WorldWideScience

Sample records for characteristic driven treatment

  1. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  2. Operational Characteristics of an Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, Robert Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Operational characteristics represent the set of responses that a nuclear system exhibits during normal operation. Operators rely on this behavior to assess the status of the system and to predict the consequences of off-normal events. These characteristics largely refer to the relationship between power and system operating conditions. The static and dynamic behavior of a chain-reacting system, operating at sufficient power, is primarily governed by reactivity effects. The science of reactor physics has identified and evaluated a number of such effects, including Doppler broadening and shifts in the thermal neutron spectrum. Often these reactivity effects are quantified in the form of feedback coefficients that serve as coupling coefficients relating the neutron population and the physical mechanisms that drive reactivity effects, such as fissile material temperature and density changes. The operational characteristics of such nuclear systems usually manifest themselves when perturbations between system power (neutron population) and system operating conditions arise. Successful operation of such systems requires the establishment of steady equilibrium conditions. However, prior to obtaining the desired equilibrium (steady-state) conditions, an approach from zero-power (startup) must occur. This operational regime may possess certain limiting system conditions that must be maintained to achieve effective startup. Once steady-state is achieved, a key characteristic of this operational regime is the level of stability that the system possesses. Finally, a third operational regime, shutdown, may also possess limiting conditions of operation that must be maintained. This report documents the operational characteristics of a ''generic'' Accelerator Driven Fissile Solution (ADFS) system during the various operational regimes of startup, steady-state operation, and shutdown. Typical time-dependent behavior for each operational regime will be illustrated, and key system

  3. [Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L

    2008-05-01

    Kleptomania, a disabling impulse control disorder, is characterized by the repetitive and uncontrollable theft of items that are of little use to the afflicted person. Despite its relatively long history, kleptomania remains poorly understood to the general public, clinicians, and sufferers. This article reviews the literature for what is known about the clinical characteristics, family history, neurobiology, and treatment options for individuals with kleptomania. Kleptomania generally has its onset in late adolescence or early adulthood and appears to be more common among women. Lifetime psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, mainly with other impulse control (20-46%), substance use (23-50%) and mood disorders (45-100%). Individuals with kleptomania suffer significant impairment in their ability to function socially and occupationally. Kleptomania may respond to cognitive behavioral therapy and various pharmacotherapies (lithium, anti-epileptics, and opioid antagonists). Kleptomania is a disabling disorder that results in intense shame, as well as legal, social, family, and occupational problems. Large scale treatment studies are needed.

  4. (Electro-) mechanical characteristics of electrostatically driven vacuum encapsulated polysilicon resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Schurer, H.; Schurer, H.; IJntema, D.J.; Ijntema, D.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    The design, fabrication and performance of vacuum-encapsulated electrostatically driven polysilicon resonating beams, 210-510 μm long, 100 μm wide, and 1.5 μm thick, are described. The shortest beams have a fundamental frequency of 324 kHz, a gauge factor of 2400 and a quality factor of 600 at

  5. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller-driven airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Representative state-of-the-art analytical procedures and design data for predicting the longitudinal static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, propeller-driven airplanes are presented. Procedures for predicting drag characteristics are also included. The procedures are applied to a twin-engine, propeller-driven airplane in the clean configuration from zero lift to stall conditions. The calculated characteristics are compared with wind-tunnel and flight data. Included in the comparisons are level-flight trim characteristics, period and damping of the short-period oscillatory mode, and windup-turn characteristics. All calculations are documented.

  6. Characteristic signatures of quantum criticality driven by geometrical frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yoshifumi; Stingl, Christian; Kim, Moo-Sung; Takabatake, Toshiro; Gegenwart, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Geometrical frustration describes situations where interactions are incompatible with the lattice geometry and stabilizes exotic phases such as spin liquids. Whether geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions in metals can induce unconventional quantum critical points is an active area of research. We focus on the hexagonal heavy fermion metal CeRhSn, where the Kondo ions are located on distorted kagome planes stacked along the c axis. Low-temperature specific heat, thermal expansion, and magnetic Grüneisen parameter measurements prove a zero-field quantum critical point. The linear thermal expansion, which measures the initial uniaxial pressure derivative of the entropy, displays a striking anisotropy. Critical and noncritical behaviors along and perpendicular to the kagome planes, respectively, prove that quantum criticality is driven be geometrical frustration. We also discovered a spin flop-type metamagnetic crossover. This excludes an itinerant scenario and suggests that quantum criticality is related to local moments in a spin liquid-like state.

  7. Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang

    through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made....... Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study these two air flow cases. The air flow rate and air flow pattern are predicted and compared with the full-scale measurements. The measurement data are used to compare two CFD models: standard k- ε model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The cases...... transient, unstable and complex, and the air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the opening ratio L/D are obtained, which is reasonable agreement with Epstein's formula derived from brine-water measurements, but the obtained Fr values show considerable deviations...

  8. Opportunity of characteristic's improvement for accelerator driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, G V

    2001-01-01

    Review of sentences on the investigation into different variations of electronuclear plants be directed to the improvement in characteristics of the plants in an effort to the efficient disposal of long-lived components of radioactive wastes is presented. Attention is drown to the fact that subcritical reactor with complicated neutron valve can be used. This permits for drop in demand to current of proton accelerator. Briefly description of the process scheme with the indication of problems is given

  9. Seizure clusters: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2015-04-01

    Many patients with epilepsy experience 'clusters' or flurries of seizures, also termed acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Seizure clustering has a significant impact on health and quality of life. This review summarizes recent advances in the definition and neurophysiologic understanding of clustering, the epidemiology and risk factors for clustering and both inpatient and outpatient clinical implications. New treatments for seizure clustering/ARS are perhaps the area of greatest recent progress. Efforts have focused on creating a uniform definition of a seizure cluster. In neurophysiologic studies of refractory epilepsy, seizures within a cluster appear to be self-triggering. Clinical progress has been achieved towards a more precise prevalence of clustering, and consensus guidelines for epilepsy monitoring unit safety. The greatest recent advances are in the study of nonintravenous route of benzodiazepines as rescue medications for seizure clusters/ARS. Rectal benzodiazepines have been very effective but barriers to use exist. New data on buccal, intramuscular and intranasal preparations are anticipated to lead to a greater number of approved treatments. Progesterone may be effective for women who experience catamenial clusters. Seizure clustering is common, particularly in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. Clustering worsens health and quality of life, and the field requires greater focus on clarifying of definition and clinical implications. Progress towards the development of nonintravenous routes of benzodiazepines has the potential to improve care in this area.

  10. Urban characteristics attributable to density-driven tie formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Ghoshal, Gourab; Krumme, Coco; Cebrian, Manuel; Pentland, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by empirical evidence on the interplay between geography, population density and societal interaction, we propose a generative process for the evolution of social structure in cities. Our analytical and simulation results predict both super-linear scaling of social-tie density and information contagion as a function of the population. Here we demonstrate that our model provides a robust and accurate fit for the dependency of city characteristics with city-size, ranging from individual-level dyadic interactions (number of acquaintances, volume of communication) to population level variables (contagious disease rates, patenting activity, economic productivity and crime) without the need to appeal to heterogeneity, modularity, specialization or hierarchy.

  11. Physiology-driven adaptive virtual reality stimulation for prevention and treatment of stress related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kukolja, Davor; Horvat, Marko; Dropuljić, Branimir

    2010-02-01

    The significant proportion of severe psychological problems related to intensive stress in recent large peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the prevention and treatment of stress-related disorders. Adaptive control of virtual reality (VR) stimulation presented in this work, based on estimation of the person's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance existing stress inoculation training (SIT). Physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation can tailor the progress of stressful stimuli delivery to the physiological characteristics of each individual, which is indicated for improvement in stress resistance. Following an overview of physiology-driven adaptive VR stimulation, its major functional subsystems are described in more detail. A specific algorithm of stimuli delivery applicable to SIT is outlined.

  12. Research on Longitudinal Vibration Characteristic of the Six-Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulator in FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first adjustable feed support system in FAST is a six-cable-driven parallel manipulator. Due to flexibility of the cables, the cable-driven parallel manipulator bears a concern of possible vibration caused by wind disturbance or internal force from the fine drive system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze vibration characteristic of the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator in FAST. The tension equilibrium equation of the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator is set up regarding the cables as catenaries. Then, vibration equation is established considering the longitudinal vibration of the cables. On this basis, the natural frequencies are depicted in figures since both analytical and numerical solutions are ineffective. Influence of the sags of the cables on the natural frequencies is discussed. It is shown that the sags of the cables will decrease the natural frequencies of the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator. Simplification to acquire the natural frequencies is proposed in this paper. The results justify effectiveness of the simplification to calculate the first-order natural frequencies. Distribution of the first-order natural frequencies in the required workspace is provided based on the simplification method. Finally, parameters optimization is implemented in terms of natural frequencies for building the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator in FAST.

  13. Lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of light, twin-engine, propeller driven airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowicz, C. H.; Yancey, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical procedures and design data for predicting the lateral-directional static and dynamic stability and control characteristics of light, twin engine, propeller driven airplanes for propeller-off and power-on conditions are reported. Although the consideration of power effects is limited to twin engine airplanes, the propeller-off considerations are applicable to single engine airplanes as well. The procedures are applied to a twin engine, propeller driven, semi-low-wing airplane in the clean configuration through the linear lift range. The calculated derivative characteristics are compared with wind tunnel and flight data. Included in the calculated characteristics are the spiral mode, roll mode, and Dutch roll mode over the speed range of the airplane.

  14. Psoriasis: characteristics, psychosocial effects and treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Sheila

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic non-infectious inflammatory skin disease with a variety of different presentations. The classic presentation is of well-defined red plaques with silver scale. The characteristic scale makes the disorder highly visible and intrusive on the patient\\'s lifestyle. The visible nature of the disease ensures that psoriasis has both physical and psychosocial effects. In normal skin, epidermal cell reproduction and proliferation takes 28 days. In psoriasis this process is considerably accelerated to approximately 4 days, resulting in the deposit of immature cells on the skin. While the exact cause of this process is unknown, certain environmental and genetic factors are known to be triggers. Disease management depends on disease severity, psychosocial effects and the patient\\'s lifestyle. To effectively treat this disease the nurse must be skilled in psoriasis management, and in patient education and motivation. This article reviews the characteristics, aetiology, psychosocial effects and treatment strategies of psoriasis.

  15. Global characteristics of zonal flows generated by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyato, Naoaki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Li, Jiquan

    2004-08-01

    Global structure of zonal flows driven by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a global electromagnetic Landau fluid code. Characteristics of the coupled system of the zonal flows and the turbulence change with the safety factor q. In a low q region stationary zonal flows are excited and suppress the turbulence effectively. Coupling between zonal flows and poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations via a geodesic curvature makes the zonal flows oscillatory in a high q region. Also we identify energy transfer from the zonal flows to the turbulence via the poloidally asymmetric pressure perturbations in the high q region. Therefore in the high q region the zonal flows cannot quench the turbulent transport completely. (author)

  16. Electrical and optical characteristics of dielectric-barrier discharge driven by high voltage nanosecond generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadeev, V.V.; Kost'yuchenko, S.V.; Kudryavtsev, N.N.; Kurkin, G.A.; Vasilyak, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Electrical and optical characteristics of the dielectric-barrier discharge in the pressure range of 10-400 Torr were investigated experimentally, particular attention being paid to the discharge homogeneity and to the energy dissipation in the discharge volume. The discharge was driven by a high-voltage pulse generator producing nanosecond high-voltage pulses with an amplitude of 20-30 kV. Air, nitrogen, and helium were used as working gases. The discharge was found to be homogeneous within a wide range of gas pressure. A power density of up to 250 mW/cm 3 has been achieved. (J.U.)

  17. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERS,R.L.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSKA,W.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; PETERSON,D.L.; PETERSON,R.R.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; RUIZ,CARLOS L.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; VESEY,ROGER A.

    1999-11-03

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed.

  18. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWERS, R.L.; CHANDLER, GORDON A.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATUSKA, W.; MOCK, RAYMOND CECIL; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; PETERSON, R.R.; RUGGLES, LAURENCE E.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON, WALTER W.; VESEY, ROGER A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed

  19. Test-Driven Development as a Medical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lowe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Test Driven Development (TDD is one of the most referenced agile practices, however, one of the least used in the industry. In this paper TDD it is considered like an imaginary medical pill, and its effects are described from a pharmacological point of view instead of providing a formal systematic review report. It invites the reader to imagine the rest of this document is a piece of medical information for TDD pill, and continue reading with the following question in mind: if TDD out a pill, would accept to improve my health?

  20. Cortical visual impairment: Characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest studies, Cortical visual impairment – CVI is one of the most common causes of problems and difficulties in visual functioning. It results from the impairment of the central part of visual system, i.e. visual cortex, posterior visual pathway, or both. The diagnosis is usually made in the first three years of life. The aim of this paper is to present the characteristics of children with CVI, and the strategies used for treatment. CVI has a negative impact on almost all developmental domains, visual-perceptive skills, motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills. In children with CVI, vision ranges from the total inability to see to minimal visual perceptive difficulties, while more than 50% have multiple disabilities. Due to the progress in understanding the patterns of neuron activity and neuroplasticity, as well as the intensive studies of strengths and weaknesses of children with CVI, special treatment has been designed and performed in the last few decades, which provides optimal visual functioning in everyday life for these children.

  1. A community-driven hypertension treatment group in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiger, Sheridan; Harris, Jeffrey R; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Oqueli, Hector Lopez; Kohn, Marlana

    2015-01-01

    We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01), and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg), from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01). We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01). At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for improving hypertension treatment services provided by the public

  2. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dementia Treatment in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasović, Sanja; Sremec, Josip; Košćak, Jelena; Klepac, Nataša; Draganić, Pero; Bielen, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    In spite of the increase in the number of patients with dementia in countries with older population, basic epidemiologic data are still scarce. The objective of this paper is to investigate pharmacoepidemiological characteristics of treatment of dementia in Croatia, and to present them in the context of certain epidemiological characteristics that illustrate the growing pressure this disease exerts on the healthcare system. Data on medication utilization were taken from Croatian Health Insurance Fund (HZZO) and Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices of Croatia (HALMED). Data on the number of hospital stays were supplied by Croatian Institute of Public Health (HZJZ). Internal data on the number of outpatient examinations from the Clinical hospital "Sveti Duh" were used as well. In the observed period (2012-2014), 4568 patients were treated with anti-dementia medications, of which 1275 (32%) with donepezil, and 2753 (68%) with memantine. According to HALMED, the utilization of those medications is constantly increasing, and has increased manifold from 2005 to 2014. The estimate of the proportion of treated patients with dementia aged 60 years and over is around 9.2%. The number of dementia-related hospital stays is also increasing, and has increased by 9.6% in the last 5-year period, compared to the preceding 5-year period. The number of outpatient examinations in Clinical Hospital "Sveti Duh" grew from 351 in 2007 to 1151 in 2015 (January 1(st) - October 26(th)). The strain this condition exerts on the healthcare system is increasing yearly. In spite of the large increase in the medication utilization over the previous years, the proportion of treated patients is still small, and further increase in their use is to be expected. It is necessary to monitor this in the years ahead.

  3. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission.

  4. Cathode fall model and current-voltage characteristics of field emission driven direct current microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2013-01-01

    The post-breakdown characteristics of field emission driven microplasma are studied theoretically and numerically. A cathode fall model assuming a linearly varying electric field is used to obtain equations governing the operation of steady state field emission driven microplasmas. The results obtained from the model by solving these equations are compared with particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collisions simulation results for parameters including the plasma potential, cathode fall thickness, ion number density in the cathode fall, and current density vs voltage curves. The model shows good overall agreement with the simulations but results in slightly overpredicted values for the plasma potential and the cathode fall thickness attributed to the assumed electric field profile. The current density vs voltage curves obtained show an arc region characterized by negative slope as well as an abnormal glow discharge characterized by a positive slope in gaps as small as 10 μm operating at atmospheric pressure. The model also retrieves the traditional macroscale current vs voltage theory in the absence of field emission

  5. Adolescent female murderers: characteristics and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Di Tan; Haitao Wang; Qiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of...

  7. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  8. Chronic migraine--classification, characteristics and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dodick, David W; Goadsby, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    excluded patients who had headaches for =15 days per month. Despite this lack of reliable data, a wealth of expert opinion and a few evidence-based treatment options are available for managing chronic migraine. Trial data are available for topiramate and botulinum toxin type A, and expert opinion suggests...

  9. Analysis of External Treatment Methods and Technical Characteristics of External Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Miao, Mingsan; Bai, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Chinese medicine external therapy is a treatment method of Chinese medicine with Chinese characteristics. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment, convenient operation, external treatment and technology has great prospects for development. The traditional Chinese medicine external treatment method and technical characteristics were analyzed.

  10. Characteristics and treatment of cavernous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kenji; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Cavernous malformations are clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels with thin walls devoid of elastin and smooth muscle. They have no intervening brain tissue. They occur both in sporadic and familial forms. The genes responsible for cavernous malformations have been identified. Recent reports show that mutations of these responsible genes are involved not only in familial but also in sporadic forms. Germline and somatic mutations may occur before cavernous malformations develop (two-hit mechanism). Two patterns, with mulberry-like and hematoma-like appearances, are seen intraoperatively, and from histological findings, mulberry-like appearance may change into hematoma-like one by intralesional hemorrhage. Cavernous malformation treatments include open surgery and radiosurgery. Open surgery is usually chosen for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhagic cavernous malformations because post-radiosurgical annual bleeding risks at the early phase seem to be higher than those of open surgery. If open surgery has a high risk because of lesion location, radiosurgery becomes an effective alternative treatment. Brainstem cavernous malformations have high annual bleeding and re-bleeding incidence, so if the lesion is accessible with low risk, open surgery is recommended. (author)

  11. Dynamic Characteristics of DC Servo Motor Driven by Conventional Servo Driver: Estimation of Circuit Constants in Conventional Servo Driver

    OpenAIRE

    酒井, 史敏; 神谷, 好承; 関, 啓明; 疋津, 正利

    2000-01-01

    DC servo motors that are made as manufactured goods in the factory are widely used as actuators for driving many automatic machines. Then the manufactured driver (amplifier) that is matched to its servo motor is coveniently chosen to drive when aiming at high performance of the motion control. Motion of motor that is driven by the manufactured servo driver has very complicated dynamic characteristics. In this study, it is tried to make clear about inner composition of the servo driver through...

  12. Effect of magnetic resonance imaging characteristics on uterine fibroid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc NM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen Minh Duc, Huynh Quang HuyDepartment of Radiology, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamAbstract: Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecological benign tumors adversely affecting the quality of life of women of a reproductive age. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is efficient at localizing the site of lesions and characterizing uterine fibroids before treatment. Understanding the different characteristics of uterine fibroids on MRI is essential, because it not only enables prompt diagnosis, but also guides the development of suitable therapeutic methods. This pictorial review demonstrates the effect of MRI features on uterine fibroid treatment. Keywords: uterine fibroids, characteristics, magnetic resonance imaging, treatments

  13. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  14. Transmission Characteristics on Wire-Driven Links of a Bridge Transported Servo Manipulator for the ACP Equipment Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Suk; Jin, Jae Hyun; Song, Tae Gil; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2004-01-01

    A bridge transported servo manipulator (BTSM) system for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) has been developed to overcome the limitation of access, which is a drawback of mechanical master-slave manipulators (MSM) for the equipment maintenance. The servo manipulator is composed of a slave manipulator attached to the telescoping tube sets equipped with the overhead bridge installed at a hot cell and a master manipulator installed at an out-of-hot cell. Each manipulator has 7 degrees-of-freedom (DOF): a body rotation, an upper-arm tilt, a lower-arm tilt, a lower-arm rotation, a wrist pan and tilt, and a grasp motion. A wire-driven mechanism for a lower-arm rotation, a wrist pan and tilt, and a grasp motion of the manipulator has been adopted to increase the handling capacity compared to the manipulator weight and decrease the friction. The main disadvantage of the wire-driven mechanism is that if one link is in motion, other links can be affected. In this paper, the transmission characteristics among the wire-driven links have been formulated to overcome this drawback. The unexpected behaviors are confirmed by analyses of transmission characteristics as well as experiments. Also, the experimental results show that the unexpected behaviors are greatly decreased by the proposed compensation equations

  15. Evaluation of emission characteristics and compliance of emission standards for in-use petrol driven vehicles in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, S M; Singh, A; Sharma, N; Sharma, K; Shanmugum, P

    2001-01-01

    The tail pipe CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emission characteristics of in-use petrol driven vehicles were evaluated between November 1996 through September 1997 in Delhi. A total of 4300 vehicles were checked at CRRI Pollution Checking Centre. Approximately 90% of the total vehicles meet the prescribed CO emission standards even without following routine I/M practices. The age of the vehicles appeared to have influence on the emission characteristics. The non-compliance level was found to be higher for older vehicles. Insignificant correlation was observed between CO and HC emissions for all categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles. The emission reduction (gain) in CO and HC emissions was observed for two wheelers equipped with four-stroke engines and four wheelers fitted with catalytic converters over their respective conventional vehicles. The observed high compliance levels indicate that existing tail pipe emission standards are lenient and need to be reviewed. The emission standards are proposed for different categories of in-use petrol driven vehicles.

  16. Study on the Rollover Characteristic of In-Wheel-Motor-Driven Electric Vehicles Considering Road and Electromagnetic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles, the motor is installed in the wheel directly. Tyre runout and uneven load can cause magnet gap deformation in the motor, which will produce electromagnetic forces that further influence the vehicle rollover characteristics. To study the rollover characteristics, a verified 16-degree-of-freedom rollover dynamic model is introduced. Next, the vehicle rollover characteristics both with and without electromagnetic force are analyzed under conditions of the Fixed Timing Fishhook steering and grade B road excitation. The results show that the electromagnetic force has a certain effect on the load transfer and can reduce the antirollover performance of the vehicle. Therefore, the effect of the electromagnetic force on the rollover characteristic should be considered in the vehicle design. To this end, extensive analysis was conducted on the effect of the road level, vehicle speed, and the road adhesion coefficient on the vehicle rollover stability. The results indicate that vehicle rollover stability worsens when the above-mentioned factors increase, the most influential factor being the road adhesion coefficient followed by vehicle speed and road level. This paper can offer certain theory basis for the design of the in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicles.

  17. Data-driven modeling of sleep EEG and EOG reveals characteristics indicative of pre-Parkinson's and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Koch, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and 36 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The data were divided into training and validation datasets and features reflecting EEG and EOG characteristics based on topics were computed. The most discriminative feature subset for separating i...... and the ability to maintain NREM and REM sleep have potential as early PD biomarkers. Data-driven analysis of sleep may contribute to the evaluation of neurodegenerative patients. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Background: Manual scoring of sleep relies on identifying certain characteristics in polysomnograph (PSG) signals. However, these characteristics are disrupted in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. New method: This study evaluates sleep using a topic modeling and unsupervised learning...

  18. Adaptation to TKI Treatment Reactivates ERK Signaling in Tyrosine Kinase-Driven Leukemias and Other Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J Kyle; Ma, Hayley S; Li, Li; Qin, Alice Can Ran; Rudek, Michelle A; Jones, Richard J; Levis, Mark J; Pratz, Keith W; Pratilas, Christine A; Small, Donald

    2017-10-15

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have been tested extensively to limited benefit in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD) leukemia cells exhibit mechanisms of intrinsic signaling adaptation to TKI treatment that are associated with an incomplete response. Here, we identified reactivation of ERK signaling within hours following treatment of FLT3/ITD AML cells with selective inhibitors of FLT3. When these cells were treated with inhibitors of both FLT3 and MEK in combination, ERK reactivation was abrogated and anti-leukemia effects were more pronounced compared with either drug alone. ERK reactivation was also observed following inhibition of other tyrosine kinase-driven cancer cells, including EGFR-mutant lung cancer, HER2-amplified breast cancer, and BCR-ABL leukemia. These studies reveal an adaptive feedback mechanism in tyrosine kinase-driven cancers associated with reactivation of ERK signaling in response to targeted inhibition. Cancer Res; 77(20); 5554-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Optimum performance characteristics of a solar-driven Stirling heat engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Tianjun; Lin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: T–S diagram of the SHE cycle. - Highlights: • Based on Lagrange multiplier method, the optimal performance are investigated. • The energy balance between the absorber and the hot side of Stirling heat engine is considered. • The effects of major parameters on the optimal performance are investigated. - Abstract: A solar-driven Stirling heat engine system composed of a Stirling heat engine, a solar collector, and a heat sink is presented, in which the radiation and convection heat losses of the solar collector, the heat-leak between the thermal absorber and heat sink, the regenerative losses of the Stirling heat engine, and the energy balance between the thermal absorber and the high isothermal process of the Stirling heat engine are taken into consideration. Based on the irreversible thermodynamics and Lagrange multiplier method, the maximum power output and the corresponding optimal efficiency of the system are determined and the absorber temperature that maximizes the optimal system efficiency is calculated numerically. The influences of some system parameters such as the concentrating ratio, the volume ratio during the regenerative processes and irreversibilities of heat exchange processes on the optimal efficiency are analyzed in details. The results obtained here may provide a new idea to design practical solar-driven Stirling heat engine system

  20. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  1. Study on the characteristics of barrier free surface discharge driven by repetitive nanosecond pulses at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Pang; Qiaogen, Zhang [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Kun, He [China Electric Power Research Institute, Beijing 100192 (China); Chunliang, Liu [State Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Nanosecond pulsed plasma has an enormous potential in many applications. In this paper, the characteristics of barrier free nanosecond pulsed surface discharge are investigated by the use of an actuator with a strip-strip film electrode configuration, including the effect of electrode width and the gap distance on the plasma morphology and electrical characteristics at atmospheric pressure. It was found that it is relative easier to generate a quasi uniform discharge with a thinner electrode width and a smaller gap distance. The underlying physical mechanism was also discussed. Besides that, the influence of airflow on repetitive pulsed surface discharge was examined. By comparing to the discharge produced by two different pulse waveforms in airflows, we found that the discharge driven by a faster pulse behaves more stable. Finally, a model was developed to analyze the interaction of the airflow and the discharge channels.

  2. Treatment for occult hepatocellular carcinoma: does it offer survival advantages over symptom-driven treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Min; Kim, Jiyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hye Seung; Kim, Kyunga; Kang, Wonseok; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2018-04-03

    In order to claim a benefit of screen-based diagnosis for asymptomatic individuals, treatment of occult disease needs to offer survival advantages compared to the treatment of symptomatic disease, yet information on this issue is scarce with regard to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening. A total of 3353 treatment-naïve, consecutive, newly diagnosed HCC patients [age: 57.9 ± 10.3, male: 2,689 (80.2%), hepatitis B virus: 2555 (76.2%)], diagnosed between 2010 and 2013 were analyzed. Data on the mode of detection was prospectively collected at the time of HCC diagnosis and was used to group patients into occult or symptomatic cases. Overall, 643 (19.2%) patients were symptomatic cases. The proportion of patients undergoing resection, radiofrequency ablation or transplantation were lower in symptomatic cases than occult cases (20.8 vs. 56.2%, p offered a survival benefit to patients over symptomatic cases. These data support screening practices for asymptomatic individuals to diagnose occult HCC.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on interface driven magnetic properties of CoFe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kr., E-mail: drakhintu@gmail.com; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Ta underlayer and cap layer dependent anisotropy nature in thin CoFe films. • Thin Ta layer induces the magnetization component along normal to the film plane. • Heat treatment and Ta layers driven surface morphology, roughness and grain size. • Roughness reduces more than an order of magnitude with 2 nm Ta cap layer. • H{sub C}, domain patterns and domain size depend on Ta layers and heat treatment. - Abstract: We report systematic studies on non-magnetic Ta underlayer and cap layer driven microstructural and magnetic properties at a wide temperature range for CoFe films. All the films were grown at room temperature and post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T{sub A} = 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C). The in-plane magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops of 10 nm thick CoFe single layer films, grown directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate, exhibit anisotropic nature for T{sub A} above 250 °C. However, the CoFe (10 nm) films grown on the 5 nm thick Ta underlayer show reduced anisotropy. Moreover, with underlayer and cap layers (2 nm) the anisotropy is disappeared. The in-plane coercivity (H{sub C}) shows a strong variation with T{sub A}, underlayer and cap layers. H{sub C} increases significantly with Ta underlayer and cap layers. The out of plane M–H loops exhibit increase in the remanence magnetization and squareness with both Ta underlayer and cap layers due to transition of in-plane magnetization component to the out of plane direction. The atomic force microscopic observations revealed that grain/particle size and shape depend strongly on T{sub A} and Ta layers. Moreover, a large reduction in the surface roughness is observed with the Ta cap layer. The magnetic domain patterns depend on the T{sub A}, and Ta layers. However, for Ta/CoFe/Ta films no clear domains were observed for all the T{sub A}. Hence, the Ta cap layers not only protect the CoFe magnetic layer against the heat treatment, but also

  4. Effect of heat treatment on interface driven magnetic properties of CoFe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kr.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ta underlayer and cap layer dependent anisotropy nature in thin CoFe films. • Thin Ta layer induces the magnetization component along normal to the film plane. • Heat treatment and Ta layers driven surface morphology, roughness and grain size. • Roughness reduces more than an order of magnitude with 2 nm Ta cap layer. • H C , domain patterns and domain size depend on Ta layers and heat treatment. - Abstract: We report systematic studies on non-magnetic Ta underlayer and cap layer driven microstructural and magnetic properties at a wide temperature range for CoFe films. All the films were grown at room temperature and post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T A = 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C). The in-plane magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops of 10 nm thick CoFe single layer films, grown directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate, exhibit anisotropic nature for T A above 250 °C. However, the CoFe (10 nm) films grown on the 5 nm thick Ta underlayer show reduced anisotropy. Moreover, with underlayer and cap layers (2 nm) the anisotropy is disappeared. The in-plane coercivity (H C ) shows a strong variation with T A , underlayer and cap layers. H C increases significantly with Ta underlayer and cap layers. The out of plane M–H loops exhibit increase in the remanence magnetization and squareness with both Ta underlayer and cap layers due to transition of in-plane magnetization component to the out of plane direction. The atomic force microscopic observations revealed that grain/particle size and shape depend strongly on T A and Ta layers. Moreover, a large reduction in the surface roughness is observed with the Ta cap layer. The magnetic domain patterns depend on the T A , and Ta layers. However, for Ta/CoFe/Ta films no clear domains were observed for all the T A . Hence, the Ta cap layers not only protect the CoFe magnetic layer against the heat treatment, but also show a smooth surface at a wide

  5. The effect of driven exercise on treatment outcomes for adolescents with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; DclinPsy, Bryony Bamford; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of driven exercise (DE) and its role in treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) and anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were 201 adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) (80 with BN and 121 with AN) presenting for outpatient treatment at two specialist clinics. All adolescents participated in one of two randomized controlled trials. Descriptive statistics were conducted to evaluate the presence and frequency of baseline DE. Exploratory hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate the effect of baseline DE on treatment outcomes. About 66.3% of adolescents with BN and 23.1% of adolescents with AN presented with baseline DE. The presence of baseline DE predicted significantly worse outcomes for adolescents with AN in terms of ED symptom severity (ps adolescents with BN (ps adolescents with BN and AN. However, DE may be related to different constructs for adolescents with AN than those with BN, suggesting differences in treatment needs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A pelvic motion driven electrical stimulator for drop-foot treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Ching; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Lai, Jin-Shin; Kuo, Te-Son

    2009-01-01

    Foot switches operating with force sensitive resistors placed in the shoe sole were considered as an effective way for driving FES assisted walking systems in gait restoration. However, the reliability and durability of the foot switches run down after a certain number of steps. As an alternative for foot switches, a simple, portable, and easy to handle motion driven electrical stimulator (ES) is provided for drop foot treatment. The device is equipped with a single tri-axis accelerometer worn on the pelvis, a commercial dual channel electrical stimulator, and a controller unit. By monitoring the pelvic rotation and acceleration during a walking cycle, the events including heel strike and toe off of each step is thereby predicted by a post-processing neural network model.

