aspects were adequately fulfilled by less than half of the reviews. Publication bias and grey literature searches were the most poorly adhered components. Overall, the methodological quality of the prosthodontic-related systematic was deemed limited. Future recommendations would include authors to have prior training in conducting SRs and for journals to include a universal checklist that should be adhered to address all key characteristics of an unbiased SR process. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  8. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  9. Characteristics of Exemplary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)-Related Experiential Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jamie Munn

    Experiential opportunities at the secondary level give students the "intimate and necessary relation between the processes of actual experience and education" (Dewey, 1938, p. 19- 20). Career and Technical Education classes (CTE) and co-curricular experiences, one type of experiential learning, underpin and cultivate student curiosity and often channel interests into STEM-related post-secondary disciplines and career choices. There is little existent research on the characteristics of exemplary experiential learning opportunities and the impact on stakeholders. This study is intended to identify the qualities and characteristics of an exemplary secondary experience through the lived experiences of the stakeholders; students, STEM-related teachers, and CTE/STEM Administrators. A qualitative research design was used to examine characteristics and implications for students of four STEM-related programs throughout Virginia. Conclusions from the study include fundamental principles for providing exemplary experiential STEM-related learning opportunities. These principles include: providing hands-on, real world learning opportunities for students, providing learning opportunities that will enhance student ownership in their learning, providing unique and comprehensive career exploration opportunities for students, providing a schedule for teachers that will give them time to plan, deliver, and manage exemplary experiential learning opportunities, providing continual teacher and administrator in-service training relative to planning and implementing exemplary experiential learning opportunities, investing appropriate funds for providing exemplary experiential learning opportunities. Establishing and maintaining active partnerships with business/industry and colleges/universities, and maintaining active advisory communities, providing appropriate staff to support the provision of exemplary experiential learning opportunities is needed. The need for adequate funding

  10. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.

    2018-01-01

    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  11. Masculinity and HIV: Dimensions of Masculine Norms that Contribute to Men's HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; DiClemente, Ralph J; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have documented a relationship between masculine norms and men's HIV-related sexual behaviors, but intervening upon this relationship requires a nuanced understanding of the specific aspects of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behaviors. We integrate theories on masculinities with empirical HIV research to identify specific dimensions of masculine norms that influence men's HIV-related sexual behaviors. We identify three major dimensions of masculine norms that shape men's sexual behavior: (1) uncontrollable male sex drive, (2) capacity to perform sexually, and (3) power over others. While the existing literature does help explain the relationship between masculine norms and men's sexual behaviors several gaps remain including: a recognition of context-specific masculinities, an interrogation of the positive influences of masculinity, adoption of an intersectional approach, assessment of changes in norms and behaviors over time, and rigorous evaluations of gender-transformative approaches. Addressing these gaps in future research may optimize prevention efforts.

  12. Interleukin-6 Contributes to Age-Related Alteration of Cytokine Production by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christian R.; Karavitis, John; Palmer, Jessica L.; Faunce, Douglas E.; Ramirez, Luis; Nomellini, Vanessa; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we studied in vitro cytokine production by splenic macrophages obtained from young and aged BALB/c wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. Relative to macrophages obtained from young WT mice given lipopolysaccharide (LPS), those from aged WT mice had decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, when compared to macrophages from young IL-6 KO mice, LPS stimulation yielded higher levels of these cytokines by cells from aged IL-6 KO mice. Aging or IL-6 deficiency did not affected the percentage of F4/80+ macrophages, or the surface expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and components of the IL-6 receptor. Overall, our results indicate that IL-6 plays a role in regulating the age-related defects in macrophages through alteration of proinflammatory cytokines, adding to the complexity of IL-6-mediated impairment of immune cell function with increasing age. PMID:20671912

  13. The relative contributions of scatter and attenuation corrections toward improved brain SPECT quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodilka, Robert Z.; Msaki, Peter; Prato, Frank S.; Nicholson, Richard L.; Kemp, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that scatter and attenuation are major confounds to objective diagnosis of brain disease by quantitative SPECT. There is considerable debate, however, as to the relative importance of scatter correction (SC) and attenuation correction (AC), and how they should be implemented. The efficacy of SC and AC for 99m Tc brain SPECT was evaluated using a two-compartment fully tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic head phantom. Four correction schemes were implemented: uniform broad-beam AC, non-uniform broad-beam AC, uniform SC+AC, and non-uniform SC+AC. SC was based on non-stationary deconvolution scatter subtraction, modified to incorporate a priori knowledge of either the head contour (uniform SC) or transmission map (non-uniform SC). The quantitative accuracy of the correction schemes was evaluated in terms of contrast recovery, relative quantification (cortical:cerebellar activity), uniformity ((coefficient of variation of 230 macro-voxels) x100%), and bias (relative to a calibration scan). Our results were: uniform broad-beam (μ=0.12cm -1 ) AC (the most popular correction): 71% contrast recovery, 112% relative quantification, 7.0% uniformity, +23% bias. Non-uniform broad-beam (soft tissue μ=0.12cm -1 ) AC: 73%, 114%, 6.0%, +21%, respectively. Uniform SC+AC: 90%, 99%, 4.9%, +12%, respectively. Non-uniform SC+AC: 93%, 101%, 4.0%, +10%, respectively. SC and AC achieved the best quantification; however, non-uniform corrections produce only small improvements over their uniform counterparts. SC+AC was found to be superior to AC; this advantage is distinct and consistent across all four quantification indices. (author)

  14. Quality of Working Life - An Exploration of Contributing Factors and their Relative Salience to Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Blackford, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The academic study of Quality of Working Life (QoWL) has a long tradition, vestiges of which are apparent in the classic job satisfaction and employee motivation research (see for example, Mayo and Warner, 1931; Maslow, 1943; 1932; Blauner 1964; Hertzberg, 1966). The intervening years have witnessed the accumulation of a broad, complex and, at times contradictory, literature relating to variables identified as impacting on QoWL. The potential value of investing in enhancing QoWL cannot be und...

  15. Depression in early adolescence: Contributions from relational aggression and variation in the oxytocin receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Interpersonal stress arising from relational aggression (RA)-the intentional effort to harm others via rejection and exclusion-may increase risk for depression in youth. Biological vulnerabilities related to the hormone oxytocin, which affects social behavior and stress responses, may exacerbate this risk. In a community sample of 307 youth (52% female; age range = 10-14 years), we tested whether (1) the association between RA and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated through social problems and (2) a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated this indirect association between RA and depression, where GG homozygotes are predicted to be more sensitive to the effects of social problems than A-allele carriers. Youth-reported RA and depressive symptoms were measured using a structured interview and a questionnaire, respectively. DNA was extracted from saliva collected with Oragene kits. Consistent with the interpersonal theory of depression, the association between relational aggression and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated by social problems. This indirect effect was further moderated by rs53576 genotype, such that GG homozygotes showed a stronger mediation effect than A-carriers. These results suggest that rs53576 variants confer vulnerability for depression within the context of interpersonal risk factors, such that youth with the GG genotype may be particularly sensitive to the social consequences resulting from RA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sexual identity and alcohol-related outcomes: contributions of workplace harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L

    2000-01-01

    While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.

  17. Work-related deaths among youth: Understanding the contribution of US child labor violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E

    2016-11-01

    Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MIS 5e relative sea-level changes in the Mediterranean Sea: Contribution of isostatic disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Lorscheid, Thomas; de Boer, Bas; Simms, Alexander R.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Vermeersen, Bert L. A.; Pappalardo, Marta; Rovere, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Sea-level indicators dated to the Last Interglacial, or Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, have a twofold value. First, they can be used to constrain the melting of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets in response to global warming scenarios. Second, they can be used to calculate the vertical crustal rates at active margins. For both applications, the contribution of glacio- and hydro-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to vertical displacement of sea-level indicators must be calculated. In this paper, we re-assess MIS 5e sea-level indicators at 11 Mediterranean sites that have been generally considered tectonically stable or affected by mild tectonics. These are found within a range of elevations of 2-10 m above modern mean sea level. Four sites are characterized by two separate sea-level stands, which suggest a two-step sea-level highstand during MIS 5e. Comparing field data with numerical modeling we show that (i) GIA is an important contributor to the spatial and temporal variability of the sea-level highstand during MIS 5e, (ii) the isostatic imbalance from the melting of the MIS 6 ice sheet can produce a >2.0 m sea-level highstand, and (iii) a two-step melting phase for the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets reduces the differences between observations and predictions. Our results show that assumptions of tectonic stability on the basis of the MIS 5e records carry intrinsically large uncertainties, stemming either from uncertainties in field data and GIA models. The latter are propagated to either Holocene or Pleistocene sea-level reconstructions if tectonic rates are considered linear through time.

  19. Effects of relative thickness on aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil at a low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Dongli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characteristics of low Reynolds number flow around airfoil of high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (HAUAVs cruising at low speed. Numerical simulation on the flows around several representative airfoils is carried out to investigate the low Reynolds number flow. The water tunnel model tests further validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the numerical method. Then the effects of the relative thickness of airfoil on aerodynamic performance are explored, using the above numerical method, by simulating flows around airfoils of different relative thicknesses (12%, 14%, 16%, 18%, as well as different locations of the maximum relative thickness (x/c = 22%, 26%, 30%, 34%, at a low Reynolds number of 5 × 105. Results show that performance of airfoils at low Reynolds number is mainly affected by the laminar separation bubble. On the premise of good stall characteristics, the value of maximum relative thickness should be as small as possible, and the location of the maximum relative thickness ought to be closer to the trailing edge to obtain fine airfoil performance. The numerical method is feasible for the simulation of low Reynolds number flow. The study can help to provide a basis for the design of low Reynolds number airfoil.

  20. [Analysis of work-related fatigue characteristics and its influencing factors in scientific and technical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhou, Dinglun; Song, Mingying; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the current status and characteristics of work-related fatigue among scientific and technical personnel and its associated factors, and to provide a scientific basis for further interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the staff from a single scientific institution, using a self-administered questionnaire. Basic information of participants, Fatigue Scale-14, and Job Content Questionnaire were collected. The prevalence of work-related fatigue among the scientific and technical personnel was 54.6%; work-related fatigue was positively correlated with occupational stress (rs = 0.384, P work-related fatigue included occupational stress profiles, social support, and educational status. A higher risk of work-related fatigue was found in the staff under high stress, compared with those under low stress (OR = 8.5, 95%CI = 3.9∼18.7). Social support served as a protective factor for work-related fatigue, while a higher level of education was correlated with more severe work-related fatigue. Work-related fatigue is common and serious among scientific and technical personnel, especially in those under high stress. Effective interventions according to occupational stress are of great importance to reduce work-related fatigue.

  1. Yeast hnRNP-related proteins contribute to the maintenance of telomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee-Soety, Julia Y., E-mail: jlee04@sju.edu [Department of Biology, Saint Joseph' s University, PA 19131 (United States); Jones, Jennifer; MacGibeny, Margaret A.; Remaly, Erin C.; Daniels, Lynsey; Ito, Andrea; Jean, Jessica; Radecki, Hannah; Spencer, Shannon [Department of Biology, Saint Joseph' s University, PA 19131 (United States)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast hnRNP-related proteins are able to prevent faster senescence in telomerase-null cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conserved RRMs in Npl3 are important for telomere maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human hnRNP A1 is unable to complement the lack of NPL3 in yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Npl3 and Cbc2 may work as telomere capping proteins. -- Abstract: Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes, which if eroded to a critical length can become uncapped and lead to replicative senescence. Telomerase maintains telomere length in some cells, but inappropriate expression facilitates the immortality of cancer cells. Recently, proteins involved in RNA processing and ribosome assembly, such as hnRNP (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein) A1, have been found to participate in telomere maintenance in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Npl3 shares significant amino acid sequence similarities with hnRNP A1. We found that deleting NPL3 accelerated the senescence of telomerase null cells. The highly conserved RNA recognition motifs (RRM) in Npl3 appear to be important for preventing faster senescence. Npl3 preferentially binds telomere sequences in vitro, suggesting that Npl3 may affect telomeres directly. Despite similarities between the two proteins, human hnRNP A1 is unable to complement the lack of Npl3 to rescue accelerated senescence in tlc1 npl3 cells. Deletion of CBC2, which encodes another hnRNP-related protein that associates with Npl3, also accelerates senescence. Potential mechanisms by which hnRNP-related proteins maintain telomeres are discussed.

  2. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  3. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  4. On the relative contributions of noncontingent reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gregory K; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Layer, Stacy A; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Bethke, Stephanie D; Gutshall, Katharine A

    2004-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), escape extinction, and a combination of NCR and escape extinction as treatment for the feeding problems exhibited by 4 children. For each participant, consumption increased only when escape extinction was implemented, independent of whether NCR was present or absent. These results were consistent with prior research suggesting that positive reinforcement alone is insufficient for increasing consumption, and that escape extinction often is necessary to increase and maintain food acceptance. However, NCR appeared to decrease inappropriate behavior for some participants.

  5. Trauma in relation to psychological characteristics in women with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetta Izydorczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the article was to present the results of the author’s own study that sought relationships between having experienced psychological trauma and the psychological characteristics of people with eating disorders. The basic research question was the following: To what degree are the traumatic events experienced by females with various types of eating disorders related to these females’ psychological characteristics? Participants and procedure The sample comprised 120 females with eating disorders: 30 females aged between 20 and 26 diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, 31 females diagnosed with binge-eating disorder and 59 females aged between 20 and 26 diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. The research was carried out in the years 2007-2012 in outpatient clinics treating neuroses and eating disorders and mental health outpatient clinics in Poland. The study employed a clinical and psychometric (i.e., questionnaires for measuring psychological characteristics approach. Results Statistical analysis confirmed the existence of significant differences between the females with eating disorders who have experienced relational trauma(s in their lives (particularly in their childhood and adolescence and those who did not reveal such experience. The females with anorexia and bulimia who have also experienced psychological, physical or sexual violence revealed a significantly different, higher level of bulimic thinking and tendencies for excessively uncontrolled, impulsive behaviors towards food and nutrition (i.e., vomit-provoking and other forms of body purgation, e.g. using purgative drugs and others than did females with no relational trauma experience. Conclusions The frequency of relational trauma occurrence was significantly higher for females with bulimia and bulimic anorexia. For females with restrictive anorexia and binge-eating disorder, no significantly frequent occurrence of trauma was observed. Diagnosing the occurrence of

  6. Quantifying the Relative Contributions of Forest Change and Climatic Variability to Hydrology in Large Watersheds: A Critical Review of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest change and climatic variability are two major drivers for influencing change in watershed hydrology in forest–dominated watersheds. Quantifying their relative contributions is important to fully understand their individual effects. This review paper summarizes the progress on quantifying the relative contributions of forest or land cover change and climatic variability to hydrology in large watersheds using available case studies. It compared pros and cons of various research methods, identified research challenges and proposed future research priorities. Our synthesis shows that the relative hydrological effects of forest changes and climatic variability are largely dependent on their own change magnitudes and watershed characteristics. In some severely disturbed watersheds, impacts of forest changes or land use changes can be as important as those from climatic variability. This paper provides a brief review on eight selected research methods for this type of research. Because each method or technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, combining two or more methods is a more robust approach than using any single method alone. Future research priorities include conducting more case studies, refining research methods, and considering mechanism-based research using landscape ecology and geochemistry approaches.

  7. Explaining educational differences in leisure-time physical activity in Europe: the contribution of work-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, T E; Sippola, R; Borodulin, K

    2011-01-01

    Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status...... and employment status had only a modest effect on educational differences in LTPA in most of the examined countries, suggesting that education remains an important predictor of LTPA....

  8. Burnout in Relation to Specific Contributing Factors and Health Outcomes among Nurses: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Peltzer, Karl; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nurses have been found to experience higher levels of stress-related burnout compared to other health care professionals. Despite studies showing that both job satisfaction and burnout are effects of exposure to stressful working environments, leading to poor health among nurses, little is known about the causal nature and direction of these relationships. The aim of this systematic review is to identify published research that has formally investigated relationships between these variables. Six databases (including CINAHL, COCHRANE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and PsyINFO) were searched for combinations of keywords, a manual search was conducted and an independent reviewer was asked to cross validate all the electronically identified articles. Of the eighty five articles that were identified from these databases, twenty one articles were excluded based on exclusion criteria; hence, a total of seventy articles were included in the study sample. The majority of identified studies exploring two and three way relationships (n = 63) were conducted in developed countries. Existing research includes predominantly cross-sectional studies (n = 68) with only a few longitudinal studies (n = 2); hence, the evidence base for causality is still very limited. Despite minimal availability of research concerning the small number of studies to investigate the relationships between work-related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and the general health of nurses, this review has identified some contradictory evidence for the role of job satisfaction. This emphasizes the need for further research towards understanding causality. PMID:23727902

  9. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  10. Are Men's Perceptions of Sexually Dimorphic Vocal Characteristics Related to Their Testosterone Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kandrik

    Full Text Available Feminine physical characteristics in women are positively correlated with markers of their mate quality. Previous research on men's judgments of women's facial attractiveness suggests that men show stronger preferences for feminine characteristics in women's faces when their own testosterone levels are relatively high. Such results could reflect stronger preferences for high quality mates when mating motivation is strong and/or following success in male-male competition. Given these findings, the current study investigated whether a similar effect of testosterone occurs for men's preferences for feminine characteristics in women's voices. Men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's and men's voices were assessed in five weekly test sessions and saliva samples were collected in each test session. Analyses showed no relationship between men's voice preferences and their testosterone levels. Men's tendency to perceive masculinized men's and women's voices as more dominant was also unrelated to their testosterone levels. Together, the results of the current study suggest that testosterone-linked changes in responses to sexually dimorphic characteristics previously reported for men's perceptions of faces do not occur for men's perceptions of voices.

  11. Sleep Spindle Characteristics in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Their Relation to Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Merrill S.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that sleep spindles facilitate neuroplasticity and “off-line” processing during sleep, which supports learning, memory consolidation, and intellectual performance. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) exhibit characteristics that may increase both the risk for and vulnerability to abnormal spindle generation. Despite the high prevalence of sleep problems and cognitive deficits in children with NDD, only a few studies have examined the putative association between spindle characteristics and cognitive function. This paper reviews the literature regarding sleep spindle characteristics in children with NDD and their relation to cognition in light of what is known in typically developing children and based on the available evidence regarding children with NDD. We integrate available data, identify gaps in understanding, and recommend future research directions. Collectively, studies are limited by small sample sizes, heterogeneous populations with multiple comorbidities, and nonstandardized methods for collecting and analyzing findings. These limitations notwithstanding, the evidence suggests that future studies should examine associations between sleep spindle characteristics and cognitive function in children with and without NDD, and preliminary findings raise the intriguing question of whether enhancement or manipulation of sleep spindles could improve sleep-dependent memory and other aspects of cognitive function in this population. PMID:27478646

  12. Relation between the characteristic molecular volume and hydrophobicity of nonpolar molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_sedov@inbox.ru; Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@ksu.r

    2010-09-15

    Experimental values of the Gibbs free energies of hydration for a set of nonpolar or very slightly polar compounds are analyzed in order to investigate how does the hydrophobic effect depend on molecular structure and shape. The contribution due to the hydrophobic effect is evaluated using a method we suggested previously. A number of values of the Gibbs free energies of solvation in dimethyl sulfoxide and in hexadecane, which are required for calculation, were determined by gas chromatographic headspace analysis. It is found that the Gibbs hydrophobic effect energy is linearly dependent on characteristic molecular volume for a large variety of solutes with branched and unbranched carbon chains, different functional groups and atomic composition. Molecular structure and shape do not significantly affect the hydrophobicity of chemical species, and molecular volume is a main factor determining it.

  13. Pathomorphological characteristics of 102 cases of Thorotrast-related hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, T.; Kojiro, M.; Ito, Y.; Mori, T.; Kido, C.

    1987-01-01

    We described the pathomorphological characteristics of 102 autopsy cases of Thorotrast (Th) related hepatic malignancies, and compared these to the features of non-Th-related cases. Among the 102 Th-related hepatic malignancies, 44 (43.1%) were cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), 39 (38.3%) were angiosarcoma (AGS), 16 (15.7%) were hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and 3 (2.9%) were double cancer. Grossly, the majority (91.7%) of Th-related CHC was located in the middle-peripheral portion of the liver. Th-related AGS was classified into four types: diffuse micronodular, multinodular, massive and mixed multinodular, and massive. Histologically, in CHC and HCC cases, there were no significant differences between Th-related and non-Th-related cases. AGS was characterized by two cell types (spindle-shaped cells and polyhedral cells) and three growth patterns (sinusoidal, carvernous, and solid). In non-cancerous areas, foci of varying degrees of sinusoidal dilatation with hyperplastic changes of sinusoidal lining cells were observed in all AGS cases and in some of the cases of Th-related CHC and HCC cases. In Th-related CHC cases, papillary proliferation of the epithelium of relatively large bile ducts was seen in 11 (29.7%) of the 37 cases, and proliferation of small bile ducts and/or bile ductules was seen in 9 (24.3%) of the 37 cases. However, similar histologic changes were also observed in the non-Th- related CHC cases. In Th-related HCC cases, mixed macro- and micronodular cirrhosis was superimposed on varying degrees of hepatic fibrosis related to Th deposition in 4 cases. (21.1%). (author)

  14. Circulation and hydrological characteristics of the North Aegean Sea: a contribution from real-time buoy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. NITTIS

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the POSEIDON Project, a network of open sea oceanographic buoys equipped with meteorological and oceanographic sensors has been operational in the Aegean Sea since 1998. The analysis of upper-ocean physical data (currents at 3m, temperature and salinity at 3-40m depths collected during the last 2 years from the stations of the North Aegean basin indicates a strong temporal variability of flow field and hydrological characteristics in both synoptic and seasonal time scales. The northern part of the basin is mainly influenced by the Black Sea Water outflow and the mesoscale variability of the corresponding thermohaline fronts, while the southern stations are influenced by the general circulation of the Aegean Sea with strong modulations caused by the seasonally varying atmospheric forcing.

  15. The relative contribution of near-bed vs. intragravel horizontal transport to fine sediment accumulation processes in river gravel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Lakhanpal, Garima; Stewardson, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding flow-sediment interactions is important for comprehending river functioning. Fine sediment accumulation processes, in particular, have key implications for ecosystem health. However, the amount of fines generated by intragravel flows and later accumulated in gravel streambeds may have been underestimated, as the hydraulic-related driving transport mechanisms in play are not clearly identified. Specifically, the relative contribution of fines from upper vs. lower sediment layers in gravel beds is not well understood. By recreating flooded and dewatered conditions in an experimental flume filled with natural sediment, we estimated such contributions by observing and collecting intragravel transported fines that were later accumulated into a void in the middle of the sediment matrix. Near-bed transport in the upper sediment layers (named Brinkman load) during flooded conditions accounted for most (90%) of the accumulated fines. Intragravel transport in the lower sediment layers (named Interstitial load) was the sole source of transport and accumulation during dewatered conditions with steeper hydraulic gradients. Interstitial load accounted for 10% of the total transport during flooded conditions. Although small, such estimations demonstrate that hydraulic-gradient transport in the lower sediment layers occurs in spite of the contradicting analytical assessments. We provide a case study to challenge the traditional approaches of assessing intragravel transport, and a useful framework to understand the origin and relative contribution of fine sediment accumulation in gravel beds. Such knowledge will be highly useful for the design of monitoring programs aiding river management, particularly in regulated rivers.

  16. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  17. The relative contributions of processing speed and cognitive load to working memory accuracy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Lengenfelder, Jean; Moore, Nancy B; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; DeLuca, John

    2011-06-01

    Cognitive symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include processing-speed deficits and working memory impairment. The precise manner in which these deficits interact in individuals with MS remains to be explicated. We hypothesized that providing more time on a complex working memory task would result in performance benefits for individuals with MS relative to healthy controls. Fifty-three individuals with clinically definite MS and 36 matched healthy controls performed a computerized task that systematically manipulated cognitive load. The interval between stimuli presentations was manipulated to provide increasing processing time. The results confirmed that individuals with MS who have processing-speed deficits significantly improve in performance accuracy when given additional time to process the information in working memory. Implications of these findings for developing appropriate cognitive rehabilitation interventions are discussed.

  18. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relative contribution of climate to changes in lesser prairie-chicken abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James

    2016-01-01

    Managing for species using current weather patterns fails to incorporate the uncertainty associated with future climatic conditions; without incorporating potential changes in climate into conservation strategies, management and conservation efforts may fall short or waste valuable resources. Understanding the effects of climate change on species in the Great Plains of North America is especially important, as this region is projected to experience an increased magnitude of climate change. Of particular ecological and conservation interest is the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), which was listed as “threatened” under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in May 2014. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to quantify the effects of extreme climatic events (extreme values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index [PDSI]) relative to intermediate (changes in El Niño Southern Oscillation) and long-term climate variability (changes in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) on trends in lesser prairie-chicken abundance from 1981 to 2014. Our results indicate that lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks responded to environmental conditions of the year previous by positively responding to wet springs (high PDSI) and negatively to years with hot, dry summers (low PDSI), but had little response to variation in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Additionally, greater variation in abundance on leks was explained by variation in site relative to broad-scale climatic indices. Consequently, lesser prairie-chicken abundance on leks in Kansas is more strongly influenced by extreme drought events during summer than other climatic conditions, which may have negative consequences for the population as drought conditions intensify throughout the Great Plains.

  20. Dependence of Oak-Related Volatile Compounds on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Barrel-Aged Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of some of the physicochemical characteristics of wines such as volatile acidity, titratable acidity, pH, free SO2 and alcohol content on the accumulation of oak-related volatile compounds in barrel-aged wines, in order to give more light on the contradictory results found by other authors in this respect. For this, three different single variety wines were aged for twelve months in barrels with the same characteristics (same cooperage, wood origin, toasting level and volume, repeating the experiment in two consecutive years. Our results show that the percentage of wine alcohol and its titratable acidity positively correlated with the final concentration of vanillin and guaiacyl compounds in the oak-matured wines and negatively with the cis- and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone concentration. Therefore, when studying the effect of oak barrel variables (oak origin and seasoning, size of the barrel, number of uses, etc. on the concentration of oak-related volatile compounds in wine, the effect of the physicochemical variables of the wine, especially titratable acidity and alcohol content, should also be taken into account since the final wine aroma composition will also depend on these characteristics.

  1. Perennial-streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry and sediment in Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Hedman, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geometry, channel-sediment, and discharge data were collected and compiled from 252 streamflow-gaging stations in the Missouri River basin. The sites represent the complete ranges of hydrologic and geologic conditions found in the basin. The data were analyzed by computer to yield equations relating various discharge characteristics to variables of channel geometry and bed and bank material. The equations provide discharge as the dependent variable for the purpose of making estimates of discharge characteristics at ungaged sites. Results show that channel width is best related to variables of discharge, but that reduction of standard errors can be achieved by considering channel-sediment properties, channel gradient, and discharge variability. The channel-material variables do not exert uniform effects on width-discharge relations and, therefore, are considered as sediment-data groups, or stream types, rather than as terms in multiple power-function equations. Relative to streamflow, narrowest channels occur when streams of steady discharge transport sufficient silt and clay to form stable, cohesive banks but have a small tractive load of sand and coarser sizes. Stable channels also are associated with high channel gradients, which cause high channel roughness and bed and bank armouring by coarse particle sizes. The widest, most unstable channels are found with streams that apparently transport of large tractive load of sand sizes. The downstream rates of change of width with discharge reflect these trends, suggesting that a given bed-material load necessitates a minimum width over which the tractive material can be moved. (USGS)

  2. Intrapersonal characteristics of body-related guilt, shame, pride, and envy in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Brunet, Jennifer; Crocker, Peter R E; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    This study examined differences in body-related shame, guilt, pride, and envy based on intrapersonal characteristics of sex, age, and weight status in 527 Canadian adults. Compared to men, women reported significantly higher shame and guilt contextualized to the body. No sex differences were observed for envy or pride. Middle-aged adults reported higher shame and lower pride compared with young adults, whereas no age differences were observed with body-related guilt. Meanwhile, shame and guilt were highest for individuals who had overweight or obese weight status, and pride was highest in individuals with average weight status. Overall, effect sizes were small and there were no significant interaction effects between sex, age, and weight status across body-related emotions. Further research is needed to capture similarities and differences of body-related self-conscious emotions between intrapersonal characteristics, to aid the development of intervention strategies to manage this important dimension of body image. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RELATION OF Xylopia emarginata MART. POPULATION GENETIC ESTIMATIOS WITH SOIL CHEMISTRY CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Jaeger

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a relation between the biotic and abiotic environment and that this interaction reflects in the live organisms group of a place. The interactions between genotype and environment, also already recognized, act in a anolog way, but in a difficult mensurable constatation. In this way, the current research objectifies relating soil Chemistry characteristics with the heterozygosis levels of three Xylopia emarginata Mart. subpopulations. The generic analysis results demonstrated that the subpopulation 1 differs from other ones, showing significative Wright fixation index (-0.389, while non-significative values have been found in the subpopulations 2 and 3 (-0.105 and -0.209, respectely. This difference has also been observed by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA, where the subpopulation 1 has been influencianted by the tenors of organic material (MO, alumin (Al, effective cationic change capacity (t, pH 7.0 (T and sum of hydrogen and alumin (H+Al, while the subpopulations 2 and 3 have been influenciated by pH, phosphor (P and basis saturation index (V. In the same way, the allele 2 of EST-1 and MDH-2 are inversely related to pH, P and V end the allele 1 of GDH-3, SDH-3 and GTDH-3 directly related with MO, AL, t, T and H+Al. In studied populations of Xylopia emarginata Mart. the soil chemistry characteristics affected heterozygosis levels.

  4. The contribution of nuclear-related technical cooperation to national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    1988-01-01

    The present situation of nuclear technical assistance and the IAEA's programs are reviewed. The perspectives of the developing and of the developed countries are discussed. Australia's aid administrators have been showing an increasing preference for administering its nuclear technical assistance through the Regional Cooperation Agreement for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), because of its direct benefits to the countries in the region, its flexibility, its emphasis on training, and its cooperative nature. The RCA also benefits from IAEA management and IAEA and United Nations Development Program funding. Two examples of Australia's successful RCA activities are the 1988 radiation protection training course held in Sydney and one of the many individual projects within the 1980-86 RCA hydrology program - the application of radioisotope tracer techniques to locating the seepage areas in the Pedu dam in Kedah State, Malaysia. Australia's experience has shown that project design, successful training of the right people, adequate infrastructure in both donor and recipient countries, and detailed post-project evaluation are the keys to successful project implementation. The RCA has achieved wide recognition as a successful tool in nuclear-related technology transfer

  5. An osteomalacia related to phosphate diabetes - bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyer, A.; Granier, P.; Mourad, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, investigated for disabling pain of the left thigh, unrelated to any traumatic event. Interrogation had found diffuse pain of myalgia-type and arthralgia-type for approximately a year without local inflammatory signs and insufficiency fractures of both calcaneus two years before. The Technetium 99m -labeled hydroxy-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-H.D.P.) whole-body bone scintigraphy evidenced multiple hot spots on the higher third of left femur, rib cage, sternum, scapula, pelvis, right hip and both calcaneus. Moreover, a more diffuse and heterogeneous prominent uptake appeared on rib cage, spine and pelvis. These images suggested a diffuse metastatic disease of the skeleton. The single photon emission computerized tomography guided by computerized tomography (SPECT/CT), centered on lumbar spine, pelvis and the upper end of femurs showed that the multiple hot spots were in fact bone fractures. These findings pointed diagnosis to a metabolic disease. The clinical context was in favour of an osteomalacia. Further explorations showed an osteomalacia related to phosphate diabetes. A thorough work-up did not reveal any known aetiology. To date, idiopathic phosphate diabetes seems the most likely diagnosis. Nuclear medicine input in osteomalacia is discussed. (authors)

  6. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  7. Relative contribution of ionospheric conductivity and electric field to the auroral electrojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Vickrey, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Data from continuous scans of the Chatanika radar beam along the magnetic meridian plane are used to the determine the latitudinal profile of height-integrated ionospheric conductivities and horizontal electric fields, from which the latitudinal distribution of ionospheric currents is deduced. The observations cover invariant latitudes between 62 0 and 68 0 , where the IMS Alaska meridian chain of magnetometers was also in operation. Although the conductivities and the electric fields are interrelated, the relative importance of the two in driving the eastward and westward auroral electrojet currents can be assessed. It is found that for moderate and large current densities (i.e., > or approx. =0.2 A/m), the northward electric field strength increases as the magnitude of the eastward electrojet in the evening sector increases. The height-integrated Hall conductivity stays generally at the level of 10 mhos even when the current density becomes as large as 1 A/m. However, when the eastward electrojet is small, substantial electric fields of 10-20 mV/m may still exist as if the magnetosphere has a persistent voltage source. There appear to be two distinct components to the westward electrojet. In the midnight and early morning sestors (>0300 MLT) intensity is characterized by a weak southward electric field and a high Hall conductivity, whereas its late morning portion (>0300 MLT) is dominated by a strong southward electric field

  8. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Starling

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare.

  9. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  10. What contribution can international relations make to the evolving global health agenda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This article presents two approaches that have dominated International Relations in their approach to the international politics of health. The statist approach, which is primarily security-focused, seeks to link health initiatives to a foreign or defence policy remit. The globalist approach, in contrast, seeks to advance health not because of its intrinsic security value but because it advances the well-being and rights of individuals. This article charts the evolution of these approaches and demonstrates why both have the potential to shape our understanding of the evolving global health agenda. It examines how the statist and globalist perspectives have helped shape contemporary initiatives in global health governance and suggests that there is evidence of an emerging convergence between the two perspectives. This convergence is particularly clear in the articulation of a number of UN initiatives in this area - especially the One World, One Health Strategic Framework and the Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) which inspired the first UN General Assembly resolution on global health and foreign policy in 2009 and the UN Secretary-General's note "Global health and foreign policy: strategic opportunities and challenges". What remains to be seen is whether this convergence will deliver on securing states' interest long enough to promote the interests of the individuals who require global efforts to deliver local health improvements.

  11. Relation of ABO Blood Groups to the Plaque Characteristic of Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingtao; Zou, Yongpeng; Li, Lulu; Chen, Shuyuan; Hou, Jingbo; Yu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The ABO blood types related to morphological characteristics of atherosclerosis plaque are not clear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between ABO blood groups and the coronary plaque characteristic. We retrospectively identified the target lesions in 392 acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent optical coherence tomography examination before stenting. Subjects were divided into different groups according to different blood types. The fibrous cap thickness was significantly thicker in O type compared with non-O type (0.075 ± 0.033 mm versus 0.061 ± 0.024, p blood type groups even between O type and non-O type group ( p > 0.05). The plaques of O type blood group were exhibited more stably compared with non-O type blood group. Moreover, the non-O type blood group have more serious coronary artery stenosis than O type blood group.

  12. A contribution to raise awareness on ethical problems related to radiological protection in future health physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.; Birattari, C.; Merzagora, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Radiological Protection has a real social dimension and it is not restricted to the pure scientific and quantitative aspects. The quality in radiation protection is not reached by simply complying with current technical standards or by enforcing an improved or restricted regulation, but must also be pursued by promoting a culture of radiation protection. An effective dissemination of a radiation protection culture has to include education and training for those students who will become researchers in the involved fields, or who will be called in risk management and, as protection managers, will be asked to inform and train workers or to communicate with the public. Today, in most universities the education in ethics is a significant part of the training in medical, biological and biotechnological curricula but, it is still of poor consideration in those curricula which are traditionally related to Physical Science and even in those areas, like Health Physics, where implementation of interdisciplinary approaches and methodologies are important sources for progress. Moreover, recent advances in the research field of risk perception and communication are very rarely included in those courses. At the Health Physics post-graduate School of Milano State University, within the course of Radiation Protection, a new subject has been recently introduced facing the question of ethical problems and risk perception in radiation protection, and dealing with the activity of international organisations aimed to establish ethical principles for protection against ionising radiation. By referring to this context, students realize how the analysis of radiological risk includes both technological and ethical aspects. The hope is that a new generation of experts in heath physics will promote a dynamic development of knowledge and a higher degree of awareness even in ethical aspects within the academic, institutional or professional fields of radiation

  13. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING CHARACTERISTICS OF BC2F3 POPULATION WITH ADDITION OF BLAST RESISTANT GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahmudul Hasan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe study was carried out in the University Putra Malaysia (UPM Rice Research Centre to evaluate the yield performance of newly developed selected blast resistant plants of BC2F3 generations derived from a cross between MR263, a high yielding rice variety but blast susceptible and Pongsu Seribu 1, donor with blast resistant (Pi-7(tand Pi-d (t1, Pir2-3(tgenes and qLN2 QTL, Malaysian local variety. On the basis of assessed traits, the plants 12, 6, 7, 5, 21, 22, 5, 26, 11, 8, 10, 13 and 15 had the higher yield, blast resistant and good morphological traits. More than 70% heritability was found in days to maturity, plant height, tiller numbers per hill, and panicle per hill, 80% heritability was found in filled grain and yield per hill and more than 90% heritability was found in grain length, grain width and seed weight. Cluster analysis based on the traits grouped 30 plants along with MR263 into seven clusters. According to PCA, the first four principal components account for about 69.3% total variation for all measured traits and exhibited high correlation among the characteristics analyzed.