  7. A comparison of implantation-driven permeation characteristics of fusion reactor structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Anderl, R. A.; Struttmann, D. A.

    1986-11-01

    Implantation-driven permeation experiments have been conducted on samples of the ferritic steel HT-9, the austenitic Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) and the vanadium alloy V-15Cr-5Ti using D 3+ ions under conditions that simulate charge-exchange neutral loading on a fusion reactor first wall. The steels all exhibited an initially intense permeation "spike" followed by an exponential decrease to low steady-state values. That spike was not evident in the V-15Cr-5Ti experiments. Steady-state permeation was highest in the vanadium alloy and lowest in the austenitic steel. Though permeation rates in the HT-9 were lower than those in V-15Cr-5Ti, permeation transients were much faster in HT-9 than in other materials tested. Sputtering of the steel surface resulted in enhanced reemission, whereas in the vanadium tests, recombination and diffusivity both appeared to diminish as the deuterium concentration rose. We conclude that for conditions comparable to those of these experiments, tritium retention and permeation loss in first wall structures made of steels will be less than in structures made of V-15Cr-5Ti.

  8. Comparison on implantation-driven permeation characteristics of fusion reactor structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Struttmann, D.A. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls)

    Implantation-driven permeation experiments have been conducted on samples of the ferritic steel HT-9, the austenitic Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) and the vanadium alloy V-15Cr-5Ti using D{sub 3}{sup +} ions under conditions that simulate charge-exchange neutral loading on a fusion reactor first wall. The steels all exhibited an initially intense permeation spike followed by an exponential decrease to low steady-state values. That spike was not evident in the V-15Cr-5Ti experiments. Steady-state permeation was highest in the vanadium alloy and lowest in the austenitic steel. Though permeation rates in the HT-9 were lower than those in V-15Cr-5Ti, permeation transients were much faster in HT-9 than in other materials tested. Sputtering of the steel surface resulted in enhanced reemission, whereas in the vanadium tests, recombination and diffusivity both appeared to diminish as the deuterium concentration rose. We conclude that for conditions comparable to those of these experiments, tritium retention and permeation loss in first wall structures made of steels will be less than in structures made of V-15Cr-5Ti.

  9. Water Spray Flow Characteristics Under Synthetic Jet Driven By a Piezoelectric Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitto, L.; Valentino, G.; Chiatto, M.; de Luca, L.

    2017-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) have been applied to investigate the droplets size and velocity distribution of a water spray, under the control of a piezo-element driven synthetic jet (SJ). Tests were carried out under atmospheric conditions within a chamber test rig equipped with optical accesses at two injection pressures, namely 5 and 10 MPa, exploring the variation of the main spray parameters caused by the synthetic jet perturbations. The SJ orifice has been placed at 45° with respect to the water spray axis; the nozzle body has been moved on its own axis and three different nozzle quotes were tested. PIV measurements have been averaged on 300 trials whereas about 105 samples have been acquired for the PDA tests. For each operative condition, the influence region of the SJ device on the spray has been computed through a T-Test algorithm. The synthetic jet locally interacts with the spray, energizing the region downstream the impact. The effect of the actuator decreases at higher injection pressures and moving the impact region upwards. Droplets coalescence can be detected along the synthetic jet axis, while no significant variations are observed along a direction orthogonal to it.

  10. Comparison of implantation-driven permeation characteristics of fusion reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Implantation-driven permeation experiments have been conducted on samples of the ferritic steel HT-9, the austenitic Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) and the vanadium alloy V-15Cr-5Ti using D 3 + ions under conditions that simulate charge-exchange neutral loading on a fusion reactor first wall. The steels all exhibited an initially intense permeation ''spike'' followed by an exponential decrease to low steady-state values. That spike was not evident in the V-15Cr-5Ti experiments. Steady-state permeation was highest in the vanadium alloy and lowest in the austenitic steel. Though permeation rates in the HT-9 were lower than those in V-15Cr-5Ti, permeation transients were much faster in HT-9 than in other materials tested. Ion-beam sputtering of the surface in the steel experiments resulted in enhanced remission at the front surface, whereas in the vanadium tests, recombination and diffusivity both appeared to diminish as the deuterium concentration rose. This may be due to a phase change in the material. We conclude that for conditions comparable to those of these experiments, tritium retention and loss in first wall structures made of steels will be less than in structures made of V-15Cr-5Ti

  11. Photocatalytic Pre-Oxidation of Arsenic (III) in Groundwater by a Visible-Light-Driven System with Magnetic Separating Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Liu, Y.; Peng, L.; Qin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic was a typical toxic metalloid element and its contamination in groundwater was widely recognized as a global health problem, especially in north China, where people depended on groundwater as water resource. Arsenic was existed as As(III) in underground water, and has low affinity to the surface of various minerals and more toxic and more difficultly to be removed compared with As(V), so a pre-oxidation technology by transforming As (III) to As (V) is highly desirable. Electrochemical and oxidizing agents were traditional technology, which usually causes secondary pollution. A novel methodology is presented here, using prepared magnetic visible-light-driven nanomaterials as recyclable media to investigate As(III) pre-oxidation processing. Ag@AgCl core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by oxidation of Ag nanowires with moderate FeCl3, and exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity to As(III) with visible-light. The ratio of chloridization was proved to act as key effect on photocatalytic oxidation efficiency. Testing with simulated groundwater condition proved that pH, ionic strength and concentration of humic acid have obvious effects on Ag@AgCl photocatalytic ability. h+ and ·O2- were confirmed to be the main active species during the visible-light driven photocatalytic oxidation process for As(III) by trapping experiments with radical scavengers. Then Fe0 was introduced to prepare Fe-Ag nanowire and chloridized into Fe-Ag@AgCl to provide magnetic characteristic. The magnetic recycling and re-chloride experiments validated this visible-light-driven material has excellent stable and high reused ability as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

  12. Recidivism after treatment in a forensic youth-psychiatric setting: the effect of treatment characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Breuk, R.; Jongman, E.; Doreleijers, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training.

  13. Emission characteristics of petrol and diesel driven vehicles in Rewa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.M.; Gupta, A.K.; Parihar, Sarita

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution by road traffic is likely to be severe in most of the major cities of India, in near future. An emission survey was conducted in Rewa town to obtain the basic data on emission characteristics of inservice vehicles. About 250 two wheelers, 110 cars and 350 diesel vehicles were tested for the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Present paper summarizes the data of vehicular emissions observed in this survey and discusses the emission level of different categories of vehicles, in the light of the proposed national standards and the emission standards enforced in developed countries. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Analysis of lagoon sludge characteristics for choice of treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, D. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, S. T.; Jung, K. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has launched a decommissioning program of uranium conversion plant. One of the important tasks in the decommissioning program is the treatment of the sludge, which was generated during operation and stored in the two ponds of the lagoon. The treatment requires the volume reduction of lagoon sludges for the low cost of the program and the conversion of the chemical forms, including uranium, for the acceptance at the final disposal site. The physical properties, such as densities, were measured and chemical compositions and radiological properties were analyzed. The denitration was a candidate process which would satisfy the requirements for sludge treatment, and the characteristics of thermal decomposition and dissolution with water were analyzed. The main compounds of the sludge were ammonium and sodium nitrate from conversion plant and calcium nitrate, calcium carbonate from Ca precipitation and impurities of the yellow cake. The content of uranium, thorium and Ra-226 was high in pond-1 and low in pond-2 because those were removed during Ca precipitation. On the base of the characteristics of the sludge and available technologies, reviewed in this study and being developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, two processes were proposed and evaluated in points of the expected technological difficulties. And the cost for treatment of sludges are estimated for both processes. 79 refs., 44 figs., 37 tabs. (Author)

  15. Statistical characteristics of dynamics for population migration driven by the economic interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jie; Wang, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Ning; Hao, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Population migration typically occurs under some constraints, which can deeply affect the structure of a society and some other related aspects. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the characteristics of population migration. Data from the China Statistical Yearbook indicate that the regional gross domestic product per capita relates to the population size via a linear or power-law relation. In addition, the distribution of population migration sizes or relative migration strength introduced here is dominated by a shifted power-law relation. To reveal the mechanism that creates the aforementioned distributions, a dynamic model is proposed based on the population migration rule that migration is facilitated by higher financial gains and abated by fewer employment opportunities at the destination, considering the migration cost as a function of the migration distance. The calculated results indicate that the distribution of the relative migration strength is governed by a shifted power-law relation, and that the distribution of migration distances is dominated by a truncated power-law relation. These results suggest the use of a power-law to fit a distribution may be not always suitable. Additionally, from the modeling framework, one can infer that it is the randomness and determinacy that jointly create the scaling characteristics of the distributions. The calculation also demonstrates that the network formed by active nodes, representing the immigration and emigration regions, usually evolves from an ordered state with a non-uniform structure to a disordered state with a uniform structure, which is evidenced by the increasing structural entropy.

  16. Characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimen and treatment adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia da Silveira

    Full Text Available The relationship between characteristics of HIV antiretroviral regimens and treatment adherence was studied in adolescent and adult patients who underwent antiretroviral therapy from January 1998 to September 2000, at the Service for Specialized Assistance in Pelotas. The patients were interviewed on two occasions, and the use of antiretrovirals during the previous 48 hours was investigated by a self-report. Adherence was defined as use of 95% or more of the prescribed medication. Social-demographic variables were collected through direct questionnaires. The antiretroviral regimen and clinical data were copied from the patients' records. Associations between the independent variables and adherence were analyzed by means of logistic regression. The multivariate analysis included characteristics of the antiretroviral regimens, social-demographic variables, as well as perception of negative effects, negative physiological states, and adverse effects of the treatment. Among the 224 selected patients, 194 participated in our study. Their ages varied from 17 to 67 years; most patients were men, with few years of schooling and a low family income. Only 49% adhered to the treatment. Adherence to treatment regimens was reduced when more daily doses were indicated: three to four doses (odds ratio of adherence to treatment (OR=0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.22-1.01 and five to six (OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.62; two or more doses taken in a fasting state (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.11-0.68, and for patients who reported adverse effects to the treatment (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77. Most of the regimens with more than two daily doses of medication included at least one dose apart from mealtimes. The results suggest that, if possible, regimens with a reduced number of doses should be chosen, with no compulsory fasting, and with few adverse effects. Strategies to minimize these effects should be discussed with the patients.

  17. Effect of heat treatment on interface driven magnetic properties of CoFe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kr.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa

    2017-06-01

    We report systematic studies on non-magnetic Ta underlayer and cap layer driven microstructural and magnetic properties at a wide temperature range for CoFe films. All the films were grown at room temperature and post annealed at different annealing temperatures (TA = 200 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C, 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C). The in-plane magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops of 10 nm thick CoFe single layer films, grown directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate, exhibit anisotropic nature for TA above 250 °C. However, the CoFe (10 nm) films grown on the 5 nm thick Ta underlayer show reduced anisotropy. Moreover, with underlayer and cap layers (2 nm) the anisotropy is disappeared. The in-plane coercivity (HC) shows a strong variation with TA, underlayer and cap layers. HC increases significantly with Ta underlayer and cap layers. The out of plane M-H loops exhibit increase in the remanence magnetization and squareness with both Ta underlayer and cap layers due to transition of in-plane magnetization component to the out of plane direction. The atomic force microscopic observations revealed that grain/particle size and shape depend strongly on TA and Ta layers. Moreover, a large reduction in the surface roughness is observed with the Ta cap layer. The magnetic domain patterns depend on the TA, and Ta layers. However, for Ta/CoFe/Ta films no clear domains were observed for all the TA. Hence, the Ta cap layers not only protect the CoFe magnetic layer against the heat treatment, but also show a smooth surface at a wide temperature range. These results could be discussed on the basis of random anisotropy model, TA, underlayer and cap layers driven microstructure and magnetization orientation of the CoFe films.

  18. A mathematical model for IL-6-mediated, stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nör, Jacques Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics. By including the molecular details of IL-6 binding, we are able to quantify the temporal changes in fractional occupancies of bound receptors and their influence on tumor volume. There is a strong correlation between the model output and experimental data for primary tumor xenografts. We also used the model to predict tumor response to administration of the humanized IL-6R monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), and we found that as little as 1mg/kg of TCZ administered weekly for 7 weeks is sufficient to result in tumor reduction and a sustained deceleration of tumor growth. PMID:29351275

  19. Data-driven modeling of sleep EEG and EOG reveals characteristics indicative of pre-Parkinson's and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julie A E; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Søren R; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2014-09-30

    Manual scoring of sleep relies on identifying certain characteristics in polysomnograph (PSG) signals. However, these characteristics are disrupted in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This study evaluates sleep using a topic modeling and unsupervised learning approach to identify sleep topics directly from electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG). PSG data from control subjects were used to develop an EOG and an EEG topic model. The models were applied to PSG data from 23 control subjects, 25 patients with periodic leg movements (PLMs), 31 patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and 36 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The data were divided into training and validation datasets and features reflecting EEG and EOG characteristics based on topics were computed. The most discriminative feature subset for separating iRBD/PD and PLM/controls was estimated using a Lasso-regularized regression model. The features with highest discriminability were the number and stability of EEG topics linked to REM and N3, respectively. Validation of the model indicated a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 68.8% when classifying iRBD/PD patients. The topics showed visual accordance with the manually scored sleep stages, and the features revealed sleep characteristics containing information indicative of neurodegeneration. This study suggests that the amount of N3 and the ability to maintain NREM and REM sleep have potential as early PD biomarkers. Data-driven analysis of sleep may contribute to the evaluation of neurodegenerative patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. "ALS reversals": demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel; Mehta, Paul; van Es, Michael A; Stommel, Elijah; Drory, Vivian E; Nefussy, Beatrice; van den Berg, Leonard H; Crayle, Jesse; Bedlack, Richard

    2018-04-02

    To identify differences in demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, and co-morbidities between patients with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) reversals" and those with typically progressive ALS. Cases of possible ALS reversals were found in prior publications, in the Duke ALS clinic, through self-referral or referral from other Neurologists, and on the internet. Of 89 possible reversals identified, 36 cases were included because chart or literature review confirmed their diagnosis and a robust, sustained improvement in at least one objective measure. Controls were participants in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials database and the National ALS Registry. Cases and controls were compared using descriptive statistics. ALS reversals were more likely to be male, have limb onset disease, and initially progress faster. The prevalences of myasthenia gravis (MG) and purely lower motor neuron disease in cases were higher than estimates of these prevalences in the general population. The odds of taking curcumin, luteolin, cannabidiol, azathioprine, copper, glutathione, vitamin D, and fish oil were greater for cases than controls. When compared to patients with typically progressive ALS, patients with reversals differed in their demographics, disease characteristics, and treatments. While some of these patients may have had a rare antibody-mediated ALS mimicker, such as atypical myasthenia gravis, details of their exams, EMGs and family histories argue that this was unlikely. Instead, our data suggest that ALS reversals warrant evaluation for mechanisms of disease resistance and that treatments associated with multiple ALS reversals deserve further study.

  1. Effects on temperature and acidic pre-treatment on Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature-dependent mechanisms in the Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Prior to iron (Fe) amendment to the GAC, acid-treatment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC and lowered the p...

  2. Effects of Temperature and Acidic Pre-Treatment on Fenton-Driven Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature-dependent mechanisms in the Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Prior to iron (Fe) amendment to the GAC, acid-treatment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC and lowered the pH ...

  3. General characteristics of dental morbidity in children against orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide spread of orthodontic treatment showed a fairly high risk of complications developed from the use of various devices. The aim of our study was to determine the general characteristics of dental morbidity in children with orthodontic treatment. According to the survey the most common pathologies in children with orthodontic problems are dental caries (87,8-92,9% and chronic catarrhal gingivitis (81.2-84.1%. The prevalence of different types of diseases of the mucous membrane and soft tissues of the oral cavity in children surveyed was 30.5-32.9%. Non-caries lesions of dental hard tissues occurred in 39.5-40.9% of the children surveyed, local enamel hypoplasia was observed in 42.9%, systemic enamel hypoplasia made up 17.8%, signs of hypersensitivity of enamel were found in 9.6%, and the wedge defects – in two children.

  4. Characteristics, Detection Methods and Treatment of Questionable Occlusal Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, S.K.; Gilbert, G.H.; Funkhouser, E.

    2014-01-01

    . The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When...... consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky...... luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p color were less common...

  5. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  6. Are Improvements in Measured Performance Driven by Better Treatment or "Denominator Management"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alex H S; Chen, Cheng; Rubinsky, Anna D; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Neuman, Matthew; Vanneman, Megan E

    2016-04-01

    Process measures of healthcare quality are usually formulated as the number of patients who receive evidence-based treatment (numerator) divided by the number of patients in the target population (denominator). When the systems being evaluated can influence which patients are included in the denominator, it is reasonable to wonder if improvements in measured quality are driven by expanding numerators or contracting denominators. In 2003, the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) based executive compensation in part on performance on a substance use disorder (SUD) continuity-of-care quality measure. The first goal of this study was to evaluate if implementing the measure in this way resulted in expected improvements in measured performance. The second goal was to examine if the proportion of patients with SUD who qualified for the denominator contracted after the quality measure was implemented, and to describe the facility-level variation in and correlates of denominator contraction or expansion. Using 40 quarters of data straddling the implementation of the performance measure, an interrupted time series design was used to evaluate changes in two outcomes. All veterans with an SUD diagnosis in all VA facilities from fiscal year 2000 to 2009. The two outcomes were 1) measured performance-patients retained/patients qualified and 2) denominator prevalence-patients qualified/patients with SUD program contact. Measured performance improved over time (P management, and also the exploration of "shadow measures" to monitor and reduce undesirable denominator management.

  7. Revamping of entisol soil physical characteristics with compost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Loka, S. P.; Nasution, D. L. S.

    2018-02-01

    Physical characteristic of Entisol soil is an important factor for the growth of plant. The aim of this research was to know the effect of compost application on physical characteristics of Entisol soil. The research method used was experimental method with 6 (six) treatments and 3 replications of which K1 = 10 kg Entisol soil without compost, K2 = 9 Kg Entisol soil with 1 kg compost, K3 = 8 kg Entisol soil with 2 kg compost, K4 = 7 kg Entisol soilwith3 kg compost, K5 = 6 kg Entisol soil with 4 kg compost and K6 = 5 kg Entisol soil with 5 kg compost. The observed parameters were soil texture, soil organic matter, soil thickness, porosity, soil pore size, soil permeability and water availability. The results showed that the Entisol soil texture was loamy sand texture, the value of soil organic matter ranged from 0.74% to 4.69%, soil thickness ranged from 13.83 to 20.16 cm, porosity ranged from16% to 37%, soil pore size ranged from 2.859 to 5.493 µm, permeability ranged from 1.24 to 5.64 cm/hour and water availability ranged from 6.67% to 9.12% by each treatment.

  8. Improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through advanced froth treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies Laboratory; Humphries, A. [Albemarle Catalysts Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the dominant refinery conversion process for producing transportation fuels. Feed to the FCC unit is heavy gas oil (HGO). Its quality depends on the crude used and the processes involved. Bitumen-derived crude (BDC), including synthetic crude oil (SCO) is less superior to produce FCC feed than stocks from conventional sources. As a result, North American refiners have limited the use of BDC in their conventional FCC-based operations. This paper examined the improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through an advanced froth treatment process. This involved processing of the bitumen with paraffinic solvent in froth treatment with removal of some asphaltenes, CCR precursors, and metals. The paper discussed the experimental and subsequent results and discussion, including cracking characteristics; product quality; synergetic effect; and economic benefits. It was concluded that the poisoning effect by some deleterious components such as nitrogen compounds in feeds on the catalyst could be reduced or compensated for by higher C/O ratios (more catalyst per unit weight of feed). In addition, as conversion increased, sulfur in gasoline decreased slightly and linearly with more or less the same magnitude for the two bitumens. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  9. Visual Soccer Analytics: Understanding the Characteristics of Collective Team Movement Based on Feature-Driven Analysis and Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stein

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in sensor technologies, large amounts of movement data have become available in many application areas. A novel, promising application is the data-driven analysis of team sport. Specifically, soccer matches comprise rich, multivariate movement data at high temporal and geospatial resolution. Capturing and analyzing complex movement patterns and interdependencies between the players with respect to various characteristics is challenging. So far, soccer experts manually post-analyze game situations and depict certain patterns with respect to their experience. We propose a visual analysis system for interactive identification of soccer patterns and situations being of interest to the analyst. Our approach builds on a preliminary system, which is enhanced by semantic features defined together with a soccer domain expert. The system includes a range of useful visualizations to show the ranking of features over time and plots the change of game play situations, both helping the analyst to interpret complex game situations. A novel workflow includes improving the analysis process by a learning stage, taking into account user feedback. We evaluate our approach by analyzing real-world soccer matches, illustrate several use cases and collect additional expert feedback. The resulting findings are discussed with subject matter experts.

  10. Patient characteristics and treatment outcome in functional anorectal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Gary K; Suliman, Amna; Vaizey, Carolynne J

    2011-07-01

    Functional anorectal pain occurs in the absence of any clinical abnormality. It is common and disabling; it has previously been reported in only a few studies involving small patient numbers. This study aimed to report the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for patients with functional anorectal pain. Patient demographics, clinical history, and tests results for all referrals for anorectal physiological testing between 1997 and 2009 were prospectively recorded. For patients with functional anorectal pain, further information was gained from clinical notes. Clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients; treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up at the present unit. One hundred seventy patients, 99 female, with a median age of 48 years (range, 18-86), were studied. Patients were classified as having chronic proctalgia (pain duration ≥20 min, 158 patients) or proctalgia fugax (pain duration proctalgia fugax had a higher internal anal sphincter thickness and resting pressure than patients with chronic proctalgia, whereas patients with a family history of similar symptoms were more likely to have proctalgia fugax and higher resting pressures and internal anal sphincter thickness compared with those without a family history of these symptoms. Patients referred for treatment underwent a range of interventions including biofeedback (29 patients, 17 improved), tricyclic antidepressants (26 patients, 10 improved), Botox injection (9 patients, 5 improved), and sacral nerve stimulation (3 patients, 2 improved). Biofeedback had the greatest treatment effect, especially in patients with defecatory dysfunction. Biofeedback is beneficial in the subset of patients with functional anorectal pain and difficulty with defecation. Tricyclic antidepressants, Botox, and sacral nerve stimulation may also have a role.

  11. Rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs: characteristics, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shengnian

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis syndrome refers to a variety of factors that affect the striated muscle cell membrane, the membrane channels and its energy supply. Most cases of rhabdomyolysis are due to direct trauma. However, infection, toxins, drugs, muscle ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic diseases, genetic diseases and abnormal body temperature can also lead to rhabdomyolysis. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. The primary long-term treatment is antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which may cause rhabdomyolysis. This article summarizes the characteristics, treatment methods and prognosis of patients with rhabdomyolysis that is induced by antiepileptic drugs. This review is based on PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE searches of the literature using the keywords "epilepsy", "antiepileptic drugs","status epilepticus","rhabdomyolysis", and "antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis syndrome" as well as extensive personal clinical experience with various antiepileptic drugs. Potential relationships between antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis are discussed. Worldwide, there are approximately 50 million epilepsy patients, most of whom are treated with drugs. Reports have indicated that the majority of antiepileptic drugs on the market can cause rhabdomyolysis. Although rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs is a rare condition with a low incidence, this condition has serious consequences and merits attention from clinicians.

  12. [Acute lithium poisoning: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera Vion, Víctor; Montes, José Manuel; Del Rey, José Manuel; Rivera-Gorrín, Maite; Rodao, José María; Tenorio, Maite; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Liaño, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Lithium continues to be the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder. Acute lithium poisoning is a potentially serious event. We present a retrospective observational significative study of episodes of acute lithium poisoning during a 52- month period. Poisoning was defined by a blood lithium concentration of 1.5 mEq/L or higher. We analyzed treatment and epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 70 episodes were identified (incidence density among treated patients, 1.76 per 100 patient-years). The most frequent cause of lithium poisoning was a concurrent medical condition (46%). Most poisonings were mild (74.2%), but neurologic involvement was identified in 40.3%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were found in 8 cases. Acute renal failure, found in 23 patients (37.1%), was mild in most cases, although 11 patients required hemodialysis. We concluded that acute lithium poisoning is an uncommon complication, but risk needs to be lowered. Patients should be warned to avoid dosage errors and to take special care during concurrent illnesses and while taking other medications.

  13. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda - a respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Wolfgang; Baughman, Andrew L; Serwadda, David; Tappero, Jordan W; Kwezi, Rachel; Nakato, Namakula D; Barker, Joseph

    2017-06-10

    Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW). We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37%) and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two thirds (65%) of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19%) FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  14. Burden and characteristics of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda – a respondent-driven sampling survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hladik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex workers in Uganda are at significant risk for HIV infection. We characterized the HIV epidemic among Kampala female sex workers (FSW. Methods We used respondent-driven sampling to sample FSW aged 15+ years who reported having sold sex to men in the preceding 30 days; collected data through audio-computer assisted self-interviews, and tested blood, vaginal and rectal swabs for HIV, syphilis, neisseria gonorrhea, chlamydia trachomatis, and trichomonas vaginalis. Results A total of 942 FSW were enrolled from June 2008 through April 2009. The overall estimated HIV prevalence was 33% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 30%-37% and among FSW 25 years or older was 44%. HIV infection is associated with low levels of schooling, having no other work, never having tested for HIV, self-reported genital ulcers or sores, and testing positive for neisseria gonorrhea or any sexually transmitted infections (STI. Two thirds (65% of commercial sex acts reportedly were protected by condoms; one in five (19% FSW reported having had anal sex. Gender-based violence was frequent; 34% reported having been raped and 24% reported having been beaten by clients in the preceding 30 days. Conclusions One in three FSW in Kampala is HIV-infected, suggesting a severe HIV epidemic in this population. Intensified interventions are warranted to increase condom use, HIV testing, STI screening, as well as antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis along with measures to overcome gender-based violence.

  15. Treatment Wetland Aeration without Electricity? Lessons Learned from the First Experiment Using a Wind-Driven Air Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Boog

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerated treatment wetlands have become an increasingly recognized technology for treating wastewaters from domestic and various industrial origins. To date, treatment wetland aeration is provided by air pumps which require access to the energy grid. The requirement for electricity increases the ecological footprint of an aerated wetland and limits the application of this technology to areas with centralized electrical infrastructure. Wind power offers another possibility as a driver for wetland aeration, but its use for this purpose has not yet been investigated. This paper reports the first experimental trial using a simple wind-driven air pump to replace the conventional electric air blowers of an aerated horizontal subsurface flow wetland. The wind-driven air pump was connected to a two-year old horizontal flow aerated wetland which had been in continuous (24 h aeration since startup. The wind-driven aeration system functioned, however it was not specifically adapted to wetland aeration. As a result, treatment performance decreased compared to prior continuous aeration. Inconsistent wind speed at the site may have resulted in insufficient pressure within the aeration manifold, resulting in insufficient air supply to the wetland. This paper discusses the lessons learned during the experiment.

  16. Pressure ulcers in four Indonesian hospitals: prevalence, patient characteristics, ulcer characteristics, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yufitriana; Lohrmann, Christa; Halfens, Ruud Jg; Schols, Jos Mga

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this article was to study characteristics of pressure ulcer patients and their ulcers, pressure ulcer preventive and treatment measures in four Indonesian general hospitals. A multicentre cross-sectional design was applied to assess pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer care in adult patients in medical, surgical, specialised and intensive care units. Ninety-one of the 1132 patients had a total of 142 ulcers. Half (44·0%) already had pressure ulcers before admission. The overall prevalence of category I-IV pressure ulcers was 8·0% (95% CI 6·4-9·6), and the overall nosocomial pressure ulcer prevalence was 4·5% (95% CI 3·3-5·7). Most pressure ulcer patients had friction and shear problems, were bedfast, had diabetes and had more bedridden days. Most ulcers (42·3%) were category III and IV. One third of the patients had both pressure ulcers and moisture lesions (36·3%) and suffered from pain (45·1%). The most frequently used prevention measures were repositioning (61·5%), skin moisturising (47·3%), patient education (36·3%) and massage (35·2%). Most pressure ulcer dressings involved saline-impregnated or antimicrobial gauzes. This study shows the complexities of pressure ulcers in Indonesian general hospitals and reveals that the quality of pressure ulcer care (prevention and treatment) could be improved by implementing the recent evidence-based international guideline. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kil; Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Sung Woo; Kam, Sung Chul; Lee, Ki Soo; Kim, Tae Hyo; Kim, Taek Sang; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Park, Hyun Jun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of penile cancer, including patterns of therapy, oncologic results, and survival. Materials and Methods Between January 2005 and July 2015, 71 patients at 6 institutions who had undergone penectomy or penile biopsy were enrolled. Their medical records were reviewed to identify the mode of therapy, pathology reports, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate. Results Clinicopathologic and outcome information was available for 52 male patients (mean age, 64.3 years; mean follow-up, 61.4 months). At presentation, 17 patients were node-positive, and 4 had metastatic disease. Management was partial penectomy in 34 patients, total penectomy in 12 patients, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 6 patients. The pathology reports were squamous cell carcinoma in 50 patients and other types of carcinoma in the remaining 2 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a 5-year CSS rate of 84.0%. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage and pathologic grade were associated with survival. Conclusions Partial penectomy was the most common treatment of penile lesions. The oncologic outcomes were good, with a 5-year CSS of 84.0%. The AJCC stage and pathologic grade were independent prognostic factors for survival. PMID:28459145

  18. Clinicomicrobiological characteristics and treatment outcome of sclerocorneal tunnel infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aravind; Sahu, Srikant K; Padhi, Tapas R; Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the clinical presentation, microbiological evaluation, and management of post-cataract surgery sclerocorneal tunnel infection. This is a retrospective chart review of 11 patients with sclerocorneal tunnel infection after cataract surgery, managed between November 2006 and October 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed. All patients presented within 1 to 10 weeks of primary surgery. The presenting visual acuity ranged from hand motions to 20/50. Ten of 11 patients had sclerocorneal involvement, and 4 patients had associated endophthalmitis. The causative organisms were fungus (n = 6), bacteria (n = 4), or both (n = 1). Deroofing of the tunnel and sclerocorneal patch graft was done in 4 patients. Intensive medication was administered to all patients. The final visual acuity ranged from light perception to 20/50 at a mean follow-up of 119 days (median, 66 days; range, 2-357 days). Five patients had ≥20/100 vision. The mean interval between presentation to resolution of infiltrate and formation of peripheral scarring was 20 days (median, 11 days; range, 2-66 days). Sclerocorneal tunnel infection must be microbiologically evaluated. Intensive medical management, wound revision and repair may lead to a favorable outcome.

  19. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  20. Investigation on discharge characteristics of a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by AC and ns power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, WANG; Feng, LIU; Chuanrun, MIAO; Bing, YAN; Zhi, FANG

    2018-03-01

    A coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with double layer dielectric barriers has been developed for exhaust gas treatment and excited either by AC power or nanosecond (ns) pulse to generate atmospheric pressure plasma. The comparative study on the discharge characteristics of the discharge uniformity, power deposition, energy efficiency, and operation temperature between AC and ns pulsed coaxial DBD is carried out in terms of optical and electrical characteristics and operation temperature for optimizing the coaxial DBD reactor performance. The voltages across the air gap and dielectric layer and the conduction and displacement currents are extracted from the applied voltages and measured currents of AC and ns pulsed coaxial DBDs for the calculation of the power depositions and energy efficiencies through an equivalent electrical model. The discharge uniformity and operating temperature of the coaxial DBD reactor are monitored and analyzed by optical images and infrared camera. A heat conduction model is used to calculate the temperature of the internal quartz tube. It is found that the ns pulsed coaxial DBD has a much higher instantaneous power deposition in plasma, a lower total power consumption, and a higher energy efficiency compared with that excited by AC power and is more homogeneous and stable. The temperature of the outside wall of the AC and ns pulse excited coaxial DBD reaches 158 °C and 64.3 °C after 900 s operation, respectively. The experimental results on the comparison of the discharge characteristics of coaxial DBDs excited by different powers are significant for understanding of the mechanism of DBDs, reducing energy loss, and optimizing the performance of coaxial DBD in industrial applications.