  15. RELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCURACY OF KICKING A BALL BY YOUNG FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Andrašić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kicking a ball with foot or head are the basic elements of football, which can raise the efficiency of the game in terms of speed of action in terms of scoring goals. This is also the reason why the shot needs to be performed in a timely manner, usefully, and also quickly. The most commonly used kick in football is a inner-side instep kick, which is also the most accurate and the most used among the players (Cabri, De Prof, Dufour, & Clarys, 1998. Success in performing precise actions largely depends on the precision of locating targets in space, and therefore the role of our receptors is crucial for a successful precision (Szekeres, Santrač, Radosav, Toplak, Miljanić, 1994. The research problem was establishing the predictive impacts of morphological characteristics on the elevation accuracy of hitting the ball in young players. The subjects of the study were morphological characteristics and accuracy of the players. Aim of the paper was to determine the relation between morphological characteristics and precision of players aged 13-14 years from the Municipality of Loznica. Method: 50 players of the FK “Kabel” from Novi Sad, aged 13-14 years, were subjected to testing. Measurement of morphological characteristics was conducted. Specific (elevation accuracy of hitting the ball towards the vertical and horizontal objective was also tested. By using the statistical analysis firstly the basic descriptive statistics of variables were determine. In order to determine the size of the impact of anthropometric characteristics on motor skills – precision, linear regression analysis was used. Results: Regression analysis showed that there was no statistically significant effect of the predictor system of morphological variables on the criterion variables tested: Precision of kicking the ball towards a horizontal target and Precision of kicking the ball towards a vertical target. The results pointed to the fact that some other characteristics and

  16. The Adhesion Molecule-Characteristic HNK-1 Carbohydrate Contributes to Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Shen, Hui-Fan; Shen, Yan-Qin; Schachner, Melitta

    2017-07-01

    The human natural killer cell antigen-1 (HNK-1) is functionally important in development, synaptic activity, and regeneration after injury in the nervous system of several mammalian species. It contains a sulfated glucuronic acid which is carried by neural adhesion molecules and expressed in nonmammalian species, including zebrafish, which, as opposed to mammals, spontaneously regenerate after injury in the adult. To evaluate HNK-1's role in recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI) of adult zebrafish, we assessed the effects of the two HNK-1 synthesizing enzymes, glucuronyl transferase and HNK-1 sulfotransferase. Expression of these two enzymes was increased at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level 11 days after injury in the brainstem nuclei that are capable of regrowth of severed axons, namely, the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle and intermediate reticular formation, but not at earlier time points after SCI. mRNA levels of glucuronyl transferase and sulfotransferase were increased in neurons, not only of these nuclei but also in the spinal cord caudal to the injury site at 11 days. Mauthner neurons which are not capable of regeneration did not show increased levels of enzyme mRNAs after injury. Reducing protein levels of the enzymes by application of anti-sense morpholinos resulted in reduction of locomotor recovery for glucuronyl transferase, but not for HNK-1 sulfotransferase. The combined results indicate that HNK-1 is upregulated in expression only in those neurons that are intrinsically capable of regeneration and contributes to regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish in the absence of its sulfate moiety.

  17. Reconstruction of the characteristics of gamma showers and contribution to the data analysis of the experiment Celeste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, N.

    2000-04-01

    The detection of high energy gamma radiation is an important tool for the study of violent events occurring somewhere in the galaxies and produced by pulsars or active nuclei. Since the beginning of the nineties, a new technology is used: the ground-based detection of Cerenkov light emitted by the air shower issuing from very high energy gamma radiation. Celeste (Cerenkov low energy sampling and timing experiment) is the last of a series of experiments: Asgat, Themistocle and Cat, that have been performed on the site of the decommissioned solar plant Themis. Alike Asgat and Themistocle, Celeste is based on the same method of parting the light wave front but uses the important 54 m 2 surface mirrors of the ancient solar plant to collect it. The processing of the different accurate moments at which the Cerenkov light has reached each mirror allows the reconstruction of the tail of the shower. This installation is expected to collect more Cerenkov light and to allow physicists to reach the 30 to 300 GeV energy range that has been till now largely unexplored in gamma astronomy. The first chapter is dedicated to the various methods for detecting gamma radiation, either satellite on-board experiments or ground-based detection systems. The second chapter presents the experiment Celeste and explains how this experiment could bring new information about astrophysical concerns. The third chapter deals with the detailed technical description of the installation, especially the optical and electronic systems. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the reconstruction of gamma showers, the determination of their direction is a delicate problem. The fifth chapter presents the characteristics of the background noise coming from hadronic showers. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the calibration of the detector and it gives its first preliminary results. (A.C.)

  18. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Characteristics, Quality and Contribution to Signal Detection of Spontaneous Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions Via the WEB-RADR Mobile Application: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Ingrid; Taavola, Henric; Tregunno, Philip M; Mas, Petar; Gama, Sara; Newbould, Victoria; Caster, Ola; Härmark, Linda

    2018-05-14

    Spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions is key for efficient post-marketing safety surveillance. To increase usability and accessibility of reporting tools, the Web-Recognising Adverse Drug Reactions (WEB-RADR) consortium developed a smartphone application (app) based on a simplified reporting form. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, quality and contribution to signals of reports submitted via the WEB-RADR app. The app was launched in the UK, the Netherlands and Croatia between July 2015 and May 2016. Spontaneous reports submitted until September 2016 with a single reporter were included. For each country, app reports and reports received through conventional means in the same time period were compared to identify characteristic features. A random subset of reports was assessed for clinical quality and completeness. The contribution to signal detection was assessed by a descriptive analysis. Higher proportions of app reports were submitted by patients in the UK (28 vs. 18%) and Croatia (32 vs. 7%); both p < 0.01. In the Netherlands, the difference was small (60 vs. 57%; p = 0.5). The proportion of female patients and the median patient ages in app reports submitted by patients were similar to the reference. The proportion of reports of at least moderate quality was high in both samples (app: 78-85%, reference: 78-98%), for all countries. App reports contributed to detecting eight potential safety signals at the national level, four of which were eventually signalled. The WEB-RADR app offers a new route of spontaneous reporting that shows promise in attracting reports from patients and that could become an important tool in the future. Patient demographics are similar to conventional routes, report quality is sufficient despite a simplified reporting form, and app reports show potential in contributing to signal detection.

  20. Novel sex-related characteristics of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tacyana P. R Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel sex-related characteristics in Hippocampus reidi, expressed as a prominent and pigmented keel (males only, and by a row of dorsolateral spots mostly (97.4% found in males. While the keel was found even in the smallest males sampled, the dorsolateral spots appear to be associated with body size. Ex situ observations revealed that during courtship males highlighted both characters by turning pale their background body colour. Understanding such colour and behavioural patterns is relevant to increase our knowledge about sexual selection in a morphologically and biologically unique group of fishes.

  1. Relationships between work-related characteristics, needs satisfaction, motivation and mental health in midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Courtois, Robert; Martinent, Guillaume; Rivière, Michèle; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the relationships between work-related characteristics in internships, psychological needs satisfaction, motivation and mental health using a partial least squares path modeling. Midwifery students (N = 214; M age = 22.8 years) from three French schools completed different questionnaires online. Results showed (1) the importance of work resources (work control and social support) as protective factors of psychological needs satisfaction; and (2) the role of competence need satisfaction through motivation in the relationships between work resources and mental health. Midwifery schools should pay more attention to these two results, and take them into account in midwifery students' training.

  2. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  3. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Blanton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  4. Identification of the mechanisms that drive the toxicity of TiO2 particulates: the contribution of physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sheona

    2009-12-01

    general, requires consideration. At this time it is inappropriate to consider the findings for one TiO2 form as being representative for TiO2 particulates as a whole, due to the vast number of available TiO2 particulate forms and large variety of potential tissue and cell targets that may be affected by exposure. Thus emphasising that the physicochemical characteristics are fundamental to their toxicity.

  5. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  6. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  7. Biofilm characteristics of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates associated with device-related meningitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevens, Niall T

    2009-07-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm causes device-related meningitis in neurosurgical patients. This study assessed the contribution of polysaccharide and protein to the development of a strong biofilm-positive phenotype in four S. epidermidis isolates associated with probable device-related meningitis, under varying environmental conditions. RT-PCR analysis of the intercellular adhesion operon (icaADBC) and assessment of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production indicated a correlation between increased icaA transcription and PIA production in ica(+) isolates grown in medium with 4 % ethanol and 4 % NaCl. Treatment of biofilm with sodium metaperiodate caused dispersion of adhered cells (P <0.0001), indicating involvement of PIA. Transcriptional levels of protein factors revealed that atlE transcription levels were similar in all isolates, whilst aap levels were variable, with induction being seen in two isolates following growth in the presence of alcohol or salt. Transcription of agr did not influence protein expression and RNAIII transcription varied among the strains. Although aap transcription was induced, the treatment of biofilm with proteinase K did not always disperse the biofilm. Our data suggest that, among the three ica(+) S. epidermidis isolates clinically associated with meningitis that were studied, PIA contributed to the strong biofilm-positive phenotype, whereas protein factors appeared to have a secondary role.

  8. Relative contributions of copper oxide nanoparticles and dissolved copper to Cu uptake kinetics of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Castellon, Benjamin T.; Matson, Cole W.; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2017-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal-based nanomaterials may be due to the uptake of metals in both dissolved and nanoparticulate forms, but the relative contributions of these different forms to overall metal uptake rates under environmental conditions are not quantitatively defined. Here, we investigated the linkage between the dissolution rates of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their bioavailability to Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos, with the aim of quantitatively delineating the relative contributions of nanoparticulate and dissolved species for Cu uptake. Gulf killifish embryos were exposed to dissolved Cu and CuO NP mixtures comprising a range of pH values (6.3–7.5) and three types of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates at various concentrations (0.1–10 mg-C L–1), resulting in a wide range of CuO NP dissolution rates that subsequently influenced Cu uptake. First-order dissolution rate constants of CuO NPs increased with increasing NOM concentration and for NOM isolates with higher aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), while Cu uptake rate constants of both dissolved Cu and CuO NP decreased with NOM concentration and aromaticity. As a result, the relative contribution of dissolved Cu and nanoparticulate CuO species for the overall Cu uptake rate was insensitive to NOM type or concentration but largely determined by the percentage of CuO that dissolved. These findings highlight SUVA and aromaticity as key NOM properties affecting the dissolution kinetics and bioavailability of soluble metal-based nanomaterials in organic-rich waters. These properties could be used in the incorporation of dissolution kinetics into predictive models for environmental risks of nanomaterials.

  9. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: - To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; - To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; - To discuss the results of studies and on-going R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; and - To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  10. Exploring employees' perceptions, job-related attitudes and characteristics during a planned organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsaros, K.K.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores employee perceptions regarding organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change during a planned organizational change in a public hospital. Survey data were collected at two time periods, before and five months after the initiation of the planned change. Research findings show a significant increase in perceptive organizational readiness to change, supervisory support, trust in management and appropriateness of change after the planned change implementation. Findings also suggest that differences in the aforementioned perceptions are moderated by certain job-related attitudes, namely, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and job involvement; and job-related characteristics, namely, skill variety, task identity, task significance feedback, autonomy and goal clarity. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the meeting were: • To identify the main issues and technical features that affect capital and energy production costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present fast reactor concepts and designs with enhanced economic characteristics, as well as innovative technical solutions (components, subsystems, etc.) that have the potential to reduce the capital costs of fast reactors and related fuel cycle facilities; • To present energy models and advanced tools for the cost assessment of innovative fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles; • To discuss the results of studies and ongoing R&D activities that address cost reduction and the future economic competitiveness of fast reactors; • To identify research and technology development needs in the field, also in view of new IAEA initiatives to help and support Member States in improving the economic competitiveness of fast reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycles

  12. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansereau Richard M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  13. A Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Vocal-Tract-Related Filter Characteristics for Single Channel Speech Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Radfar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new technique for separating two speech signals from a single recording. The proposed method bridges the gap between underdetermined blind source separation techniques and those techniques that model the human auditory system, that is, computational auditory scene analysis (CASA. For this purpose, we decompose the speech signal into the excitation signal and the vocal-tract-related filter and then estimate the components from the mixed speech using a hybrid model. We first express the probability density function (PDF of the mixed speech's log spectral vectors in terms of the PDFs of the underlying speech signal's vocal-tract-related filters. Then, the mean vectors of PDFs of the vocal-tract-related filters are obtained using a maximum likelihood estimator given the mixed signal. Finally, the estimated vocal-tract-related filters along with the extracted fundamental frequencies are used to reconstruct estimates of the individual speech signals. The proposed technique effectively adds vocal-tract-related filter characteristics as a new cue to CASA models using a new grouping technique based on an underdetermined blind source separation. We compare our model with both an underdetermined blind source separation and a CASA method. The experimental results show that our model outperforms both techniques in terms of SNR improvement and the percentage of crosstalk suppression.

  14. The Relation between Hamstring Strain Injury and Physical Characteristics of Japanese Collegiate Sepak Takraw Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Y; Nakazato, K; Koyama, K; Tahara, Y; Funaki, A; Hiranuma, K

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the injuries in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. We primarily focused on hamstring strain injury (HSI), and investigated the associated physical characteristics. The study included 77 Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players who were interviewed; data were collected regarding injuries sustained by them during the game within the past year. The hip range of motion (ROM) was measured. The total number of injuries was 48 in a year. The rate of HSI was the highest (31.3%) among all the injuries. All HSIs occurred in the dominant leg because of the sunback spike. Using the Mann-Whitney U test, significant differences in age and sport-related experience were observed between the injured group and uninjured group. Upon using logistic regression analysis, the presence of a HSI was found to be associated with the sport-related experience (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.77) and the hip extension ROM (adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) after adjusting for sex, sport-related experience, and the hip ROM. HSI is the most common injury in Japanese collegiate sepak takraw players. Short sport-related experience and small hip extension ROM are related with the occurrence of HSI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  16. Patterns of daily energy management at work: relations to employee well-being and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed at identifying subgroups of employees with similar daily energy management strategies at work and finding out whether well-being indicators and job characteristics differ between these subgroups. The study was conducted by electronic questionnaire among 1122 Finnish employees. First, subgroups of employees with unique and distinctive patterns of energy management strategies were identified using latent profile analysis. Second, differences in well-being indicators and job characteristics between the subgroups were investigated by means of ANCOVA. Four subgroups (i.e., patterns) were identified and named: Passives (n = 371), Averages (n = 390), Casuals (n = 272) and Actives (n = 89). Passives used all three (i.e., work-related, private micro-break and physical micro-break) strategies less frequently than other subgroups, whereas Actives used work-related and physical energy management strategies more frequently than other subgroups. Averages used all strategies on an average level. Casuals' use of all strategies came close to that of Actives, notably in a shared low use of private micro-break strategies. Active and Casual patterns maintained vigor and vitality. Autonomy and social support at work played a significant role in providing opportunities for the use of beneficial energy management strategies. Autonomy and support at work seem to support active and casual use of daily energy management, which is important in staying energized throughout the working day.

  17. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8%, and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, P < .001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines, and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9....

  19. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  20. Gender-related effects of vision impairment characteristics on depression in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the gender-specific associations between perceived vision impairment and symptoms of depression. We used the data from the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging database of 7448 individuals aged 45 years and older. Questionnaires assessing depression symptoms and perceived visual impairment at near, distance, and in general were administered. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate if visual impairment could lead to depression, adjusting for the potential confounders of age, socioeconomic status (household income, education level, marital status, and employment status), and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity level) after gender stratification. Perceived general and near vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78 and 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-4.04 and 1.78-3.63). Perceived general and distance vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in females (OR = 2.16 and 2.08; 95% CI, 1.67-2.79 and 1.61-2.69). General sight with near vision impairment in males and general sight with distance vision impairment in females could be stronger predictors of depression than other vision impairment combinations (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.6461; p = 0.0425 in males; AUROC, 0.6270; p = 0.0318 in females). Conclusion Gender differences were found in the characteristics of visual impairment on symptoms of depression. Ophthalmologists should be aware that near vision impairment in males and distance vision impairment in females have an adjunctive effect that might contribute to symptoms of depression.

  1. Third Level of International Relations: Characteristics of Sub-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey P. Arteev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is in the genre of the review for textbook O. V. Plotnikova and O. Y. Dubrovina International relations of the regions States: characteristics and features (Moscow: Norma; INFRA-M, 2016. 192 p.. Textbook on international activities of sub-state/subnational actors in international relations. Under the sub-state/subnational actors refers to the regions of the States. The authors propose an along with interstate relations (first level and supranational organizations (second level to distinguish a third level of international relations - international relations of the regions in Federal and unitary States. The topic is very relevant due to the ongoing restructuring of the architecture of international relations and world politics. In addition, these processes lead to involvement in international relations new actors. The resulting configuration and the role of traditional players. In addition to long-term evolutionary processes, we should not forget about the position of Russia in the last few years. It is obvious that the current tensions around the Russian Federation may not be fully resolved with the old methods. At the same time, sub-state/ subnational actors as subjects of a combined nature, the role played by regions of the Russian Federation, able to combine harmoniously in its international activities as the techniques characteristic of the traditional actors - States and developments in the tools of non-traditional actors - international non-governmental and non-profit organizations etc. As a result of positive results can be achieved faster and at the interstate level. The review considers the subject and the relevance of the topic, presents the analysis of the content of the work. Marked strengths of the textbook, including those associated with the consideration of the diagonal ties and the political components in the international activities of the regions. In addition to the advantages, attention is paid to the analysis of

  2. Relative contribution of rat cytochrome P450 isoforms to the metabolism of caffeine: the pathway and concentration dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Marta; Daniel, Władysława A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the relative contribution of rat P450 isoforms to the metabolism of caffeine and to assess the usefulness of caffeine as a marker substance for estimating the activity of P450 in rat liver and its potential for pharmacokinetic interactions in pharmacological experiments. The results obtained using rat cDNA-expressed P450s indicated that 8-hydroxylation was the main oxidation pathway of caffeine (70%) in the rat. CYP1A2 was found to be a key enzyme catalyzing 8-hydroxylation (72%) and substantially contributing to 3-N-demethylation (47%) and 1-N-demethylation (37.5%) at a caffeine concentration of 0.1mM (relevant to "the maximum therapeutic concentration in humans"). Furthermore, CYP2C11 considerably contributed to 3-N-demethylation (31%). The CYP2C subfamily (66%) - mainly CYP2C6 (27%) and CYP2C11 (29%) - played a major role in catalyzing 7-N-demethylation. At higher substrate concentrations, the contribution of CYP1A2 to the metabolism of caffeine decreased in favor of CYP2C11 (N-demethylations) and CYP3A2 (mainly 8-hydroxylation). The obtained results were confirmed with liver microsomes (inhibition and correlation studies). Therefore, caffeine may be used as a marker substance for assessing the activity of CYP1A2 in rats, using 8-hydroxylation (but not 3-N-demethylation-like in humans); moreover, caffeine may also be used to simultaneously, preliminarily estimate the activity of CYP2C using 7-N-demethylation as a marker reaction. Hence caffeine pharmacokinetics in rats may be changed by drugs affecting the activity of CYP1A2 and/or CYP2C, e.g. by some antidepressants.

  3. Relative contributions of local wind and topography to the coastal upwelling intensity in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Hu, Jianyu; Chen, Ju; Zhuang, Wei; Zu, TingTing; Xu, Jindian

    2014-04-01

    Topographically induced upwelling caused by the interaction between large-scale currents and topography was observed during four cruises in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) when the upwelling favorable wind retreated. Using a high-resolution version of the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigate relative contributions of local wind and topography to the upwelling intensity in the NSCS. The results show that the topographically induced upwelling is sensitive to alongshore large-scale currents, which have an important contribution to the upwelling intensity. The topographically induced upwelling is comparable with the wind-driven upwelling at surface and has a stronger contribution to the upwelling intensity than the local wind does at bottom in the near-shore shelf region. The widened shelf to the southwest of Shanwei and west of the Taiwan Banks intensifies the bottom friction, especially off Shantou, which is a key factor for topographically induced upwelling in terms of bottom Ekman transport and Ekman pumping. The local upwelling favorable wind enhances the bottom friction as well as net onshore transport along the 50 m isobath, whereas it has less influence along the 30 m isobath. This implies the local wind is more important in upwelling intensity in the offshore region than in the nearshore region. The contribution of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity is comparable with that of topography along the 50 m isobath. The effects of local upwelling favorable wind on upwelling intensity are twofold: on one hand, the wind transports surface warm water offshore, and as a compensation of mass the bottom current transports cold water onshore; on the other hand, the wind enhances the coastal current, and the bottom friction in turn increases the topographically induced upwelling intensity.

  4. Temporal and spatial characteristics of dust devils and their contribution to the aerosol budget in East Asia-An analysis using a new parameterization scheme for dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoguo; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    Dust aerosols are the main aerosol components of the atmosphere that affect climate change, but the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget is uncertain. In this study, a new parameterization scheme for dust devils was established and coupled with WRF-Chem, and the diurnal and monthly variations and the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget in East Asia was simulated. The results show that 1) both the diurnal and monthly variations in dust devil emissions in East Asia had unimodal distributions, with peaks in the afternoon and the summer that were similar to the observations; 2) the simulated dust devils occurred frequently in deserts, including the Gobi. The distributed area and the intensity center of the dust devil moved from east to west during the day; 3) the ratio between the availability of convective buoyancy relative to the frictional dissipation was the main factor that limited the presence of dust devils. The position of the dust devil formation, the surface temperature, and the boundary layer height determined the dust devil intensity; 4) the contribution of dust devils to atmospheric dust aerosols determined in East Asia was 30.4 ± 13%, thereby suggesting that dust devils contribute significantly to the total amount of atmospheric dust aerosols. Although the new parameterization scheme for dust devils was rough, it was helpful for understanding the distribution of dust devils and their contribution to the dust aerosol budget.

  5. The contribution of work characteristics and risk propensity in explaining pro-social rule breaking among teachers in Wakiso District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waweru I. Kahari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored the mechanisms that drive pro-social rule breaking among teachers in Ugandan private secondary schools. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the contribution of work characteristics and risk propensity in promoting pro-social rule breaking among teachers in one of the Ugandan districts that has a high number of private schools. Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on pro-social rule breaking in Uganda, this study sought to explore the concept and shed light on the mechanisms that influence this. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research process formed the basis for this study. Two hundred and forty-two teachers from 15 private secondary schools in Wakiso District formed the targeted sample size. A response rate of 87% was registered. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in order to assess the influence of each of the variables on the dependent variable, by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Main findings: The regression results showed that work characteristics were a statistically significant predictor of pro-social rule breaking, but risk propensity was not. The results finally showed that there was no moderation effect of risk propensity on the relationship between work characteristics and pro-social rule breaking. Practical implications: The schools should expect more pro-social rule-breaking tendencies when the tasks given to the teachers are complex and when the teachers operate with autonomy. The environment in which the private secondary school teachers in Uganda work, motivates them to sometimes break rules in a bid to perform better or minimise the complexity associated with work. Contribution: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge on pro-social rule breaking and provides insights into the key drivers of the same among private secondary school teachers in the Ugandan context.

  6. Total Water Level Fun Facts: The Relative Contribution of Extreme Total Water Levels Along the US West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, K.; Ruggiero, P.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2016-02-01

    In the fall of 2014, parts of the US West Coast endured some of the highest monthly mean sea level anomalies on record, likely due to the presence of "the blob" (Bond et al., 2015), an anomalously warm water mass in the NE Pacific. However, despite the significantly above average water levels, the coastline experienced only marginal coastal flooding and erosion hazards because the ensuing winter lacked significant storms, underscoring the fact that extreme total water levels (TWLs) are compound events. To better understand how several individual processes combine to cause devastating coastal hazards, we investigate the relative contribution that each component (waves, tides, and non-tidal residuals) has on extreme TWLs on sandy beaches. Water level records along the US West Coast are decomposed into mean sea level, astronomical tide, and non-tidal residuals (NTRs). The NTR is further split into an intra-annual seasonal signal, monthly mean sea level anomalies (inter-annual variability), and meteorological surge. TWL time series are then generated by combining water levels with wave runup, computed using wave data and beach morphology. We use this data-driven, structural function approach to investigate the spatial variability of the relative contribution of each component to the maximum TWL event on record. We also use a probabilistic, full simulation TWL model (Serafin and Ruggiero, 2014) to generate multiple, synthetic TWL records, to explore the relative contribution of each component to extreme TWL return levels. We assess the sensitivity to local beach morphology by computing TWLs for a range of observed beach slopes. Extreme TWLs are higher in Oregon and Washington than in California. Wave runup typically comprises > 50% of the TWL signal, while NTRs often compose < 5%, illustrating the importance wave climate has on the potential for extreme TWLs. While waves are typically larger in the North, California experiences greater contributions to extreme TWLs from

  7. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with different profiles of individuation in relation to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuation in relation to parents represents an important developmental task during adolescence. The article focuses on the examination of different profiles of individuation in relation to parents and how these profiles manifest themselves in different periods of adolescence. We were also interested in the psychosocial characteristics that vary among adolescents with different profiles of individuation. The sample consisted of 593 adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years. The adolescents filled in the self-report questionnaires of individuation in relation to parents and friends, perceived parental behavior, and perceived self-efficacy in learning. They also reported about the frequency of psychological symptoms experienced in the last month. To identify the diverse groups of adolescents the scores on the scale of individuation in relation to parents were subjected to a cluster analysis. Finally, the four-cluster solution was chosen. The clusters were named: Good connectedness with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Highly harmonious relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Cold relationship with parents with threatened autonomy and Ambivalent relationship with parents. The results confirmed the hypothesis, that most adolescents will be classified in the profiles of good relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy. The results also showed that the combination of moderate emotional connectedness with parents, low parental idealization, ability to integrate autonomy and connectedness, low denial of dependency needs and low engulfment anxiety represent the most favorable individuation pattern for psychological adaptation of adolescents.

  8. [Myocardial infarction related to sport. Acute clinical and coronary angiographic characteristics in 16 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halna du Fretay, X; Akoudad, H; Nejjari, M; Benamer, H

    2013-12-01

    Determination of clinical and angiographic characteristics of myocardial infarctions related to sport. Retrospective study of acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation related to sport treated with interventional cardiology from 2006 to 2013. Sixteen patients were included. They are mostly men (15/16), aged 24-65 years (over 35 years old in 13 cases) with few cardiovascular risk factors, most frequently heredity or smoking. Myocardial infarctions usually occur during the practice of sports (13/16), with serious rhythmic complications in three of the cases. On angiography, most patients have single vessel disease (12/16). Myocardial infarction related to sports affects a male population aged over 35 years old with few cardiovascular risk factors, most often single vessel disease, making the preventative screening uneasy. Other studies investigating larger populations, assessing previous clinical events (symptoms, results of stress tests), evaluating the impact of competition and integrating sudden deaths would improve the screening and the treatment of sport-related myocardial infarctions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative contributions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping in predicting student procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K; Steele, Misty R

    2011-12-01

    The relative contributions of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping student procrastination were explored. College undergraduate participants (N = 138; 40 men, 97 women, one not reporting sex) filled out the Procrastination Scale, the Self-Handicapping Scale-Short Form, and the Self-regulation and Self-handicapping scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. A hierarchical regression of the above measures indicated that self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-handicapping all predicted scores on the Procrastination Scale, but self-regulation fully accounted for the predictive power of self-efficacy. The results suggested self-regulation and self-handicapping predict procrastination independently. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on the concept of "self-efficacy for self-regulation" and its use in the field of procrastination research.

  10. The relative contribution of provider and ED-level factors to variation among the top 15 reasons for ED admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojah, Imad; Li, Suhui; Luo, Qian; Davis, Griffin; Galarraga, Jessica E; Granovsky, Michael; Litvak, Ori; Davis, Samuel; Shesser, Robert; Pines, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    We examine adult emergency department (ED) admission rates for the top 15 most frequently admitted conditions, and assess the relative contribution in admission rate variation attributable to the provider and hospital. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of ED encounters (≥18years) from 19 EDs and 603 providers (January 2012-December 2013), linked to the Area Health Resources File for county-level information on healthcare resources. "Hospital admission" was the outcome, a composite of inpatient, observation, or intra-hospital transfer. We studied the 15 most commonly admitted conditions, and calculated condition-specific risk-standardized hospital admission rates (RSARs) using multi-level hierarchical generalized linear models. We then decomposed the relative contribution of provider-level and hospital-level variation for each condition. The top 15 conditions made up 34% of encounters and 49% of admissions. After adjustment, the eight conditions with the highest hospital-level variation were: 1) injuries, 2) extremity fracture (except hip fracture), 3) skin infection, 4) lower respiratory disease, 5) asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (A&C), 6) abdominal pain, 7) fluid/electrolyte disorders, and 8) chest pain. Hospital-level intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.042 for A&C to 0.167 for extremity fractures. Provider-level ICCs ranged from 0.026 for abdominal pain to 0.104 for chest pain. Several patient, hospital, and community factors were associated with admission rates, but these varied across conditions. For different conditions, there were different contributions to variation at the hospital- and provider-level. These findings deserve consideration when designing interventions to optimize admission decisions and in value-based payment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative Risks of Contributing Factors to Morbidity and Mortality in Adults With Craniopharyngioma on Growth Hormone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C J; Mattsson, Anders F; Burman, Pia; Erfurth, Eva-Marie; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia; Fox, Janet L; Verhelst, Johan; Geffner, Mitchell E; Abs, Roger

    2018-02-01

    In adults, craniopharyngioma (CP) of either childhood-onset (CO-CP) or adult-onset (AO-CP) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but data on the relative risks (RRs) of contributing factors are lacking. To assess the RRs of factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in adults with CO-CP and AO-CP. Data on 1669 patients with CP from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database) were analyzed using univariate and multiple Poisson and Cox regression methods. When CO-CP and AO-CP groups were combined, history of stroke and hyperlipidemia increased cardiovascular risk, higher body mass index (BMI) and radiotherapy increased cerebrovascular risk, and increased waist circumference increased the risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). Compared with patients with CO-CP, patients with AO-CP had a threefold higher risk of tumor recurrence, whereas being female and previous radiotherapy exposure conferred lower risks. Radiotherapy and older age with every 10 years from disease onset conferred a 2.3- to 3.5-fold risk for developing new intracranial tumors, whereas older age, greater and/or increasing BMI, history of stroke, and lower insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score measured at last sampling before death were related to increased all-cause mortality. Compared with the general population, adults with CP had 9.3-, 8.1-, and 2.2-fold risks of developing DM, new intracranial tumors, and early death, respectively. Conventional factors that increase the risks of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases and DM and risks for developing new intracranial tumors contributed to excess morbidity and mortality. In addition, lower serum IGF-I level measured from the last sample before death was inversely associated with mortality risk in patients with CP. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  12. Multiple performance characteristics optimization for Al 7075 on electric discharge drilling by Taguchi grey relational theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rajesh; Kumar, Anish; Garg, Mohinder Pal; Singh, Ajit; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-12-01

    Electric discharge drill machine (EDDM) is a spark erosion process to produce micro-holes in conductive materials. This process is widely used in aerospace, medical, dental and automobile industries. As for the performance evaluation of the electric discharge drilling machine, it is very necessary to study the process parameters of machine tool. In this research paper, a brass rod 2 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as tool wear rate (TWR). The best parameters such as pulse on-time, pulse off-time and water pressure were studied for best machining characteristics. This investigation presents the use of Taguchi approach for better TWR in drilling of Al-7075. A plan of experiments, based on L27 Taguchi design method, was selected for drilling of material. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows the percentage contribution of the control factor in the machining of Al-7075 in EDDM. The optimal combination levels and the significant drilling parameters on TWR were obtained. The optimization results showed that the combination of maximum pulse on-time and minimum pulse off-time gives maximum MRR.

  13. Factors relating to high psychological distress in Indigenous Australians and their contribution to Indigenous-non-Indigenous disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Joshy, Grace; Williamson, Anna; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    To explore factors associated with high psychological distress among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians and their contribution to the elevated distress prevalence among Aboriginal people. Questionnaire data from 1,631 Aboriginal and 233,405 non-Aboriginal 45 and Up Study (NSW, Australia) participants aged ≥45 years were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for high psychological distress (Kessler-10 score ≥22) for socio-demographic, health and disability-related factors, and to quantify contributions to differences in distress prevalence. While high-distress prevalence was increased around three-fold in Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal participants, distress-related risk factors were similar. Morbidity and physical disability had the strongest associations; high distress affected 43.8% of Aboriginal and 20.9% of non-Aboriginal participants with severe physical limitations and 9.5% and 3.9% of those without limitations, respectively. Differences in distress prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal participants were essentially attributable to differences in SES, morbidity, disability/functional limitations and social support (fully-adjusted PR 1.19 [95% 1.08, 1.30]); physical morbidity and disability explained the bulk. The markedly elevated prevalence of high distress among older Aboriginal Australians appears largely attributable to greater physical morbidity and disability. Implications for public health: Addressing upstream determinants of physical morbidity and improved integration of social and emotional wellbeing care into primary care and chronic disease management are essential. © 2018 The Authors.

  14. Pichon Rivière's psychoanalytic contributions: Some comparisons with object relations and modern developments in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, David E; Losso, Roberto; Setton, Lea

    2017-02-01

    Enrique Pichon Rivière's work, fundamental to Latin American and European psychoanalytic development, is largely unknown in English-language psychoanalysis. Pichon's central contribution, the link (el vinculo), describes relational bonds in all dimensions. People are born into, live in, and relate through links. Psychic structure is built of links that then influence external interaction. Links, expressed in mind, body and external action, continuously join internal and external worlds. Links have two axes: vertical axis links connect generations through unconscious transgenerational transmission; horizontal axis links connect persons to life partners, family, community and society. For Pichon, treatment constitutes a spiral process through which interpretation disrupts existent structures, promoting new emergent organizations at successively deeper levels. Psychic and link structures evolve over time unless repetitive cycles stunt growth. For Pichon, transference is constituted in the here-and-now-with-me because of the analytic link. Pichon also undertook family and group psychoanalysis where individuals become spokespersons for unconscious links and family secrets. He developed operative groups that apply psychoanalysis to both analytic and non-analytic tasks. After describing Pichon's major contributions, the paper compares Pichon Rivière's ideas with those of Klein, Fairbairn, Bion, Winnicott and Bowlby, and contemporary writers including Ogden, Kaës, and Ferro whose works echo Pichon Rivière's thought. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. The Relation between Diverse Phenotypes of PCOS with Clinical Manifestations, Anthropometric Indices and Metabolic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrami, Seyedeh Hajar; Abbasi Ranjbar, Zahra; Milani, Forozan; Kezem-Nejad, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Dalil Heirat, Seyedeh Fatemeh

    2016-02-01

    Critical issue regarding to variation of findings based on different phenotypes led investigators to define whether they are distinct features or overlapping ones. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between diverse phenotypes of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) with clinical manifestations, anthropometric indices, and metabolic characteristics. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 15-39 years old women with PCOS referred to infertility clinics in the north part of Iran, Rasht during 2010-2011. Data were gathered through an interview by a form consisted of demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, ovarian volume and anthropometric indices. A total of 214 patients consisted of 161 PCOS (cases) and 53 normal women (controls) participated in this study. The most prevalent phenotype in PCOS population was IM/PCO/HA (54%), followed by IM/HA (28%) and IM/PCO (13%). PCO/HA was present only in 6 PCOS patients (5%). PCOS patients were significantly younger than controls (P=0.07). Results showed that increased ovarian volume were higher in PCOS group in comparison with controls and IM/PCO/HA, and IM/PCO had respectively the largest ovarian volumes. Also, a significant relation was observed based on Cholesterol, 17OHP, LH, TG, 2hpp, and LH/FSH between patients with PCOS and control groups. There were significant differences in demographic, anthropometric, hormonal and ultrasound findings between PCOS and controls. Therefore, it seems that classification of the characteristics of each phenotype could offer an appropriate guide for screening risks of PCOS and may facilitate performing most favorable treatment for these complications.