  1. Characteristics of uveitic glaucoma and evaluation of its surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ai Shimizu, Kazuichi Maruyama, Yu Yokoyama, Satoru Tsuda, Morin Ryu, Toru Nakazawa Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of uveitic glaucoma (UG and evaluate surgical treatments.Methods: This study examined a retrospective, nonrandomized comparative interventional case series of 105 UG patients (141 eyes followed between April 1, 2001 and July 30, 2014 at the outpatient clinic of Tohoku University Hospital. The study group included 47 patients (47 eyes who underwent glaucoma surgery: trabeculectomy, trabeculotomy, and trabectome surgery. The analysis used Kaplan–Meier life tables, with surgical failure defined as intraocular pressure ≧21 mmHg or the need for additional glaucoma surgery.Results: UG patients represented 9.73% of our database of glaucoma patients. The mean follow-up period was 40.32±32.53 months. Seventy-one patients had granulomatous uveitis (67.62% and 34 had nongranulomatous uveitis (32.38%. The causes of uveitis included sarcoidosis (n=25, Behçet’s disease (n=11, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada disease (n=9, Posner–Schlossman syndrome (n=12, herpes simplex virus infectious uveitis (n=7, acute anterior uveitis (n=5, intermediate uveitis (n=4, scleritis (n=4, inflammatory bowel disease (n=4, varicella zoster virus uveitis (n=2, and others (n=6. An additional 16 patients were diagnosed with idiopathic UG. Surgical success rates were 82.86% for trabeculectomy, 62.50% for trabeculotomy, and 75.00% for trabectome. Significant risk factors for surgical failure included male sex (P=0.02, age less than 45 years (P=0.0009, nongranulomatous uveitis (P=0.04, and postoperative inflammation (P=0.01.Conclusion: Young male patients with nongranulomatous uveitis had a significant risk of surgical failure. Moreover, prolonged postoperative inflammation created a susceptibility to surgical failure, indicating the importance of postoperative

  2. THE INTANGIBLE ASSETS INVESTMENTS. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE ACCOUNTING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prediscan Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy the fundamental determinants of the enterprise value, in the present, have an intangible nature. The intangible investments are the most important factors of the enterprise success. Wealth, growth and welfare are driven nowadays by intangible investments. The knowledge economy is characterized by huge investments in human capital and informational technology. Despite of the increased importance of intangible assets, as the source of the firm` competitive advantages, the information regarding these kind of assets, both available in the inside of the firm and, which is presented to the externals, is pour. In this paper I present the reasons for this situation.

  3. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  4. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557

  5. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 , for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO 2 -SnS 2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS 2 into non-active SnO 2 . Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  6. What patient characteristics make clinicians recommend brief treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, B. A.; Koeter, M. W. J.; Wouters, L.; Emmelkamp, P. M. G.; Schene, A. H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Assessing self-rated items that might have an impact on clinicians recommending brief treatment (BT) over unlimited or long-term treatment (ULT). Method: On the basis of patient self-report data we compared patients referred by clinicians to BT (n =71) with those referred to ULT (n =145).

  7. Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment admission (“other female teen admissions”). Note that TEDS is a census of all admissions to treatment facilities reported to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by State substance abuse agencies. IN BRIEF X X Between 2007 and 2010, about 57,000 ...

  8. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  9. Gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment promotes VEGF-A-driven blood vessel growth and vascular leakage but disrupts neovascular perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Kalén

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs--originally developed for Alzheimer's disease--are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A--a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX, a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1582 - What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1582 Section 63.1582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1582 What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) Your POTW is an industrial POTW treatment plant if an...

  11. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and White Adolescents in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Staab, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Compared background, pre-treatment characteristics, and post-treatment outcomes of African American, Hispanic, and white adolescent substance abusers participating in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found that patients were similar with respect to basic pre-treatment demographics. Compared to white adolescents,…

  12. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  13. Data-Driven Markov Decision Process Approximations for Personalized Hypertension Treatment Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greggory J. Schell PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Markov decision process (MDP models are powerful tools. They enable the derivation of optimal treatment policies but may incur long computational times and generate decision rules that are challenging to interpret by physicians. Methods: In an effort to improve usability and interpretability, we examined whether Poisson regression can approximate optimal hypertension treatment policies derived by an MDP for maximizing a patient’s expected discounted quality-adjusted life years. Results: We found that our Poisson approximation to the optimal treatment policy matched the optimal policy in 99% of cases. This high accuracy translates to nearly identical health outcomes for patients. Furthermore, the Poisson approximation results in 104 additional quality-adjusted life years per 1000 patients compared to the Seventh Joint National Committee’s treatment guidelines for hypertension. The comparative health performance of the Poisson approximation was robust to the cardiovascular disease risk calculator used and calculator calibration error. Limitations: Our results are based on Markov chain modeling. Conclusions: Poisson model approximation for blood pressure treatment planning has high fidelity to optimal MDP treatment policies, which can improve usability and enhance transparency of more personalized treatment policies.

  14. The barriers to patient-driven treatment in mental health: why patients may choose to follow their own path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the barriers that currently exist to patient-driven treatment within the field of mental health care and reform. This study represents action learning research using grounded theory to explore a possible causal basis for recidivism related to non-compliance with medication. Interviews addressed concerns from the literature around perceived barriers to patient-driven treatment evidenced by non-compliance with medically recommended pharmaceutical treatment. Results were correlated to look for emergent themes that were used to form the basis for subsequent interview questions. An analysis of the resulting emergent themes illustrated the importance of participatory treatment and coaching rather than medically applied paternalistic care, which is seen as encouraging learned helplessness on the part of patients. Similar helplessness was also revealed in clinicians themselves. Patients' awareness of their own needs and demands for more services place clients and the caregivers at odds over appropriate care in an environment of limited resources. The research was limited to only a small number of interviewees in one institution, all of whom were closely associated with mental illness in various capacities. The grounded theory nature of the research does, however, provide a framework for more research in other institutions to test and further explore some of the findings. The study demonstrated a reinforcement of Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy. The study illustrated a step-wise approach to treatment to decrease the rate of failure and recidivism in mental health care. The provision of a stable living environment was viewed as instrumental in improving patients' compliance with pharmaceutical treatment. An action plan was therefore created to initiate the support of a transitional/emergency house by various community groups in partnership with pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. Recidivism in mental health-created by non-compliance in

  15. CROHN'S DISEASE: GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT WITH ADALIMUMABE BIOPHARMACEUTICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Marques

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's Disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gastrointestinal system. The etiology is not fully understood, however, genetic, immunological, microbiological and environmental factors are related to its genesis. The most common manifestations of this disease are diarrhea, abdominal pain, ulcers and fistulas. In the absence of adequate treatment it can evolve into extra intestinal complications and is also an important risk factor for colon and rectal cancer. The treatment of the disease is palliative and there is no cure for the disease, being considered only the period of remission of symptoms, as a good prognosis. The biopharmaceutical, Adalimumabe, produced by recombinant DNA technology has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of this disease, as it prevents the action of TNF-α, a cytokine involved in inflammation and is abundant in individuals with CD. Although Adalimumabe has good results, its use leads to side effects that can be mild or fatal, such as the activation of tuberculosis.

  16. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran; Fortunato, Luca; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  17. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran

    2017-04-21

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  18. Clinical characteristics and outcome of surgical treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were 12 patients with alveolar disease while six had embryonal type of rhabdomyosarcoma. Treatment was by combination chemotherapy, and surgical excision which was done primarily in 11, after chemotherapy in four, and after radiotherapy in one. Two had biopsy only. Five patients are alive, two of them without ...

  19. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy

  20. Microwave-driven plasma gasification for biomass waste treatment at miniature scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.; Navarrete Muñoz, A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification technology may combine waste treatment with energy generation. Conventional gasification processes are bulky and inflexible. By using an external energy source, in the form of microwave-generated plasma, equipment size may be reduced and flexibility as regards to the feed composition

  1. Microwave-driven asbestos treatment and its scale-up for use after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sumi, Takuya; Ito, Shigeyuki; Dillert, Ralf; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sato, Motoyasu; Shinohara, Naoki

    2014-06-17

    Asbestos-containing debris generated by the tsunami after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, was processed by microwave heating. The analysis of the treated samples employing thermo gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and phase-contrast microscopy revealed the rapid detoxification of the waste by conversion of the asbestos fibers to a nonfibrous glassy material. The detoxification by the microwave method occurred at a significantly lower processing temperature than the thermal methods actually established for the treatment of asbestos-containing waste. The lower treatment temperature is considered to be a consequence of the microwave penetration depth into the waste material and the increased intensity of the microwave electric field in the gaps between the asbestos fibers resulting in a rapid heating of the fibers inside the debris. A continuous treatment plant having a capacity of 2000 kg day(-1) of asbestos-containing waste was built in the area affected by the earthquake disaster. This treatment plant consists of a rotary kiln to burn the combustible waste (wood) and a microwave rotary kiln to treat asbestos-containing inorganic materials. The hot flue gas produced by the combustion of wood is introduced into the connected microwave rotary kiln to increase the energy efficiency of the combined process. Successful operation of this combined device with regard to asbestos decomposition is demonstrated.

  2. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TREATMENT OF SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on risk factors of severe course of atopic dermatitis in children: the role of alimentary and inhalant allergens, cutaneous infections, allergic reactions to drugs used in the treatment of disease. The most important questions of differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis in children and the distinctive features of the illness, which may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis (primary immunodeficiencies, keratosis pilaris, psoriasis, enteropatic acrodermatitis; cutaneous bacterial and fungal infections, and drug-induced contact dermatitis to topical creams and ointments are discussed. Treatment of atopic dermatitis is based on modern approaches and includes recommendations on the use of emolents, anti-inflammatory drugs (topical glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors. The article provides indications and contraindications to the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. Special recommendations for use of cleansers and emolents at all degrees of severity of atopic dermatitis, which helps reduce the risk of side effects of topical corticosteroids, complications such as cutaneous infections and helps to maintain remission of disease are given. The importance of training programs patients is emphasized. Compliance of patients and/or their parents contributes to the achievement of the desired effect of the treatment of atopic dermatitis, which will improve the patients’ quality of life.

  3. Relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation for patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine G; Andrea, Helene; van den Eijnden, Ellen; Meerman, Anke M M A; Thunnissen, Moniek M; Hamers, Elisabeth F M; Huson, Nelleke; Ziegler, Uli; Stijnen, Theo; Busschbach, Jan J V; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2011-10-01

    Within a large multi-center study in patients with personality disorders, we investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation. Personality pathology, symptom distress, treatment history, motivational factors, and sociodemographics were measured at intake in 923 patients, who subsequently enrolled in short-term or long-term outpatient, day hospital, or inpatient psychotherapy for personality pathology. Logistic regressions were used to examine the predictors of allocation decisions. We found a moderate relationship (R(2) = 0.36) between patient characteristics and treatment setting, and a weak relationship (R(2) = 0.18) between patient characteristics and treatment duration. The most prominent predictors for setting were: symptom distress, cluster C personality pathology, level of identity integration, treatment history, motivation, and parental responsibility. For duration the most prominent predictor was age. We conclude from this study that, in addition to pathology and motivation factors, sociodemographics and treatment history are related to treatment allocation in clinical practice.

  4. 'Omics'-driven discoveries in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Pedersen, Oluf

    2012-01-01

    as type 2 diabetes risk assessment tools. Recently, however, panels of multiple biomarkers reflecting several pre-diabetic pathologies have been developed. Their specificity and potentials for future risk stratification are discussed. As a multifactorial disorder type 2 diabetes calls for a multifactorial...... treatment approach targeting multiple but modifiable vascular risk factors. The same holds for pre-diabetic states and prevention hereof. In addition, type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes show major heterogeneity between affected individuals in pathology, risk of organ damages, progression rate...... and responsiveness to treatment or prevention. Despite the heterogeneity and uniqueness of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes most affected individuals are currently offered interventions as if they all have the same disease or risk of disease and will respond similarly. The complex origin and course of type 2...

  5. Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J A; Ávila, C; Otter, P; Kilian, R; Istenič, D; Rolletschek, M; Molle, P; Khalil, N; Ameršek, I; Mishra, V K; Jorgensen, C; Garfi, A; Carvalho, P; Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2017-09-01

    SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m 2 and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

  6. Effects of freestream on the characteristics of thermally-driven boundary layers along a heated vertical flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Lee, Jinho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A time-developing direct numerical simulations are done for water along a heated vertical plate. ► The objective is to see the effects of free streams on the combined-convection boundary layers. ► There are no reports for water with direct numerical simulation in this regards. ► An experiment is also conducted on the transitional and turbulent boundary layer in water. ► This is to collect informations on the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer. - Abstract: Time-developing thermally-driven boundary layers created by imposing aiding and opposing freestreams on the natural-convection boundary layer in water along a heated vertical flat plate have been examined with a direct numerical simulation to clarify their transition and turbulence behaviors. The numerical results for aiding flow reveal that the transition begins at a thick laminar boundary layer due to the delay of the transition and large-scale vortexes centering on the spanwise direction are followed, while, for opposing flow, the transition begins at a thin laminar boundary layer due to the quickening of the transition and relatively small-scale vortexes are generated with the progress of transition. To improve the significance of the present numerical results, the association of turbulence statistics between time- and space-developing flows has been investigated. Consequently, the numerical results for time-developing flow are converted to those for space-developing flow through the integral thickness of the velocity boundary layer for pure natural convection, and thus the regimes of boundary layer flows can be quantitatively assessed. Moreover, the turbulence statistics and the flow structures in the thermally-driven boundary layers are also presented.

  7. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  8. [Morphologic characteristic of chronic toxic hepatitis for treatment with Neoselen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroilov, R I; Salikhodzhaeva, U Sh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the given research work was to study the features of morphologic changes arising for treatment of chronic hepatitis with Neoselen. It was established a picture of chronic active hepatitis in the liver of rats with the following development of chronic persisting hepatitis by the 40 daily administration of heliotrine and its transmission into cirrhosis in a certain part of animals. Hepatic cirrhosis has a small nodal portal character by its pathognomonic morphologic signs. A noticeable remittance of destructive necrotic changes in hepatic parenchymatous elements and reduction in a volume of proliferative inflammatory infiltration with an acceleration in process of its fibrozation in only periportal zones of hepatic lobules found to be for treatment of chronic hepatitis with Neoselen. That prevents from transmission of chronic hepatitis into cirrhosis in a greater part of animals that is a morphologic evidence of importance of selenium in a restorative process of biologic membranes and its involvement in a remittance process of destructive and inflammatory changes in the liver and prevention from development of agressive hepatitis and its transmission into cirrhosis.

  9. Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Barbara C; Williamson, Peter D; Thadani, Vijay M; Gilbert, Karen L; Holmes, Gregory L; Morse, Richard P; Darcey, Terrance M; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Bujarski, Krysztof A; Roberts, David W

    2010-11-01

    Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy remains a surgical challenge. Clinical characteristics of 14 patients were analyzed. Twelve patients had surgery, seven patients had visual auras (50%) and only eight patients (57%) had posterior scalp EEG changes. Ictal single-proton emission computed tomography (SPECT) incorrectly localized in 7 of 10 patients. Six patients (50%) had Engel's class I outcome. Patients with inferior occipital seizure onset appeared to fare better (three of four class I) than patients with lateral or medial occipital seizure onset (three of eight class I). Patients who had all three occipital surfaces covered with electrodes had a better outcome (four of five class I) than patients who had limited electroencephalography (EEG) coverage (two of seven class I). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions did not guarantee a seizure free outcome. In conclusion, visual auras, scalp EEG, and imaging findings are not reliable for correct identification of occipital onset. Occipital seizure onset can be easily missed in nonlesional epilepsy. Comprehensive intracranial EEG coverage of all three occipital surfaces leads to better outcomes.

  10. Characteristics of a Circular Logic and Its Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2007-01-01

    A circular logic or a logical loop is defined as the infinite circulation of supporting relations due to their mutual dependencies among the systems in the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). While many methods to break the circular logic have been developed and used in the fault tree quantification codes, the general solution for a circular logic and its breaking methods are not generally known as yet. This paper presents an analytic solution for circular logics in which the systems are linearly interrelated with each other. Then, a general treatment of circular logics is discussed. To formulate the analytic solution, the relations among systems in the fault tree structure are described by the Boolean equations. The solution is, then, obtained from the successive substitutions of the Boolean equations, which is equivalent to the attaching processes of interrelated system's fault tree to a given fault tree. The solution for three interrelated systems and their independent fault tree structures are given as an example

  11. [Advanced Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and treatment (part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisevsky, J; Luquin, M R; Arbelo, J M; Burguera, J A; Carrillo, F; Castro, A; Chacón, J; García-Ruiz, P J; Lezcano, E; Mir, P; Martinez-Castrillo, J C; Martínez-Torres, I; Puente, V; Sesar, A; Valldeoriola-Serra, F; Yañez, R

    2013-10-01

    A large percentage of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, and severe non-motor symptoms within 3 to 5 years of starting dopaminergic therapy, and these motor complications are refractory to treatment. Several authors refer to this stage of the disease as advanced Parkinson's disease. To define the clinical manifestations of advanced PD and the risk factors for reaching this stage of the disease. This consensus document has been prepared by using an exhaustive literature search and by discussion of the contents by an expert group on movement disorders of the Sociedad Española de Neurología (Spanish Neurology Society), coordinated by two of the authors (JK and MRL). Severe motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, axial motor symptoms resistant to levodopa, and cognitive decline are the main signs in the clinical phenotype of advanced PD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics and performance of anaerobic wastewater treatment (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, B.S.; Mahmood, Q.; Pervez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Pakistan's current population of 180 million is expected to grow to about 221 million by the year 2025. In developing countries such as Pakistan water pollution is a major threat to the livelihood of people. Pakistan is also currently experiencing profound demographic, economic changes and energy crisis that have major implications for water management. The contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with heavy metals is a major environmental problem. Each pollution problem calls for specific optimal and cost effective solution so if one technology proves less or ineffective other takes its place. Every day the vast amounts of the municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes are released in to the environment and create serious problems. Anaerobic digestion is very attractive and cost-effective option and technology for the highly loaded waste water treatment and energy conversion. The anaerobic process is in many ways ideal for waste treatment. It has several significant advantages over other available methods. In this process organic matter is utilized as source of electron donor to reduce carbon dioxide to produce methane gas. It involves three bacterial groups namely: hydrolytic, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria that work optimally at pH and temperature ranges of 6.8 to 7.5 and 30-35 degree C, respectively. The residence time in a digester varies with the amount and type of feed material, the configuration of the digestion system, and whether it be one-stage or two-stage. It is ideal for all kinds of wastewaters. Currently anaerobic technology is being operated at full scale in many industrialized nations. (author)

  13. [Characteristics and treatment of traumatic cervical disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jing-Lei; Zhang, Chao-Yue; Peng, Zhi

    2012-10-01

    To explore clinical presentations and the operational opportunity of traumatic cervical disc herniation. From June 2002 to June 2009,40 patients with traumatic cervical disc herniation were treated. There were 24 males and 16 females, with an average age of 43.2 years old ranging from 30 to 56 years. There were 36 patients with single intervertebral disc herniation and 4 patients with double. The injury level of those patients were at C3,4 in 16 cases, C4,5 in 10 cases, C5,6 in 12 cases and C6,7 in 6 cases. Among them, 18 patients showed spinal cord signal changes by MRI, 5 patients suffered from nothing but neck and shoulder pain, 8 patients with nerve root stimulation; 10 patients with spinal cord compression, and 17 patients had both nerve root stimulation and spinal cord compression symptoms. Conservative treatment were applied to 13 patients with neck and shoulder pain and nerve root stimulation, 5 cases of which were transferred to operation in case of poor effects, and Odom criteria were used to assess operational effects. Twenty-seven patients with spinal cord compression accepted operation from 1 to 27days after their trauma, 16 of which were operated in 5 days (early operational group with an JOA score of 11.3 +/- 2.8), other 11 cases were operated from 5 to 27 days (delayed operational group with an JOA score of 11.4 +/- 2.9 ), then functional assessment of spinal cord were assessed according to JOA criteria. Three patients who were transferred from conservative treatment recovered excellently according to Odom criteria and the other 2 were good at final followed-up. JOA score of early operational group increased from (11.3 +/- 2.8) to (15.3 +/- 1.8) one week after operation (P traumatic cervical disc herniation and cervical spondylosis. Early operation is favorable to the recovery of neurological function in patients with spinal cord compression.

  14. Identification of changes in hydrological drought characteristics from a multi-GCM driven ensemble constrained by observed discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgevoort, van M.H.J.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought severity and related socio-economic impacts are expected to increase due to climate change. To better adapt to these impacts, more knowledge on changes in future hydrological drought characteristics (e.g. frequency, duration) is needed rather than only knowledge on changes in meteorological

  15. Patient geometry-driven information retrieval for IMRT treatment plan quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Binbin; Ricchetti, Francesco; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Kazhdan, Misha; Simari, Patricio; Chuang Ming; Taylor, Russell; Jacques, Robert; McNutt, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan quality depends on the planner's level of experience and the amount of time the planner invests in developing the plan. Planners often unwittingly accept plans when further sparing of the organs at risk (OARs) is possible. The authors propose a method of IMRT treatment plan quality control that helps planners to evaluate the doses of the OARs upon completion of a new plan. Methods: It is achieved by comparing the geometric configurations of the OARs and targets of a new patient with those of prior patients, whose plans are maintained in a database. They introduce the concept of a shape relationship descriptor and, specifically, the overlap volume histogram (OVH) to describe the spatial configuration of an OAR with respect to a target. The OVH provides a way to infer the likely DVHs of the OARs by comparing the relative spatial configurations between patients. A database of prior patients is built to serve as an external reference. At the conclusion of a new plan, planners search through the database and identify related patients by comparing the OAR-target geometric relationships of the new patient with those of prior patients. The treatment plans of these related patients are retrieved from the database and guide planners in determining whether lower doses delivered to the OARs in the new plan are feasible. Results: Preliminary evaluation is promising. In this evaluation, they applied the analysis to the parotid DVHs of 32 prior head-and-neck patients, whose plans are maintained in a database. Each parotid was queried against the other 63 parotids to determine whether a lower dose was possible. The 17 parotids that promised the greatest reduction in D 50 (DVH dose at 50% volume) were flagged. These 17 parotids came from 13 patients. The method also indicated that the doses of the other nine parotids of the 13 patients could not be reduced, so they were included in the replanning process as

  16. Hearing Loss in Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Characteristics and Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillion, Joseph P.; Vernick, David; Shapiro, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common heritable disorder of connective tissue. It is associated with fractures following relatively minor injury, blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, increased joint mobility, short stature, and hearing loss. Structures in the otic capsule and inner ear share in the histologic features common to other skeletal tissues. OI is due to mutations involving several genes, the most commonly involved are the COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes which are responsible for the synthesis of the proalpha-1 and proalpha-2 polypeptide chains that form the type I collagen triple helix. A genotype/phenotype relationship to hearing loss has not been established in OI. Hearing loss is commonly found in OI with prevalence rates ranging from 50 to 92% in some studies. Hearing loss in OI may be conductive, mixed, or sensorineural and is more common by the second or third decade. Treatment options such as hearing aids, stapes surgery, and cochlear implants are discussed. PMID:22567374

  17. Obesity-related glomerulopathy: pathogenesis, pathologic, clinical characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhua; Sheng, Zitong; Yao, Li

    2017-09-01

    In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies. The mechanisms under ORG are complex, especially hemodynamic changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and reduced functioning nephrons. These mechanisms synergize with obesity to induce end-stage renal disease. A slow increase of subnephrotic proteinuria ( < 3.5 g/d) is the most common clinical manifestation of ORG. Several treatment methods for ORG have been developed. Of these methods, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and weight loss are proven effective. Targeting mitochondria may offer a novel strategy for ORG therapy. Nevertheless, more research is needed to further understand ORG.

  18. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in adults: clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we describe the clinical characteristics, etiology, treatment and outcome of zoonotic bacterial meningitis. Each chapter describes meningitis patients infected by a specific zoonotic pathogen, such as Streptococcus equi, Streptococcuis suis, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Campylobacter

  19. Engagement with HIV prevention treatment and care among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: a respondent driven sampling survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Frances M; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Ndikudze, Theresa; Chidiya, Samson; Benedikt, Clemens; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R

    2013-01-01

    To determine the HIV prevalence and extent of engagement with HIV prevention and care among a representative sample of Zimbabwean sex workers working in Victoria Falls, Hwange and Mutare. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys conducted at each site. Sex workers were recruited using respondent driven sampling with each respondent limited to recruiting 2 peers. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a finger prick blood sample for HIV antibody testing. Statistical analysis took account of sampling method. 870 women were recruited from the three sites. HIV prevalence was between 50 and 70%. Around half of those confirmed HIV positive were aware of their HIV status and of those 50-70% reported being enrolled in HIV care programmes. Overall only 25-35% of those with laboratory-confirmed HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy. Among those reporting they were HIV negative, 21-28% reported having an HIV test in the last 6 months. Of those tested HIV negative, most (65-82%) were unaware of their status. Around two-thirds of sex workers reported consistent condom use with their clients. As in other settings, sex workers reported high rates of gender based violence and police harassment. This survey suggests that prevalence of HIV is high among sex workers in Zimbabwe and that their engagement with prevention, treatment and care is sub-optimal. Intensifying prevention and care interventions for sex workers has the potential to markedly reduce HIV and social risks for sex workers, their clients and the general population in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region.

  20. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  1. DUST DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE: A MECHANISM FOR FLOATING DUST GRAINS WITH CHARACTERISTIC SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: miyake.tomoya@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: stakeru@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  2. Ten year experience with antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia: Trends in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phirum Lay

    Full Text Available Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period.We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The cumulative incidence of death, lost to follow-up (LTFU, attrition (death or LTFU and first line treatment failure were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Independent risk factors for these outcomes were determined using Cox regression modeling.Over the ten-year period, 3581 patients initiated ART with a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (IQR 2.8-7.2. The median age was 35 years (IQR 30-41, 54% were female. The median CD4 count at ART initiation increased from 22 cells/μL (IQR 4-129 in 2003 to 218 (IQR 57-302 in 2013. Over the 10 year period, a total of 282 (7.9% individuals died and 433 (12.1% were defined LTFU. Program attrition (died or LTFU was 11.1% (95% CI: 10.1%- 12.4% at one year, 16.3% (95% CI: 15.1%-17.6% at three years, 19.8% (95% CI: 18.5%-21.2% at five years and 23.3% (95% CI: 21.6-25.1 at ten years. Male sex and low baseline body mass index (BMI were associated with increased attrition. Factors independently associated with mortality included a low baseline CD4 count, older age, male sex, low baseline BMI and hepatitis B co-infection. Individuals aged above 40 years old had an increased risk of mortality but were less likely to LTFU. There were a total of 137 individuals with first line ART failure starting second line treatment. The probability of first line failure was estimated at 2.8% (95% CI: 2.3%-3.4% at 3 years, 4.6% (95% CI: 3.9%-5.5% at 5 years and 7.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.5% at ten years of ART. The probability was

  3. Effects of Relative SG Tube Pitches on the Performance Characteristics of a Small Modular Reactor driven by Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Yi, Kunwoo; Lee, Byungjin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, the capacity and basic dimensions for SMRs driven by a natural circulation are preliminarily assumed to determine the SMR configuration for the conceptual design, and each of the pre-set values is explained below. Firstly, the PZR configuration is not considered because it is not included to the main flow of the primary coolant. One of the SMR requirements is that SMR shall carry on the road. Hence, the vehicle geometrical limits are 15 meters for the length, and 3.5 meters for the height, approximately. With these limits for the dimensions of the SMR, RV length is assumed about 13.8 meters and RV diameter about 2.5 meters. In IAEA definition for SMRs, the capacity of electric power is no more than 300 MWe. If the efficiency of SMR power plant is assumed to 33% compared to the commercial power plant, the core power is below 1,000 MWth. In this research, the core power is assumed to 200 MWth arbitrarily during normal operation. The primary coolant passes through the outside of tubes, and the heat is transfer to the secondary feedwater. The secondary feedwater passes through the inside of tubes, and the heat from the primary coolant is received to generate the superheated steam. The present work carries out numerical simulations to get an insight for the effects of the diameters of the reactor vessel and riser using the parameters such as the steam generator tube pitches. To sum up, the calculation results show a good agreement with the theoretical equation and the uniform diameter loop has a more uniform temperature distribution and larger mass flow rate.

  4. Friction Surface Treatment Selection: Aggregate Properties, Surface Characteristics, Alternative Treatments, and Safety Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long term performance of the selected surface friction treatments, including high friction surface treatment (HFST) using calcined bauxite and steel slag, and conventional friction surfacing, in particular pavement pr...

  5. Willingness to pay for methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnamese epicentres of injection-drug-driven HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan

    2013-07-01

    Willingness to pay for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in three Vietnamese epicentres of injection-drug-driven human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was assessed. A convenience sample of 1016 patients receiving HIV treatment in seven clinics was enrolled during 2012. Contingent valuation was used to assess willingness to pay. Interviewers reviewed adverse consequences of injection drug use and the benefits of MMT. Interviewers then described the government's plan to scale up MMT and the financial barriers to scale-up. Willingness to pay was assessed using double-bounded binary questions and a follow-up open-ended question. Point and interval data models were used to estimate maximum willingness to pay. A total of 548 non-drug-users and 468 injection drug users were enrolled; 988 were willing to pay for MMT. Monthly mean willingness to pay among non-drug-users, 347 drug users not receiving MMT and 121 drug users receiving MMT was 10.7 United States dollars [US$] (35.7% of treatment costs), US$ 21.1 (70.3%) and US$ 26.2 (87.3%), respectively (mean: US$ 15.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 13.6-18.1). Fifty per cent of drug users were willing to pay 50% of MMT costs. Residence in households with low monthly per capita income and poor health status predicted willingness to pay less among drug users; educational level, employment status, health status and current antiretroviral therapy receipt predicted willingness to pay less among non-drug-users. Willingness to pay for MMT was very high, supporting implementation of a co-payment programme.

  6. Examining flow-flame interaction and the characteristic stretch rate in vortex-driven combustion dynamics using PIV and numerical simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck; Speth, Raymond L.; Shanbhogue, Santosh J.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Examining flow-flame interaction and the characteristic stretch rate in vortex-driven combustion dynamics using PIV and numerical simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Consultant Characteristics on Telemedicine Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Bynum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined teleconsultants' specialty, practice setting, type of employment, years and training in telemedicine to evaluate the effect of these characteristics on diagnoses and treatment. A postuse survey was conducted during 1998–2003 (n=454 consultations in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences' Rural Hospital, Telehealth Project. There were 61 consultants who conducted the teleconsultations. The teleconsultants established a diagnosis in 121 consultations and reported a change in diagnoses in 29 consultations. The consultants established a treatment plan in 219 consultations and reported a change in the treatment plan in 100 consultations. Dermatologists were significantly more likely to establish (P<.01 and change (P=.005 the diagnosis and to establish a treatment plan (P=.03, when compared to all other specialties. Teleconsultants who were self-employed were significantly more likely to change the treatment plan (P=.012. The findings suggest that teleconsultants' characteristics can affect diagnoses and treatment in telemedicine.

  9. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence and characteristics of homelessness in the NSW substance treatment population: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julaine; Kemp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and characteristics of homelessness episodes in Australian substance misuse treatment. A dataset containing all closed substance treatment episodes in NSW, Australia from July 2006 to June 2011 was used. Statistical analysis was used to determine any relationships between demographic and treatment variables and homelessness. Of the 213, 129 treatment episodes in the dataset 12.8% have some form of homelessness. Non-government and residential services have the highest prevalence of homelessness. Sex, age, and drug type have weak relationships with homelessness. Leaving against the advice of the treatment provider is more common in episodes where homelessness is a factor. Homelessness is a problem experienced by a significant proportion of the substance treatment population and treatment providers have an opportunity and an obligation to address it in their treatment delivery.