  16. Relations of microbiome characteristics to edaphic properties of tropical soils from Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya eDe Gannes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how community structure of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi varies as a function of edaphic characteristics is key to elucidating associations between soil ecosystem function and the microbiome that sustains it. In this study, non-managed tropical soils were examined that represented a range of edaphic characteristics, and a comprehensive soil microbiome analysis was done by Illumina sequencing of amplicon libraries that targeted Bacteria (universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene primers, Archaea (primers selective for archaeal 16S rRNA genes or Fungi (internal transcribed spacer region. Microbiome diversity decreased in the order: Bacteria > Archaea > Fungi. Bacterial community composition had a strong relationship to edaphic factors while that of Archaea and Fungi was comparatively weak. All communities were significantly more similar within soils, than they were between soils (ANOSIM p < 0.001; bacterial communities were 70-80% alike, while communities of Fungi and Archaea had 40-50% similarity. Communities differed in species turnover patterns, such that two soils with relatively similar bacterial communities could not be predicted to be similar in composition of Archaea or Fungi. Bacterial and archaeal diversity had significant (negative correlations to pH, whereas fungal diversity was not correlated to pH. Edaphic characteristics that best explained variation between soils in bacterial community structure were: total carbon, sodium, magnesium and zinc. For fungi, the best variables were: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron and C/N. Archaeal communities had two sets of edaphic factors of equal strength, one contained sulphur, sodium, and ammonium-N and the other was composed of clay, potassium, ammonium-N, and nitrate-N. Collectively, the data indicate that Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi did not closely parallel one another in community structure development, and thus microbiomes in each soil acquired unique identities. This divergence

  17. Age-related effects of job characteristics on burnout and work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, R; Jenny, G; Bauer, G

    2016-04-01

    In light of an ageing and age-diverse workforce, it is imperative to understand how psychosocial aspects of work might influence health throughout working life. Recently, there has been an implicit call to differentiate job characteristics beyond the two factors of job demands and job resources. As needs, abilities and motivation fluctuate with age, different job characteristics might yield differential benefits. Additionally, markers beyond chronological age should be considered. To explore systematically interactions between different job characteristics, age and age covariates (i.e. job tenure and position type) and their relationship with work-related health outcomes. An online survey of workers in Switzerland, Austria and Germany, recruited through a panel data service provider. We excluded participants working fewer than 30 hours a week, trainees, self-employed people and senior managers. We assessed seven areas of psychosocial risks at work, burnout, work engagement and demographics. Of the 6000 workers contacted, 1916 responded (31%). After applying exclusion criteria, we analysed data from 1417 respondents. We found that age barely had a moderating effect between psychosocial factors and health outcomes, but its three-way interaction with age covariates had more explanatory potential. Young workers with high job tenure showed particular vulnerability to job demands and the lack of certain job resources. Older workers with managerial positions were more resilient. Age and its covariates, such as job tenure and position type, should be considered in developing age-sensitive occupational health models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Perceived health and comfort in relation to energy use and building characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Johner, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech S., Lausanne (Switzerland); Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Oliveira Fernandes, E. De [IDMEC-FUEP, Porto (Portugal); Mueller, B. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Aizlewood, C. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    Within the European research project Health Optimisation Protocol for Energy-efficient Building (HOPE), 96 apartment buildings and 64 office buildings (of which approximately 75% have been designed to be energy-efficient) were investigated. The building characteristics were assessed according to a checklist during a walk-through survey. Occupant questionnaires were used to determine satisfaction about comfort (thermal visual, acoustical and indoor air quality (IAQ)) and their health (Sick Building Syndrome and allergies). Building-averaged collected data are compared, looking for correlations between building characteristics on one hand, and perceived comfort and health on the other hand. Strong correlations are found between perceived IAQ, thermal, acoustic and lighting comfort, confirming results from other studies. Significant correlations between the perceived comfort and building related symptoms were also found, comfortable and healthier buildings being well distinct from uncomfortable ones. Differences of perceived comfort or health between low- and high-energy buildings show that it is possible to design buildings that are healthy, comfortable and energy efficient. (author)

  19. Clinical characteristics of impulse control and related disorders in Chinese Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; He, An Qi; Li, Lin; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhen Guo

    2017-05-18

    Impulse control and related disorders (ICRDs) are clinically complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the clinical characteristics of ICRDs in Chinese PD patients were rarely reported. We aimed to explore the prevalence and the clinical profile of ICRDs in Chinese patients with PD. 142 Chinese PD patients were consecutively enrolled. The symptoms of ICRDs were assessed with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders. The clinical characteristics of patients with ICRDs and without ICRDs were compared. ICRDs were present in 31% of our patients. The most common ICRDs were compulsive medication use (11.3%) and punding (9.2%); the least frequent were walkabout (1.4%). Variables independently associated with ICRDs were earlier onset of the disease (≤55 years), severe cognitive impairment (MMSE 10-20), the dose of dopamine agonist (>1 mg/d) and dyskinesia. ICRDs was commonly found in Chinese PD patients. Earlier onset of the disease, the dose of dopamine agonist, severe cognitive impairment and dyskinesia are independent factors associated with ICRDs. Our results will be benefit for clinicians to assess the risk of developing ICRDs before delivering dopaminergic medication.

  20. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  1. Clinical and radiological characteristics of hemiplegic arm raising related to yawning in stroke patient

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    Jian-yong LI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics of parakinesia brachialis oscitans (PBD related to yawning in stroke patient and its mechanism. Methods We reported 4 patients with involuntary raising of the paralyzed limbs when yawning in neurological unit of Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, and analyzed their clinical characteristics together with published cases in literatures. Results In this group of stroke patients, when they yawned, their paralyzed upper limb could lift upward involuntarily. Totally 22 patients with ischemic (n=20 and hemorrhagic (n=2 stroke were enrolled. Brain imaging showed infarcts in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in 17 patients and in the brain stem in 5 patients. This phenomenon occurred 4 hours to 4 months (14.57±31.66d after stroke onset, and lasted from 1 week to 3 years (6.70±11.66 months. Corticobulbar tract and pyramidal tract were both damaged in these 22 patients. The mechanism might be that after corticobulbar tract and pyramidal tract damaged, their dominant role in the cranial nerve nuclei of the brainstem and the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord disappeared, and the projection of oxytocinergic neurons from paraventricular nucleus functions, thus causing yawning and muscle contraction. Conclusion PBO may be a rare phenomenon of abnormal movement after stroke. This phenomenon indicates damaging of pyramidal tract, and PBO disappears gradually with the recovery of pyramidal tract function. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.03.09

  2. THE RELATIONS OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF JOUNG WATER POLO PLAYERS

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    Dragan Toskić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the connection between morphologic characteristics and motor abilities of young water polo players. The sample of participants for this research can be defined as the population of water polo swimmers (N=60 aged 16 to 18, who were only included in the study under the condition that they have taken part in the water polo training process for a period of at least four years. In order to evaluate morphological characteristics of the participants we used 20 anthro¬po¬me¬tric variables (IBP to evaluated longitudinal and transversal dimenions, mass and body voluminosity and subcutaneous fatty tissue. In this study, the measurings of the sig¬ni¬ficant motor dimensions were carried by means of the following measuring instruments which the authors (Gredelj, Hošek, Metikoš, Momirović, 1975 had previously evaluated with the help of physiological mechanisms: the integration factor, based on the me¬cha¬nism for movement structure (MSK, the synergistic automatism and tonus regulation factor (SRT; the factor for excitation intensity regulation (RIE; the excitation duration re¬gulation factor (RTE. The relations between morphological and motor dimensions we¬re determined using a canonical correlation analysis. A correlation analysis was carried out and it indicated a very high correlation between dimesions morphological cha¬ra¬cte¬ri¬stics and motor abilities of young water polo players.

  3. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area, Nantou, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P.; Tsai, L.

    2009-12-01

    Hungtsaiping is located at the south bank of the Yonglu stream, Chungliao Village of Nantou County, central Taiwan. Hungtsaiping landslide was triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6) occurring on September 20, 1999 UTC near the town of Chi-Chi in Nantou County, central Taiwan. Coping with the geological and geomorphologic investigations, this study makes an attempt to find the relation between geochemical characteristics and landslide in Hungtsaiping area. Water samples were collected from spring waters, creeks, ponds, groundwater and the Yonglu stream once every month from May 2008 to May 2009. Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopic, ionic concentrations, as well as electrical conductivity and pH value were analyzed. The results indicate that calcium and magnesium bicarbonate-rich water was found on the top and the middle part of the slope. On the other hand, sodium bicarbonate-rich water as well as exceptionally high sulfate concentration was found on the foot of the slope, the sulfate content decreased with increasing elevations until the middle part of slope. A conceptual model of flow process and water origin in Hungtsaiping landslide was established by summarizing the features of hydrogeochemical analyses and the profiles in this study. Keywords: landslide, geochemical characteristics, isotope, hydrochemistry. Fig. 1 The sampling locations of Hungtsaiping landslide. Fig. 2 Isogram: the concentration of sulfate in May 2008 in Hungtsaiping area.

  5. Career representations in high school pupils and students in relation to gender characteristics

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    A.M. Sheveleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study of career representations in school and university students in relation to gender characteristics. The sample consisted of 36 students of XI grade and 40 students of I year of high school. We tested the hypothesis about relationship of career representations with gen-der characteristics of the subjects and their stage of professional development. The methods we used were “career anchors” by E. Schein, “Psychological gender” by S. Bem, survey “Professional career ideals" by A.M. Sheveleva. The statistical significance level of results was 0.05. It was re-vealed that, despite both school pupils and students preferred achievements, wealth and social recognition as the content of the ideal career, there are differences between the samples. Pupils are more focused on the “General managerial competence” and “Security/stability”, the students –on “Service/dedication to a cause” and “Technical/functional competence”. Regardless of sex, school pupils with an increase of masculinity have enhanced value of ”Pure challenge” orienta-tion and lowered value of the “Mode of Life” ideal career. The female students with increased femininity have higher importance of such content ideal career as “Experience Acquisition” and “Professional Path”, the value of career orientation “Autonomy/independence” is increased.

  6. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

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    Jörgen Thorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs established by IOTF. BMI values expressed as BMI standard deviation score (BMISDS were used for analysis. Results. At the 4-year check-up, the BMISDS and the proportion of children with overweight (including the obese were significantly higher in the district with lower socio-economic status. High BMI at birth and low socio-economic status of the population in the CHC-district were shown to be independent determinants for overweight and BMISDS at four years of age. Conclusions. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms and how intervention programs should be designed in order to prevent the development of overweight and obesity in children.

  7. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  8. Important characteristics of an entrepreneur in relation to risk taking: Czech Republic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kozubíková

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New businesses arising at the market usually operate in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises and account for a significant part of the whole global economy. Not only the success of a start-up company, but also its sequel within the SME sector are significantly influenced by entrepreneur's personality. The aim of this article is to explore the attitude to financial risk in relation to sociodemographic characteristics (gender, education, age and the most important personality traits of entrepreneurs (risk-taking, decisiveness, optimism. We have analyzed the data collected from 1141 respondents during 2015 in 14 regions of Czech Republic. Empirical results of our paper show that the researched entrepreneurs rather can't manage financial risks in their firms regardless their gender, education, age or personality traits. Most entrepreneurs consider the importance of financial risk to increase during the crisis period. These opinions differed in relation to age, gender and such personality traits as "decisiveness" and "optimism". The results also show that the entrepreneurs try to minimise the financial risk through building-up reserves in relation to such qualities as "risk-taking" and "decisiveness" in comparison to a rather negative attitude to "optimism".

  9. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, Sanne Lykke; Edwards, Kasper; Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) aremeasures of novel aspects of an organisation’s performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives.The aim of this studywas to analyse the associations between RC and OSC......, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC...... and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type...

  10. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air.

  11. Characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis relative to HLA-DR in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia in relation to human leukocyte antigen type. A group of 91 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 72 females and 19 males were studied for the various clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters along with human leukocyte antigen-DR phenotypes. Since human leukocyte antigen-DR10 was most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis in our population, we compared those patients with human leukocyte antigen-DR10 to those without. The comparison yielded differences in the presence of rheumatoid nodules, erosions, corticosteroid treatment, and joint involvement at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and white cell count. Only the last 3 parameters showed a statistical significance. Human leukocyte antigen type of Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis influenced the course of the disease but only to a limited extent. (author)

  12. Propagation characteristics and relation between electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in DITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayakis, G.

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of experiments on the DITE tokamak, using a fast reciprocating set of combined Langmuir and magnetic probes in the same discharge to compare the propagation characteristics of the turbulent electrostatic and magnetic perturbations with those expected from the measured local electric field and pressure gradient, and to investigate the effect of shear on cross-field transport. In addition, the relation between the electrostatic and magnetic aspects of the turbulence is investigated using direct cross-spectral measurements. The results are consistent with a picture in which magnetic fluctuations in the edge are due to currents driven by the basically electrostatic turbulence, whose own propagation behaviour is dominated by the effects of the sheared E X B/B 2 velocity. (author). 35 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  13. Characteristics of mesozoic magmatic rocks in western Zhejiang and their relation with uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiazhi

    2000-01-01

    The author summarizes characteristics of Mesozoic (Yangshanian Period) acid-intermediate volcanics, sub-volcanics and basic intrusive from aspects of formation time of rock series, petrogenic sequence, chemical composition, rock -controlling factors and petrogenic environments. It is suggested that these rocks were originated from different source areas of crust and mantle. Based on the time-space relation between different types uranium deposits and magmatic rocks, the author proposes that: the earlier stage (Earlier Cretaceous) U-hematite ores were originated from acid volcanic magmatism of crustal source, but the later stage (Late Cretaceous) pitchblende-polymetallic sulfide and pitchblende-purple fluorite rich ores were derived from basic magmatism of mantle source. Finally, the author proposes prospecting criteria of the above two types of uranium deposits

  14. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

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    Kirk I Erickson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  15. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  16. Characteristics of Helicopter-Generated and Volcano-Related Seismic Tremor Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher J.; Akerlie, Eggert; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.

    2017-04-01

    In volcanic environments it is crucial to distinguish between man-made seismic signals and signals created by the volcano. We compare volcanic, seismic signals with helicopter generated, seismic signals recorded in the last 2.5 years in Iceland. In both cases a long-lasting, emergent seismic signal, that can be referred to as seismic tremor, was generated. In the case of a helicopter, the rotating blades generate pressure pulses that travel through the air and excite Rayleigh waves at up to 40 km distance depending on wind speed, wind direction and topographic features. The longest helicopter related seismic signal we recorded was at the order of 40 minutes long. The tremor usually has a fundamental frequency of more than 10 Hz and overtones at integers of the fundamental frequency. Changes in distance lead to either increases or decreases of the frequency due to the Doppler Effect and are strongest for small source-receiver distances. The volcanic tremor signal was recorded during the Bardarbunga eruption at Holuhraun in 2014/15. For volcano-related seismic signals it is usually more difficult to determine the source process that generated the tremor. The pre-eruptive tremor persists for 2 weeks, while the co-eruptive tremor lasted for 6 months. We observed no frequency changes, most energy between 1 and 2 Hz and no or very little energy above 5 Hz. We compare the different characteristics of helicopter-related and volcano-related seismic signals and discuss how they can be distinguished. In addition we discuss how we can determine if a frequency change is related to a moving source or change in repeat time or a change in the geometry of the resonating body.

  17. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Shen, Li-xiao; Yan, Chong-huai; Hu, Howard; Yang, Fang; Wang, Lu; Kotha, Sudha Rani; Zhang, Li-na; Liao, Xiang-peng; Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Feng-xiu; Zhang, Jin-song; Shen, Xiao-ming

    2012-12-22

    Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young's Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p 100 RMB (all p-values internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  18. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8% were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p p 100 RMB (all p-values p Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound different psychological symptoms associated with AIA. Spending excessive time online is not in itself a defining symptom of AIA. More attention is needed on adolescent excessive weekend internet-use in prevention of potential internet addicts.