  11. Onset of chaos and dc current-voltage characteristics of rf-driven Josephson junctions in the low-frequency regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.C.; Vanneste, C.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive picture of the dc current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of rf-driven Josephson junctions in the low-frequency regime is presented. The boundary of the low-frequency regime is roughly defined by the junction characteristic frequency for overdamped junctions, and by the inverse of the junction damping time for underdamped junctions. An adiabatic model valid for the low-frequency regime is used to describe the overall shapes of the I-V curves, which is in good agreement with both the numerical simulations and the experimental results. For underdamped junctions, the Shapiro steps are the prominent features on the I-V curves if the rf frequency is sufficiently below the boundary. As the rf frequency is increased towards the boundary, large negatively-going tails on top of the Shapiro steps are observed both experimentally and numerically. Numerical simulations using the resistively- and capacitively-shunted-junction model (RCSJ model) reveal that the negatively-going tail is a signature of the low-frequency boundary of the junction chaotic regime. With use of the adiabatic model and the existence of plasma oscillations for underdamped junctions, the onset of chaos and its effect on the Shapiro steps can be fully explained. The high-frequency limit of the adiabatic model and the chaotic behavior of the Josephson junctions beyond the low-frequency regime are also briefly discussed

  12. Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Land Use Land Cover Change Driven by Large Scale Land Transactions in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Smith, J. C.; Hijmans, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Since mid-1990s, the Cambodian government granted nearly 300 `Economic Land Concessions' (ELCs), occupying approximately 2.3 million ha to foreign and domestic organizations (primarily agribusinesses). The majority of Cambodian ELC deals have been issued in areas of both relatively low population density and low agricultural productivity, dominated by smallholder production. These regions often contain highly biodiverse areas, thereby increasing the ecological cost associated with land clearing for extractive purposes. These large-scale land transactions have also resulted in substantial and rapid changes in land-use patterns and agriculture practices by smallholder farmers. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of land use change associated with large-scale land transactions across Cambodia using multi-temporal multi-reolution remote sensing data. We identified major regions of deforestation during the last two decades using Landsat archive, global forest change data (2000-2014) and georeferenced database of ELC deals. We then mapped the deforestation and land clearing within ELC boundaries as well as areas bordering or near ELCs to quantify the impact of ELCs on local communities. Using time-series from MODIS Vegetation Indices products for the study period, we also estimated the time period over which any particular ELC deal initiated its proposed activity. We found evidence of similar patterns of land use change outside the boundaries of ELC deals which may be associated with i) illegal land encroachments by ELCs and/or ii) new agricultural practices adopted by local farmers near ELC boundaries. We also detected significant time gaps between ELC deal granting dates and initiation of land clearing for ELC purposes. Interestingly, we also found that not all designated areas for ELCs were put into effect indicating the possible proliferation of speculative land deals. This study demonstrates the potential of remote sensing techniques

  13. A user-friendly, menu-driven, language-free laser characteristics curves graphing program for desk-top IBM PC compatible computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutz, Glenn

    1989-01-01

    A facility was established that uses collected data and feeds it into mathematical models that generate improved data arrays by correcting for various losses, base line drift, and conversion to unity scaling. These developed data arrays have headers and other identifying information affixed and are subsequently stored in a Laser Materials and Characteristics data base which is accessible to various users. The two part data base: absorption - emission spectra and tabulated data, is developed around twelve laser models. The tabulated section of the data base is divided into several parts: crystalline, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; aborption and emission spectra information; chemical name and formulas; and miscellaneous. A menu-driven, language-free graphing program will reduce and/or remove the requirement that users become competent FORTRAN programmers and the concomitant requirement that they also spend several days to a few weeks becoming conversant with the GEOGRAF library and sequence of calls and the continual refreshers of both. The work included becoming thoroughly conversant with or at least very familiar with GEOGRAF by GEOCOMP Corp. The development of the graphing program involved trial runs of the various callable library routines on dummy data in order to become familiar with actual implementation and sequencing. This was followed by trial runs with actual data base files and some additional data from current research that was not in the data base but currently needed graphs. After successful runs, with dummy and real data, using actual FORTRAN instructions steps were undertaken to develop the menu-driven language-free implementation of a program which would require the user only know how to use microcomputers. The user would simply be responding to items displayed on the video screen. To assist the user in arriving at the optimum values needed for a specific graph, a paper, and pencil check list was made available to use on the trial runs.

  14. Influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Célia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts, as well as the influence of lyophilization process on natural yogurts after reconstitution. In the first experiment, three yogurt treatments were processed, as follows: Treatment 1, yogurt produced with raw refrigerated milk; Treatment 2, yogurt produced with refrigerated pasteurized milk; and Treatment 3, yogurt produced with UHT (ultra-high temperature milk, in addition to analyses of fat, protein, moisture, titratable acidity, and pH. The shelf life of yogurts at 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of storage, as well as pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, viable lactic bacteria, and total coliforms were also assessed. In the second experiment, yogurts were submitted to lyophilization process, performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis and subsequently in those reconstituted, in addition to being assessed the physicochemical, rheological, and viable lactic bacteria characteristics. The results found in the first experiment showed that heat treatment was positive for viscosity, syneresis, and lactic bacteria, being viable until the 15th day of storage only for yogurts submitted to heat treatment. In the second experiment, lyophilization preserved the physicochemical characteristics of yogurts, but the number of initial lactic bacteria was different, also negatively affecting yogurt viscosity.

  15. Characteristics of psychiatric patients for whom financial considerations affect optimal treatment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joyce C; Pingitore, David; Zarin, Deborah A

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed characteristics of psychiatric patients for whom financial considerations affected the provision of "optimal" treatment. Psychiatrists reported that for 33.8 percent of 1,228 patients from a national sample, financial considerations such as managed care limitations, the patient's personal finances, and limitations inherent in the public care system adversely affected the provision of optimal treatment. Patients were more likely to have their treatment adversely affected by financial considerations if they were more severely ill, had more than one behavioral health disorder or a psychosocial problem, or were receiving treatment under managed care arrangements. Patients for whom financial considerations affect the provision of optimal treatment represent a population for whom access to treatment may be particularly important.

  16. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  17. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; Ter Huurne, Elke D; Becker, Eni S; de Jong, Cor A J

    2011-11-01

    The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. To determine whether e-therapy and face-to-face groups differed from each other and changed over time. We compared the baseline characteristics of four naturalistic groups (N = 4593): two e-therapy groups (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) and two consecutive series of ambulant face-to-face clients admitted for treatment as usual. The characteristics we were interested in were gender, age, education level, working situation, and earlier treatment for drinking problems. The results showed that the baseline characteristics of e-therapy and face-to-face clients differed by gender, education level, work situation, prior alcohol treatment, and age. We also found that both e-therapy groups differed over time by gender, work situation, and prior alcohol treatment. The e-therapy program successfully attracted clients who were different from those who were represented in regular face-to-face alcohol treatment services. This indicates that e-therapy decreases the barriers to treatment facilities and enhances the accessibility. However, the e-therapy population changed over time. Although the e-therapy program still reached an important new group of clients in 2008-2009, this group showed more overlap with the traditional face-to-face group of clients probably as a result of improved acceptance of e-therapy in the general population. Although e-therapy seems to be better accepted in the general population, anonymous treatment seems necessary to reach a broader range of problem drinkers.

  18. FORMING OF MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUGS OF TITANIC ALLOY BT23 AT THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhе changings of the initial plate structure of alloy BT23 at running of high-temperature thermal treatment of large-sized slugs with heating up to 650- 950 eC and cooling on air and in water and their influence on forming of complex of mechanical characteristics are examined.

  19. Clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and socio-economic burden of COPD in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamusheva, Maria; Dimitrova, Maria; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; van der Molen, Thys; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Mitov, Konstantin; Doneva, Miglena; Petrova, Daniela; Georgiev, Ognyan; Petkova, Valentina; Petrova, Guenka

    Background: While the impact of COPD in Western-Europe is known, data from Eastern-Europe is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and the socio-economic burden of COPD in Eastern-Europe, taking Bulgaria as a reference case. Methods: A representative

  20. Effects of Program and Patient Characteristics on Retention of Drug Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Joshi, Vandana; Maglione, Margaret; Chou, Chih Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Studied the effects of program and patient characteristics on patient retention in residential, out-patient, and methadone maintenance drug treatment programs. Data for 26,047 patients in 87 programs show that threshold retention rates were generally low for all 3 program types, although program practice and service provision played important…

  1. Still Struggling: Characteristics of Youth with OCD Who Are Partial Responders to Medication Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.; Sapyta, J.; Garcia, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Khanna, M.; Choate-Summers, M.; Moore, P.; Chrisman, A.; Haff, N.; Naeem, A.; March, J.; Franklin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to examine the characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant symptoms) to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medication. The sample will be described with regard to: demographics, treatment history, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and…

  2. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study. Volume 1, Characteristics and treatment alternatives: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills Landfill. The leachate was first analyzed for conventional and priority pollutants. The leachate was well buffered at pH 7 to 8 with an alkalinity of 5,000 to 6,000 mg/L. The BOD was low, usually less than 100 mg/L, but the COD was as high as 1,800 mg/L. Ammonia concentrations were around 700 mg/L and the color resembled strong tea at 3,000 colorimetric units. Only few of the priority pollutants were present, and at extremely low concentrations. Based on the chemical characteristics of the leachate, the primary environmental impact would be on the oxygen balance of the receiving surface waters.

  3. How do intake clinicians use patient characteristics to select treatment for patients with personality disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Visbach, Geny; Ziegler, Uli; Gerritsen, Ad; Van Rossum, Bert; Rijnierse, Piet; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2008-11-01

    Treatment selection in clinical practice is a poorly understood, often largely implicit decision process, perhaps especially for patients with personality disorders. This study, therefore, investigated how intake clinicians use information about patient characteristics to select psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with personality disorder. A structured interview with a forced-choice format was administered to 27 experienced intake clinicians working in five specialist mental health care institutes in the Netherlands. Substantial consensus was evident among intake clinicians. The results revealed that none of the presented patient characteristics were deemed relevant for the selection of the suitable treatment setting. The appropriate duration and intensity are selected using severity or personal strength variables. The theoretical orientation is selected using personal strength variables.

  4. Multidisciplinary Treatments, Patient Characteristics, Context of Care, and Adverse Incidents in Older, Hospitalized Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah L. Shever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to adverse incidents by creating a model that included patient characteristics, clinical conditions, nursing unit context of care variables, medical treatments, pharmaceutical treatments, and nursing treatments. Data were abstracted from electronic, administrative, and clinical data repositories. The sample included older adults hospitalized during a four-year period at one, academic medical facility in the Midwestern United States who were at risk for falling. Relational databases were built and a multistep, statistical model building analytic process was used. Total registered nurse (RN hours per patient day (HPPD and HPPDs dropping below the nursing unit average were significant explanatory variables for experiencing an adverse incident. The number of medical and pharmaceutical treatments that a patient received during hospitalization as well as many specific nursing treatments (e.g., restraint use, neurological monitoring were also contributors to experiencing an adverse incident.

  5. Modification of Oil Palm Mesocarp Fiber Characteristics Using Superheated Steam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbian Karuppuchamy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF was treated with superheated steam (SHS in order to modify its characteristics for biocomposite applications. Treatment was conducted at temperatures 190–230 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. SHS-treated OPMF was evaluated for its chemical composition, thermal stability, morphology and crystallinity. OPMF treated at 230 °C exhibited lower hemicellulose content (9% compared to the untreated OPMF (33%. Improved thermal stability of OPMF was found after the SHS treatment. Moreover, SEM and ICP analyses of SHS-treated OPMF showed that silica bodies were removed from OPMF after the SHS treatment. XRD results exhibited that OPMF crystallinity increased after SHS treatment, indicating tougher fiber properties. Hemicellulose removal makes the fiber surface more hydrophobic, whereby silica removal increases the surface roughness of the fiber. Overall, the results obtained herewith suggested that SHS is an effective treatment method for surface modification and subsequently improving the characteristics of the natural fiber. Most importantly, the use of novel, eco-friendly SHS may contribute to the green and sustainable treatment for surface modification of natural fiber.

  6. Effects of processing treatment and sorbate addition on the flavor characteristics of apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylston, Terri D; Wang, Hui; Reitmeier, Cheryll A; Glatz, Bonita A

    2003-03-26

    Processing treatments used to produce a microbiologically "safe" apple cider were evaluated to determine the impact of these treatments on the overall flavor characteristics. Apple cider with (0.1%) and without (0%) potassium sorbate was subjected to four processing treatments: untreated, irradiated at 2 kGy, irradiated at 4 kGy, and pasteurized. Volatile flavor compounds were isolated from the cider using solid-phase microextraction methods with gas chromatographic analysis. A trained descriptive analysis panel evaluated sensory attributes. The effects of the processing treatment were dependent on the presence of sorbate in the apple cider. Irradiation treatments resulted in a decrease in the content of esters characteristic of apple flavor and an increase in the content of alcohols and aldehydes formed through lipid oxidation reactions. The presence of sorbate reduced the effects of the irradiation treatments on these volatile flavor compounds. Sensory panelists, however, detected higher intensities of undesirable flavor attributes, including "cardboard flavor", and lower intensities of the desirable "apple flavor" in irradiated cider with added sorbate.

  7. Clinical characteristics, drug resistance, and treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients with diabetes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Bloss, E; Shin, S S; Contreras, C; Huaman, H Arbanil; Ticona, J Calderon; Bayona, J; Bonilla, C; Yagui, M; Jave, O; Cegielski, J P

    2013-06-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB). Data are limited regarding the association between diabetes and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. We examined characteristics of TB patients with and without diabetes in a Peruvian cohort at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Among TB patients with diabetes (TB-DM), we studied the association between diabetes clinical/management characteristics and TB drug resistance and treatment outcomes. During 2005-2008, adults with suspected TB with respiratory symptoms in Lima, Peru, who received rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST), were prospectively enrolled and followed during treatment. Bivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to examine the relationships of diabetes characteristics with drug-resistant TB and TB outcomes. Of 1671 adult TB patients enrolled, 186 (11.1%) had diabetes. TB-DM patients were significantly more likely than TB patients without diabetes to be older, have had no previous TB treatment, and to have a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg/m(2) (pdiabetes, and 12% and 28%, respectively, among TB-DM patients. Among 149 TB-DM patients with DST results, 104 (69.8%) had drug-susceptible TB and 45 (30.2%) had drug-resistant TB, of whom 29 had multidrug-resistant TB. There was no association between diabetes characteristics and drug-resistant TB. Of 136 TB-DM patients with outcome information, 107 (78.7%) had a favorable TB outcome; active diabetes management was associated with a favorable outcome. Diabetes was common in a cohort of TB patients at high risk for drug-resistant TB. Despite prevalent multidrug-resistant TB among TB-DM patients, the majority had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  9. The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.

  10. [Diagnosis and treatment characteristics of head-wind sha in She medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guangyi; Xu, Xiangdong; Zheng, Songming; Yan, Lianhe; Lei, Houxing; Zhang, Qiao-ling; Xiang, Yingmei; Ye, Yiping; Song, Liwei

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis and treatment characteristics of head-wind sha in She medicine were analyzed and summarized. By visiting She-nationality villages and towns in Zhejiang province and Fujian province and interviewing hundreds of doctors of She medicine, the sha diagnosis, sha differentiation, experience and theory of treatment were arranged, and a comprehensive summary on theory and application of head-wind sha in She medicine such as pathogeny, name of disease, mechanism, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment was made. It is believed that the methods of diagnosis and treatment in She medicine for head-wind sha could effectively enhance curative effect, safety and patients' quality of life, and the further research should be carried out.

  11. Clinical characteristics and treatment response to SSRI in a female pedophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eva W C; Choy, Alberto L

    2002-04-01

    Although much investigation has been done with male sex offenders, there have been few studies on female sex offenders. Female sex offenders have been reported as having a high incidence of psychiatric disorders, but female paraphilics were rarely described. The literature on the treatment of female sex offenders is also limited and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) has not been reported. This paper presents the case of a woman with DSM-IV pedophilia. Her clinical characteristics, her offense history, and her positive response to treatment with sertraline (a SSRI) are described. This case adds to the limited literature on female pedophiles and suggests that SSRIs may be an effective treatment for paraphilic disorders in female sex offenders.

  12. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: characteristics and treatment in an Irish patient cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, EP

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.

  13. Do patient characteristics predict outcome in the outpatient treatment of chronic tinnitus?

    OpenAIRE

    Kr?ner-Herwig, Birgit; Zachriat, Claudia; Weigand, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    Various patient characteristics were assessed before offering a treatment to reduce tinnitus related distress to 57 individuals suffering from chronic idiopathic tinnitus. Patients were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral tinnitus coping training (TCT) and a habituation-based training (HT) modelled after Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as conceived by Jastreboff. Both trainings were conducted in groups. It was hypothesized that comorbidity regarding mental disorders or psychopatholo...

  14. A Single Centre Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Adil, M. T.; Nagaraja, R.; Varma, V.; Mehta, N.; Kumaran, V.; Nundy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours (PENs) are rare and can be nonfunctioning or functioning. They carry a good prognosis overall though high grade lesions show a relatively shorter survival. The aim of the current study is to describe a single centre analysis of the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of PENs. Patients and Methods. This is a cohort analysis of 40 patients of PENs who underwent surgery at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2013. Patient pa...

  15. Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenqing; Jiang, Linlin; Xie, Yafei; Liu, Yuqiang; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Guilong

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.

  16. Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: differences in clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. A consecutive series of children (n=100, aged 6-12 years) and adolescents (n=100, aged 13-18 years), referred to a routine clinical service, were assessed for anxiety and comorbid disorders, school refusal and parental symptoms of psychopathology. Children with a primary anxiety disorder were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder than adolescents. Adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder had significantly higher self and clinician rated anxiety symptoms and had more frequent primary diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, diagnoses and symptoms of mood disorders, and irregular school attendance. Childhood and adolescence were considered categorically as distinct, developmental periods; in reality changes would be unlikely to occur in such a discrete manner. The finding that children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have distinct clinical characteristics has clear implications for treatment. Simply adapting treatments designed for children to make the materials more 'adolescent-friendly' is unlikely to sufficiently meet the needs of adolescents. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent and Interactive Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Network Characteristics on Problem Drinking after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.

  18. Clinical Characteristics of Men Interested in Seeking Treatment for Use of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Martino, Steve; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, men's interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Methods Using an Internet-based data-collection procedure, we recruited 1,298 male pornography users to complete questionnaires assessing demographic and sexual behaviors, hypersexuality, pornography-use characteristics, and current interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Results Approximately 14% of men reported an interest in seeking treatment for use of pornography, whereas only 6.4% of men had previously sought treatment for use of pornography. Treatment-interested men were 9.5 times more likely to report clinically significant levels of hypersexuality compared with treatment-disinterested men (OR = 9.52, 95% CI = 6.72-13.49). Bivariate analyses indicated that interest-in-seeking-treatment status was associated with being single/unmarried, viewing more pornography per week, engaging in more solitary masturbation in the past month, having had less dyadic oral sex in the past month, reporting a history of seeking treatment for use of pornography, and having had more past attempts to either "cut back" or quit using pornography completely. Results from a binary logistic regression analysis indicated that more frequent cut back/quit attempts with pornography and scores on the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory - Control subscale were significant predictors of interest-in-seeking-treatment status. Discussion and conclusions Study findings could be used to inform current screening practices aimed at identifying specific aspects of sexual self-control, impulsivity, and/or compulsivity associated with problematic use of pornography among treatment-seeking individuals.

  19. Laser treatment of a neodymium magnet and analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.

  20. Post oxygen treatment characteristics of coke as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik; Jo, Yong Nam; Yu, Ji-Sang; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2013-05-01

    The effect of a oxygen treatment on the electrochemical characteristics of a soft carbon anode material for Li-ion batteries was investigated. After a coke carbonization process at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere, the samples were treated under a flow of oxygen gas to obtain a mild oxidation effect. After this oxygen treatment, the coke samples exhibited an improved initial coulombic efficiency and cycle performance as compared to the carbonized sample. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the carbonized cokes consisted of disordered and nanosized graphene layers and the surface of the modified carbon was significantly changed after the treatment. The chemical state of the cokes was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the surface modified cokes could be attributed to the mild oxidation effect induced by the oxygen treatment. The mild oxidation process could have led to the elimination of surface imperfections and the reinforcement of a solid electrolyte interphase film, which resulted in the improved electrochemical characteristics.

  1. Characteristics of Treatment Decisions to Address Challenging Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anixt, Julia S; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Estridge, Halley; Smith, Laura; Brinkman, William B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority. Before and after the visit, parents rated their uncertainty about the treatment plan using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). We calculated descriptive statistics for the measures. Fifty-four families participated. Children were a mean (SD) age of 8.8 (3.3) years, and 87% were male. Children had a variety of behavioral challenges, and parents reported high levels of stress. Commonly reported parent treatment priorities were hyperactivity, tantrums, anxiety, and poor social skills. Levels of SDM were low, with a mean (SD) OPTION score of 24.5 (9.7). Parent priorities were addressed in 65% of treatment plans. Approximately 69% of parents had elevated DCS scores before the visit. Although levels of decisional conflict were lower after the visit compared with before the visit (p < 0.03), 46% of parents continued to report high scores on the DCS. Parents leave DBP visits with feelings of uncertainty about treatment decisions and with treatment plans that do not always address their priorities. SDM interventions hold promise to improve the quality of ASD treatment decisions.

  2. Characteristics and problems of 600 adolescent cannabis abusers in outpatient treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Frank M; Dennis, Michael L; Hamilton, Nancy; J Buchan, Betty; Diamond, Guy; Funk, Rod; Brantley, Laura B

    2002-12-01

    Risk factors among adolescent substance abusers have been shown to correlate with substance use severity. Characteristics related to severity, such as demographic and family factors, peer influences, psychiatric co-morbidity and HIV risk behaviors, are examined for a sample of adolescent cannabis users entering treatment. These data are from a clinical trial study utilizing blocked random assignment of clients to one of five treatment conditions. The study targeted adolescents entering outpatient treatment for primarily cannabis abuse or dependence. Treatment and research facilities in four metropolitan areas of the US were used to recruit study participants. Treatment was delivered in outpatient drug-free settings. Participants were 600 clients, ages 12-18, admitted to outpatient substance abuse treatment programs for cannabis problems, 96% with DSM-IV diagnoses of substance abuse or dependence, with the remaining 4% having at least one symptom of dependence plus significant problems indicating need for treatment. The Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) was used to collect the information presented in this paper. The GAIN incorporates DSM-IV criteria for substance use disorders, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as dimensional (scale) measures for physical and mental health. All participants reported at least one symptom of substance use disorders, and 46% met the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, while 50% met criteria for a diagnosis of abuse. Only 20% of the participants perceived any need for help with problems associated with their drug or alcohol use. Clients participating in the study typically presented multiple problems at treatment entry, most often including conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internal (mental) distress, and physical health distress. The co-occurrence of conduct disorder and ADHD was found in 30% of the sample. Clients meeting criteria for substance

  3. The suggestion of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Jun Cho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives & Methods: This suggestion was attempted to be elevated the recognition of common characteristics in disease. So, we performed to analyze the correlation of common cause of disease, characteristics of human body, and medical treatment. And the results are as follows. Results: 1. The cause of disease is consist of genetic factor, aging, habit, food of not good in health, weather, environment, deficit of the physical activity, stress and so on. 2. Generally, human has common and individual weakness. Individual weakness is appeared similar to the occurrence of volcano and lapse. 3. The correlation of disease and medical treatments is possible to explain using the quotation of the law of motion made by Isaac Newton, the great physicist. 4. When the process of the medical treatment was not progressed, the prognosis is determined by the correlation of the homeostasis(H' in human body and the homeostasis(H of disease. 5. The prognosis of disease is determined by the relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F'. 6. The exact diagnosis is possible to predict the treatment sequence, and the facts that homeostasis in human body and disease, relationship between the energy of disease(F and medical treatment(F', action and reaction are important to determine the prognosis. 7. The careful observation of improving response and worsening action of disease becomes available for exact prognosis. Conclusion: The above described contents may be useful in clinical studies, and the concrete clinical reports about this will be made afterward.

  4. Disparities in breast cancer tumor characteristics, treatment, time to treatment, and survival probability among African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Fisher, James L; Lustberg, Maryam B; Gray, Darrell M; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2018-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a 42% higher breast cancer death rate compared to white women despite recent advancements in management of the disease. We examined racial differences in clinical and tumor characteristics, treatment and survival in patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution, the James Cancer Hospital, and who were included in the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute Cancer Registry in Columbus OH. Statistical analyses included likelihood ratio chi-square tests for differences in proportions, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine associations between race and overall and progression-free survival probabilities. AA women made up 10.2% (469 of 4593) the sample. Average time to onset of treatment after diagnosis was almost two times longer in AA women compared to white women (62.0 days vs 35.5 days, p  triple negative and late stage breast cancer, and were less likely to receive surgery, especially mastectomy and reconstruction following mastectomy. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, grade, and surgery), overall survival probability was significantly associated with race (HR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.72). These findings highlight the need for efforts focused on screening and receipt of prompt treatment among AA women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  5. Flow Characteristics and Grain Size Distribution of Granular Gangue Mineral by Compaction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A test system for water flow in granular gangue mineral was designed to study the flow characteristics by compaction treatment. With the increase of the compaction displacement, the porosity decreases and void in granular gangue becomes less. The main reason causing initial porosity decrease is that the void of larger size is filled with small particles. Permeability tends to decrease and non-Darcy flow factor increases under the compaction treatment. The change trend of flow characteristics shows twists and turns, which indicate that flow characteristics of granular gangue mineral are related to compaction level, grain size distribution, crushing, and fracture structure. During compaction, larger particles are crushed, which in turn causes the weight of smaller particles to increase, and water flow induces fine particles to migrate (weight loss; meanwhile, a sample with more weight of size (0–2.5 mm has a higher amount of weight loss. Water seepage will cause the decrease of some chemical components, where SiO2 decreased the highest in these components; the components decreased are more likely locked at fragments rather than the defect of the minerals. The variation of the chemical components has an opposite trend when compared with permeability.

  6. Characteristics of Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Treatment using Biological Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmiarti Reni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of nanoparticles in drinking water treatment were performed using five types of biological activated carbon (BAC columns (BAC1-BAC5 in continuous flow experiments. The BAC was created by covering granular activated carbon (GAC with attached microorganisms from water samples taken from the Nagara River in Japan. The total running time was about 2000 h. The characteristics of the nanoparticles were investigated based on size distribution and volume distribution measured by Zetasizer Nano. Total dissolved organic carbon (DOC and ultraviolet absorbance at 260 nm (UV260 were also studied. The important results in this study were that the detached nanoparticles in the effluent were within the size distribution ranges of 0.26~5.62 nm, 0.62~3.62 nm, 0.62~3.12 nm, 0.62~4.19 nm, and 0.62~6.50 for BAC 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The profile of peak size and peak number along the bed depth of the BAC columns was evaluated for better understanding the characteristics of the nanoparticles. This result is very important for improving drinking water treatment using granular activated carbon to remove microorganisms.

  7. SCIRehab uses practice-based evidence methodology to associate patient and treatment characteristics with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Gassaway, Julie

    2013-04-01

    To describe the application of practice-based evidence (PBE) methodology to spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in the SCIRehab study, and to summarize associations of patient characteristics and treatment interventions to outcomes. Prospective observational study. Six SCI rehabilitation centers. Patients with traumatic SCI (N=1376) admitted for first rehabilitation. Not applicable. FIM and residence at discharge, and FIM, residence, Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, work/school status, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, rehospitalization, and presence of pressure ulcers at 1 year postinjury. Patient demographic and injury characteristics explained significant variation in rehabilitation outcomes, particularly functional outcomes. Regression modeling also identified a large number of significant associations with outcomes when total time in each discipline was modeled and when models were developed for each discipline, examining time spent in the many specific interventions provided by each discipline. The application of PBE methodology in the SCIRehab study provided extensive information about the process of inpatient SCI rehabilitation. While patient demographic and injury characteristics explain substantial variation in rehabilitation outcomes, particularly functional outcomes, significant relations also were found between the type and quantity of treatment interventions delivered by each rehabilitation discipline and a broad range of outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of spondylotic myelopathy on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo magnetic resonance imaging: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhadi, Mike A; Perno, Joseph R; Melhem, Elias R; Nucifora, Paolo G P

    2014-01-01

    In patients with spinal stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine can be improved by using 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences to provide a high-resolution assessment of osseous and ligamentous structures. However, it is not yet clear whether 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences adequately evaluate the spinal cord itself. As a result, they are generally supplemented by additional 2D fast spin echo sequences, adding time to the examination and potential discomfort to the patient. Here we investigate the hypothesis that in patients with spinal stenosis and spondylotic myelopathy, 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences can characterize cord lesions equally well as 2D fast spin echo sequences. We performed a retrospective analysis of 30 adult patients with spondylotic myelopathy who had been examined with both 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences and 2D fast spin echo sequences at the same scanning session. The two sequences were inspected separately for each patient, and visible cord lesions were manually traced. We found no significant differences between 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo and 2D fast spin echo sequences in the mean number, mean area, or mean transverse dimensions of spondylotic cord lesions. Nevertheless, the mean contrast-to-noise ratio of cord lesions was decreased on 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences compared to 2D fast spin echo sequences. These findings suggest that 3D driven-equilibrium fast spin echo sequences do not need supplemental 2D fast spin echo sequences for the diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy, but they may be less well suited for quantitative signal measurements in the spinal cord.

  9. Clinical characteristics of older male military veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudreau, Sherry A; Rideaux, Tiffany; Zeiss, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    Male sexual dysfunction is a significant international public health issue affecting both middle-aged and older adults. To date, however, no studies have compared age differences in psychiatric issues, frequency of sexual activity and treatment recommendations between older and middle-aged male military Veterans seeking treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the U.S.A. Data were collected between 1982 and 2003 at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Andrology Clinic. The 1,250 participants, aged 22 to 87 years (median = 63), completed a semi-structured interview. Using multiple linear regressions, we examined age differences in five domains: medical and endocrine risk factors; psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors; frequency of sexual behaviors; self-reported and objectively measured erectile function; and treatment recommendations. Compared with middle-aged adults, older adults were more likely to present for ED treatment with medical risk factors and were more often recommended a vacuum pump treatment. Middle-aged male Veterans were more likely to experience psychiatric risk factors for ED and were more sexually active than older Veterans. Despite greater objective erectile ability in middle-aged adults, there were no age differences in maximum self-reported erectile functioning. These results provide some evidence of age-related characteristics and treatment needs of male patients seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. We encourage health care professionals working with adults across the lifespan to consider ways to individualize psychoeducation and brief psychotherapy for the treatment of ED to the specific needs of the patient, which may vary between middle-aged and older cohorts of patients.

  10. The Effect of Mechanochemical Treatment of the Cellulose on Characteristics of Nanocellulose Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, V. A.; Yaschenko, O. V.; Alushkin, S. V.; Kondratyuk, A. S.; Posudievsky, O. Y.; Koshechko, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The development of the nanomaterials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demand in the market of the optoelectronic devices, biodegradable plastics, and materials for energy saving and energy storage. Nanocellulose is comprised of the nanosized cellulose particles, properties of which depend on characteristics of plant raw materials as well as methods of nanocellulose preparation. In this study, the effect of the mechanochemical treatment of bleached softwood sulfate pulp on the optical and mechanical properties of nanocellulose films was assessed. It was established that the method of the subsequent grinding, acid hydrolysis and ultrasound treatment of cellulose generated films with the significant transparency in the visible spectral range (up to 78 % at 600 nm), high Young's modulus (up to 8.8 GPa), and tensile strength (up to 88 MPa) with increased ordering of the packing of the cellulose macromolecules. Morphological characterization was done using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocellulose particles had an average diameter of 15-30 nm and a high aspect ratio in the range 120-150. The crystallinity was increased with successive treatments as shown by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The thermal degradation behavior of cellulose samples was explored by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  11. Dentist and practice characteristics associated with restorative treatment of enamel caries in permanent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellows, Jeffrey L; Gordan, Valeria V; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current evidence in dentistry recommends non-surgical treatment to manage enamel caries lesions. However, surveyed practitioners report they would restore enamel lesions that are confined to the enamel. Actual clinical data were used to evaluate patient, dentist, and practice...... characteristics associated with restoration of enamel caries, while accounting for other factors. METHODS: Data from a National Dental Practice-Based Research Network observational study of consecutive restorations placed in previously unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and practice/demographic data from 229...... participating network dentists were combined. ANOVA and logistic regression, using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and variable selection within blocks, were used to test the hypothesis that patient, dentist, and practice characteristics were associated with variations in enamel restorations of occlusal...