  19. Microbiome Profiles in Periodontitis in Relation to Host and Disease Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo-Young; Furtado Araujo, Michel V.; Strausbaugh, Linda D.; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Diaz, Patricia I.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the supporting tissues surrounding teeth. The occurrence of periodontitis is associated with shifts in the structure of the communities that inhabit the gingival sulcus. Although great inter-subject variability in the subgingival microbiome has been observed in subjects with periodontitis, it is unclear whether distinct community types exist and if differences in microbial signatures correlate with host characteristics or with the variable clinical presentations of periodontitis. Therefore, in this study we explored the existence of different community types in periodontitis and their relationship with host demographic, medical and disease-related clinical characteristics. Clustering analyses of microbial abundance profiles suggested two types of communities (A and B) existed in the 34 subjects with periodontitis evaluated. Type B communities harbored greater proportions of certain periodontitis-associated taxa, including species historically associated with the disease, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and taxa recently linked to periodontitis. In contrast, subjects with type A communities had increased proportions of different periodontitis-associated species, and were also enriched for health-associated species and core taxa (those equally prevalent in health and periodontitis). Periodontitis subgingival clusters were not associated with demographic, medical or disease-specific clinical parameters other than periodontitis extent (proportion of sites affected), which positively correlated with the total proportion of cluster B signature taxa. In conclusion, two types of microbial communities were detected in subjects with periodontitis. Host demographics and underlying medical conditions did not correlate with these profiles, which instead appeared to be related to periodontitis extent, with type B communities present in more widespread disease cases. The two

  20. Menstrual Characteristics and Related Problems in 9-18 Year- Old Turkish School Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Gül; Kendirci, Mustafa; Gül, Ülkü

    2018-03-14

    To determine the cross-sectional characteristics of menstruating girls, dysmenorrhea and the frequencies of related problems. Descripitive, cross-sectional study. Randomly selected primary, junior and high schools in the city center of Kayseri. 2000 female adolescents of ages between 9 and 18 years. We used a questionnaire addressing the epidemiological characteristics of menstruation, such as age at menarche, duration of menstrual intervals, average days of bleeding, and any menstrual problems and their frequencies. This study consists of a sufficient number of participants from all age groups. Of the participant (n= 2000) girls, 63.7% (n: 1274) had started menstruating. The mean age at menarche was 12.74 ± 1.03 years. With a prevalence of 84.8% (n: 1080), dysmenorrhea was the most prevalent menstrual problem and the average pain score was 5.87 ± 2.45. Of the menstruating girls, 34% (n: 439) used painkillers, the most commonly used was acetaminophen; during their period the prevalence of non-medical methods to relieve pain was % 35.2; the rate of seeking medical help for dysmenorrhea was 9.3 % (n: 119). In menstruating participants, 90.8 % was discussed their menstrual problems with their mothers. The rate of school absenteeism in menstruating girls was 15.9 % in general and 18 % in those with dysmenorrhea. Problems related to menstruation are common in adolescents and these problems affect their social life. In adolescent girls, the most common menstrual problem is dysmenorrhea and it affects school performance and attendance. Girls with menstrual problems showed a low rate of seeking medical help. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Characteristics of choroidal neovascularization in the complications of age-related macular degeneration prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Maureen G; Alexander, Judith; Fine, Stuart L

    2008-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in observed and treated eyes in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Cross-sectional descriptive study within a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients who developed CNV during CAPT follow-up. Inclusion criteria for CAPT specified bilateral large drusen (>or=10 drusen at least 125 micro), visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye, and age >or=50. Exclusion criteria included CNV and geographic atrophy >1 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc area or within 500 micro of the foveal center. One eye of each person was selected randomly for low-intensity laser treatment and the contralateral eye was observed. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline, annually for >or=5 years, and whenever there were symptoms of CNV. Trained readers at the CAPT Photograph Reading Center assessed color stereo photographs and angiogram negatives to identify CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was classified by type (predominantly classic CNV, minimally classic CNV, occult only CNV, or scar), location, and area. Visual acuity was measured by certified examiners. Symmetry of characteristics between eyes of bilaterally affected patients was examined. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 282 eyes of 225 patients. At the time of detection, 192 (68%) of the lesions were occult only, 153 (54%) were subfoveal, and 157 (56%) were or=20/40 in 123 (69%) of 179 eyes with visual acuity measured at the time of detection. Choroidal neovascularization developed in both eyes in 57 patients (25%) during CAPT follow-up. Lesions in eyes of bilaterally affected patients were no more similar to each other than affected eyes in 2 different patients. When patients are monitored closely, many CNV lesions can be detected outside of the fovea and when they are relatively small. Early detection may lead to improved long-term visual acuity.

  2. Relative contribution of organs other than brain to resting energy expenditure is consistent among male power athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Satomi; Miyauchi, Sakiho; Asaka, Meiko; Kawano, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Motoko; Torii, Suguru; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) adjusted by fat-free mass (FFM) in male college athletes remains consistent regardless of FFM. The FFM comprises internal organs with high metabolic activity, such as liver and brain, which account for 60 to 80% of REE in adults. The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of internal organs to the REE of the FFM fraction among male power athletes. The study included 37 American male college football players. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mass of brain, liver, and kidneys was measured by MRI and mass of heart was estimated by echocardiography. Normal levels of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine: T3) were confirmed in all subjects prior to the analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the influence of FFM, fat mass (FM), T3, and mass of organs on variance of REE. Average body weight and FFM were 81.2±11.3 kg and 67.7±7.4 kg, respectively. The relative contributions of liver, kidneys, and heart to REE were consistent regardless of FFM, while the REE of brain was negatively correlated with FFM (r=-0.672, pFFM and T3 were found to be independent factors influencing REE. These results suggest that a steady contribution of internal organs other than the brain is the major reason for the consistency of the REE/FFM ratio in male power athletes.

  3. Relative Contribution of Matrix Structure, Patch Resources and Management to the Local Densities of Two Large Blue Butterfly Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzer-Bonk, Joanna; Skórka, Piotr; Nowicki, Piotr; Bonk, Maciej; Król, Wiesław; Szpiłyk, Damian; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The type of matrix, the landscape surrounding habitat patches, may determine the distribution and function of local populations. However, the matrix is often heterogeneous, and its various components may differentially contribute to metapopulation processes at different spatial scales, a phenomenon that has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative importance of matrix composition and spatial scale, habitat quality, and management intensity on the occurrence and density of local populations of two endangered large blue butterflies: Phengaris teleius and P. nausithous. Presence and abundance data were assessed over two years, 2011-12, in 100 local patches within two heterogeneous regions (near Kraków and Tarnów, southern Poland). The matrix composition was analyzed at eight spatial scales. We observed high occupancy rates in both species, regions and years. With the exception of area and isolation, almost all of the matrix components contributed to Phengaris sp. densities. The different matrix components acted at different spatial scales (grassland cover within 4 and 3 km, field cover within 0.4 and 0.3 km and water cover within 4 km radii for P. teleius and P. nausithous, respectively) and provided the highest independent contribution to the butterfly densities. Additionally, the effects of a 0.4 km radius of forest cover and a food plant cover on P. teleius, and a 1 km radius of settlement cover and management intensity on P. nausithous densities were observed. Contrary to former studies we conclude that the matrix heterogeneity and spatial scale rather than general matrix type are of relevance for densities of butterflies. Conservation strategies for these umbrella species should concentrate on maintaining habitat quality and managing matrix composition at the most appropriate spatial scales.

  4. Relative Contribution of Matrix Structure, Patch Resources and Management to the Local Densities of Two Large Blue Butterfly Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórka, Piotr; Nowicki, Piotr; Bonk, Maciej; Król, Wiesław; Szpiłyk, Damian; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The type of matrix, the landscape surrounding habitat patches, may determine the distribution and function of local populations. However, the matrix is often heterogeneous, and its various components may differentially contribute to metapopulation processes at different spatial scales, a phenomenon that has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative importance of matrix composition and spatial scale, habitat quality, and management intensity on the occurrence and density of local populations of two endangered large blue butterflies: Phengaris teleius and P. nausithous. Presence and abundance data were assessed over two years, 2011–12, in 100 local patches within two heterogeneous regions (near Kraków and Tarnów, southern Poland). The matrix composition was analyzed at eight spatial scales. We observed high occupancy rates in both species, regions and years. With the exception of area and isolation, almost all of the matrix components contributed to Phengaris sp. densities. The different matrix components acted at different spatial scales (grassland cover within 4 and 3 km, field cover within 0.4 and 0.3 km and water cover within 4 km radii for P. teleius and P. nausithous, respectively) and provided the highest independent contribution to the butterfly densities. Additionally, the effects of a 0.4 km radius of forest cover and a food plant cover on P. teleius, and a 1 km radius of settlement cover and management intensity on P. nausithous densities were observed. Contrary to former studies we conclude that the matrix heterogeneity and spatial scale rather than general matrix type are of relevance for densities of butterflies. Conservation strategies for these umbrella species should concentrate on maintaining habitat quality and managing matrix composition at the most appropriate spatial scales. PMID:28005942

  5. Examination of Student, Program, and Institutional Support Characteristics That Relate to PGA Golf Management Students' Intent to Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The examination of student (entry characteristics, academic performance, career goals, and interaction with peers and faculty), program (programmatic interventions, academic major, and learning communities), and institutional support characteristics (financial aid and residence) that relate to cohort intent to persist are studied among 490 PGA…

  6. The relative contribution of genes operating in the S-methylmethionine cycle to methionine metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Salmon, Asaf; Tietel, Zipora; Hacham, Yael; Amir, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Enzymes operating in the S -methylmethionine cycle make a differential contribution to methionine synthesis in seeds. In addition, mutual effects exist between the S -methylmethionine cycle and the aspartate family pathway in seeds. Methionine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a key metabolite in plant cells. The previous lines of evidence proposed that the S-methylmethionine (SMM) cycle contributes to methionine synthesis in seeds where methionine that is produced in non-seed tissues is converted to SMM and then transported via the phloem into the seeds. However, the relative regulatory roles of the S-methyltransferases operating within this cycle in seeds are yet to be fully understood. In the current study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis seeds with altered expression of three HOMOCYSTEINE S-METHYLTRANSFERASEs (HMTs) and METHIONINE S-METHYLTRANSFERASE (MMT), and profiled them for transcript and metabolic changes. The results revealed that AtHMT1 and AtHMT3, but not AtHMT2 and AtMMT, are the predominant enzymes operating in seeds as altered expression of these two genes affected the levels of methionine and SMM in transgenic seeds. Their manipulations resulted in adapted expression level of genes participating in methionine synthesis through the SMM and aspartate family pathways. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the regulatory roles of the SMM cycle and the mutual effects existing between the two methionine biosynthesis pathways, highlighting the complexity of the metabolism of methionine and SMM in seeds.

  7. Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldi, S.; Englund, A.; Partonen, T.

    2010-01-01

    We tested which environmental, social, lifestyle, and health related factors of the individual contribute to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior and whether these influence the risks of the metabolic syndrome and major depressive disorder, both conditions having a high prevalence in industrialized populations. 5480 individuals, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland, were assessed for metabolic syndrome using the ATP-III criteria, gave a self-report of seasonal variations in mood and behavior, and were interviewed for mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a metabolic factor composed of weight and appetite, and greater loadings on this factor increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio of 1.18, 95% confidence interval of 1.10 to 1.26). Self-reports of lighting experienced as poor at home contributed to scores on the metabolic factor (t=4.20,P<.0001). Lighting conditions and their dynamics may serve as a measure for intervention in order to influence the seasonal metabolic signals and in the end to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Grimaldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested which environmental, social, lifestyle, and health related factors of the individual contribute to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior and whether these influence the risks of the metabolic syndrome and major depressive disorder, both conditions having a high prevalence in industrialized populations. 5480 individuals, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland, were assessed for metabolic syndrome using the ATP-III criteria, gave a self-report of seasonal variations in mood and behavior, and were interviewed for mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a metabolic factor composed of weight and appetite, and greater loadings on this factor increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio of 1.18, 95% confidence interval of 1.10 to 1.26. Self-reports of lighting experienced as poor at home contributed to scores on the metabolic factor (t=4.20,P<.0001. Lighting conditions and their dynamics may serve as a measure for intervention in order to influence the seasonal metabolic signals and in the end to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Importance of Sulfate Aerosol in Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Regional Emissions to the Historical Global Temperature Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronova, N.; Schlesinger, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol the delegation of Brazil presented an approach for distributing the burden of emissions reductions among the Parties based on the effect of their cumulative historical emissions on the global-average near-surface temperature. The Letter to the Parties does not limit the emissions to be considered to be only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, in this paper we explore the importance of anthropogenic SOx emissions that are converted to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, together with the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions, in attributing historical temperature change. We use historical emissions and our simple climate model to estimate the relative contributions to global warming of the regional emissions by four Parties: OECD90, Africa and Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Our results show that for most Parties the large warming contributed by their GHG emissions is largely offset by the correspondingly large cooling by their SOx emissions. Thus, OECD90 has become the dominant contributor to recent global warming following its large reduction in SOx emissions after 1980

  10. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  11. Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: prevalence of age-related conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eCarfì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods. In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results. The mean age of study participants was 38 years (range, 18 to 58 years and 42 (70.0% were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0% participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7% and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%. Six (10.0% participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3% were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%, followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%, osteoporosis (18, 30.0% and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%. Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ≥40 years. Conclusions. Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment.

  12. Farm characteristics and management routines related to neonatal porcine diarrhoea: a survey among Swedish piglet producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jenny; Fall, Nils; Lindberg, Maria; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2016-11-10

    In recent years reports from a number of countries, including Sweden, describe problems with diarrhoea in newborn piglets despite the use of previously effective preventive measures. This seemingly altered disease pattern of neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD) warrants investigations on the magnitude and manifestation of the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the herd-level prevalence of NPD in Sweden and to describe disease characteristics and intervention strategies used in affected herds. To obtain this information a questionnaire was developed and sent out to 170 randomly selected herds. The presence of NPD in the herds was specified as "Yes", "No" or "Occasional cases" during the preceding year. A response rate of 58% (98/170) was achieved. The total prevalence of farmer experienced NPD, including occasional cases was 79.6% (95% CI 70.6-86.4%). Most herds (85%; 83/98) employed maternal vaccination against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The most common treatment regimens used in affected herds included antimicrobials only (43%; 18/42) or antimicrobials in combination with supplementary fluids (33%; 14/42). Trimethoprim in combination with a sulphonamide was the drug of choice in 57% (24/42) of the affected herds whereas the remaining herds used a broad range of other antimicrobials (neomycin, amoxicillin, fluoroquinolones, penicillin, and tylosin). Furthermore, the risk of experiencing NPD was found to be higher in herds with >200 sows (OR = 4.0) compared to herds with <200 sows and in herds where more ambitious efforts (such as providing supplemental colostrum or practicing split-suckling) were made to save weak-born piglets (OR = 4.4). The results of the present study indicate that Swedish farmers commonly experience NPD in their herds, often despite vaccination against ETEC. Considering the extent of this problem and its contribution to antimicrobial usage, improving alternative control strategies for NPD needs to be

  13. Energy-Water-Land Nexus: The relative contributions of climate and human systems on global water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Chen, M.; Turner, S. W. D.; Graham, N. T.; Vernon, C. R.; Li, X.; Kim, S. H.; Link, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing consensus that energy, water, and land systems are interconnected and should be analyzed as such. New tools are required to represent the interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land, and water resources in a dynamically evolving system. Here we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to investigate the relative contributions of climate and human systems on water scarcity regionally and globally under a wide range of scenarios. The model accounts for a variety of human activities, including changing demands for water for agriculture, power generation, industry, and public supply. We find that these activities exert a larger influence on water scarcity than climate in 93% of river basins globally. This work highlights the importance of accounting for human activities in hydrologic modeling applications and how they may change under different pathways of how land use and agricultural systems, energy systems, and economies may evolve in the future.

  14. Reexamining the Empirical Relation between Loan Risk and Collateral : The Role of the Economic Characteristics of Collateral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, A.N.; Frame, W.S.; Ioannidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper offers a possible explanation for the conflicting results in the literature concerning the empirical relation between collateral and loan risk. We posit that certain economic characteristics of collateral may be associated with the empirical dominance of different

  15. Age related differences of selected Hatha yoga practices on anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Halder

    2015-01-01

    Summary and Conclusion: Hatha yoga can improve anthropometric characteristics, muscular strength and flexibility among volunteers of different age group and can also be helpful in preventing and attenuating age related deterioration of these parameters.

  16. Transient insomnia versus chronic insomnia: a comparison study of sleep-related psychological/behavioral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chun; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Vulnerability to transient insomnia is regarded as a predisposing factor for chronic insomnia. However, most individuals with transient insomnia do not develop chronic insomnia. The current study investigated the differential contributing factors for these two conditions to further the understanding of this phenomenon. Chronic insomnia patients and normal sleepers with high and low vulnerability to transient insomnia completed measures of pre-sleep arousal, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, and sleep-related safety behaviors. Both cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousals were identified as significant predictors for transient insomnia. Dysfunctional beliefs regarding worry about insomnia and cognitive arousal were predictors for chronic insomnia. Sleep-related safety behavior, although correlated with insomnia severity, was not a significant predictor for both conditions. Dysfunctional beliefs associated with worry and losing control over sleep are the most critical factors in differentiating chronic insomnia from transient insomnia. These factors should be addressed to help prevent individuals with high sleep vulnerability from developing chronic sleep disturbance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Influence of Socio‑demographic Characteristics of Consumers on Attitudes Towards Cause Related Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Witek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the objective of this paper to analyse the attitudes of consumers towards CRM in terms of age, sex and education, and also in those of their financial situation. The research was conducted with the application of a direct survey in the period since 1st December, 2015, until 31st January, 2016. For the purpose of the analysis, 390 surveys, which had been completed in a correct way, were accepted. Those were presented to the respondents with the application of the five-point Likert scale in order to determine the degree of the acceptance of every single statement. This study leads to the conclusion that consumers have positive attitudes towards CRM programs. As many as 46.9 % of respondents buy products related to CRM, while 36.3 % do it impulsively. Consumers are aware of the marketing motives of running CRM (72.3 %. Only 27.7 % of respondents are willing to pay a higher price for CRM products. Young, educated women who are residents of large cities have the most favorable attitudes toward CRM. Cause Related Marketing is positively received by consumers and particularly expected in the sector of food products and products for children. The results of the research contribute to perfecting the hitherto-applied marketing activities, and also make it possible for the development of solutions within the scope of the effectiveness of CRM to take place.

  18. Sex differences in the relative contribution of social and clinical factors to the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 measure of health-related quality of life in older home care clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan David B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heterogeneity evident among home care clients highlights the need for greater understanding of the clinical and social determinants of multi-dimensional health-related quality of life (HRQL indices and of potential sex-differences in these determinants. We examined the relative contribution of social and clinical factors to HRQL among older home care clients and explored whether any of the observed associations varied by sex. Methods The Canadian-US sample included 514 clients. Self-reported HRQL was measured during in-home interviews (2002-04 using the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI2. Data on clients' sociodemographic, health and clinical characteristics were obtained with the Minimum Data Set for Home Care. The relative associations between clients' characteristics and HUI2 scores were examined using multivariable linear regression models. Results Women had a significantly lower mean HUI2 score than men (0.48, 95%CI 0.46-0.50 vs. 0.52, 0.49-0.55. Clients with distressed caregivers and poor self-rated health exhibited significantly lower HRQL scores after adjustment for a comprehensive list of clinical conditions. Several other factors remained statistically significant (arthritis, psychiatric illness, bladder incontinence, urinary tract infection or clinically important (reported loneliness, congestive heart failure, pressure ulcers correlates of lower HUI2 scores in adjusted analyses. These associations generally did not vary significantly by sex. Conclusion For females and males, HRQL scores were negatively associated with conditions predictive or indicative of disability and with markers of psychosocial stress. Despite sex differences in the prevalence of social and clinical factors likely to affect HRQL, few varied significantly by sex in their relative impact on HUI2 scores. Further exploration of differences in the relative importance of clinical and psychosocial well-being (e.g., loneliness to HRQL among

  19. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  20. Adopting the perspective of another in belief attribution: contribution of Relational Frame Theory to the understanding of impairments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Matthieu; Monestès, Jean-Louis; McHugh, Louise; Freixa i Baqué, Esteve; Loas, Gwenolé

    2010-06-01

    Impaired ability of identifying mental states is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In particular, people suffering from this illness tend to fail at attributing a belief to another, which has been linked to difficulties in changing interpersonal perspective. Following the view of Relational Frame Theory on perspective-taking skills, the current study aimed at examining the involvement of social anhedonia, one of the frequent features of schizophrenia, in the development of deficits in reversing the I-YOU relation (i.e., adopting the perspective of another). A task consisting of attributing a belief to another or to the self was employed with 30 non-clinical participants with a high level of social anhedonia and with 15 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. In comparison to two control groups, both experimental groups showed significant poorer performance when adopting the perspective of another. These results constitute important indications to target specific relational repertoires when attempting to remediate impairments in mental states attribution linked to schizophrenia.

  1. The Relation between Soil Parameters and Growth Characteristics of Tamarix ramosissima in Abyaneh, Isfahan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SayedHamid Matinkhah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative characteristics of plant species are strongly dependent on habitat environmental conditions. Most Salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima individuals grow on unsuitable soil and climate conditions. One of the important habitats of this species is near Abyaneh in Isfahan Province. To investigate the relation of edaphic factors on the growth of T. ramosissima, three plots 400m2 in area were randomly placed in this region. In each plot, crown cover and mean height of each tree were measured. Chemical and physical properties of soil were evaluated in two depths (0-20, 20-40cm. The relation between soil and vegetation was assessed using ordination method and RDA. The results suggest that in the upper depth, organic matter and saturation percentage (%SP have a strong positive correlation with vegetative factors of T. ramosissima including canopy cover and mean height. On the other hand, in lower depth pH, %CaSO4 factors have higher correlation with plants factors compared to upper depth. Therefore, organic matter in upper layer and saturation percentage (%SP have more correlation with vegetative factors. This suggests the importance of studying these two soil depths. In the restoration projects on this species, it is necessary to consider the abovementioned soil factors.

  2. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer.

  3. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of age-related changes in lineup performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    In the basic face memory literature, support has been found for the late maturation hypothesis, which holds that face recognition ability is not fully developed until at least adolescence. Support for the late maturation hypothesis in the criminal lineup identification literature, however, has been equivocal because of the analytic approach that has been used to examine age-related changes in identification performance. Recently, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied for the first time in the adult eyewitness memory literature to examine whether memory sensitivity differs across different types of lineup tests. ROC analysis allows for the separation of memory sensitivity from response bias in the analysis of recognition data. Here, we have made the first ROC-based comparison of adults' and children's (5- and 6-year-olds and 9- and 10-year-olds) memory performance on lineups by reanalyzing data from Humphries, Holliday, and Flowe (2012). In line with the late maturation hypothesis, memory sensitivity was significantly greater for adults compared with young children. Memory sensitivity for older children was similar to that for adults. The results indicate that the late maturation hypothesis can be generalized to account for age-related performance differences on an eyewitness memory task. The implications for developmental eyewitness memory research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contribution to the hydrogeological characteristics of water bearing formations in the area between El-Quseir and Shalateen, Red Sea, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himida, I.H.; Ismail, Y.L.; Ahmed, K.A.; Salem, W.M.; El-Hefnawy, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of water resources in El-Quseir-Shalateen area is important for population, agriculture, industrial activities as well as new communities. These issues depend on a strong linked relationship between groundwater and rechargeable resources. Oxygen-18 and deuterium have been used for indicating groundwater flow pattern revealing information about processes of water rock interaction. The studied area includes six aquifers; Quaternary, Miocene, Oligocene, Pliocene, Nubian sandstone and Basement, which are characterized by multi recharge sources. Hydrogeological characteristics of each aquifer were discussed and evaluated. The isotopic features of groundwater in the studied area showed that oxygen-18 and deuterium were in the range from -6.01 to 6.0 and -50.1 to 30% , respectively. The environmental stable isotopes indicated the contribution of the two main sources i.e. paleowater (δ 18 O = -1% and δ D -8%) and recent recharge component from local rain (δ 18 O = -0.08% and δ D = 0.2%) in the studied area. A dipole mixing model has been applied to calculate the percentage contribution ratio from both sources. The observed scatter of some points at individual location with a specific isotopic signature mirroring evaporation could be attributed to somewhat evaporation prior infiltration/recharging processes

  6. Contribution of crosslinking products in the flavour enhancer processing: the new concept of Maillard peptide in sensory characteristics of Maillard reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, Eric; Murekatete, Nicole; Habimana, Jean de Dieu; Masamba, Kingsley; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Muhoza, Bertrand; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the flavour-enhancing properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) for different systems consisted of different peptides (sunflower, SFP; corn, CP and soyabean SP) with, xylose and cysteine were investigated. Maillard systems from peptides of sunflower, corn and soyabean with xylose and cysteine were designated as PXC, MCP and MSP, respectively. The Maillard systems were prepared at pH of 7.4 using temperature of 120C for 2 h. Results showed that all systems were significantly different in all sensory attributes. The highest scores for mouthfulness and continuity were observed for MCP with the lowest peptides distribution between 1000 and 5000 Da, known as Maillard peptide. This revealed that the MCP with the lowest Maillard peptide content had the strongest "Kokumi" effect compared to the other MRPsand demonstrated that "kokumi effect" of MRPs was contributed by not only the "Maillard peptide" defined by the molecular weight (1000-5000 Da). Results on sensory evaluation after fractionation of PXC followed by enzymatic hydrolysis showed no significant differences between PXC, P-PXC and their hydrolysates. This observation therefore confirmed that the presence of other contributors attributed to the "Kokumi" effect rather than the Maillard peptide. It can be deduced that the unhydrolyzed crosslinking products might have contributed to the "Kokumi" effect of MRPs. The structures of four probable crosslinking compounds were proposed and the findings have provided new insights in the sensory characteristics of xylose, cysteine and sunflower peptide MRPs.

  7. Characteristics of Plantar Pressures and Related Pain Profiles in Elite Sprinters and Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tong-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Wang, Jia-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is effective for assessing plantar loading and can be applied to evaluating foot performance. We sought to explore the characteristics of plantar pressures in elite sprinters and recreational runners during static standing and walking. Arch index (AI) values, regional plantar pressure distributions (PPDs), and footprint characteristics were examined in 80 elite sprinters and 90 recreational runners using an optical plantar pressure measurement system. Elite sprinters' pain profiles were examined to evaluate their most common pain areas. In recreational runners, AI values in males were in the normal range and in females were high arch type. The AI values were significantly lower in elite sprinters than in recreational runners. In elite sprinters, particularly males, the static PPD of both feet was higher at the medial metatarsal bone and the lateral heel and lower at the medial and lateral longitudinal arches. Elite male sprinters' PPD of both feet was mainly transferred to the medial metatarsal bone and decreased at the lateral longitudinal arch and the medial heel during the midstance phase of walking. The lateral knee joint and biceps femoris were the most common sites of musculoskeletal pain in elite sprinters. Elite sprinters' AI values could be classified as high arches, and their PPD tended to parallel the features of runners and high-arched runners. These findings correspond to the profile of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS)-related plantar pressure. The pain profiles seemed to resonate with the symptoms of high-arched runners and PFPS. A possible link between high-arched runners and PFPS warrants further study.

  8. Cancer-related Fatigue and its Relationship with Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Chehrehgosha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Fatigue experience is a psychological experience therefore, the relevant caregivers’ acquaintance with this issueis the most important step in offering optimal care for the patients. Accordingly, this study was conductedto determine Cancer-related Fatigue and its Relationship with Demographic and Clinical Characteristics inCancer Patients.A cancer diagnosis is a highly undesirable event for anyone.Methods: characteristics form and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. The data were analyzed with the SPSS-18 software and t-test and ANOVA and tukey post hoc test were used.In this analytical study, 150 cancer patients visiting the oncology unit, the Shafa Radiotherapy Center,and Gorgan’s 5th Azar Teaching Hospital in 2012, who were selected with a purposive sampling method,participated in the study for 4 months. The required information was collected using a demographic and clinicalResults: of treatment, 51.3% used chemotherapy-surgery-radiotherapy regimen, 24.7% surgery-chemotherapy regimen,14% used chemotherapy, 7.3% used radiotherapy, and 2.7% used surgery. The overall mean scoreof fatigue was 54.65±8.78 from 100. The variables of residence (P=0. 018, the duration of marriage(P=0.018, the treatment regimen type (P<0.001, and the family’s economic status (P<0.000 were found toThe patients’ mean age was 48.39±1.5 Of the patients, 55.3% had undergone less than 12 monthshave a significant relationship with fatigue.Conclusion: Psychological interventions, besides physical caring and nursing interventions play a significantrole in the all-inclusive management of cancer patients’ problems, in particular, their fatigue.

  9. Relative age effect and its relationship with morphological characteristics and performance in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pedretti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p367   In soccer, the relative age effect (RAE was observed in both adult and young players. The RAE appears to be more pronounced in elite sports, probably by the need to select the best players to compete internationally. This study review: (1 the prevalence of RAE in soccer players, (a considering competitive level (b and specific position and (2 association between RAE (a and anthropometric characteristics, (b physical fitness components and technical skills. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria for this review. One trial (meta-analysis was included after the eligibility process. Overall, 77675 young soccer players were analysed. In all studies, significance level of 0.05 was set for the type I error. There is a consensus about the presence of an RAE in men’s soccer, and the percentage of players born in the first quarter in the selection year for professionals is high, with peak values found for elite young athletes, and a large decrease is evident throughout the regional and school representation. The relationship between RAE and the specific position is controversial, according to few studies. It is likely that players born in the first quarter differ in a variety of anthropometric characteristics and physical fitness components compared with peers born in the last quarter. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAE increase and decrease in order, to reduce and eliminate this social inequality that influence the experiences of athletes, especially in periods of development. Organizational and practical intervention is required.

  10. Individual factors and perceived community characteristics in relation to mental health and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Helen; Tully, Mark A; Hunter, Ruth F; Kouvonen, Anne; Veal, Philip; Stevenson, Michael; Kee, Frank

    2015-12-12

    It has been argued that though correlated with mental health, mental well-being is a distinct entity. Despite the wealth of literature on mental health, less is known about mental well-being. Mental health is something experienced by individuals, whereas mental well-being can be assessed at the population level. Accordingly it is important to differentiate the individual and population level factors (environmental and social) that could be associated with mental health and well-being, and as people living in deprived areas have a higher prevalence of poor mental health, these relationships should be compared across different levels of neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional representative random sample of 1,209 adults from 62 Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Belfast, Northern Ireland (Feb 2010 - Jan 2011) were recruited in the PARC Study. Interview-administered questionnaires recorded data on socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, individual social capital, self-rated health, mental health (SF-8) and mental well-being (WEMWBS). Multi-variable linear regression analyses, with inclusion of clustering by SOAs, were used to explore the associations between individual and perceived community characteristics and mental health and mental well-being, and to investigate how these associations differed by the level of neighbourhood deprivation. Thirty-eight and 30 % of variability in the measures of mental well-being and mental health, respectively, could be explained by individual factors and the perceived community characteristics. In the total sample and stratified by neighbourhood deprivation, age, marital status and self-rated health were associated with both mental health and well-being, with the 'social connections' and local area satisfaction elements of social capital also emerging as explanatory variables. An increase of +1 in EQ-5D-3 L was associated with +1SD of the population mean in both mental health and well-being. Similarly, a

  11. Range dependent characteristics in the head-related transfer functions of a bat-head cast: part 2. Binaural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S; Allen, R; Rowan, D

    2012-01-01

    Further innovations in bio-inspired engineering based on biosonar systems, such as bats, may arise from more detailed understanding of the underlying acoustic processes. This includes the range-dependent properties of bat heads and ears, particularly at the higher frequencies of bat vocalizations. In a companion paper Kim et al (2012 Bioinspir. Biomim.), range-dependent head-related transfer functions of a bat head cast were investigated up to 100 kHz at either ear (i.e. monaural features). The current paper extends this to consider range-dependent spectral and temporal disparities between the two ears (i.e. binaural features), using experimental data and a spherical model of a bat head to provide insights into the physical basis for these features. It was found that binaural temporal and high-frequency binaural spectral features are approximately independent of distance, having the effect of decreasing their angular resolution at close range. In contrast, low-frequency binaural spectral features are strongly distance-dependent, such that angular sensitivity can be maintained by lowering the frequency of the echolocation emission at close range. Together with the companion paper Kim et al, we speculate that distance-dependent low-frequency monaural and binaural features at short range might help explain why some species of bats that drop the frequency of their calls on target approach while approaching a target. This also provides an impetus for the design of effective emissions in sonar engineering applied to similar tasks. (paper)

  12. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  13. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  14. Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; Parchaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  16. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2010-08-03

    Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 +/- 9.6 years) was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical) were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD)]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET) hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p < 0.01). The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36) for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL.

  17. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand Debbie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL. The aims were 1 to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2 to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9.6 years was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p Conclusion The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36 for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL.

  18. The relative contribution of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators to plant female fitness in a specialized nursery pollination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, Giovanni; Campese, Lucia; Duffy, Karl J; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Plants involved in specialized pollinator interactions, such as nursery pollination, may experience trade-offs in their female fitness, as the larvae of their pollinators may also consume seeds produced by the flowers they pollinate. These interactions could potentially shift between mutualism and parasitism, depending on the presence and abundance of both the nursery pollinator and of other pollinators. We investigated the fitness trade-off in a Mediterranean plant ( Silene latifolia ), which has a specialist nocturnal nursery pollinator moth ( Hadena bicruris ) and is also visited by several diurnal pollinators. We estimated the pollination rates and fecundity of S. latifolia in both natural and experimental populations in the Mediterranean. We estimated natural pollination rates in different flowering times and with presence/absence of the H. bicruis moth. Then by exposing plants to each pollinator group either during the day or at night, we quantified the contribution of other diurnal pollinators and the specialized nocturnal nursery pollinator to plant female fitness. We found no difference in plant fruit set mediated by diurnal versus nocturnal pollinators, indicating that non-specialist pollinators contribute to plant female fitness. However, in both natural and experimental populations, H. bicruris was the most efficient pollinator in terms of seeds produced per fruit. These results suggest that the female fitness costs generated by nursery pollination can be overcome through higher fertilization rates relative to predation rates, even in the presence of co-pollinators. Quantifying such interactions is important for our understanding of the selective pressures that promote highly specialized mutualisms, such as nursery pollination, in the Mediterranean region, a centre of diversification of the carnation family.

  19. Relative contributions of Vibrio polysaccharide and quorum sensing to the resistance of Vibrio cholerae to predation by heterotrophic protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Sun

    Full Text Available Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ΔhapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms.

  20. An exploration of the factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM-related careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Nealy, Yolande Kristine

    This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants' educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights into their perspectives as STEM professionals. The results of this study indicate that most of these African American STEM professionals attributed their choice of a STEM career to early exposure to and positive experiences in science and mathematics mediated by teachers and/or parents. Furthermore, the positive experiences and success in science and mathematics continued in high school and college, further solidifying their choice of a STEM career. However, for almost half of the participants, attending a HBCU seems to have played an important role in their enjoyment of and success in a STEM major. HBCUs provided them with role models and the necessary support and encouragement to succeed in their pursuit of a STEM degree. The results of this study illustrate the various factors that play a role in preventing leakage in the minority STEM pipeline: K-12 experiences mediated by parents and teachers; support systems in college and the workplace mediated by counselors, professors, peers, and administrators; and policies that facilitate integration and the development of such support systems. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge on minorities in STEM by focusing on what works, instead of focusing on the deficit model and what does not work. It is hoped that these results help validate the efforts of those who work towards a more equitable representation of the STEM fields.

  1. Understanding the relative contributions of direct environmental effects and passive genotype-environment correlations in the association between familial risk factors and child disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, M A; Cummings, J R; Hunt, E; Blazei, R; Malone, S; Iacono, W G

    2014-03-01

    Previous work reports an association between familial risk factors stemming from parental characteristics and offspring disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). This association may reflect (a) the direct effects of familial environment and (b) a passive gene-environment correlation (r(GE)), wherein the parents provide both the genes and the environment. The current study examined the contributions of direct environmental influences and passive r(GE) by comparing the effects of familial risk factors on child DBDs in genetically related (biological) and non-related (adoptive) families. Participants were 402 adoptive and 204 biological families. Familial environment was defined as maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and antisociality, marital conflict and divorce; offspring DBDs included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mixed-level regressions estimated the main effects of familial environment, adoption status and the familial environment by adoption status interaction term, which tested for the presence of passive r(GE). There was a main effect of maternal and paternal maladaptive parenting and marital discord on child DBDs, indicating a direct environmental effect. There was no direct environmental effect of maternal or paternal antisociality, but maternal and paternal antisociality had stronger associations with child DBDs in biological families than adoptive families, indicating the presence of a passive r(GE). Many familial risk factors affected children equally across genetically related and non-related families, providing evidence for direct environmental effects. The relationship of parental antisociality and offspring DBDs was best explained by a passive r(GE), where a general vulnerability toward externalizing psychopathology is passed down by the parents to the children.

  2. Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan A van den Berg

    Full Text Available Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy.