  12. Relationship between stent characteristics and treatment outcomes in endoscopic transmural drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ji Young; Wilcox, C Mel; Trevino, Jessica M; Ramesh, Jayapal; Hasan, Muhammad; Hawes, Robert H; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    Transmural stents are placed at endoscopy to drain pancreatic fluid collections. This study evaluated the relationship between stent placement and treatment outcomes in patients undergoing endoscopic transmural drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts. This is a retrospective study of all patients who underwent endoscopic drainage of uncomplicated pancreatic pseudocysts over a 10-year period. After dilating the transmural tracts in the range of 8-15 mm, single or multiple, 7 or 10Fr double-pigtail plastic stents were deployed. The main outcome measure was to evaluate the relationship between stent characteristics and the number of endoscopic interventions required to achieve resolution of the pancreatic pseudocyst (treatment success). Of 122 patients, 45 (36.9%) had 10Fr stents of which 30 patients (66.7%) had more than one stent; the remaining 77 (63.1%) patients had 7Fr stents of which 56 (72.7%) had more than one stent. The overall treatment success was 94.3%. Treatment was successful in 102 patients (83.6%) with one intervention; 13 patients (10.7%) required re-intervention for successful drainage and 7 patients (5.7%) failed endoscopic treatment. There was no significant difference in the number of interventions required for treatment success between patients with 7 or 10Fr stents (one intervention required in 87.7 vs. 90.5%, respectively; p = 0.766) and between patients with 1 or >1 stent (one intervention required in 88.9 vs. 88.6%, respectively; p = 0.999). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the stent size (OR 1.54; 95% CI 0.23-10.4) and number (OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.25-5.25) were not associated with the number of interventions required for treatment success when adjusted for pseudocyst size, location, drainage modality, the presence or absence of pancreatic duct stent and luminal compression. There appears to be no relationship between the number of interventions required for treatment success and stent characteristics in patients undergoing

  13. Emotion-driven level generation

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the relationship between emotions and level generation. Grounded in the experience-driven procedural content generation framework we focus on levels and introduce a taxonomy of approaches for emotion-driven level generation. We then review four characteristic level generators of our earlier work that exemplify each one of the approaches introduced. We conclude the chapter with our vision on the future of emotion-driven level generation.

  14. Effects of microwave irradiation treatment on physicochemical characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lichao; Zhang, Yanwei; Wang, Zhihua; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Typical Chinese lignites with various ranks are upgraded through microwave. • The pore distribution extends to micropore region, BET area and volume increase. • FTIR show the change of microstructure and improvement in coal rank after upgrading. • Upgraded coals exhibit weak combustion similar to Da Tong bituminous coal. • More evident effects are obtained for raw brown coal with relative lower rank. - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation treatment on coal composition, pore structure, coal rank, function groups, and combustion characteristics of typical Chinese low-rank coals. Results showed that the upgrading process (microwave irradiation treatment) significantly reduced the coals’ inherent moisture, and increased their calorific value and fixed carbon content. It was also found that the upgrading process generated micropores and increased pore volume and surface area of the coals. Results on the oxygen/carbon ratio parameter indicated that the low-rank coals were upgraded to high-rank coals after the upgrading process, which is in agreement with the findings from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unstable components in the coal were converted into stable components during the upgrading process. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that the combustion processes of upgraded coals were delayed toward the high-temperature region, the ignition and burnout temperatures increased, and the comprehensive combustion parameter decreased. Compared with raw brown coals, the upgraded coals exhibited weak combustion characteristics similar to bituminous coal. The changes in physicochemical characteristics became more notable when processing temperature increased from 130 °C to 160 °C or the rank of raw brown coal was lower. Microwave irradiation treatment could be considered as an effective dewatering and upgrading process

  15. Eccrine Porocarcinoma: Patient Characteristics, Clinical and Histopathologic Features, and Treatment in 7 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zubiaur, A; Medina-Montalvo, S; Vélez-Velázquez, M D; Polo-Rodríguez, I

    2017-05-01

    Eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare, malignant cutaneous adnexal tumor that arises from the ducts of sweat glands. Found mainly in patients of advanced age, this tumor has diverse clinical presentations. Histology confirms the diagnosis, detects features relevant to prognosis, and guides treatment. Growth is slow, but the prognosis is poor if the tumor metastasizes to lymph nodes or visceral organs. We report 7 cases of eccrine porocarcinoma, describing patient characteristics, the clinical and histopathologic features of the tumors, and treatments used. Our observations were similar to those of other published case series. Given the lack of therapeutic algorithms or protocols for this carcinoma, we propose a decision-making schema based on our review of the literature and our experience with this case series. The algorithm centers on sentinel lymph node biopsy and histologic features. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Workforce Diversity in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: The Role of Leaders’ Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the outpatient substance abuse treatment field has seen an increase in referrals of African American and Latino clients, there have been limited changes in the diversity of the workforce. This discordance may exacerbate treatment disparities experienced by these clients. Program leaders have significant influence to leverage resources to develop staff diversity. Analysis of panel data from 1995 to 2005 showed that the most significant predictors of diversity were the characteristics of leaders. In particular, programs with managers with racially and ethnically concordant backgrounds and their education level were positively related to the percentage of Latino and African American staff. A high percentage of African American staff was positively associated with managers’ tenure, but inversely related to licensed directors. Diversification of the field has increased, yet efforts have not matched increases in client diversity. Implications for health care reform legislation seeking to improve cultural competence through diversification of the workforce are discussed. PMID:22658932

  17. Workforce diversity in outpatient substance abuse treatment: the role of leaders' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2013-02-01

    Although the outpatient substance abuse treatment field has seen an increase in referrals of African American and Latino clients, there have been limited changes in the diversity of the workforce. This discordance may exacerbate treatment disparities experienced by these clients. Program leaders have significant influence to leverage resources to develop staff diversity. Analysis of panel data from 1995 to 2005 showed that the most significant predictors of diversity were the characteristics of leaders. In particular, programs with managers with racially and ethnically concordant backgrounds and their education level were positively related to the percentage of Latino and African American staff. A high percentage of African American staff was positively associated with managers' tenure, but inversely related to licensed directors. Diversification of the field has increased, yet efforts have not matched increases in client diversity. Implications for health care reform legislation seeking to improve cultural competence through diversification of the workforce are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in Children: A Review of Clinical Characteristics and Recommendations for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP is an acquired and autoimmune neuropathy, characterized by a chronic, rapidly progressive, symmetric weakness. In children, abnormal gait is as a first symptom of muscle weakness. Evidence Acquisition: The diagnosis of CIDP is on the basis of clinical characteristics, electrodiagnostic that shows the severity of the disease, lumbar puncture and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results: The first-line treatments in childhood CIDP are intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, corticosteroids, and plasmapheresis. Response to first-line therapies is usually satisfactory; nevertheless, recommendations regarding the choice of second-line therapy can only be prepared on the basis of the existing practice described in some of the case reports. Conclusions: This review demonstrated the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of childhood CIDP.

  19. Enhancement of methane gas sensing characteristics of graphene oxide sensor by heat treatment and laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assar, Mohammadreza; Karimzadeh, Rouhollah

    2016-12-01

    The present study uses a rapid, easy and practical method for cost-effective fabrication of a methane gas sensor. The sensor was made by drop-casting a graphene oxide suspension onto an interdigital circuit surface. The electrical conductivity and gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor were determined and then heat treatment and in situ laser irradiation were applied to improve the device conductivity and gas sensitivity. Real-time monitoring of the evolution of the device current as a function of heat treatment time revealed significant changes in the conductance of the graphene oxide sensor. The use of low power laser irradiation enhanced both the electrical conductivity and sensing response of the graphene oxide sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  1. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji [University of Tokushima, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a 'magic wand' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  2. Carcass characteristics and meat evaluation of Nelore cattle subjected to different antioxidant treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Jesus do Carmo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty Nelore cattle were used to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different antioxidants on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle. Animals were fed Brachiaria brizantha hay and subjected to five treatments (control and four antioxidants: zinc, selenium, vitamin E, and selenium + vitamin E. After a 105-day feeding period, cattle were slaughtered. Tissue composition, as well as carcass proximate composition, color, tenderness, pH, and fatty acid profile were evaluated. Analysis of variance was carried out and means compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability. The group fed selenium showed the lowest muscle amount (66.61 g/100 g compared with the other antioxidants evaluated. There was no difference among treatments for bone, fat, and comestible portion percentages as well as muscle:bone, muscle:fat, and comestible portion:bone ratios, with mean values of 16.85 g/100 g, 14.70 g/100 g, 82.99 g/100 g, 4.06, 4.85, and 4.95, respectively. Neither brightness, red, or yellow contents of the meat nor carcass pH were affected by treatments. For tenderness and losses during thawing and cooking, there were no differences among treatments, with averages of 6.43 kgf cm2, 3.22 g/100 g, and 21.15 g/100 g, respectively. Supplementation of Nelore cattle fed Brachiaria brizantha hay with antioxidants do not influence carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, vitamin E supplementation reduces the levels of omega 3 fatty acid, whereas supplementation with selenium + vitamin E promotes an increase in linoleic and palmitoleic acids and a decrease in myristoleic acid, making the supplementation feasible due to the beneficial effects provided by these acids.

  3. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji [University of Tokushima, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a 'magic wand' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  4. Characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of hypoglossal canal dural arteriovenous fistula: report of nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Shinji; Satoh, Koichi; Matsubara, Shunji; Satomi, Junichiro; Hanaoka, Mami; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We report the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the hypoglossal canal in nine patients with this relatively rare vascular disorder. Of 248 patients with intracranial DAVFs managed at our institution, nine patients (3.6%; four men, five women; mean age 62 years) were diagnosed with hypoglossal canal DAVF. We investigated patient characteristics with respect to clinical symptoms, neuroradiological findings, efficacy and complications related to endovascular treatment. Seven patients had experienced head injury. All patients presented with pulsatile tinnitus. One patient displayed ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy before treatment. MR angiography showed a ''magic wand'' appearance between the affected hypoglossal canal and the internal jugular vein in four patients. Angiography demonstrated an AV fistula on the medial aspect of the superior jugular bulb, mostly arising from the bilateral occipital, ascending pharyngeal and vertebral arteries with drainage to the internal jugular vein via the anterior condylar vein. Contralateral carotid injection accurately clarified the shunting point. Five patients underwent endovascular treatment: transarterial embolization (TAE; n=2), transvenous embolization (TVE; n=2), and TAE/TVE (n=1). Complete shunt obliteration was achieved in four patients and shunt reduction in one. The remaining four patients were treated conservatively and the shunt had disappeared at follow-up. Postoperative hypoglossal nerve palsy occurred in one patient after TVE, possibly due to coil overpacking. The incidence of hypoglossal canal DAVF was not very low in our series. Contralateral carotid injection is an essential examination to provide an accurate diagnosis. TVE should be considered when access is available, although TAE is also appropriate for shunt reduction. (orig.)

  5. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.

  6. Effects of Surface Treatment of Activated Carbon on Its Surface and Cr(VI) Adsorption Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Jin; Jang, Yu Sin [Advanced Materials Division., Korea Research Institute of Chimical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on activated carbons (ACs) has been studied in the context of gas and liquid adsorption behaviors. The chemical solutions used in this experiment were 35% sodium hydroxide, and these were used for the acidic and basic treatments, respectively. The surface properties have been determined by pH, acid-base values, and FT-IR. The adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) ion on activated carbons have been studied with the 5 mg/l concentration at ambient temperature. N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm characteristics, which include the specific surface area, micro pore volume, and microporosity, were determined by BET and Boer's-plot methods. In case of the acidic treatment of activated carbons, it was observed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ion was more effective due to the increase acid value (or acidic functional group) of activated carbon surfaces. However, the basic treatment on activated carbons was caused no significant effects, probably due to the decreased specific surface area and total pore volume. 27 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Improvement of Plating Characteristics Between Nickel and PEEK by Plasma Treatment and Chemical Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye W.; Lee, Jong K.; Park, Ki Y.

    2009-01-01

    Surface of PEEK(poly-ether-ether-ketone) was modified by chemical etching, plasma treatment and mechanical grinding to improve the plating adhesion. The plating characteristics of these samples were studied by the contact angle, plating thickness, gloss and adhesion. Chemical etching and plasma treatment increased wettability, adhesion and gloss. The contact angle of as-received PEEK was 61 .deg. . The contact angles of chemical etched, plasma treated or both were improved to the range of 15∼33 .deg. . In the case of electroless plating, the thickest layer without blister was 1.6 μm. The adhesion strengths by chemical etching, plasma treatment or both chemical etching and plasma treatment were 75 kgf/cm 2 , 102 kgf/cm 2 , 113 kgf/cm 2 , respectively, comparing to the 24 kgf/cm 2 of as-received. In the case of mechanically ground PEEKs, the adhesion strengths were higher than those unground, with the sacrifice of surface gloss. The gloss of untreated PEEK were greater than mechanically ground PEEKs. Plating thickness increased linearly with the plating times

  8. Surface characteristics of bioactive Ti fabricated by chemical treatment for cartilaginous-integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Ozer, Fusun; Imazato, Satoshi; Mante, Francis K

    2017-09-01

    Artificial hip joints are generally expected to fail due to wear after approximately 15years and then have to be replaced by revision surgery. If articular cartilage can be integrated onto the articular surfaces of artificial joints in the same way as osseo-integration of titanium dental implants, the wear of joint implants may be reduced or prevented. However, very few studies have focused on the relationship between Ti surface and cartilage. To explore the possibility of cartilaginous-integration, we fabricated chemically treated Ti surfaces with H 2 O 2 /HCl, collagen type II and SBF, respectively. Then, we evaluated surface characteristics of the prepared Ti samples and assessed the cartilage formation by culturing chondrocytes on the Ti samples. When oxidized Ti was immersed in SBF for 7days, apatite was formed on the Ti surface. The surface characteristics of Ti indicated that the wettability was increased by all chemical treatments compared to untreated Ti, and that H 2 O 2 /HCl treated surface had significantly higher roughness compared to the other three groups. Chondrocytes produced significantly more cartilage matrix on all chemically treated Ti surfaces compared to untreated Ti. Thus, to realize cartilaginous-integration and to prevent wear of the implants in joints, application of bioactive Ti formed by chemical treatment would be a promising and effective strategy to improve durability of joint replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of heat treatment on field emission characteristics of boron nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Weiqing; Gu Guangrui; Li Yingai; He Zhi; Feng Wei; Liu Lihua; Zhao Chunhong; Zhao Yongnian

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride (BN) nanometer thin films are synthesized on Si (1 0 0) substrates by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Then the film surfaces are treated in the case of the base pressure below 5 x 10 -4 Pa and the temperature of 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively. And the films are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and field emission characteristics at different annealing temperature. The results show that the surface heat treatment makes no apparent influence on the surface morphology of the BN films. The transformations of the sample emission characteristics have to do with the surface negative electron affinity (NEA) of the films possibly. The threshold electric fields are lower for BN samples without heat-treating than the treated films, which possibly ascribed to the surface negative electron affinity effect. A threshold field of 8 V/μm and the emission current of 80 μA are obtained. The surface NEA is still presence at the heat treatment temperature of 800 deg. C and disappeared at temperature of 1000 deg. C

  10. Characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of periprocedural cerebrovascular accidents during electrophysiologic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Serge C; Thomas, George; Saliba, Walid I; Nakhoul, Georges N; Hussein, Ayman A; Duarte, Valeria E; Bhargava, Mandeep; Baranowski, Bryan; Tchou, Patrick; Dresing, Thomas; Callahan, Thomas; Kanj, Mohamed; Natale, Andrea; Lindsay, Bruce D; Wazni, Oussama M

    2013-06-01

    We sought to identify the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of periprocedural cerebrovascular accident (PCVA) during electrophysiologic (EP) procedures. Periprocedural cerebrovascular accident is one of the most feared complications during EP procedures with very few data regarding its characteristics, management, and outcomes. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we reviewed 30,032 invasive EP procedures for PCVA occurrence and characteristics. Management and outcomes were also determined. Thirty-eight CVAs were identified. Twenty (53 %) were intraprocedural and 18 (47 %) postprocedural. Thirty-two (84 %) were classified as strokes and six (16 %) as transient ischemic attacks. All CVAs except one (37, 97 %) were ischemic and the vast majority occurred during ablation procedures (36, 95 %). Among the 31 patients with ischemic stroke, 11 (35 %) were treated with reperfusion (eight catheter-based therapy and three intravenous t-PA) of whom five (46 %) had complete recovery, three (27 %) had partial recovery, and three (27 %) had no recovery. No hemorrhagic transformations occurred. Periprocedural cerebrovascular accident during EP procedures is rare and is almost always ischemic. It occurs more frequently during ablation procedures. Reperfusion therapy is feasible and safe.

  11. Physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge produced after thermochemical treatment of petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, I M

    2012-01-01

    The present work describes the physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the sludge generated after thermochemical treatment of wastewater from a petrochemical plant manufacturing purified terephthalic acid (PTA). Although FeCl3 was found to be more effective than CuSO4 in removing COD from wastewater, the settling and filtration characteristics of FeCl3 sludge were poorer. Addition of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAA; 0.050kg/m3) to the FeCl3 wastewater system greatly improved the values of the filter characteristics of specific cake resistance (1.2 x 10(8) m/kg) and resistance of filter medium (9.9 x 10(8) m(-1)) from the earlier values of 1.9 x 10(9) m/kg and 1.7 x 10(8) m(-1), respectively. SEM-EDAX and FTIR studies were undertaken, to understand the sludge structure and composition, respectively. The moisture distribution in the CuSO4 sludge, FeCl3 sludge and FeCl3 + CPAA sludge showed that the amount of bound water content in the CuSO4 and FeCl3 + CPAA sludges is less than that of the FeCl3 sludge and there was a significant reduction in the solid-water bond strength of FeCl3 + CPAA sludge, which was responsible for better settling and filtration characteristics. Due to the hazardous nature of the sludge, land application is not a possible route of disposal. The thermal degradation behaviour of the sludge was studied for its possible use as a co-fuel. The studies showed that degradation behaviour of the sludge was exothermic in nature. Because of the exothermic nature of the sludge, it can be used in making fuel briquettes or it can be disposed of via wet air oxidation.

  12. Depression, patient characteristics, and attachment style: correlates and mediators of medication treatment adherence in a racially diverse primary care sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Tomek, Sara; Roter, Debra; Carson, Kathryn A; Mugoya, George; Cooper, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    The depth and breadth of problems related to depressive symptomatology and optimal treatment outcomes, including medication treatment adherence, have long been documented in the literature. Missing are clear explanations as to what factors and patient characteristics may account for lack of medication treatment adherence. The two objectives of the current study were to examine the predictive strength of depression, patient characteristics, and patient attachment style regarding medication treatment adherence and to consider the extent to which attachment styles mediate the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence. Participants in the present study were 237 racially diverse American primary care patients with a diagnosis of hypertension who were participants in a clinical trial. Depression, patient characteristics, attachment style, and medication treatment adherence were assessed. Partly consistent with our four hypotheses, the following results were found: (a) Black American, younger, never married, and poorer patients had lower medication treatment adherence (b) depression was significantly associated with lower self-reported medication adherence; (c) insecure-dismissing attachment style was related to lower medication adherence; and (d) insecure-dismissing attachment style mediates the relation between depression and medication treatment adherence by exacerbating the negative association. Physicians and other primary care providers should consider how depressive symptomatology, patient characteristics, and attachment style may inform the treatment plans they put forward and the extent to which patients may adhere to those treatment plans.

  13. Retrospective study on the characteristics and treatment of late-onset vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan Ling; Ching, Vanessa Hui Ling; Chuah, Sai Yee; Thng, Tien Guan

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset vitiligo, defined as being aged 50 years and above at the point of clinical onset, remains poorly characterized till now. This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment response of patients with late-onset vitiligo. We retrospectively reviewed the case records of all patients diagnosed with late-onset vitiligo, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Information obtained included patient demographics, characteristics of vitiligo and treatment responses. Of the 3128 patients diagnosed with vitiligo over the 5-year period, 461 (14.7%) had late-onset disease. The study had more females (n = 260, 56.4%) than males, with an average onset age of 59.4 ± 7.4 years. Majority of patients were Chinese (n = 308, 66.8%) and 45 (9.8%) patients had an associated autoimmune disease. Focal vitiligo, defined as the localized presence of depigmented patches, was most common (n = 209, 45.3%). Treatment response was evaluated in 359 patients, of which 216 received monotherapy (topical creams: n = 210, 97.2%; phototherapy: n = 6, 2.8%) and 143 received both modalities. Fifty six (15.6%) patients received oral steroids. Patients who were treated with both topical creams and phototherapy yielded better clinical responses compared to those on monotherapy (P 50% return of pigmentation compared to baseline (vs. n = 66, 30.6% in the monotherapy group). The choice of phototherapy (targeted, narrowband ultraviolet B or psoralen + ultraviolet A) did not significantly affect clinical response (P = 0.774). This study is limited by its retrospective nature, the nonstandardized documentation resulting in the inability to determine disease progression and associated metabolic comorbidities and also by the gradual loss to follow-up of patients. Late-onset vitiligo is not uncommon and tends to be of the focal vitiligo subtype. Nonsegmented vitiligo is more prevalent than segmental vitiligo. Combination therapy with topical medications and phototherapy is superior

  14. Patient and parent preferences for characteristics of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Furlan,1 Sangeeta Krishnan,2 Jeffrey Vietri3 1Advanced Methods, Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 2Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, MA, USA; 3Health Outcomes, Kantar Health, Milan, Italy Introduction: New longer-acting factor products will potentially allow for less frequent infusion in prophylactic treatment of hemophilia. However, the role of administration frequency relative to other treatment attributes in determining preferences for prophylactic hemophilia treatment regimens is not well understood. Aim: To identify the relative importance of frequency of administration, efficacy, and other treatment characteristics among candidates for prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A and B. Method: An Internet survey was conducted among hemophilia patients and the parents of pediatric hemophilia patients in Australia, Canada, and the US. A monadic conjoint task was included in the survey, which varied frequency of administration (three, two, or one time per week for hemophilia A; twice weekly, weekly, or biweekly for hemophilia B, efficacy (no bleeding or breakthrough bleeding once every 4 months, 6 months, or 12 months, diluent volume (3 mL vs 2.5 mL for hemophilia A; 5 mL vs 3 mL for hemophilia B, vials per infusion (2 vs 1, reconstitution device (assembly required vs not, and manufacturer (established in hemophilia vs not. Respondents were asked their likelihood to switch from their current regimen to the presented treatment. Respondents were told to assume that other aspects of treatment, such as risk of inhibitor development, cost, and method of distribution, would remain the same. Results: A total of 89 patients and/or parents of children with hemophilia A participated; another 32 were included in the exercise for hemophilia B. Relative importance was 47%, 24%, and 18% for frequency of administration, efficacy, and manufacturer, respectively, in hemophilia A; analogous values were 48%, 26%, and 21% in

  15. Treatment patterns and clinical characteristics prior to initiating depot typical antipsychotics for nonadherent schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery William

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication is an important clinical and economic problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study identified treatment patterns and clinical characteristics that immediately precede the initiation of depot typical antipsychotics in the usual treatment of schizophrenia patients with a recent history of nonadherence with oral antipsychotic regimens. Methods Data were drawn from a large, multisite, 3-year prospective noninterventional observational study of persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States, which was conducted between 7/1997 and 9/2003. The analytical sample included patients who, in the 6 months prior to enrollment, were considered nonadherent with oral antipsychotics and were not treated with depot antipsychotics (N = 314. Patients who were subsequently initiated on typical depots during the 3-year follow-up were compared with patients who continued therapy with only oral antipsychotic agents. Group comparisons were made on patient baseline characteristics and precedent variables that were assessed 1 to 6 months prior to depot initiation. Patient assessments were made at predetermined intervals throughout the 3-year study using standard psychiatric measures, a patient-reported questionnaire, and medical record information. Results A small proportion of patients (12.4% who were recently nonadherent with oral antipsychotics were subsequently initiated on depot therapy during the 3-year study. Compared to patients treated with only oral antipsychotics, those subsequently initiated on a depot were significantly more likely to be hospitalized at depot initiation or the previous 30 days, to have recent involvement with the criminal justice system (arrests, recent illicit drug use, recent switching or augmentation of oral antipsychotics, and recent treatment with oral typical antipsychotics. Conclusion Despite prior nonadherence with oral antipsychotic medication, only a

  16. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of children with Lyme arthritis in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude, Pier Diane; Huber, Adam M; Mailman, Timothy; Ramsey, Suzanne; Lang, Bianca; Stringer, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging problem in Nova Scotia. Lyme arthritis is a late manifestation of Lyme disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, referral patterns and clinical course of children diagnosed with Lyme arthritis in a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. In the present retrospective chart review, subjects diagnosed with Lyme arthritis between 2006 and 2013 were identified through the clinic database. Demographic variables, referral patterns, clinical presentation and information regarding treatment course and outcome were collected. Seventeen patients were identified; 76% presented in 2012 and 2013. In 37.5% of cases, the referring physician suspected Lyme disease. Most patients presented with one or more painful and/or swollen joints; 94% had knee involvement. Only three of 17 patients had a history of erythema migrans and four of 17 recalled a tick bite. Five patients had a history of neurological manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, although, none had a diagnosis made at the time. Arthritis usually resolved after treatment with standard antibiotics; however, at last follow-up, two patients had antibiotic refractory Lyme arthritis, with one having joint damage despite aggressive arthritis treatment. A significant increase in cases of Lyme arthritis has recently been recognized in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. A history of a tick bite or erythema migrans were not sensitive markers of Lyme arthritis, and this diagnosis was often not considered by the referring physician. Educational initiatives should be undertaken to increase local awareness of this treatable cause of arthritis in children.

  17. Eating dysfunction associated with oromandibular dystonia: clinical characteristics and treatment considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Carlos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In oromandibular dystonia (OMD abnormal repetitive contractions of masticatory, facial, and lingual muscles as well as the presence of orobuccolingual (OBL dyskinesias may interfere with the appropriate performance of tasks such as chewing and swallowing leading to significant dysphagia and weight loss. We present here the clinical characteristics and treatment variables of a series of patients that developed an OMD-associated eating dysfunction. Methods We present a series of patients diagnosed and followed-up at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Department of Neurology of University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine over a 10-year period. Patients were treated with botulinum toxin injections according to standard methods. Results Five out of 32 (15.6% OMD patients experienced symptoms of eating dysfunction associated with OMD. Significant weight loss was reported in 3/5 patients (ranged for 13–15 lbs. Two patients regained the lost weight after treatment and one was lost to follow-up. Tetrabenazine in combination with other antidystonic medication and/or botulinum toxin injections provided substantial benefit to the patients with dysphagia caused by OMD. Conclusion Dystonic eating dysfunction may occasionally complicate OMD leading to weight loss. Its adequate characterization at the time of history taking and clinical examination should be part of outcome measurements of the anti-dystonic treatment in clinical practice.

  18. Impact of a Student Pharmacist Driven Medication Reconciliation and Antidepressant Treatment History Project at a Depression Clinic: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Stella S.; Jaward, Leanna; Ward, Kristen; Parikh, Sagar V.; Bostwick, Jolene R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To improve treatment of patients with depression, a new pilot service project involving student pharmacists who would conduct medication reconciliation and review of antidepressant treatment history was created and evaluated. Experimental design A prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Depression Center. Principal observations From an initial sample of 78 referrals, 41 subjects were reached by phone, with 34 completing medication reconciliation and antidepressant treatment history. Of the 34 patients, 25 (73.5%) had at least one discrepancy identified in their medication list, resulting in 164 medication changes in the electronic medical record (EMR). A total of 105 past antidepressant trials were documented in the 34 individuals, with 34 (32.4%) trials found to be inadequate. Thirteen (38.2%) patients reported failure to respond to two different antidepressants from different classes. All 34 patients participated well in the phone calls and were willing to consult a pharmacist at their upcoming clinic visit. Conclusions A student pharmacist pilot was feasible, identified many discrepancies in the medication record, and identified important medication treatment history in patients with depression in advance of the clinic visit. The project provides support for a specialized role for student pharmacists and demonstrates that interprofessional care can contribute to improved treatment of depression. PMID:28626270

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinomas: analysis of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Haldun S.; Serin, Meltem; Cakmak, Ahmet

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The present study reviews the experience in treatment of 447 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas, analyzing patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome. Materials and methods: There were 322 males and 125 females, their ages ranging from 7 to 85 years (median, 45 years). Two-hundred and seventy-two patients had World Health Organization (WHO) type 3 carcinomas, 123 patients had T4 tumors and 320 patients had metastatic cervical lymph nodes. Three-hundred and eight patients were treated with radiation therapy alone and 139 patients with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy. Cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor ranged from 50 to 76 Gy (median, 70 Gy) and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes ranged from 46 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Results: Follow-up ranged from 0.1 to 19.5 years (mean, 7.6 years). Local complete response was achieved in 357 patients. In multivariate analysis, T-classification, cumulative radiation dose to primary tumor and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted local response. Nodal complete response was achieved in 272 patients. In multivariate analysis, N-classification and radiation dose to metastatic cervical lymph nodes predicted nodal response. Local failure was observed in 70 patients, nodal failure in 35 patients and systemic failure in 114 patients. Overall survival, disease-free survival and disease-specific survival were 33, 32 and 37%, respectively, at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, age, T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted overall survival whereas T-classification, N-classification, radiation dose and treatment with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy predicted both disease-free survival and disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Radiation therapy alone appears to be an adequate and viable treatment for patients with early

  20. A descriptive survey of types, spread and characteristics of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, Peter O; Somoye, Edward B; Ogunwobi, Olorunfemi O; Ogunwale, Adegboyega; Akinhanmi, Akinwande O; Adamson, Taiwo A

    2011-09-18

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and the 8th most populous in the world with a population of over 154 million, does not have current data on substance abuse treatment demand and treatment facilities; however, the country has the highest one-year prevalence rate of Cannabis use (14.3%) in Africa and ranks third in Africa with respect to the one-year prevalence rate of cocaine (0.7%) and Opioids (0.7%) use. This study aimed to determine the types, spread and characteristics of the substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional survey of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Thirty-one units were invited and participated in filling an online questionnaire, adapted from the European Treatment Unit/Program Form (June 1997 version). All the units completed the online questionnaire. A large proportion (48%) was located in the South-West geopolitical zone of the country. Most (58%) were run by Non-Governmental Organizations. Half of them performed internal or external evaluation of treatment process or outcome. There were a total of 1043 for all categories of paid and volunteer staff, with an average of 33 staff per unit. Most of the funding came from charitable donations (30%). No unit provided drug substitution/maintenance therapy. The units had a total residential capacity of 566 beds. New client admissions in the past one year totalled 765 (mean = 48, median = 26.5, min = 0, max = 147) and 2478 clients received services in the non-residential units in the past year. No unit provided syringe exchange services. The study revealed a dearth of substance abuse treatment units (and of funds for the available ones) in a country with a large population size and one of the highest prevalence rates of substance abuse in Africa. The available units were not networked and lacked a directory or an evaluation framework. To provide an environment for effective monitoring, funding and continuous quality improvement, the units need to

  1. A descriptive survey of types, spread and characteristics of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinhanmi Akinwande O

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and the 8th most populous in the world with a population of over 154 million, does not have current data on substance abuse treatment demand and treatment facilities; however, the country has the highest one-year prevalence rate of Cannabis use (14.3% in Africa and ranks third in Africa with respect to the one-year prevalence rate of cocaine (0.7% and Opioids (0.7% use. This study aimed to determine the types, spread and characteristics of the substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Methods The study was a cross sectional survey of substance abuse treatment centers in Nigeria. Thirty-one units were invited and participated in filling an online questionnaire, adapted from the European Treatment Unit/Program Form (June 1997 version. Results All the units completed the online questionnaire. A large proportion (48% was located in the South-West geopolitical zone of the country. Most (58% were run by Non-Governmental Organizations. Half of them performed internal or external evaluation of treatment process or outcome. There were a total of 1043 for all categories of paid and volunteer staff, with an average of 33 staff per unit. Most of the funding came from charitable donations (30%. No unit provided drug substitution/maintenance therapy. The units had a total residential capacity of 566 beds. New client admissions in the past one year totalled 765 (mean = 48, median = 26.5, min = 0, max = 147 and 2478 clients received services in the non-residential units in the past year. No unit provided syringe exchange services. Conclusions The study revealed a dearth of substance abuse treatment units (and of funds for the available ones in a country with a large population size and one of the highest prevalence rates of substance abuse in Africa. The available units were not networked and lacked a directory or an evaluation framework. To provide an environment for effective monitoring

  2. Feasibility of preference-driven radiotherapy dose treatment planning to support shared decision making in anal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønde, Heidi S; Wee, Leonard; Pløen, John

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Chemo-radiotherapy is an established primary curative treatment for anal cancer, but clinically equal rationale for different target doses exists. If joint preferences (physician and patient) are used to determine acceptable tradeoffs in radiotherapy treatment planning, multipl...... that preference-informed dose planning is feasible for clinical studies utilizing shared decision making....... dose plans must be simultaneously explored. We quantified the degree to which different toxicity priorities might be incorporated into treatment plan selection, to elucidate the feasible decision space for shared decision making in anal cancer radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective plans.......7%-points; (0.3; 30.6); p decision space available in anal cancer radiotherapy to incorporate preferences, although tradeoffs are highly patient-dependent. This study demonstrates...