  3. Patient characteristics in relation to dental care payment model: capitation vs fee for service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, M; Wide Boman, U

    2016-12-01

    To analyse patient profiles in two payment models, the capitation (DCH) and the fee-for-service (FFS) systems, in relation to socioeconomic status, self-reported health and health behavior, as well as patient attitudes to and satisfaction with the DCH model in the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Sweden. The present survey included a random national sample of the adult population in Sweden. A telemarketing company, TNS SIFO, was responsible for the sample selection and telephone interviews conducted in May 2013. The 3,500 adults (aged =19 years) included in the sample gave a participation rate of 49.7%. Individuals choosing DCH were younger. FFS patients rated their health as less good, were less physically active, were more often smokers and had a lower household income. The DCH patients were more satisfied with their payment model than the FFS patients (98% vs 85%). A multivariate analysis showed that three of the variables significantly contributed to the model predicting DCH patients: age, with an odds ratio of 0.95, household income (OR=1.85) and importance of oral health for well-being (OR=2.05). There was a pattern of dimensions indicating the choice of payment model among adult patients in the Swedish Public Dental Service. The patients in DCH had higher socioeconomic position, were younger, rated their oral health as better and were more satisfied with the payment model (DCH) than the patients in the FFS system. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  4. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in suburban Bangkok, Thailand: characteristics and influence from combustion related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, J.; Tajima, Y.; Kato, S.; Khunchornyakong, A.; Sharp, A.; Kajii, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Elucidation of air quality in the suburban area of Bangkok, Thailand is essential in order to achieve effective regulations and mitigation strategies. VOCs plays important role in formation of tropospheric urban ozone. Without overkill NO concentration, transport of O3 precursors into suburban area which add surplus to local O3 formation as well as direct transport of O3 itself results in relatively higher total O3 observed in suburban area rather than urban. Whole air canister sampling was carried out in the suburban Bangkok during 2008, July 2-7. 4 samples per day were collected at 30 min passes 6, 12, 17, 21 hours with sampling time of 1 min. Analysis was achieved by using GC-FID and GC-MS. High concentrations of VOCs detected during the peak periods in the morning and evening are most likely due to vehicular emission. Averaged VOCs concentrations, reveal distinct different between data measured for weekday and weekend which the latter were found with lower concentrations. No difference was found for CFCs which the levels are also comparable to global background level reported by World Meteorological Organization. The most abundance species have found to be propane and toluene with averaged concentration of 3100 and 2891 pptv, respectively. Ratios of benzene over toluene suggest additional concentration owing to industrial emission, of which particularly larger during the weekday. Comparison with C2Cl4 and CH3Cl concentrations obtained for suburban Tokyo reveal relatively higher influence of biomass burning at suburban Bangkok. In order to estimate the role of the different VOCs towards tropospheric ozone formation, ozone formation potential was calculated using maximum incremental reactivity. Toluene was found to contribute the most to O3 production followed by ethylene, m,p-xylene, and propylene.

  5. Monthly analysis of PM ratio characteristics and its relation to AOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Broday, David M; Chatfield, Robert; Esswein, Robert; Stafoggia, Massimo; Lepeule, Johanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Kloog, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is derived from diverse sources-natural and anthropogenic. Climate change processes and remote sensing measurements are affected by the PM properties, which are often lumped into homogeneous size fractions that show spatiotemporal variation. Since different sources are attributed to different geographic locations and show specific spatial and temporal PM patterns, we explored the spatiotemporal characteristics of the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio in different areas. Furthermore, we examined the statistical relationships between AERONET aerosol optical depth (AOD) products, satellite-based AOD, and the PM ratio, as well as the specific PM size fractions. PM data from the northeastern United States, from San Joaquin Valley, CA, and from Italy, Israel, and France were analyzed, as well as the spatial and temporal co-measured AOD products obtained from the MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. Our results suggest that when both the AERONET AOD and the AERONET fine-mode AOD are available, the AERONET AOD ratio can be a fair proxy for the ground PM ratio. Therefore, we recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in the calibration of MAIAC. Along with a relatively large variation in the observed PM ratio (especially in the northeastern United States), this shows the need to revisit MAIAC assumptions on aerosol microphysical properties, and perhaps their seasonal variability, which are used to generate the look-up tables and conduct aerosol retrievals. Our results call for further scrutiny of satellite-borne AOD, in particular its errors, limitations, and relation to the vertical aerosol profile and the particle size, shape, and composition distribution. This work is one step of the required analyses to gain better understanding of what the satellite-based AOD represents. The analysis results recommend incorporating the fine-mode AERONET AOD in MAIAC calibration. Specifically, they indicate the need to revisit

  6. A Summary of NASA Related Contributions for the Remote Sensing of Evapotranspiration in Support of Water Management and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Brad; Lawford, Rick; Anderson, Martha; Allen, Rick; Martin, Timothy; Wood, Eric; Ferguson, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The amount of evapotranspiration (ET) to the atmosphere can account for 60% or more of the water loss in many semi-arid locations, and can critically affect local economies tied to agriculture, recreation, hydroelectric power, ecosystems, and numerous other water-related areas. NASA supports many activities using satellite and Earth science data to more accurately and cost effectively estimate ET. NASA ET related work includes the research, development and application of techniques. The free and open access of NASA satellite data and products now permits a much wider application of ET mapping. Typically the NASA supported approaches ranges from large regional and continental ET mapping using MODIS (also with AIRS and CERES), GRACE (gravimetric water balance), geostationary (e.g., GOES and Meteosat for near continental sca|e), land surface modeling (i.e, Land Data Assimilation Systems) to fine scale mapping such as provided bvLandsatdata(water storage using gravimetric data over large areas and estimates ET indirectly. Also land surface modeling within the context of data assimilation and integration schemes provides the capability to integrate in situ, ancillary and satellite together to provide a spatially and synoptic estimates of ET also for use to provide for short-term ET predictions. We will summarize NASA related activities contributing to the improved estimation of ET for water management and agriculture with an emphasis on the Western U3.. This summary includes a description of ET projects in the Middle Rio Grande, Yakima, North Platte and other selected basins in the western US. We will also discuss plans to further address ET applications through working with the USDA and the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to extend and evaluate western U.S. ET mapping to other parts of the U.S. and internationally.

  7. Light microscopy morphological characteristics of the sperm flagellum may be related to axonemal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, V; Sigala, J; Ballot, C; Jumeau, F; Barbotin, A L; Duhamel, A; Rives, N; Rigot, J M; Escalier, D; Peers, M C

    2015-03-01

    Although electron microscopy provides a detailed analysis of ultrastructural abnormalities, this technique is not available in all laboratories. We sought to determine whether certain characteristics of the flagellum as assessed by light microscopy were related to axonemal abnormalities. Forty-one patients with an absence of outer dynein arms (type I), a lack of a central complex (type III) and an absence of peripheral doublets (type IV) were studied. Sperm morphology was scored according to David's modified classification. Flagella with an irregular thickness were classified as being of normal length, short or broken. There were correlations between missing outer dynein arms and abnormal, short or coiled flagellum. Type III patients showed the highest flagellar defects (a short (P = 0.0027) or an absent flagellum (P = 0.011)). Just over 68% of the irregular flagella were short in Type III patients, whereas this value was only 34.5% in type I and 26.4% in type IV (P = 0.002). There was a negative correlation between misassembly and spermatozoa of irregular flagella (r = -0.79; P = 0.019). It is concluded that light microscopy analysis of flagellum abnormalities may help provide a correct diagnosis, identify sperm abnormalities with fertility potentials and outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies and assess the genetic risk. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF AGE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING SPORTING POTENTIAL OF YOUNG PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Dugbley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the various life-support systems of teenage body is so heterochronous that among peers by chronological age, there are often significant cognitive, physical and emotional differences, accompanied by a fairly significant differences in weight and growth rates, between children who was born in the early and late stage of the year. This fact can have a significant impact on the academic and athletic activities of children. It's necessary to define the relative influence of age characteristics for the selection procedure of young footballers.The experiment was participated by 82 pupils of government school №63 and 172 young footballers of various teams in Moscow.According to the results of the experiment was certain that during the long-term collaboration in football, the shift of attention in favor of children who was born earlier than others within one year, leads to the devaluation of the selection and rejection of the professional activities by a large percentage of talented footballers that have a negative impact on the level of youth football in the country.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Fatal Methamphetamine-related Stroke: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Lappin, Julia; Kaye, Sharlene; Duflou, Johan

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics of fatal methamphetamine-related stroke in Australia, 2009-2015. There were 38 cases, 60.5% male, with a mean age of 40.3 years. In no case was there evidence that this was the first time methamphetamine had been used by the decedent, and 52.6% had known histories of injecting drug use. The stroke was hemorrhagic in 37 of 38 cases. In 21.1% of cases, the stroke was purely parenchymal and, in 18.4%, involved purely the subarachnoid space. A ruptured berry aneurysm was present in 31.6% and in 68.8% of initial subarachnoid hemorrhages. There was evidence of systemic hypertension in 8 of 25 cases in which full autopsy findings were available. With increased use of methamphetamine, there is a high probability of increased hemorrhagic stroke incidence among young people. In cases of fatal hemorrhagic stroke among young cases presenting to autopsy, the possibility of methamphetamine use should be borne in mind. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Clinical characteristics of catamenial and non-catamenial thoracic endometriosis-related pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Mizuki; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Haga, Takahiro; Ebana, Hiroki; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-11-01

    A major pathogenic factor for catamenial pneumothorax is thoracic endometriosis. However, thoracic endometriosis-related pneumothorax (TERP) can develop as either catamenial or non-catamenial pneumothorax (CP). Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical differences between catamenial and non-catamenial TERP. The clinical and pathological data in female patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery at the Pneumothorax Research Center during an 8-year period were retrospectively reviewed. This study included 150 female patients with surgico-pathologically confirmed TERP. The subjects were divided into two groups, those having all of the pneumothorax episodes in the catamenial period (CP group) and those who did not (non-CP group). We compared the clinical characteristics and surgico-pathological findings between these two groups. Of the 150 TERP patients, 55 (36.7%) were classified in the CP group, and 95 (63.3%) in the non-CP group. In regard to the locations of endometriosis, all TERP patients had diaphragmatic endometriosis, while pleural implantation was recognized in 34 of the 55 (61.8%) patients in the CP group and 42 of the 95 (44.2%) patients in the non-CP group (P pneumothorax episodes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Participants' sports characteristics related to heavy episodic drinking among French students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, C; Grélot, L; Peretti-Watel, P

    2009-03-01

    The relationships between involvement in sports and alcohol consumption appear to be complex in the alcohol literature. In this study we aimed to examine this link among French students, taking into account their sports characteristics. We also examined variations in alcohol use among sport sciences students between 2002 and 2006, and the difference in alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking among sport sciences, law and pharmacy students. repeated survey; cross-sectional study; self-questionnaire survey; French (south-east France) sport sciences (n=693), law (n=325) and pharmacy (n=338) students (females=58%). In 2002, 38% of the male sport sciences students reported repeated heavy episodic drinking, and this proportion has risen to 48% in 2006 (psport sciences students were less likely to report repeated heavy episodic drinking (part were negatively related to heavy episodic drinking (psport in a formal context, team sports, and competitive participation at a departmental or regional level represented risk factors (psport was a protective factor among females (psport practised to examine the link between sport participation and alcohol consumption. The normative context of peer socialization among competitive and team sports participants seemed to play a role in alcohol use. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of this putative factor.

  12. Characteristic extraction in numerical relativity: binary black hole merger waveforms at null infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisswig, C; Pollney, D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Bishop, N T [Department of Mathematics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Szilagyi, B [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-04-07

    The accurate modeling of gravitational radiation is a key issue for gravitational wave astronomy. As simulation codes reach higher accuracy, systematic errors inherent in current numerical relativity wave extraction methods become evident, and may lead to a wrong astrophysical interpretation of the data. In this paper, we give a detailed description of the Cauchy-characteristic extraction technique applied to binary black hole inspiral and merger evolutions to obtain gravitational waveforms that are defined unambiguously, that is, at future null infinity. By this method, we remove finite-radius approximations and the need to extrapolate data from the near zone. Further, we demonstrate that the method is free of gauge effects and thus is affected only by numerical error. Various consistency checks reveal that energy and angular momentum are conserved to high precision and agree very well with extrapolated data. In addition, we revisit the computation of the gravitational recoil and find that finite-radius extrapolation very well approximates the result at J{sup +}. However, the (non-convergent) systematic differences in the extrapolated data are of the same order of magnitude as the (convergent) discretization error of the Cauchy evolution, thus highlighting the need for correct wave extraction.

  13. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  14. Characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related death in Tokyo, Japan, between 2008 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Masako; Kato, Yukihisa; Shibata, Mikiyoshi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-10-01

    Caffeine is widely available in beverages and over-the-counter products; however, in large doses, it can lead to lethal arrhythmia. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of caffeine intoxication-related deaths in Tokyo, Japan. Among the 4754 forensic autopsy cases between 2008 and 2013 in which a toxicological investigation was performed, cases in which the blood concentration of caffeine exceeded toxic levels (15 μg/ml) were selected (N = 22). We examined subjects' ages, medical histories, direct/underlying causes of death, and manner of death. We also assessed concurrent drug substance detection and identified the origin of the caffeine. More than 60% of the subjects were between the ages of 20 and 49 years (n = 14, 63.6%). Sixteen cases (72.7%) showed a history of psychiatric diseases such as depression and sleep disorders. The underlying cause of death for all cases except two was caffeine intoxication, and manner of death was classified as undetermined (n = 11), accidental (n = 7), suicide (n = 2), or others (n = 2). Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ingredients common to analgesics/cold remedies in 12 cases (54.5%). The origin of the caffeine was identified in 11 cases (50.0%); the proportion of identification was significantly lower among the cases in which analgesic/cold remedy ingredients were not detected (20.0%). Caffeine intoxication-related deaths mainly occurred in young and middle-aged persons with common psychiatric diseases. Psychiatrists should take note of caffeine dependence while diagnosing common psychiatric symptoms. In half of the cases, the origin of the caffeine was unidentified; nevertheless, dietary sources or over-the-counter drugs containing caffeine were suspected. As it becomes easier to obtain caffeinated products, continuous monitoring of the number of deaths from caffeine intoxication, in addition to detailed investigations of the caffeine's origin, will be necessary.

  15. Workplace-related generational characteristics of nurses: A mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Palese, Alvisa; Bressan, Valentina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Kvist, Tarja

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and summarize workplace characteristics of three nursing generations: Baby Boomers, Generations X and Y. Generational differences affect occupational well-being, nurses' performance, patient outcomes and safety; therefore, nurse managers, administrators and educators are interested increasingly in making evidence-based decisions about the multigenerational nursing workforce. Mixed-method systematic review. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus (January 1991-January 2017). (1) The Joanna Briggs Institute's method for conducting mixed-method systematic reviews; (2) the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and (3) the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research guidelines. The studies' methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. Quantitative and mixed-method studies were transformed into qualitative methods using a convergent qualitative synthesis and qualitative findings were combined with a narrative synthesis. Thirty-three studies were included with three main themes and 11 subthemes: (1) Job attitudes (work engagement; turnover intentions, reasons for leaving; reasons, incentives/disincentives to continue nursing); (2) Emotion-related job aspects (stress/resilience; well-being/job satisfaction; affective commitment; unit climate; work ethic) and (3) Practice and leadership-related aspects (autonomy; perceived competence; leadership relationships and perceptions). Baby Boomers reported lower levels of stress and burnout than did Generations X and Y, different work engagement, factors affecting workplace well-being and retention and greater intention to leave compared with Generation Y, which was less resilient, but more cohesive. Although several studies reported methodological limitations and conflicting findings, generational differences in nurses' job attitudes, emotional, practice and leadership factors should be considered to enhance

  16. Relating demographic characteristics of a small mammal to remotely sensed forest-stand condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Lada

    Full Text Available Many ecological systems around the world are changing rapidly in response to direct (land-use change and indirect (climate change human actions. We need tools to assess dynamically, and over appropriate management scales, condition of ecosystems and their responses to potential mitigation of pressures. Using a validated model, we determined whether stand condition of floodplain forests is related to densities of a small mammal (a carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes in 60,000 ha of extant river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis forests in south-eastern Australia in 2004, 2005 and 2011. Stand condition was assessed remotely using models built from ground assessments of stand condition and satellite-derived reflectance. Other covariates, such as volumes of fallen timber, distances to floods, rainfall and life stages were included in the model. Trapping of animals was conducted at 272 plots (0.25 ha across the region. Densities of second-year females (i.e. females that had survived to a second breeding year and of second-year females with suckled teats (i.e. inferred to have been successful mothers were higher in stands with the highest condition. There was no evidence of a relationship with stand condition for males or all females. These outcomes show that remotely-sensed estimates of stand condition (here floodplain forests are relatable to some demographic characteristics of a small mammal species, and may provide useful information about the capacity of ecosystems to support animal populations. Over-regulation of large, lowland rivers has led to declines in many facets of floodplain function. If management of water resources continues as it has in recent decades, then our results suggest that there will be further deterioration in stand condition and a decreased capacity for female yellow-footed antechinuses to breed multiple times.

  17. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  18. Contribution of targeted saliva screening for congenital CMV-related hearing loss in newborns who fail hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Lubin, Daniel; Kuint, Jacob; Teperberg-Oikawa, Michal; Mendelson, Ella; Strauss, Tzipora; Barkai, Galia

    2017-11-01

    We previously reported a 2.2% rate of infants born with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) due to congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection identified by universal neonatal screen for cCMV using saliva. To evaluate the contribution of targeted saliva screening for cCMV to the detection of infants born with cCMV-related SNHL who failed universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). We retrospectively reviewed the audiological and medical records of infants who failed UNHS and were tested for cCMV using saliva sample prior to discharge at Sheba Medical Center between 2014 and 2015. Positive cases were confirmed by urine sample. Two hundred (1%) of the 19 830 infants tested during the study period failed in-hospital hearing screening. A saliva specimen was obtained prior to discharge in 187 infants (93.5% of those who failed UNHS). In 178 infants saliva testing was performed at ≤21 days of chronological age and yielded results. cCMV infection was identified in 4/178 tested infants (2.25%, 95% CI 0.8% to 5.3%), of whom three were diagnosed with SNHL (1.7%, 95% CI 0.5% to 4.4%) and offered antiviral treatment. Two of the tested infants (1.12%, 95% CI 0.2% to 3.6%) were diagnosed with cCMV solely due to failure in UNHS. Occult central nervous system (CNS) symptoms of cCMV infection were detected in 2/4 infants following targeted investigation. Targeted cCMV screening in newborns who failed UNHS contributed to the early detection of infants born with cCMV-related isolated SNHL or with occult CNS symptoms who could potentially benefit from antiviral treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Mental health status and related characteristics of Chinese male rural-urban migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Xu, Xiaochao; Li, Mu; Rockett, Ian R H; Zhu, Waner; Ellison-Barnes, Alejandra

    2012-06-01

    To explore mental health status and related characteristics in a sample of Chinese male rural-urban migrants. Subjects were 1,595 male rural-urban migrant workers selected though a multi-stage sample survey conducted in two cities (Hangzhou and Guangzhou). Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both life and work stressors were examined. Stress and mental health status were measured by the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale (CPSS) and the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), respectively. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with probable mental disorders. There are approximately 120 million rural-urban migrants in China. The prevalence of probable mental disorders in the sample population was 24.4% (95% CI: 23.3-25.5%), w