  3. Design of a visible light driven photo-electrochemical/electro-Fenton coupling oxidation system for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xing; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Coupling PEC and EF oxidation significantly improves pollutant degradation efficiency. ► The degradation of the PEC/EF system was increased by 154%. ► The instantaneous current efficiency of the PEC/EF system was increased by 26%. - Abstract: In this study, we report on a photo-electrochemical/electro-Fenton oxidation (PEC/EF) system by coupling visible light driven photo-electrochemical oxidation (PEC) and electro-Fenton oxidation (EF) in an undivided cell. Bi 2 WO 6 nanoplates deposited on FTO glass (Bi 2 WO 6 /FTO) and Fe-Fe 2 O 3 core–shell nanowires supported on activated carbon fiber (Fe-Fe 2 O 3 /ACF) were used as the anode and the cathode in the PEC/EF system, respectively. This novel PEC/EF system showed much higher activity than the single PEC and EF systems on degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution at natural pH. Moreover, the degradation and the instantaneous current efficiencies of the PEC/EF system were increased by 154% and 26% in comparison with the sum of those of single PEC and EF systems, respectively. These significant enhancements could be attributed to the synergetic effect from better separation of photo-generated carriers in the photo-anode and the transfer of photo-electrons to the oxygen diffusion cathode to generate more electro-generated H 2 O 2 and hydroxyl radicals on the Fenton cathode. The better separation of photo-generated carriers contribute more to the overall degradation enhancement than the photo-electrons generated H 2 O 2 and the subsequent Fenton reaction on the cathode during the PEC/EF process.

  4. Clinical characteristics and treatment results of large cell lung cancer-62 case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongfu; Ou Guangfei; Cheng Guiyu; Zhou Zongmei; Zhao Lujun; Wang Lvhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Objective To evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment results of 60 patients with large cell lung cancer (LCLC). Methods: All sixty-two patients were diagnosed histopathologically with 5 in stage I, 13 in stage II, 30 in stage III and 14 in stage IV. Forty-five patients received primary surgical resection with 38 radical resection and 7 palliative resection. Non-surgical treatment was given to 17 patients. Mediastinum and ipsilateral hilum were treated to the total dose of 40-60 Gy in 4-6 weeks in 16 patients as postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. For patients treated by radiation alone, the primary tumor bed, bilateral mediastinum and ipsilateral hilum were treated to the total dose of 36-70 Gy in 4-7 weeks. Results: The overall 1-, 3- and 5- year survival rates were 25.7%, 15.4% and 11.6%, respectively with the median survival time of 11.6 months. In the radically resected patients, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates and the median survival time were 51.3%, 24.7%, 24.7% and 13 months, compared to those of 0%, 0%, 0% and 2 months in the palliatively resected group. In non-surgical treatment group, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates and the median survival time were 41.2%, 21.2%, 7.0% and 11 months, respectively. Conclusions: The prognosis of large cell lung cancer is poor due to high distant metastasis rate. The long-term survival rate after radical resection is worse than the other lung cancers, but similar to the non-surgical treatment. (authors)

  5. Patient Characteristics, Treatment Patterns and Prognostic Factors in Squamous Cell Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Haris; Elson, Paul; Stephenson, Andrew; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad; Fergany, Amr; Lee, Byron; Koshkin, Vadim; Ornstein, Moshe; Gilligan, Timothy; Garcia, Jorge A; Rini, Brian; Grivas, Petros

    2018-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon histologic subtype of bladder cancer with limited data on treatment patterns, outcomes, and prognostic factors. "Real world" information might inform decision-making, prognostic estimates, and clinical trial designs. A retrospective review of patients with tissue-confirmed bladder SCC treated at Cleveland Clinic from 2007 to 2016 was performed. Data on patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and clinical follow-up were extracted. Univariate analysis was used to identify predictors of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and time to recurrence. Of 58 identified patients, 42 had complete data available. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 37-90). Hematuria was the most common (71%) presenting symptom; 32 patients had pure SCC and 10 predominant/extensive squamous differentiation without major differences noted in clinicopathologic variables or outcomes among those 2 groups. Overall, 35 patients underwent cystectomy with 5 receiving neoadjuvant and 1 adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas 3 had chemotherapy for recurrent disease. Of patients with cystectomy, most had locally advanced disease (75% pT3/4, 35% pN+). Overall, 10 patients progressed and 14 died; median OS was not reached. The 2-year estimated OS, RFS, and cumulative incidence of recurrence were 61% ± 9%, 50% ± 9%, and 32% ± 9%, respectively. Hydronephrosis, older age (70 years or older), lymphovascular invasion, nodal metastases, and advanced T stage were associated with 1 or more poor outcomes. In patients with resectable bladder SCC, radical cystectomy remains the main treatment modality. The role of perioperative chemotherapy remains unclear. The identified prognostic factors might be helpful for prognostication, treatment discussion, and trial eligibility/stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PATIENT FOR THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zavrazhnyh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – the identification of hormonal and psychological characteristics of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, determining the effectivenessof drug-free weight loss.Materials and methods. The study included 180 patients with MS (according to the criteria of ATP III, received dietary treatment and thermal bath at the spa. Anthropometric measures, the data of the daily blood pressure monitoring, blood levels of hormones (insulin, leptin, were assessed , following surveys were conducted – the definition of eating disorders (PP tests SANT (estimate well-being, activity, mood,anxiety and LOBI (diagnosis related to types of illness. According to the results of the course non-drug treatment, all patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 – with a positive effect of therapy (n = 87 and 2nd – no effect (n = 93. The criterion for the division served as the simultaneous presence of four factors: decrease in body weight by 2 kg or more, reduction in waist circumference by 2 cm or more, decreasedlevels of triglycerides and blood glucose.Results. The group of patients therapy who proved to be ineffective, characterized by significantly higher levels of insulin and leptin, a predominance of emotiogenic PP, high self-esteem of his being. In relation to the state of neglect of the disease, its denial, indifference to the fate were prevailing. A correlation of levels of insulin and leptin levels with parameters of arterial pressure, PP, test results SANT.Conclusion. In patients with MS psychological and behavioral pattern that has adverse effects on weight loss and associated with the levels of leptin and insulin are diagnosed. Taking into account of these characteristics will increase the effectiveness of therapy.

  8. Ignored fungal community in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants: diversity and altitudinal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lihua; Li, Yi; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Peifang; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Linqiong

    2017-02-01

    Fungi are important contributors to the various functions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the diversity and geographic characteristics of fungal populations have remained vastly unexplored. Here, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454 pyrosequencing were combined to investigate the abundance and diversity of the activated sludge fungal communities from 18 full-scale municipal WWTPs in China. Phylogenetic taxonomy revealed that the members of the fungal communities were assigned to 7 phyla and 195 genera. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the most abundant phyla, dominated by Pluteus, Wickerhamiella, and Penicillium. Twenty-three fungal genera, accounting for 50.1 % of the total reads, were shared by 18 WWTPs and constituted a core fungal community. The fungal communities presented similar community diversity but different community structures across the WWTPs. Significant distance decay relationships were observed for the dissimilarity in fungal community structure and altitudinal distance between WWTPs. Additionally, the community evenness increased from 0.25 to 0.7 as the altitude increased. Dissolved oxygen and the C/N ratio were determined to be the most dominant contributors to the variation in fungal community structure via redundancy analysis. The observed data demonstrated the diverse occurrence of fungal species and gave a marked view of fungal community characteristics based on the previously unexplored fungal communities in activated sludge WWTPs.

  9. Do patient characteristics predict outcome in the outpatient treatment of chronic tinnitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Zachriat, Claudia; Weigand, Doreen

    2006-12-06

    Various patient characteristics were assessed before offering a treatment to reduce tinnitus related distress to 57 individuals suffering from chronic idiopathic tinnitus. Patients were randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral tinnitus coping training (TCT) and a habituation-based training (HT) modelled after Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as conceived by Jastreboff. Both trainings were conducted in groups. It was hypothesized that comorbidity regarding mental disorders or psychopathological symptoms (DSM-IV diagnoses, SCL-90R score) and a high level of dysfunctional cognitions relating to tinnitus would have a negative effect on therapy outcome while both trainings proved to be highly efficacious for the average patient. Also further patient features (assessed at baseline) were explored as potential predictors of outcome. None of the hypotheses was corroborated by the data. On the contrary, a higher number of diagnoses was associated with better outcome (statistical trend) and a higher extent of annoyance and interference led to a larger positive change in patients if treated by TCT. No predictor could be identified for long-term success (follow-up ≥18 months) except regarding education. The higher the educational level, the larger was the improvement in HT patients. It is concluded that therapy outcome of TCT and HT can not reliably be predicted by patient characteristics and that early variables of the therapeutic process should be analysed as potentially predicting subsequent therapeutic outcome.

  10. Impact of social characteristics on the treatment of patients with ischaemic events and patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Braun, Julia; Jenni, Rolf; Van Der Loo, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a technically simple and safe procedure. PFO is a common finding present in up to one third of the population. Although several conditions such as stroke, migraine, and sleep apnoea have been associated with a PFO, as underlined by observational studies, no causal relationship has been documented so far. As this setting may potentially leave more space for the involved physicians for the choice of treatment, we hypothesized that social characteristics of the patient with a PFO might play a role. We retrospectively analysed the data of 153 patients with a cerebrovascular and/or peripheral ischaemic event with the diagnosis of a PFO as documented in echocardiography from 2000 until 2005 at the University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Forty-four patients (= 23%) underwent catheter-based PFO closure. There was no significant difference with respect to age ( or =60 years: P= 0.234, ns), gender (P = 0.356, ns) and insurance status (<40 years: P= 0.15, ns; 40-59 years: P= 0.37, ns; 60 years: P = 0.26, ns) between those who underwent percutaneous PFO closure and those who did not. We conclude from this single-centre experience that social characteristics of patients only have a marginal impact on the indication of percutaneous closure of a PFO, if at all.

  11. The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1 to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2 to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3 to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach. Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female, seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH, and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ, who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw. Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not

  12. Role of Patient and Practice Characteristics in Variance of Treatment Quality in Type 2 Diabetes between General Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, Yeon Young; Sidorenkov, Grigory; Denig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Accounting for justifiable variance is important for fair comparisons of treatment quality. The variance between general practices in treatment quality of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients may be attributed to the underlying patient population and practice characteristics. The objective of

  13. Consensus statement on essential patient characteristics in systemic treatment trials for metastatic colorectal cancer: Supported by the ARCAD Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Kaitlyn K H; Sørbye, Halfdan; Glimelius, Bengt; Adams, Richard A; André, Thierry; Arnold, Dirk; Berlin, Jordan D; Bodoky, György; de Gramont, Aimery; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Eng, Cathy; Falcone, Alfredo; Grothey, Axel; Heinemann, Volker; Hochster, Howard S; Kaplan, Richard S; Kopetz, Scott; Labianca, Roberto; Lieu, Christopher H; Meropol, Neal J; Price, Timothy J; Schilsky, Richard L; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Shi, Qian; Sobrero, Alberto F; Souglakos, John; Van Cutsem, Eric; Zalcberg, John; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Punt, Cornelis J A; Koopman, Miriam

    2018-06-21

    Patient characteristics and stratification factors are key features influencing trial outcomes. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in reporting of patient characteristics and use of stratification factors in phase 3 trials investigating systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We aimed to develop a minimum set of essential baseline characteristics and stratification factors to include in such trials. We performed a modified, two-round Delphi survey among international experts with wide experience in the conduct and methodology of phase 3 trials of systemic treatment of mCRC. Thirty mCRC experts from 15 different countries completed both consensus rounds. A total of 14 patient characteristics were included in the recommended set: age, performance status, primary tumour location, primary tumour resection, prior chemotherapy, number of metastatic sites, liver-only disease, liver involvement, surgical resection of metastases, synchronous versus metachronous metastases, (K)RAS and BRAF mutation status, microsatellite instability/mismatch repair status and number of prior treatment lines. A total of five patient characteristics were considered the most relevant stratification factors: RAS/BRAF mutation status, performance status, primary tumour sidedness and liver-only disease. This survey provides a minimum set of essential baseline patient characteristics and stratification factors to include in phase 3 trials of systemic treatment of mCRC. Inclusion of these patient characteristics and strata in study protocols and final study reports will improve interpretation of trial results and facilitate cross-study comparisons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir El Alaoui

    Full Text Available A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT.Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013-2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9 before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB, cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention.Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment, treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130 per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134 in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 < 5 during both 2013 and 2014 and an additional 35% and 33% had achieved partial remission in 2013 and 2014, respectively. At follow-up, 42% were in full remission after treatment during

  15. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient Characteristics Associated with HCV Treatment Adherence, Treatment Completion, and Sustained Virologic Response in HIV Coinfected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C (HCV treatment efficacy among HIV patients is limited by poor treatment adherence and tolerance, but few studies have examined the psychosocial determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods. Chart abstracted and survey data were collected on 72 HIV patients who had received pegylated interferon and ribavirin to assess correlates of treatment adherence, completion, and sustained virologic response (SVR. Results. Nearly half (46% the sample had active psychiatric problems and 13% had illicit drug use at treatment onset; 28% reported <100% treatment adherence, 38% did not complete treatment (mostly due to virologic nonresponse, and intent to treat SVR rate was 49%. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with nonadherence, while better HCV adherence was associated with both treatment completion and SVR. Conclusions. Good mental health may be an indicator of HCV treatment adherence readiness, which is in turn associated with treatment completion and response, but further research is needed with new HCV treatments emerging.

  17. Background characteristics and treatment-related factors associated with treatment success or failure in a non-pharmacological intervention for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Karen C; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-06-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for persons with dementia often rely on family caregivers for implementation. However, caregivers differ in their readiness to use strategies. This study examines dyadic characteristics and treatment-related mechanisms associated with treatment success (high readiness to use strategies) and failure (low readiness to use strategies) at the conclusion of the Advancing Caregiver Training (ACT) intervention. Caregiver and person with dementia characteristics and treatment-related variables (treatment participation, number and type of strategies introduced and enacted) were examined in 110 caregivers in intervention. Interventionists rated readiness (1=precontemplation; 2=contemplation; 3=preparation; 4=action) of caregivers to use strategies at the final ACT session. Univariate analyses examined dyadic characteristics, and Multiple Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) and Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) examined treatment-related factors associated with readiness to use strategies at treatment completion. At treatment completion, 28.2% (N=31) scored in pre-action and 71.8% (N=79) at action. Caregivers at pre-action readiness levels were more likely than those at action to be a spouse, report greater financial difficulties and be managing fewer problem behaviors. Although both groups were introduced an equivalent number of non-pharmacological strategies, caregivers at pre-action were less likely than those at action to report enacting strategies. Certain dyadic characteristics and treatment-related factors were associated with treatment failure including financial strain and lack of strategy integration. Findings suggest that developing intervention components to address financial concerns and increase opportunities for practicing strategies and then using them between treatment sessions may be important for caregivers at risk of treatment failure.

  18. Psychological characteristics of mothers of patients with anorexia nervosa: implications for treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Lia Keuchguerian Silveira; Sampaio, Anna Beatriz Ribeiro Ferreira; Garcia Junior, Celso; Magdaleno Junior, Ronis; Battistoni, Maria Marta de Magalhães; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of factors involved in anorexia nervosa (AN) and the recommendations of prominent health organizations underscore the importance of reflecting on therapeutic interventions aimed at patients' family members. To expand knowledge about the mother-daughter relationship in AN, with a focus on developing a conceptual framework that is able to improve the treatment of the disorder, reduce factors that perpetuate it and improve prognosis. A clinical method, anchored by psychodynamic references, was employed in a group of family members of patients with eating disorders. The group met weekly, and sessions were led by psychologists from the eating disorder outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Common characteristics in the mother-daughter relationship in cases of AN were identified. The issue of mutual control, the dialectic between omnipotence and impotence, and the relationship of devotion, passion and annihilation between mothers and daughters are phenomena that form the basis of AN, with a direct influence on the severity of each case and on treatment success. Our findings allowed us to identify important aspects in the mother-daughter relationship in AN, which may improve the clinical interventions aimed at treating the disorder.

  19. Impact of aerobic stabilization on the characteristics of treatment sludge in the leather tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokgor, Emine Ubay; Aydinli, Ebru; Tas, Didem Okutman; Zengin, Gulsum Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of aerobic stabilization on the treatment sludge generated from the leather industry was investigated to meet the expected characteristics and conditions of sludge prior to landfill. The sludge types subjected to aerobic stabilization were chemical treatment sludge, biological excess sludge, and the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges. At the end of 23 days of stabilization, suspended solids, volatile suspended solids and total organic carbon removal efficiencies were determined as 17%, 19% and 23% for biological sludge 31%, 35% and 54% for chemical sludge, and 32%, 34% and 63% for the mixture of both chemical and biological sludges, respectively. Model simulations of the respirometric oxygen uptake rate measurements showed that the ratio of active biomass remained the same at the end of the stabilization for all the sludge samples. Although mixing the chemical and biological sludges resulted in a relatively effective organic carbon and solids removal, the level of stabilization achieved remained clearly below the required level of organic carbon content for landfill. These findings indicate the potential risk of setting numerical restrictions without referring to proper scientific support.

  20. Clinical Characteristics, Treatments, and Prognosis of Atopic Eczema in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Tanei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atopic eczema (AE in the elderly is gradually increasing and has been added to the classification of AE in recent years. This investigation retrospectively analyzed 60 patients with elderly AE. Among the clinical characteristics, a male predominance, existence of several patterns of onset and clinical course, and associations with immunoglobulin (IgE-allergic-status and asthmatic complication were observed. The highest positive-rate and positive-score for serum-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides farinae were 83.8% and 2.65 in patients with IgE-allergic AE, and a lower incidence of lichenified eczema in the elbow and knee folds were observed. In terms of treatments and outcomes, clinical improvement and clinical remission were observed in 80.8% and 36.5% of cases, respectively, using standard treatments and combined therapy with oral corticosteroid in severe cases. As for complications and final prognosis, most elderly AE patients reached the end of life with AE, but patients with IgE-allergic AE showed significantly lower incidences of complications of malignancy and death from malignancy. These results indicate that AE in the elderly represents a new subgroup of AE with specific features.

  1. Characteristics of the patients undergoing surgical treatment for pneumothorax: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Muharrem; Yuksel, Melih; Kandemir, Mehmet Nail

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristic features of pneumothorax patients treated surgically. The retrospective study was conducted at Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital Thoracic Surgery Clinic, Diyarbakir, Turkey and comprised records of pneumothorax patients from January 2004 to December 2014. They were divided into two groups as spontaneous and traumatic. Patients who had not undergone any surgical intervention were excluded. Mean age, gender distribution, location of the disease, type of pneumothorax, and treatment method were noted. Among patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, age and months distribution, smoking habits, pneumothorax size, and treatment method were assessed. The effect of gender, location, comorbid disease, smoking, subgroup of disease, and pneumothorax size on surgical procedures were also investigated. The mean age of the 672 patients in the study was 34.5±6.17 years. There were 611(91%) men and 61(9%) women. Disease was on the right side in 360(53.6%) patients, on the left side in 308(45.8%), and bilateral in 4(0.59%). Besides, 523(77.8%) patients had spontaneous, and 149(22.7%) had traumatic pneumothorax. Overall, 561(83.5%) patients had been treated with tube thoracostomy, whereas 111(16.5%) were treated with thoracotomy/thoracoscopic surgery. The presence of comorbid diseases, being primary, and being total or subtotal according to partial were found to create predisposition to thoracotomy/ thoracoscopic surgery (ppneumothorax being total, the presence of comorbid diseases, and the increase in pneumothorax size, thoracotomy or thoracoscopic surgery is preferred.

  2. WE-F-BRB-03: Inclusion of Data-Driven Risk Predictions in Radiation Treatment Planning in the Context of a Local Level Learning Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNutt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in informatics in radiotherapy are opening up opportunities to improve our ability to assess treatment plans. Models on individualizing patient dose constraints from prior patient data and shape relationships have been extensively researched and are now making their way into commercial products. New developments in knowledge based treatment planning involve understanding the impact of the radiation dosimetry on the patient. Akin to radiobiology models that have driven intensity modulated radiotherapy optimization, toxicity and outcome predictions based on treatment plans and prior patient experiences may be the next step in knowledge based planning. In order to realize these predictions, it is necessary to understand how the clinical information can be captured, structured and organized with ontologies and databases designed for recall. Large databases containing radiation dosimetry and outcomes present the opportunity to evaluate treatment plans against predictions of toxicity and disease response. Such evaluations can be based on dose volume histogram or even the full 3-dimensional dose distribution and its relation to the critical anatomy. This session will provide an understanding of ontologies and standard terminologies used to capture clinical knowledge into structured databases; How data can be organized and accessed to utilize the knowledge in planning; and examples of research and clinical efforts to incorporate that clinical knowledge into planning for improved care for our patients. Learning Objectives: Understand the role of standard terminologies, ontologies and data organization in oncology Understand methods to capture clinical toxicity and outcomes in a clinical setting Understand opportunities to learn from clinical data and its application to treatment planning Todd McNutt receives funding from Philips, Elekta and Toshiba for some of the work presented

  3. Combining Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing with Clinical Outcome in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Measure Value in Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alaoui, Samir; Lindefors, Nils

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of mental health care is to provide safe and effective treatment with limited resources. The main purpose of this study was to examine a value-based approach in clinical psychiatry when evaluating a process improvement initiative. This was accomplished by using the relatively new time driven activity based costing (TDABC) method within the more widely adopted cost-effectiveness analysis framework for economic evaluation of healthcare technologies. The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of allowing psychologists to perform post-treatment assessment previously performed by psychiatrists at an outpatient clinic treating depression using internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT). Data was collected from 568 adult patients treated with ICBT for depression during 2013-2014. The TDABC methodology was used to estimate total healthcare costs, including development of process maps for the complete cycle of care and estimation of resource use and minute costs of staff, hospital space and materials based on their relative proportions used. Clinical outcomes were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) before and after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) was performed and the results presented as incremental net benefits (INB), cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) and confidence ellipses to demonstrate uncertainty around the value of the organizational intervention. Taking into account the complete healthcare process (from referral to follow-up assessment), treatment costs decreased from $709 (SD = $130) per patient in 2013 to $659 (SD = $134) in 2014 while treatment effectiveness was maintained; 27% had achieved full remission from depression after treatment (PHQ-9 cost-effectiveness plane at both post-treatment and at follow-up, indicating that the ICBT treatment was less costly and equally effective after staff reallocation. Treating patients to the target

  4. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Jiang, Ying Jin, Yan Li, Hui-Fang Huang, Ming Wu, Keng Shen, Ling-Ya Pan Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4% were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3% after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2% were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6% presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003. The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine

  5. Demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics among Meuhedet sick fund mental health referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Arie; Cohen-Hadad, Gerard; Lang, Michal; Kofler, Esther; Vardi, Yoel; Schrira, Samuel; Heresco-Levy, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    The role of the sick funds in the delivery of mental health outpatient services is expected to increase in Israel in the near future. Consequently there is an urgent need for assessing relevant parameters of the patient populations and treatment patterns presently characterizing sick fund's mental health delivery frameworks. During a random census month all patients who referred to Kupat Holim Meuhedet mental health services in Jerusalem district completed structured questionnaires including demographic, medical and mental health history data, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The professionals who performed the screening assessments filled in a structured questionnaire referring to clinical status parameters, diagnosis and treatment decisions. Eighty-three new referrals were screened during the period studied, out of which 54 (65%) were absorbed within the treatment framework of the sick fund. Women patients were twice as numerous as men. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics and included relatively high rates of recent physical injury and medical hospitalization. Only approximately 10% of the patients had been referred by their family doctor and only approximately 3% had psychotic disorders. The symptom profile reported was characterized by mild to moderate severity and the most common DSM-IV diagnoses made were depressive, anxiety adjustment and personality disorders. About 50% of the sample was recommended individual psychotherapy and though not mutually exclusive approximately 40% psychotropic medication. Relatively small sample size and catchment area. Before generalization of the findings, larger scale studies are warranted. This pilot study offers a rigorous examination of the content of care of a small sick fund mental health delivery system. Our findings may be instrumental in the development of new services and adaptations to changes in mental health policies.

  6. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  7. Transformative piezoelectric enhancement of P(VDF-TrFE) synergistically driven by nanoscale dimensional reduction and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ico, G; Myung, A; Kim, B S; Myung, N V; Nam, J

    2018-02-08

    Despite the significant potential of organic piezoelectric materials in the electro-mechanical or mechano-electrical applications that require light and flexible material properties, the intrinsically low piezoelectric performance as compared to traditional inorganic materials has limited their full utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that dimensional reduction of poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) at the nanoscale by electrospinning, combined with an appropriate thermal treatment, induces a transformative enhancement in piezoelectric performance. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) reached up to -108 pm V -1 , approaching that of inorganic counterparts. Electrospun mats composed of thermo-treated 30 nm nanofibers with a thickness of 15 μm produced a consistent peak-to-peak voltage of 38.5 V and a power output of 74.1 μW at a strain of 0.26% while sustaining energy production over 10k repeated actuations. The exceptional piezoelectric performance was realized by the enhancement of piezoelectric dipole alignment and the materialization of flexoelectricity, both from the synergistic effects of dimensional reduction and thermal treatment. Our findings suggest that dimensionally controlled and thermally treated electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers provide an opportunity to exploit their flexibility and durability for mechanically challenging applications while matching the piezoelectric performance of brittle, inorganic piezoelectric materials.

  8. Pre-treatments, characteristics, and biogeochemical dynamics of dissolved organic matter in sediments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Hur, Jin

    2015-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments, termed here sediment DOM, plays a variety of important roles in global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients as well as in the fate and transport of xenobiotics. Here we reviewed sediment DOM, including pore waters and water extractable organic matter from inland and coastal sediments, based on recent literature (from 1996 to 2014). Sampling, pre-treatment, and characterization methods for sediment DOM were summarized. The characteristics of sediment DOM have been compared along an inland to coastal ecosystems gradient and also with the overlying DOM in water column to distinguish the unique nature of it. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from inland sediment DOM was generally higher than coastal areas, while no notable differences were found for their aromaticity and apparent molecular weight. Fluorescence index (FI) revealed that mixed sources are dominant for inland sediment DOM, but marine end-member prevails for coastal sediment DOM. Many reports showed that sediments operate as a net source of DOC and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) to the water column. Sediment DOM has shown more enrichment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in the elemental signature than the overlying DOM. Fluorescent fingerprint investigated by excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) further demonstrated the characteristics of sediment DOM lacking in the photo-oxidized and the intermediate components, which are typically present in the overlying surface water. In addition, the biogeochemical changes in sediment DOM and the subsequent environmental implications were discussed with the focus on the binding and the complexation properties with pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental cancer: Characteristics of users of child-centred counselling versus individual psycho-oncological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhestern, Laura; Geertz, Wiebke; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Bergelt, Corinna

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of users of a specific child-centred counselling service (COSIP) and to compare those to parents using an individual psycho-oncological treatment (PO). We conducted a retrospective analysis on data of users of COSIP and users of PO. Database was the routine assessment (demographic and disease-related characteristics, GAD-7, PHQ-9, EORTC QLQ-C30, and current concerns) of an outpatient psycho-oncological clinic with additional child-centred counselling. A total of 151 patients and 49 partners with children ≤21 years were included. We conducted descriptive analyses and group comparisons. Fifty-nine patients and partners used COSIP only or additionally to individual psycho-oncological service. PO users were more depressed and were more anxious than COSIP users. Patients using PO reported worse emotional functioning than patients using COSIP. Partners using PO reported worse global quality of life and more symptoms of fatigue than partners using COSIP. With regard to current concerns, patients using COSIP reported child-related issues more frequently than PO users. PO users reported symptoms of anxiety, depressive symptoms, or exhaustion more frequently than COSIP users. The findings demonstrate that patients and partners self-referring to PO or COSIP are highly burdened. COSIP users experience different psychosocial burden than PO users. As poor mental state of parents is a risk factor for the development of mental problems in children, parents using only PO may benefit from additional child-centred support. Accordingly, the need for COSIP should be assessed continuously during PO of patients with children ≤21 years. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Characteristics and intraoperative treatments associated with head and neck free tissue transfer complications and failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, William R; McSwain, Julie R; McEvoy, Matthew D; Wolf, Bethany; Algendy, Abdalrahman A; Parks, Matthew D; Murray, John L; Reeves, Scott T

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association between perioperative patient characteristics and treatment modalities (eg, vasopressor use and volume of fluid administration) with complications and failure rates in patients undergoing head and neck free tissue transfer (FTT). A retrospective review of medical records. Perioperative hospitalization for head and neck FTT at 1 tertiary care medical center between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2011. Consecutive patients (N=235) who underwent head and neck FTT. Demographic, patient characteristic, and intraoperative data were extracted from medical records. Complication and failure rates within the first 30 days were collected In a multivariate analysis controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, reason for receiving flap, and type and volume of fluid given, perioperative complication was significantly associated with surgical blood loss (P=.019; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.16), while the rate of intraoperative fluid administration did not reach statistical significance (P=.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.28). In a univariate analysis, FTT failure was significantly associated with reason for surgery (odds ratio, 5.40; P=.03; 95% CI, 1.69-17.3) and preoperative diagnosis of coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 3.60; P=.03; 95% CI, 1.16-11.2). Intraoperative vasopressor administration was not associated with either FTT complication or failure rate. FTT complications were associated with surgical blood loss but not the use of vasoactive drugs. For patients undergoing FTT, judicious monitoring of blood loss may help stratify the risk of complication and failure. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  11. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  12. Characteristic CT Findings After Percutaneous Cryoablation Treatment of Malignant Lung Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Ammar; Grechushkin, Vadim; Hoshmand, Mahsa; Kim, Choo Won; Pena, Andres; Huston, Brett; Chaya, Yair; Bilfinger, Thomas; Moore, William

    2015-10-01

    Assess computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics after percutaneous cryotherapy for lung cancer.A retrospective IRB-approved analysis of 40 patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment for primary stage 1 lung cancer performed from January 2007 to March 2011 was included in this study. All procedures were performed using general anesthesia and CT guidance. Follow-up imaging with CT of the chest was obtained at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postprocedure to evaluate the ablated lung nodule. Nodule surface area, density (in Hounsfield units), and presence or absence of cavitations were recorded. In addition, the degree of nodule enhancement was also recorded. Patients who were unable to obtain the aforementioned follow-up were excluded from the study.Thirty-six patients underwent percutaneous cryoablation with men to women ratio of 75% with mean age for men 74.6 and mean age for women 74.3 years of age. The average nodule surface area preablation and postcryoablation at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups were 2.99, 7.86, 3.89, 3.18 and 3.07[REPLACEMENT CHARACTER]cm, respectively. The average precontrast nodule density before cryoablation was 8.9 and average precontrast nodule density postprocedure at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months follow-ups were 8.5, -5.9, -9.4, and -3.8 HU, respectively. There is increased attenuation of lung nodules over time with an average postcontrast enhancement of 11.4, 18.5, 16.1, and 25.7 HU at the aforementioned time intervals. Cavitations occurred in the cryoablation zone in 53% (19/36) of patients. 80.6% (29/36) of the cavitations in the cryoablation zone resolved within 12 months. Four patients (11%) had recurrence of tumor at the site of cryoablation and none of the patients had satellite or distant metastasis.Our study shows that patients who underwent cryotherapy for lung nodules treatment had characteristic changes on follow-up CT including. The surface area of the nodule increases at the 1-month follow-up with

  13. [The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of patients with gout in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H; Fang, W G; Zuo, X X; Wu, R; Li, X X; Chen, J W; Zhou, J G; Yang, J; Song, H; Duan, X J; Lin, X F; Zeng, X W; Zeng, H

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of patients with gout in China. Methods: Clinical data of 6 814 patients with gout from 100 hospitals in 27 provinces, municipalities or autonomous regions in China were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) The ratio of male to female in patients with gout was 14.7∶1. The mean age of onset was (48.8±15.1) years old. Mean serum urate level was (526.7±132.3) μmol/L. Patients' education background was of U-shaped distribution; (2) Hypertension was the most common comorbidity [15.8%(1 079/6 814)], then overweight or obesity [51.9%(3 536/6 814)]; (3) Alcohol and high-purine food intake were dominant triggering factors in men. The diagnosis of gout was made after onset in majority of patients with cardinal symptom arthralgia. Most patients had the disease less than 5 years, and the longer the course, the more flares in the previous year of entry; (4) Febuxostat was the mostly used urate-lowering medication. 20.7%(1 412/6 814), 10.8%(739/6 814) and 3.9%(265/6 814) of patients were followed up in 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after registration, and 18.9%(267/1 412), 29.1%(215/739) and 38.1%(101/265) of them reached the control target of serum urate levels, respectively. After treatment, patients' liver function was not affected, but serum creatinine levels decreased significantly. Conclusions: The proportion of gout patients who reach target serum urate level is very low. Further steps including education and survey need to be carried on.

  14. Patient characteristics associated with self-presentation, treatment delay and survival following primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, David; Yan, Andrew T; Spratt, James C; Kunadian, Vijay; Edwards, Richard J; Egred, Mohaned; Bagnall, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Delayed arrival to a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI)-capable hospital following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with poorer outcome. The influence of patient characteristics on delayed presentation during STEMI is unknown. This was a retrospective observational study. Patients presenting for PPCI from March 2008 to November 2011 in the north of England (Northumbria, Tyne and Wear) were included. The outcomes were self-presentation to a non-PPCI-capable hospital, symptom to first medical contact (STFMC) time, total ischaemic time and mortality during follow-up. STEMI patients included numbered 2297; 619 (26.9%) patients self-presented to a non-PPCI-capable hospital. STFMC of >30 min and total ischaemic time of >180 min was present in 1521 (70.7%) and 999 (44.9%) cases, respectively. Self-presentation was the strongest predictor of prolonged total ischaemic time (odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI): 5.05 (3.99-6.39)). Married patients (OR 1.38 (1.10-1.74)) and patients living closest to an Emergency Room self-presented more commonly (driving time (vs. ≤10 min) 11-20 min OR 0.66 (0.52-0.83), >20 minutes OR 0.46 (0.33-0.64). Unmarried females waited longest to call for help (OR vs. married males 1.89 (1.29-2.78) and experienced longer total ischaemic times (OR 1.51 (1.10-2.07)). Married patients had a borderline association with lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.75 (0.53-1.05), p=0.09). Unmarried female patients had the longest treatment delays. Married patients and those living closer to an Emergency Room self-present more frequently. Early and exclusive use of the ambulance service may reduce treatment delay and improve STEMI outcome. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  15. Patient characteristics and stratification in medical treatment studies for metastatic colorectal cancer: a proposal for standardization of patient characteristic reporting and stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbye, H; Köhne, C-H; Sargent, D J; Glimelius, B

    2007-10-01

    Prognostic factors have the potential to determine the survival of patients to a greater extent than current antineoplastic agents. Despite this knowledge, there is no consensus on, first, what patient characteristics to report and, second, what stratification factors to use in metastatic colorectal cancer trials. Seven leading oncology and medical journals were reviewed for phase II and III publications reporting on medical treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer patients during 2001-2005. One hundred and forty-three studies with 21 214 patients were identified. The reporting of patient characteristics and use of stratification was noted. Age, gender, performance status, metastases location, sites and adjuvant chemotherapy were often reported (99-63%). Laboratory values as alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and white blood cell count, repeatedly found to be of prognostic relevance, were rarely reported (5-9%). Stratification was used in all phase III trials; however, only study centre was used with any consistency. There is considerable inconsistency in the reporting of patient characteristics and use of stratification factors in metastatic colorectal cancer trials. We propose a standardization of patient characteristics reporting and stratification factors. A common set of characteristics and strata will aid in trial reporting, interpretation and future meta-analyses.

  16. A global wave-driven magnetohydrodynamic solar model with a unified treatment of open and closed magnetic field topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Landi, E.; Jin, M.; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I., E-mail: oran@umich.edu [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We describe, analyze, and validate the recently developed Alfvén Wave Solar Model, a three-dimensional global model starting from the top of the chromosphere and extending into interplanetary space (out to 1-2 AU). This model solves the extended, two-temperature magnetohydrodynamics equations coupled to a wave kinetic equation for low-frequency Alfvén waves. In this picture, heating and acceleration of the plasma are due to wave dissipation and to wave pressure gradients, respectively. The dissipation process is described by a fully developed turbulent cascade of counterpropagating waves. We adopt a unified approach for calculating the wave dissipation in both open and closed magnetic field lines, allowing for a self-consistent treatment in any magnetic topology. Wave dissipation is the only heating mechanism assumed in the model; no geometric heating functions are invoked. Electron heat conduction and radiative cooling are also included. We demonstrate that the large-scale, steady state (in the corotating frame) properties of the solar environment are reproduced, using three adjustable parameters: the Poynting flux of chromospheric Alfvén waves, the perpendicular correlation length of the turbulence, and a pseudoreflection coefficient. We compare model results for Carrington rotation 2063 (2007 November-December) with remote observations in the extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray ranges from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and Hinode spacecraft and with in situ measurements by Ulysses. The results are in good agreement with observations. This is the first global simulation that is simultaneously consistent with observations of both the thermal structure of the lower corona and the wind structure beyond Earth's orbit.

  17. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in anorexia nervosa: A naturalistic study in an inpatient treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, Kate; Adamson, James; Leppanen, Jenni; Westwood, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated links between anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder however, few studies have examined the possible impact of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder on clinical outcomes in anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders, and other psychopathology during the course of inpatient treatment in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 171) completed questionnaires exploring eating disorder psychopathology, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and everyday functioning at both admission and discharge. Characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms were significantly positively correlated with eating disorder psychopathology, work and social functioning, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, but not with body mass index. Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores remained relatively stable from admission to discharge but there was a small, significant reduction in scores. There was no interaction between time and Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores on clinical symptom change. In anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder symptoms appear to be associated with a more severe clinical presentation on admission to inpatient care. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms as assessed by self-report measures may be exacerbated by other mental health psychopathology, which warrants further investigation.

  18. Characteristics and treatment mechanism of mine water with high concentration of iron and manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Yang, J.; He, X.; Yang, J.; Tian, T. [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2006-12-15

    The characteristics and treatment of mine water with high concentration or iron and manganese were studied with mine water produced in Jiukuang and Siwan belonging to Hebi Coal Industry Group Co., Ltd. Analysis shows that the mine water is abundant in dissolved oxygen and has high TDS and high turbidity so the mine water does not need aeration. The effect of removal of iron and manganese by coagulation-sedimentation and the influence of filter material and influent water flow rate on effluent quality were investigated. It is shown that the removal rate of iron can reach 90% while removal of manganese can only reach about 20%. The concentration of iron and manganese in the effluent is lower than 0.1 mg/L with filter material of manganese sand which was immersed in KMnO{sub 4} solution at a filtration rate of 7 - 9 m/h. The results show that the layer of activated compound substance membrane formed on the surface of the manganese sand plays an important role in the removal of manganese. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo comorbid with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Deng, Yuxiao; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Menghong

    2017-05-01

    Patients with BPPV comorbid with hypertension (h-BPPV) tend to receive a delayed diagnosis of BPPV. Comorbidity with hypertension did not influence the efficacy of the repositioning maneuver; however, comorbidity with hypertension was associated with an increased recurrence rate of BPPV. To determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of h-BPPV, as well as the clinical differences between h-BPPV and idiopathic BPPV (i-BPPV). The authors reviewed the medical records of 41 consecutive patients with h-BPPV (the h-BPPV group) from March to December 2014 and 47 patients with i-BPPV (the i-BPPV group) during the same period. There were no significant differences in age, sex ratio, or the affected side between the h-BPPV and i-BPPV groups. The proportion of patients reporting an initial episode of positional vertigo was significantly lower in the h-BPPV group (51.22% vs 74.47%; p = .024). Patients in the h-BPPV group reported a longer median episode duration than did those in the i-BPPV group (60 days vs 15 days; p = .017). The results of treatment using repositioning maneuvers were similar between the two groups. At follow-up, 13 patients in the h-BPPV group were diagnosed with recurrent BPPV compared with six in the i-BPPV group (p = .031).

  20. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alpana; Chouksey, Swati; Deshmukh, Reena; Thakur, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  1. Bothersome Tics in Patients with Chronic Tic Disorders: Characteristics and Individualized Treatment Response to Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W.; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. PMID:25988365

  2. A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ryan C W; Hall, Richard C W

    2007-04-01

    Pedophilia has become a topic of increased interest, awareness, and concern for both the medical community and the public at large. Increased media exposure, new sexual offender disclosure laws, Web sites that list the names and addresses of convicted sexual offenders, politicians taking a 'get tough' stance on sexual offenders, and increased investigations of sexual acts with children have increased public awareness about pedophilia. Because of this increased awareness, it is important for physicians to understand pedophilia, its rate of occurrence, and the characteristics of pedophiles and sexually abused children. In this article, we address research that defines the various types and categories of pedophilia, review available federal data on child molestation and pornography, and briefly discuss the theories on what makes an individual develop a sexual orientation toward children. This article also examines how researchers determine if someone is a pedophile, potential treatments for pedophiles and sexually abused children, the risk of additional sexual offenses, the effect of mandatory reporting laws on both physicians and pedophiles, and limitations of the current pedophilic literature.

  3. Bothersome tics in patients with chronic tic disorders: Characteristics and individualized treatment response to behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Woods, Douglas W; Villarreal, Robert; Wilhelm, Sabine; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L

    2015-07-01

    This report examined the most frequently reported bothersome tics among individuals with chronic tic disorders and evaluated the improvement and remission of tics and their associated characteristics. Youths and adults (N = 240) were randomly assigned to receive the comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT) or psychoeducation and supportive therapy (PST). At baseline, motor tics and tics with an urge were rated as more bothersome relative to vocal tics and tics without premonitory urges. The five most common bothersome tics included eye blinking, head jerks, sniffing, throat clearing, and other complex motor tics. While CBIT outperformed PST across tic type and urge presence, tics preceded by premonitory urges at baseline had higher severity at posttreatment across treatment condition. Six individual tic types had lower severity at posttreatment following CBIT relative to PST. Baseline urge presence was associated with tic remission for CBIT but not PST. Specific bothersome tics were more likely to remit with CBIT relative to PST. Findings suggest that individual tics respond and remit differently to CBIT relative to PST, with implications highlighting the negative reinforcement hypothesis in tic symptom maintenance. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00218777; NCT00231985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Occurrence Characteristics of Microplastic in Secondary Sewage Treatment Plant in Shanghai,China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, M.; Zhao, S.; Li, D.

    2017-12-01

    As emerging pollutants, microplastics (MPs) are of concern worldwide. Due to plenty of microbeads and synthetic fibers presenting in the effluent of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), WWTPs have been regarded as important point sources of MP into the sea. Currently, information of microplastics from WWTPs in China is limited. Herein, we studied the MP contamination of a sewage plant in Shanghai by analyzing water and sludge samples with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The abundances of MP in the influent, mixed water, effluent and sludge four stages are respectively 117 n/L, 90 n/L, 52 n/L and 181 n/50g(wet weight). The removal efficiency of MP in the current WWTP is 55.6%. Fiber is the most common shape type. Rayon is the most type in effluent and mixed water while synthetic leather account for the largest percentage in influent and sludge. This study firstly discussed the occurrence characteristics of microplastics in the WWTP of China and confirmed that WWTP is a source of MPs inputting into aquatic environments.

  5. The effect of hydrotherapy treatment on gait characteristics of hereditary spastic paraparesis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxin; Roxburgh, Richard; Huang, Liang; Parsons, John; Davies, T Claire

    2014-04-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is a group of neurological disorders characterised by slowly progressive increasing muscle tone, predominantly in the lower limbs, with relatively preserved power. This leads to progressive difficulties in motor control and walking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotherapy treatment when used as a means to increase locomotor function in individuals with late onset HSP. This paper discusses the analysis of the effect on gait characteristics. Nine people with HSP were asked to participate in pre- and post-hydrotherapy gait analyses. Ground reaction force and motion trajectories were recorded and used to calculate spatiotemporal gait parameters, joint angles and moments. The normalised joint kinematics and kinetics profile revealed that the biomechanics of people with HSP were similar to that of controls for most of the joints, but with lower range of motion. Walking speed increased significantly (11%) after the course of hydrotherapy. Though part of this was achieved through increased ROM there was also a further increase in hip internal rotation and in peak hip extension moment. Although participants had increased walking speed and step length, it appears that hydrotherapy increases the ability to perform compensatory strategies rather than resulting in a more typical kinematic and kinetic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gun Violence Following Inpatient Psychiatric Treatment: Offense Characteristics, Sources of Guns, and Number of Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2017-10-01

    This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Sze, Simon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O_2 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O_2 plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O_2 plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O_2 plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O_2 plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O_2 plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  9. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-Hsun [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Kuan-Chang, E-mail: kcchang@pkusz.edu.cn [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O{sub 2} plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O{sub 2} plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  10. Slaughterhouse wastewater characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry: A review on trends and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2015-09-15

    A thorough review of advancement in slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) characteristics, treatment, and management in the meat processing industry is presented. This study also provides a general review of the environmental impacts, health effects, and regulatory frameworks relevant to the SWW management. A significant progress in high-rate anaerobic treatment, nutrient removal, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), and the combination of biological treatment and AOPs for SWW treatment is highlighted. The treatment processes are described and few examples of their applications are given. Conversely, few advances are accounted in terms of waste minimization and water use reduction, reuse, and recycle in slaughterhouses, which may offer new alternatives for cost-effective waste management. An overview of the most frequently applied technologies and combined processes for organic and nutrient removal during the last decade is also summarized. Several types of individual and combined processes have been used for the SWW treatment. Nevertheless, the selection of a particular technology depends on the characteristics of the wastewater, the available technology, and the compliance with regulations. This review facilitates a better understanding of current difficulties that can be found during production and management of the SWW, including treatment and characteristics of the final effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MO-G-304-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION: Expanding the Knowledge Base for Data-Driven Treatment Planning: Incorporating Patient Outcome Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, SP; Quon, H; Cheng, Z; Moore, JA; Bowers, M; McNutt, TR

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the capabilities of knowledge-based treatment planning beyond simple dose queries by incorporating validated patient outcome models. Methods: From an analytic, relational database of 684 head and neck cancer patients, 372 patients were identified having dose data for both left and right parotid glands as well as baseline and follow-up xerostomia assessments. For each existing patient, knowledge-based treatment planning was simulated for by querying the dose-volume histograms and geometric shape relationships (overlap volume histograms) for all other patients. Dose predictions were captured at normalized volume thresholds (NVT) of 0%, 10%, 20, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 85% and were compared with the actual achieved doses using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Next, a logistic regression model was used to predict the maximum severity of xerostomia up to three months following radiotherapy. Baseline xerostomia scores were subtracted from follow-up assessments and were also included in the model. The relative risks from predicted doses and actual doses were computed and compared. Results: The predicted doses for both parotid glands were significantly less than the achieved doses (p < 0.0001), with differences ranging from 830 cGy ± 1270 cGy (0% NVT) to 1673 cGy ± 1197 cGy (30% NVT). The modelled risk of xerostomia ranged from 54% to 64% for achieved doses and from 33% to 51% for the dose predictions. Relative risks varied from 1.24 to 1.87, with maximum relative risk occurring at 85% NVT. Conclusions: Data-driven generation of treatment planning objectives without consideration of the underlying normal tissue complication probability may Result in inferior plans, even if quality metrics indicate otherwise. Inclusion of complication models in knowledge-based treatment planning is necessary in order to close the feedback loop between radiotherapy treatments and patient outcomes. Future work includes advancing and validating complication models in the context

  12. MO-G-304-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION: Expanding the Knowledge Base for Data-Driven Treatment Planning: Incorporating Patient Outcome Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, SP; Quon, H; Cheng, Z; Moore, JA; Bowers, M; McNutt, TR [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To extend the capabilities of knowledge-based treatment planning beyond simple dose queries by incorporating validated patient outcome models. Methods: From an analytic, relational database of 684 head and neck cancer patients, 372 patients were identified having dose data for both left and right parotid glands as well as baseline and follow-up xerostomia assessments. For each existing patient, knowledge-based treatment planning was simulated for by querying the dose-volume histograms and geometric shape relationships (overlap volume histograms) for all other patients. Dose predictions were captured at normalized volume thresholds (NVT) of 0%, 10%, 20, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 85% and were compared with the actual achieved doses using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Next, a logistic regression model was used to predict the maximum severity of xerostomia up to three months following radiotherapy. Baseline xerostomia scores were subtracted from follow-up assessments and were also included in the model. The relative risks from predicted doses and actual doses were computed and compared. Results: The predicted doses for both parotid glands were significantly less than the achieved doses (p < 0.0001), with differences ranging from 830 cGy ± 1270 cGy (0% NVT) to 1673 cGy ± 1197 cGy (30% NVT). The modelled risk of xerostomia ranged from 54% to 64% for achieved doses and from 33% to 51% for the dose predictions. Relative risks varied from 1.24 to 1.87, with maximum relative risk occurring at 85% NVT. Conclusions: Data-driven generation of treatment planning objectives without consideration of the underlying normal tissue complication probability may Result in inferior plans, even if quality metrics indicate otherwise. Inclusion of complication models in knowledge-based treatment planning is necessary in order to close the feedback loop between radiotherapy treatments and patient outcomes. Future work includes advancing and validating complication models in the context

  13. Angst for tandbehandling. Prevalens og karakteristika blandt voksne danskere [Fear of dental treatment. Prevalence and characteristics among adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.; Scheutz, F.

    1995-01-01

    A telephone survey using random sample of residents of the municipality of Aarhus were interviewed about dental treatment fear and characteristics of any pre-existing anxiety. Results showed that 4.2% of 539 residents surveyed had extreme anxiety and 6% were moderately afraid. Results of dental...... anxiety, especially in the odontophobiia group, were years of avoidance of treatment and associated poor subjective perceptions of oral health. Logistic analyses revealed that although dental drilling was the identifying feature of dental anxiety characteristics, the drill could be symbolic for the many...

  14. Association between level of personality organization as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and outcome of inpatient treatment for personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.R.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Verheul, R.; Meerman, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The association between level of personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profile interpretation of the MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form and treatment outcome was investigated in a naturalistic follow-up study among 121 psychotherapy inpatients who had been treated for

  15. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Garg, P; Rao, G N

    2000-10-01

    To review the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and visual outcome in patients with non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis and compare the findings with reported series of contact lens associated Acanthamoeba keratitis. Medical and microbiology records of 39 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, at a tertiary eyecare centre in India between January 1996 and June 1998, were analysed retrospectively. A majority of the patients presented with poor visual acuity and large corneal stromal infiltrates (mean size 38.20 (SD 26. 18) mm). A predisposing factor was elicited in 19/39 (48.7%) patients (trauma 15, dirty water splash three, leaf juice one). None of the patients had worn contact lenses. Most patients (26/39 (66. 6%)) came from a low socioeconomic background. Complaint of severe pain was not a significant feature and radial keratoneuritis was seen in 1/39 (2.5%) patients. A ring infiltrate was present in 41.1% of cases. A clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 45% of the patients before they were seen by us. However, all patients were diagnosed microbiologically at our institute based on demonstration of Acanthamoeba cysts in corneal scrapings (34/39) and/or culture of Acanthamoeba (34/39). Treatment with biguanides (PHMB, 15/38 (39.4%), PHMB with CHx, 23/38 (60.5%), one patient did not return for treatment) resulted in healing with scar formation in 27 out of 31(87.0%) followed up patients (mean time to healing 106.9 days). Overall visual outcome was poor with no statistical difference between cases diagnosed within 30 days (early) or 30 days after (late) start of symptoms. The visual outcome in cases requiring tissue adhesive (five) and keratoplasty (three) was also poor. This is thought to be the largest series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. In such cases, the disease is advanced at presentation in most patients, pathognomonic clinical features are often not seen, disease

  16. Cleptomania: características clínicas e tratamento Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Grant

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A cleptomania, um transtorno incapacitante do controle dos impulsos, caracteriza-se pelo furto repetitivo e incontrolável de itens que são de pequena utilidade para a pessoa acometida por esse transtorno. Apesar de seu histórico relativamente longo, a cleptomania continua sendo pouco entendida pelo público geral, pelos clínicos e pelos que dela sofrem. MÉTODO: Este artigo revisa a literatura sobre o que se sabe a respeito das características clínicas, histórico familiar, neurobiologia e opções de tratamento para indivíduos com cleptomania. RESULTADOS: A cleptomania geralmente tem seu início no final da adolescência ou no início da vida adulta, e parece ser mais comum em mulheres. A comorbidade psiquiátrica ao longo da vida com outros transtornos de controle de impulsos (20-46%, de uso de substâncias (23-50% e de humor (45-100% é freqüente. Indivíduos com cleptomania sofrem de prejuízo significativo em sua capacidade de funcionamento social e ocupacional. A cleptomania pode responder ao tratamento com terapia cognitivo-comportamental e com várias farmacoterapias (lítio, antiepilépticos e antagonistas de opióides. CONCLUSÕES: A cleptomania é um transtorno incapacitante que resulta em uma vergonha intensa, bem como problemas legais, sociais, familiares e ocupacionais. São necessários estudos de tratamento em ampla escala.OBJECTIVES: Kleptomania, a disabling impulse control disorder, is characterized by the repetitive and uncontrollable theft of items that are of little use to the afflicted person. Despite its relatively long history, kleptomania remains poorly understood to the general public, clinicians, and sufferers. METHOD: This article reviews the literature for what is known about the clinical characteristics, family history, neurobiology, and treatment options for individuals with kleptomania. RESULTS: Kleptomania generally has its onset in late adolescence or early adulthood and appears to be more

  17. The characteristics of keratomycosis by Beauveria bassiana and its successful treatment with antimycotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Sonoyama

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Sonoyama1, Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Shigeyasu Kazama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Hidenao Ideta1, Atsuko Sunada2, Seishi Asari2, Yoshitsugu Inoue3, Kozaburo Hayashi41Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Laboratory for Clinical Investigation, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organ, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori, Japan; 4Immunology and Virology Section Lab, Immunology, NEI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Clinical findings and treatment of keratomycosis caused by Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus, are described for an 80-year-old woman, who was referred to the hospital for ocular pain and redness on the 9th day after an ocular injury caused by the frame of her glasses. She had a long history of recurrent diabetic iritis and continuously used topical antibiotics and corticosteroids. At her first visit, a slit-lamp examination indicated a corneal ulcer confined within the superficial stromal layer, along with a slight infiltration and edema. Only a very few inflammatory cells were seen in the anterior chamber. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings revealed septate fungal hyphae with zig-zag rachis and budding that was subsequently identified as B. bassiana by slide culture. Topical voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin and oral itraconazole were effective and the lesion disappeared leaving only a mild scar at 2 months. The sensitivity of B. bassiana to various antimycotic agents was confirmed by broth microdilution, agar dilution with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute standard, and a disk method using topically applied concentrations. B. bassiana, which exhibits a characteristic appearance in smears and causes superficial keratomycosis, is sensitive to voriconazole with miconazole, pimaricin, and itraconazole.Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, keratomycosis, filamentous

  18. [Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of idiopathic congenital nystagmus in 224 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J; Zhao, K X; Li, Y P; Ma, H Z; Chen, X; Guo, X; Zhu, L N; Li, N D; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    To study clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN). A retrospective study was conducted in 224 patients with ICN in Tianjin eye hospital from July 2007 to February 2013. There were 224 patients, 158 (70.54%) males and 66 (29.5%) females, mean age was (11.6±8.4) years and (11.4±6.4) years separately. Horizontal nystgamus happened in 215 cases, 3 cases were vertical type and 6 cases were mixed. 214 cases were with no history of operation and 10 patients had ever underwent surgeries before. Furthermore, 151 patients combined with strabismus and refractive error, anterior segment or retinal disorders, which accounting for 67.4% of all the patients. 48 patients were associated myopia, 30 patients with hyperopia, 43 patients with strabismus. Among them, 153 cases of compensatory head position direction were horizontal with face turn, 43 cases (43/153, 28.1%) showed face turning to the left, 110 cases (110/153, 71.9%) showed face turning to the right. Surgeries were designed according to the compensatory head position and head retroversion angle. For 15 patients with double intermediate zones, the position which was often used with good visual function was chosen for operation design. As for the patients with nystagmus and strabismus, the transfer null zone to primary position for the dominant eye and strabismus surgery for the other eye was chosen. And for complicated patients with compensative head position, the dominant head posture were designed for surgery. ICN is dominated by male with variable clinical manifestations. Surgical choice for ICN depends on the direction of head position and if there is strabismus accompanying it.The aim of ocular muscle surgery is to transfer null zone to primary position. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 574-578).

  19. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on cerium oxide nanoparticle characteristics prepared by a facile heat treatment technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Baqer

    Full Text Available An aqueous medium composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and cerium nitrates at calcination temperature was utilised in the production of cerium oxide (CeO2 semiconductor nanoparticles. A variety of analytical approaches was utilized to examine the structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the resulting nanoparticles. Differential thermal (DTA and thermogravimetric (TGA analyses, indicated that the best calcination temperatures for achieving CeO2 nanoparticle production were more than 485 °C. The results from Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR verified the formation of a crystalline structure after calcination procedures were performed to remove residual organic compounds. Additionally, results from X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed the cubic fluorite structure of the CeO2 produced. Samples were also analysed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDXA which indicated the existence of O and Ce in the samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM was used in the characterisation of nanoparticle morphological features. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was employed to estimate typical nanoparticle and distribution within sample. This analysis indicated that mean particle sizes were inversely correlated with PVP concentration, with nanoparticle sizes ranging between 12 ± 7 nm at 0.03 g/mL PVP and 6 ± 2 nm at 0.05 g/mL PVP. These results corroborated those obtained by XRD analysis. A UV–vis spectrophotometer was utilised in the demonstration of optical properties and to examine the band gap energy of samples. The potential UV-shielding properties of the nanoparticles were demonstrated by the observed blue shift of the estimated optical energy band, i.e. from 3.35 to 3.43 eV, whilst PL spectra results indicated that decreasing particle size was associated with diminishing photoluminescence intensity. Keywords: Cerium oxide nanoparticles, Heat treatment technique, Structural properties, Optical

  20. Effects of Different Fertilizer Treatments on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Asadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manures is one of the most important strategies for plant nutrition compared to chemical fertilizers, especially in organic management of medicinal plants. In order to evaluate the effects of different organic and chemical fertilizers on yield, yield components and qualitative characteristics of isabgol (Plantago ovata, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season of 2011-2012. Treatments included three levels of nitrogen fertilizer (25, 50 and 75 kg.ha-1, three levels of cow manure (5, 10 and 15 t.ha-1 and three levels of vermicompost (2, 4 and 6 t.ha-1 and control.The results showed that the effectof different fertilizers was significant (p≤0.05 on all studied traits except swelling rate of isabgol. The maximum amounts were observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost and 15 t.ha-1 cow manure. The highest seed yield (548.4 kg.ha-1 was observed in 6 t.ha-1 vermicompost that it enhanced up to 26% compared to control. By increasing in organic fertilizers enhanced mucilage content, swelling factor and swelling content of isabgol. The maximum mucilage content and swelling factor were observed in 15 t.ha-1 (with 35.3% and 13.4 ml, respectively. Since, organic matters improved quantitative and qualitative yield of isabgol compared to chemical fertilizer, it concluded that these organic inputs could be regarded as a suitable alternative to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants such as isabgol especially in low input systems.

  1. Characteristic of thoracolumbar burst fracture with mid column injury and analysis of relative surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Binhui; Zhang Bo; Ouyang Zhen; Sun Maomin; Xia Chunlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: By analyzing the pathologic characteristics of the thoracolumbar burst fracture with mid column injury to explore the value of surgical treatment and the relationship between the spinal cord injury and the burst fracture. Methods: With the combination of X-ray film, CT, MRI examination, in 97 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture, the rate of spinal canal stenosis was measured. For the fracture fragments morphology, translocation, and intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament injuries, a different surgical method was selected, the percentage of wound vertebral body compression, kyphosis Cobb angle and the rate of spinal canal stenosis, spinal cord nerve function recovery were compared between preoperation and postoperation. Results: After operation, all patients were reseted. Followed-up was performed from 6 to 28 months, in 88 cases bone graft fusion was obtained after 4 to 6 months, 1 ∼ 3 levels were restored in Frankel grade of spinal cord nerve function recovery. Between preoperation and postoperation, the percentage of wounded vertebral body compression, kyphosis Cobb angle and the rate of spinal canal stenosis were significantly different (P <0. 01). For the 9 cases of combined intervertebral disc injury, fusion was not achieved in the 6 cases there were loss in vertebral body height and Cobb angle in various extent. Conclusion: There is an interrelationship between thoracolumbar burst fracture caused by the reduction of spinal canal diameter and the spinal cord injury. Different forms of occupation of intraspinal bone fragments indicate different degrees of moment of violence and spinal cord primary injury. It is important to select the appropriate surgical method for clinic. The potential impact should be sufficient attention on the stability of intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  2. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Treatment Failures with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Data-Driven Definition for BCG Unresponsive Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Ryan L; Thomas, Lewis J; Mott, Sarah L; O'Donnell, Michael A

    2016-04-27

    Objective: To create the first data-driven definition for those unlikely to benefit from further BCG treatment. Materials and Methods: The database created for the Phase 2 BCG-Interferon- α 2B (IFN) study was queried and BCG failure patients were identified ( n  = 334). Full study protocols have previously been published. Separate models were constructed for analysis of patients with any CIS (pure or concomitant) and pure papillary disease. Variables considered included age, gender, stage, grade, tumor size and focality (for papillary only), number of prior BCG courses, and prior BCG failure interval. Results: Patients with recurrent CIS within 6 months of their most recent prior BCG course (HR 2.56, p  disease within 6 months (HR 1.82, p  = 0.02), ≥2 BCG failures (HR 1.54, p  = 0.03), and multifocal disease (HR 2.05, p  disease remained disease free in 38% of cases (24-51% 95% CI) at 2 years with low rates of progression. Conclusions: Patients who fail two courses of BCG with either persistent or recurrent multifocal papillary disease within 6 months or CIS within 12 months of their prior BCG should be considered BCG unresponsive. Recurrent T1 disease respond reasonably well to another course with low progression rates but further investigation is warranted.

  3. A comparison of physical characteristics between patients seeking treatment for neck pain and age-matched healthy people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Ostergaard, K

    1997-01-01

    To compare physical characteristics of the cervical musculature, including maximal isometric strength of the flexors and extensors, relative isometric endurance of the extensors and the active range of motion (ROM) in extension in a group of patients seeking treatment for chronic neck pain...

  4. Characteristic numbers of granular activated carbon for the elimination of micropollutants from effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstoem, F; Pinnekamp, J

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a promising step to extend existing treatment trains in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and, thus, to reduce the concentration of micropollutants (MPs) (e.g. pharmaceuticals) in wastewater. It is common practice to use characteristic numbers when choosing GAC for a specific application. In this study, characteristic numbers were correlated for five different GACs, with measured adsorption capacities of these carbons for three pharmaceutical MPs (carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) and dissolved organic carbon of a WWTP effluent. The adsorption capacities were measured using rapid small scale column tests. Density of GAC showed the highest correlation to adsorption of MP. All other characteristic numbers (iodine number, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface and methylene blue titre) are not suitable markers for choosing an appropriate activated carbon product for the elimination of MPs from municipal wastewater.

  5. Characteristics and information searched for by French patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A web-community data-driven online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, B; Jourde-Chiche, N; Mancini, J; Chekroun, M; Retornaz, F; Chiche, L

    2016-04-01

    To provide information about the needs of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using Carenity, the first European online platform for patients with chronic diseases. At one year after its creation, all posts from the Carenity SLE community were collected and analysed. A focused cross-sectional online survey was performed. The SLE community included 521 people (93% females; mean age: 39.8 years). Among a total of 6702 posts, 2232 were classified according to disease-related topics. The 10 most common topics were 'lupus and …' either 'treatment', 'fatigue', 'entourage', 'sun exposure', 'diagnosis', 'autoimmune diseases', 'pregnancy', 'contraception', 'symptoms' or 'sexuality'. 112 SLE patients participated in the online survey. At the time of diagnosis, only 17 (15%) patients had heard of SLE and 84 (75%) expressed a need for more information on outcomes (27%), treatments (27%), daily life (14%), patients' associations (11%), symptoms (8%), the disease (8%) and psychosocial aspects (7%). When treatment was initiated, 48 patients (43%) would have liked more information about side effects (46%), long-term effects (21%), treatment duration/cessation (12.5%) and type (10%) and mechanism of action (8%) of treatments. All participants except one had used the internet to find information about SLE. Sources of information included healthcare providers (51%/61%/67%), journals/magazines (7%/12%/6%), lupus Websites (51%/77%/40%), web forums/blogs (34%/53%/19%), patients' associations (11%/23%/9%) accessed at 'just before diagnosis', 'just after diagnosis' and 'before treatment initiation'. Online patient communities provide original unbiased information that can help improve provision of information to SLE patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Fractionation of wastewater characteristics for modelling of Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    Varying conditions are required for different species of microorganisms for the complex biological processes taking place within the activated sludge treatment system. It is against the requirement to manage this complex dynamic system that computer simulators were developed to aid in optimising activated sludge treatment processes. These computer simulators require calibration with quality data input that include wastewater fractionation among others. Thus, this research fractionated raw sewage, at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW), for calibration of the BioWin simulation model. Firle STW is a 3-stage activated sludge system. Wastewater characteristics of importance for activated sludge process design can be grouped into carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds. Division of the substrates and compounds into their constituent fractions is called fractionation and is a valuable tool for process assessment. Fractionation can be carried out using bioassay methods or much simpler physico-chemical methods. The bioassay methods require considerable experience with experimental activated sludge systems and associated measurement techniques while the physico-chemical methods are straight forward. Plant raw wastewater fractionation was carried out through two 14-day campaign periods, the first being from 3 to 16 July 2013 and the second was from 1 to 14 October 2013. According to the Zimbabwean Environmental Management Act, and based on the sensitivity of its catchment, Firle STW effluent discharge regulatory standards in mg/L are COD (<60), TN (<10), ammonia (<0.2), and TP (<1). On the other hand Firle STW Unit 4 effluent quality results based on City of Harare records in mg/L during the period of study were COD (90 ± 35), TN (9.0 ± 3.0), ammonia (0.2 ± 0.4) and TP (3.0 ± 1.0). The raw sewage parameter concentrations measured during the study in mg/L and fractions for raw sewage respectively were as follows total COD (680 ± 37), slowly biodegradable COD

  7. A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly for an adaptive thermal control coldplate module with on-orbit service characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yunhua; Li, Yun-Ze; Zhong, Ming-Liang; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Jia-Xun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-driven temperature and flow rate co-adjustment mechanism based on SMA assembly is proposed. • An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) is introduced. • A testbed is set up to investigate the TCCM adaptive thermal management performances. • The TCCM has the potential for spacecrafts on-orbit services. - Abstract: An adaptive thermal control coldplate module (TCCM) was proposed in this paper to fulfill the requirements of modular thermal control systems for spacecrafts on-orbit services. The TCCM could provide flow rate and temperature co-adjustment by using Shape-Memory-Alloy (SMA) assembly which possesses self-driven abilities. In this paper, the adaptive thermal management mechanism of the TCCM integrated with a single phase mechanically pumped fluid loop (SPMPFL) is described in detail, a verification testbed was established to examine the TCCM dynamic characteristics. Various working conditions such as inlet temperature, flow rate and thermal load disturbances were imposed on the TCCM to inspect its startup and transient performance. It was observed that the TCCM may present robust temperature control results with low overshoot (maximum 16.8%) and small temperature control error (minimum 0.18%), fast time response (minimum 600 s) was also revealed. The results demonstrated that the well-designed TCCM provided effective autonomous flow-rate and temperature co-adjustment operations, which may be a promising candidate for realizing modular level adaptive thermal management for spacecrafts on-orbit services.

  8. Characteristics of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by N{sub 2}-plasma for visible light-driven photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liu Zhongqing, E-mail: 301zql@vip.sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zheng Jian; Yan Xin; Li Dandan; Chen Si [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chu Wei, E-mail: chuwei1965_scu@yahoo.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > A new pathway is provided to prepare N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays using N{sub 2}-plasma treatment. > N{sub 2}-plasma treatment did not wreck the structure of nanotube arrays. > Nitrogen doping promoted the phase transition to rutile phase at low annealing temperatures > Nitrogen doping narrow band gap of TiO{sub 2} and improve the photocatalytic activity of samples. - Abstract: N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anode oxidation of Ti foil followed by treatment with N{sub 2}-plasma and subsequent annealed under Ar atmosphere. The morphologies, composition and optical properties of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Methylene blue (MB) solution was utilized as the degradation model to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the samples under visible light irradiation. The results suggested N{sub 2}-plasma treatment created doping of nitrogen onto the surface of photoelectrodes successfully and the N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays display a significantly enhancement of the photocatalytic activity comparing with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays under the visible light irradiation.

  9. Multidimensional analyses to assess the relations between treatment choices by physicians and patients’ characteristics: the example of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some situations, practice guidelines do not provide firm evidence-based guidance regarding COPD treatment choices, especially when large trials have failed to identify subgroups of particularly good or poor responders to available medications. Methods This observational cross-sectional study explored the yield of four types of multidimensional analyses to assess the associations between the clinical characteristics of COPD patients and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments prescribed by lung specialists in a real-life context. Results Altogether, 2494 patients were recruited by 515 respiratory physicians. Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering identified 6 clinical subtypes and 6 treatment subgroups. Strong bi-directional associations were found between clinical subtypes and treatment subgroups in multivariate logistic regression. However, although the overall frequency of prescriptions varied from one clinical subtype to the other for all types of pharmacological treatments, clinical subtypes were not associated with specific prescription profiles. When canonical analysis of redundancy was used, the proportion of variation in pharmacological treatments that was explained by clinical characteristics remained modest: 6.23%. This proportion was greater (14.29% for non-pharmacological components of care. Conclusion This study shows that, although pharmacological treatments of COPD are quantitatively very well related to patients’ clinical characteristics, there is no particular patient profile that could be qualitatively associated to prescriptions. This underlines uncertainties perceived by physicians for differentiating the respective effects of available pharmacological treatments. The methodology applied here is useful to identify areas of uncertainty requiring further research and/or guideline clarification.

  10. A Single Centre Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Adil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endocrine Pancreatic Tumours (PENs are rare and can be nonfunctioning or functioning. They carry a good prognosis overall though high grade lesions show a relatively shorter survival. The aim of the current study is to describe a single centre analysis of the clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of PENs. Patients and Methods. This is a cohort analysis of 40 patients of PENs who underwent surgery at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2013. Patient particulars, clinical features, surgical interventions, postoperative outcome, and followup were done and reviewed. The study group was divided based on grade (G1, G2, and G3 and functionality (nonfunctioning versus functioning for comparison. Results. PENs comprised 6.3% of all pancreatic neoplasms (40 of 634. Twenty-eight patients (70% had nonfunctioning tumours. Eighteen PENs (45% were carcinomas (G3, all of which were nonfunctioning. 14 (78% of these were located in the pancreatic head and uncinate process (P=0.09. The high grade (G3 lesions were significantly larger in size than the lower grade (G1 + G2 tumours (7.0 ± 3.5 cms versus 3.1 ± 1.6 cms, P=0.007. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed in 18 (45%, distal pancreatectomy in 10 (25%, and local resection in 8 (20% and nonresective procedures were performed in 4 patients (10%. Fourteen patients (35% had postoperative complications. All G3 grade tumours which were resected had positive lymph nodes (100% and 10 had angioinvasion (71%. Eight neoplasms (20% were cystic, all being grade G3 carcinomas, while the rest were solid. The overall disease related mortality attributable to PEN was 14.3% (4 of 28 and for malignant PENs was 33.3% (4 of 12 after a mean follow-up period of 49.6 months (range: 2–137 months. Conclusion. Majority of PENs are nonfunctioning. They are more likely malignant if they are nonfunctioning and large in size, show cystic appearance, and are situated in the pancreatic head

  11. Rheological and fractal characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2011-07-01

    The rheological and fractal characteristics of raw (unconditioned) and conditioned water treatment residuals (WTRs) were investigated in this study. Variations in morphology, size, and image fractal dimensions of the flocs/aggregates in these WTR systems with increasing polymer doses were analyzed. The results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymer CZ8688, the optimum polymer dosage was observed at 24 kg/ton dry sludge. The average diameter of irregularly shaped flocs/aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 42.54 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing polymer doses. Furthermore, the aggregates in the conditioned WTR system displayed boundary/surface and mass fractals. At the optimum polymer dosage, the aggregates formed had a volumetric average diameter of about 820.7 μm, with a one-dimensional fractal dimension of 1.01 and a mass fractal dimension of 2.74 on the basis of the image analysis. Rheological tests indicated that the conditioned WTRs at the optimum polymer dosage showed higher levels of shear-thinning behavior than the raw WTRs. Variations in the limiting viscosity (η(∞)) of conditioned WTRs with sludge content could be described by a linear equation, which were different from the often-observed empirical exponential relationship for most municipal sludge. With increasing temperature, the η(∞) of the raw WTRs decreased more rapidly than that of the raw WTRs. Good fitting results for the relationships between lgη(∞)∼T using the Arrhenius equation indicate that the WTRs had a much higher activation energy for viscosity of about 17.86-26.91 J/mol compared with that of anaerobic granular sludge (2.51 J/mol) (Mu and Yu, 2006). In addition, the Bingham plastic model adequately described the rheological behavior of the conditioned WTRs, whereas the rheology of the raw WTRs fit the Herschel-Bulkley model well at only certain sludge contents. Considering the good power-law relationships between the

  12. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  13. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  14. Influence of Microstructure and Composition Changes on Mechanical Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy After Heating and Cooling Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit; Nuraini, E; Martoyo

    1998-01-01

    Influences of microstructure and chemical composition changes on mechanical characteristics of AIMg2 which were heated at 85-500 0 C and cooled with sands, water or air have been studied. Microstructure observation was carried out using optical microscope, while chemical composition determination by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). AIMg2 which has been heated at the relatively low temperature i. e, 200 0 C during 6 hours and cooled using sands showed a small change microstructure, but those will be clearly observed on the treatment at 300 0 C. The microstructure change is in agreement with the change of mechanical characteristic, I. e., the decreasing of tensile strength and hardness and increasing of elongation. After the temperature of treatment is higher than 300 0 C, the decreasing of the tensile strength was relatively constant, while the hardness increased. The microstructure of AIMg2 resulted from the heat treatment at temperature of 500 0 C was different with that of 300 0 C. Heat treatment at 500 0 C following by cooling in the sands, water or air respectively gave similar microstructure. Those also caused the change of alloying element content which was in agreement with decreasing of mechanical characteristics

  15. CFD investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR core using different contact treatments between pebbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, Y.M.; Lin, K.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is important to study thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR for a HTGR. • A CFD model is proposed to simulate flow and heat transfer in a segment of pebbles. • Area and point contact treatments for adjacent pebbles are adopted in this study. • Predicted dependences of Nu and friction factor agree with the correlations. - Abstract: A high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) with a pebble bed core (PBR) can be considered as one of the possible energy generation sources in the incoming future due to its inherently safe performance, lower power density, and higher conversion efficiency, etc. It is important to study the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a PBR for optimum design and safe operation of a HTGR. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology is proposed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behavior in a segment of pebbles representing the central region of a PBR. Two kinds of contact modeling between adjacent pebbles are adopted, namely area and point contact treatments. The former contact treatment is a geometric approximation modeling. Based on the comparisons of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the pebbles predicted by both contact treatments, no significant difference is revealed except for the near-wall secondary flow pattern. In addition, compared with the calculated results from the well-known correlations, the present predicted dependence of Nu number and friction factor on the particle Reynolds number shows good agreement qualitatively and quantitatively

  16. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with low- and high-concentration isoniazid-monoresistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isoniazid (INH resistance is now the most common type of tuberculosis (TB infection resistance worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-four patients with culture-confirmed INH-monoresistant TB during 2006 January to 2007 December were retrospectively enrolled. INH resistance was classified as either low-concentration or high-concentration resistance according to the critical concentrations of 0.2 µg/mL or 1 µg/mL of INH, respectively. The patients' clinical outcomes, treatment regimens, and treatment duration were analyzed. RESULTS: The treatment success rates between low- and high-concentration INH-resistant TB were similar (81.8% vs. 86.7%. The treatment regimens and treatment duration were similar between both groups. Only a minor percentage of the patients in both groups received 6-month treatment regimens (low vs. high concentration resistance, 9.1% vs. 13.3%; respectively, p = 0.447 The most common reason for treatment duration longer than 6 months was pyrazinamide given for less than 6 months, followed by a delay in clinical response to treatment. Multivariable analysis showed that prior tuberculosis treatment (Odds ratio, 2.82, 95% C.I., 1.02-7.77, p = 0.045 was the only independent risk factor for unsuccessful treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: Different levels of INH resistance did not affect the treatment outcomes of patients with INH-monoresistant tuberculosis. Prolonged Rifampin-containing regimens may achieve those good outcomes in patients with low- and high-concentration INH-monoresistant TB.

  17. Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma and Microwave Surface Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sangjin; Lee, Soonbo; Boo, Jinhyo; Shrestha, Shankar Prasad

    2014-01-01

    The plasma and microwave surface treatments of carbon nanotubes that loaded on plastic substrates were carried out with expecting a change of carbon nanotube dispersion by increasing treatment time. The microwave treatment process was undergone by commercial microwave oven (800 W). The electrical property was measured by hall measurement and resistance was increased by increasing O 2 flow rate of plasma, suggesting an improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion and a possibility of controlling the resistances of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface treatment. The resistance was increased in both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates by increasing O 2 flow rate. Resistance changes only slightly with different O 2 flow treatment in measure rho for all polyimide samples. Sheet resistance is lowest in polyimide substrate not due to high carbon nanotube loading but due to tendency to remain in elongated structure. O 2 or N 2 plasma treatments on both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates lead to increase in sheet resistance

  18. Common Characteristics of Improvisational Approaches in Music Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Developing Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Carpente, John A; Elefant, Cochavit; Kim, Jinah; Gold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Improvisational methods of music therapy have been increasingly applied in the treatment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades in many countries worldwide. This study aimed at developing treatment guidelines based on the most important common characteristics of improvisational music therapy (IMT) with children affected by ASD as applied across various countries and theoretical backgrounds. After initial development of treatment principle items, a survey among music therapy professionals in 10 countries and focus group workshops with experienced clinicians in three countries were conducted to evaluate the items and formulate revised treatment guidelines. To check usability, a treatment fidelity assessment tool was subsequently used to rate therapy excerpts. Survey findings and feedback from the focus groups corroborated most of the initial principles for IMT in the context of children with ASD. Unique and essential principles include facilitating musical and emotional attunement, musically scaffolding the flow of interaction, and tapping into the shared history of musical interaction between child and therapist. Raters successfully used the tool to evaluate treatment adherence and competence. Summarizing an international consensus about core principles of improvisational approaches in music therapy for children with ASD, these treatment guidelines may be applied in diverse theoretical models of music therapy. They can be used to assess treatment fidelity, and may be applied to facilitate future research, clinical practice, and training. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Investigation on the characteristics of liquid wastes depending on their generation sources and study on optimum treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Guk; Kim, Dong Chan; Shin, Dae Hyun; Son, Seung Geun; Roh, Nam Sun; Woo, Je Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The major research contents conducted this year are as follows: (1) environmental regulation with respect to the treatment of the liquid waste in the U.S.A., (2) the present status of the generation and treatment of liquid wastes for large producers(>1,000 ton/year), (3) analysis for heating value element, heavy metal content, halogenated species on collected samples, (4) investigation on estimation method of energy recovery rate from liquid waste, (5) design of a lab. scale reactor which could be capable of conducting thermal decomposition test with small quantity of sample. In this study, present status of liquid waste generation and treatment is investigated, and thermal decomposition characteristics are studied using a lab. scale thermal reactor. The purpose of this research is to divide liquid waste into groups and to present best treatment method for their each group. (author). 24 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  20. Effect of well-established plasma treatment technology on some physiological characteristics in maize leaves during seedling stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxiang; Fang Xiangqian; Bian Shaofeng; Zhang Lihua; Tan Guobo; Meng Xiangmeng; Yan Weiping; Liu Yaliang; Sun Ning

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical references and technical support for application of plasma treatment technology in agriculture, the seeds of maize were treated by well-established plasma treatment technology, then the changes of physiological characteristics of maize leaves during seedling stage were studied. The results indicated that the stress resistance of maize was improved by plasma treatment. The SOD, POD and CAT activities, soluble protein content and soluble sugar content of leaves at two-leave stage, four-leave stage, six-leave stage and eight-leave stage treated by plasma were higher than that of CK, but the MDA content was lower than CK. Although NR activity in leaves at twoleave stage and four-leave stage was slightly lower than CK, but higher than CK at six-leave stage (26.81%) and eightleaves stage (26.75%). Plasma treatment enhanced the nitrogen metabolism capacity, and this tendency was increased remarkable with the growth stages processes. (authors)

  1. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some...

  2. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  3. Patient Characteristics, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Costs Associated with Treatment-Regimen Failure with Biologics in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Shonda A; Zhu, Baojin; Guo, Jiaying; Nikai, Enkeleida; Ojeh, Clement; Malatestinic, William; Goldblum, Orin; Kornberg, Lori J; Wu, Jashin J

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, incurable, and immune-mediated skin disorder that is characterized by erythematous scaly papules and plaques. Understanding of psoriasis at the molecular level has led to the development of biologic agents that target disease-specific inflammatory mediators in psoriatic lesions. Biologic agents have become important components of the psoriasis armamentarium, but some patients become refractory to these agents over time or fail to respond to subsequent biologics. To (a) evaluate demographic and clinical characteristics of psoriasis patients who have treatment patterns suggestive of failure to a newly initiated biologic agent (treatment-regimen failures) compared with those who do not (non-treatment-regimen failures) and (b) to assess health care-related resource utilization and costs in non-treatment-regimen failures and treatment-regimen failures. In this retrospective observational cohort study, patients were selected from the MarketScan claims database of commercially insured individuals and individuals with Medicare supplemental insurance. The index event was a newly initiated biologic agent for the treatment of psoriasis (etanercept, adalimumab, ustekinumab, or infliximab) between January 2010 and December 2011. The analysis included psoriasis patients aged ≥ 18 years with ≥ 1 prescription claim for a biologic and continuous enrollment 12 months pre- and post-index date. Patients with claims for a biologic in the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were divided into treatment-regimen-failure and non-treatment-regimen-failure groups based on their treatment patterns post-index date. The treatment-regimen-failure group included patients who switched to another biologic, discontinued the biologic without restarting, increased the dose of the biologic, or augmented treatment with a nontopical psoriasis medication during the post-index period. Between-group patient characteristics and medication use were compared using analysis of

  4. Analysis of thermal treatment effects upon optico-luminescent and scintillation characteristics of oxide and chalcogenide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Pirogov, Evgeniy N.; Galkin, Sergey N.; Nagornaya, Lyudmila L.; Bondar, Vladimir G.; Babiychuk, Inna P.; Krivoshein, Vadim I.; Silin, Vitaliy I.; Lalayants, Alexandr I.; Voronkin, Evgeniy F.; Katrunov, Konstantin A.; Onishchenko, Gennadiy M.; Vostretsov, Yuriy Ya.; Malyi, Pavel Yu.; Lisetskaya, Elena K.; Lisetskii, Longin N.

    2005-01-01

    This work has been aimed at analyzing the effects of various thermal treatment factors upon optical-luminescent, scintillation and other functional characteristics of complex oxide and chalcogenide crystals. The crystals considered in this work are scintillators with intrinsic (PWO, CWO, BGO), activator (GSO:Ce) or complex-defect ZnSe(Te) type of luminescence. Important factors of thermal treatment are not only the temperature and its variation with time, but also the chemical composition of the annealing medium, its oxidation-reduction properties

  5. Characteristics of Problem Drinkers in E-therapy versus Face-to-Face Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client–therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. Objective: To

  6. Characteristics of problem drinkers in e-therapy versus face-to-face treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postel, M.G.; Haan, H.A. de; Huurne, E.D. Ter; Becker, E.S.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. OBJECTIVE: To

  7. Effect of urea treatment of cocoa pod on rumen fermentation characteristics in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.; Sakti, A. A.; Sofyan, A.; Ekaningrum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is a third largest country in the world for cocoa production. A cocoa pod could be utilized as alternative feeds due to their sufficient quantity and availability throughout the year. On the other hand, low nutritional quality such as highly fibrous materials and low protein content usually characterized in agricultural and plantation by-products as it appears on cocoa pod. Ammoniation treatment using urea improve the nutritional quality of feedstuff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammoniation treatments on a cocoa pod on in vitro feed fermentation and gas production on ruminal fluid. KA treatment gave highest gas production than other treatment. Total gas production during 48 hours of the cocoa pod was significantly affected by treatments (Pcocoa pod.

  8. Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2015-06-01

    Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristic of purslanes ( Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated. Drying times were determined as 31, 24 and 9 h for natural, salted and blanched, respectively. The higher "L" value and lower "-a/b" ratio values were obtained in natural dried purslane. The Aghbashlo et al. model gave a better fit to drying data.

  9. Characteristics of ion spectrum in a low energy nitrogen operated plasma focus: application to the metallic substrates thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, H.; Lepone, A.; Marquez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This work presents the nitrogen ion spectrum characteristics in a Plasma Focus device, determined using a Thomson spectrometer and a Faraday cup, operated in the secondary electron collective mode. It is also discussed the thermal treatment and the re coating induce by ions incident on a metallic surface (AISI 304 steel) placed in front of the coaxial gun, when the device is operated with a Ti implant at the end of the central electrode

  10. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  11. The structure and amphipathy characteristics of modified γ-zeins by SDS or alkali in conjunction with heating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Rong; Xu, Hong-Hua; Tan, Jun-Yan; Xie, Ming-Ming; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2017-10-15

    γ-Zein was modified by SDS or alkali combined with heating treatments in water and in 70% ethanol to change its amphipathic properties and explore the relationship between amphipathic characteristic and structure. γ-Zein water-dispersibility was dramatically increased via alkali or SDS combined with heating treatments, but their ethanol-dispersibilities were significantly different during ethanol evaporation. High both water-dispersibility and ethanol-dispersibility were found from alkali modified γ-zein while high water-dispersibility but low ethanol-dispersibility were obtained from SDS modified γ-zein, indicating that alkali modified γ-zein had better amphipathic characteristic compared with SDS modified γ-zein. Alkali modified γ-zein with higher amphipathic characteristic possessed higher structural inversion ability since it was easy to recover its native state as solvent changing from water to ethanol, contrary to SDS modified γ-zeins whose amphipathic characteristic was not improved. Moreover, the higher structural inversion ability of alkali modified γ-zein depended on the recovery capability of α-helix structure as solvent altering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO R.F. CAMPOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by using an enzymatic treatment followed by Membrane Separation Process (MSP has been investigated. By using Novozym 33095(r and Ultrazym AFP L(r enzymes varying three operating parameters, the best result on the grape pulp characteristics was attained for the Novozym 33095(r performed at 35oC, 15 min. and 50 mgL-1. In micro/ultra filtration processes after enzymatic pretreatment, the best performance of the MSP with high permeate flux value and suitable grape juice characteristics was attained using 0.05 mm membrane pore size, 1 bar pressure and 40 oC treatment temperature. When reverse osmosis process is operated at 40 bar and 40oC, high soluble solid and low turbidity values are attained. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide treatment on ZnO substrates to investigate the characteristics of Pt and Pt oxide Schottky contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chia-Hung; Hung, Chen-I; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2010-01-01

    We utilize hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment on (0 0 0 1) ZnO substrates to investigate the characteristics of Pt and Pt oxide Schottky contacts (SCs). X-ray rocking curves show the mosaicity structure becomes larger after H 2 O 2 treatment. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show the yellow-orange emission peaking at ∼576-580 nm with respect to deep level of oxygen interstitials introduced by H 2 O 2 treatment. The threshold formation of ZnO 2 resistive layer on H 2 O 2 -treated ZnO for 45 min is observed from grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. The better electrical characteristic is performed by Pt oxide SC with the larger barrier height (1.09 eV) and the lower leakage current (9.52 x 10 -11 A/cm 2 at -2 V) than Pt SC on the H 2 O 2 -treated ZnO for 60 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) examinations indicate the promoted interface oxide bonding and Zn outdiffusion for Pt oxide contact, different from Pt contact. Based on current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, X-ray diffraction, PL spectra, XPS, and SIMS results, the possible mechanism for effective rectifying characteristic and enhanced Schottky fbehavior is given.

  14. Characteristics of ITO films with oxygen plasma treatment for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Seob [Department of Photoelectronics Information, Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eungkwon [Digital Broadcasting Examination, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Byungyou [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyoeng, E-mail: jaehyeong@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Cheoncheon-dong, 300, Jangan-gu, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The effect of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the surface and the work function of ITO films. - Highlights: • ITO films were prepared on the glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering method. • Effects of O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the properties of ITO films were investigated. • The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 to 5.66 eV by plasma treatment. - Abstract: The influence of oxygen plasma treatment on the electro-optical and structural properties of indium-tin-oxide films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method were investigated. The films were exposed at different O{sub 2} plasma powers and for various durations by using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The resistivity of the ITO films was almost constant, regardless of the plasma treatment conditions. Although the optical transmittance of ITO films was little changed by the plasma power, the prolonged treatment slightly increased the transmittance. The work function of ITO film was changed from 4.67 eV to 5.66 eV at the plasma treatment conditions of 300 W and 60 min.

  15. High pressure treatment changes spoilage characteristics and shelf life of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on spoilage characteristic and shelf life extension of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage were studied. Results showed that HP treatment of 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 350 MPa caused excessive release as the shells of oysters were broken, thus use of higher pressures should be cautious in oyster processing industry because of its adverse impact on the appearance of shells. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) was proper for the shucking of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China. This treatment caused no organoleptic disadvantage. Moreover, HP treatment resulted in obvious differences in biochemical spoilage indicators (pH, TVB-N and TBARS) changes and volatile compounds profile determined by electronic nose during storage. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) also led to a reduction of aerobic bacterial count (APC) by 1.27 log cycles. Furthermore, the APC values of oysters treated by HP were always lower than those of the control samples during storage. Based on the organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological indicators, shelf life of 6-8 d for control and 12 d for HP-treated oysters could be expected. HP treatment showed great potential in oyster processing and preservation.

  16. Adherence to cancer treatment guidelines: influence of general and cancer-specific guideline characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Jong, J.D. de; Spronk, I.; Ho, V.K.; Brink, M.; Korevaar, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Guideline adherence remains a challenge in clinical practice, despite guidelines’ ascribed potential to improve patient outcomes. We studied the level of adherence to recommendations from Dutch national cancer treatment guidelines, and the influence of general and

  17. Role of Antigen Spread and Distinctive Characteristics of Immunotherapy in Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulley, J.L.; Madan, R.A.; Pachynski, R.; Mulders, P.; Sheikh, N.A.; Trager, J.; Drake, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy is an important breakthrough in cancer. US Food and Drug Administration-approved immunotherapies for cancer treatment (including, but not limited to, sipuleucel-T, ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab) substantially improve overall survival across multiple

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TREATMENT OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND IN VARIOUS NATIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cristina Breahna Pravat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative characteristics of accounting information presented by financial-accounting reports represent a concept which was subsequently introduced in the national legal accounting framework and, as a rule, the national conceptual frameworks represent the documents by means of which these quality criteria are established. At a worldwide level, there are more international or national organisms that have an important role in the elaboration of accounting standards in general and more specifically in the formulation of qualitative characteristics of financial reporting. We find two important ones among them, and these are: International Accounting Standards Board, which creates and promotes International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, and Financial Accounting Standards Board, which elaborates Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP. However, at the level of each country a standardizing authority decides the rules for producing the financial reports and the qualitative characteristics that must be respected by the information contained in these documents. In this context, this paper aims to present a few general considerations concerning the treatment of the qualitative characteristics of the financial-accounting information in different accounting systems, such as the American one, or the British, French, German, Romanian ones, with insistence on the international approach to qualitative characteristics.

  19. Constipation in early childhood: patient characteristics, treatment, and longterm follow up.

    OpenAIRE

    Loening-Baucke, V

    1993-01-01

    Little is known about chronic constipation in infants, toddlers, and preschool children and longterm outcome after treatment. The symptoms of 174 children < or = 4 years of age, who were evaluated for chronic constipation, are reported in this study together with the long-term outcome in 90 of them. Initial symptoms were infrequent bowel movements in 58%, painful bowel movements in 77% often with screaming, and severe stool withholding manoeuvres in 97%. The treatment of chronic idiopathic co...

  20. Characteristics and Outcomes of Female Infertility Treatment Programs Using Traditional Medicine in Korea: A Multisite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Han; Jang, Soobin; Lee, Ju Ah; Go, Ho-Yeon; Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Sunju; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2018-03-22

    Infertility has long been recognized as a treatable disease, and complementary and alternative medicine treatments, such as acupuncture and moxibustion, have been used in Korea and China. This study describes female infertility treatment programs that used traditional Korean medicine (TKM) and were conducted by local governments in Korea and evaluates its effectiveness and safety. The authors officially requested related information from the report of the infertility treatment programs and related sources from 2006 to 2016 from the Health & Welfare Ministry of Korea and the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM). Additional information was obtained from six Korean databases. Data including basic information about the programs, participant information, interventions, and outcomes were abstracted. A total of 9 reports, including multiple years of data from 6 programs (total 13 programs), were identified. In these 13 programs, a total of 1023 female subjects participated, and 205 of the 887 subjects who completed the program reported a successful pregnancy, indicating a 23.1% pregnancy rate. The programs lasted 3-9 months, and interventional elements, such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, fumigation, and massage, were identified. Significant adverse effects were not reported. This study suggests that infertility treatment programs with TKM interventions exhibited a positive effect on pregnancy in females with infertility. Thus, the infertility treatment programs with TKM interventions are expected to be useful and might serve as the primary treatment before assisted reproduction techniques.

  1. Evaluation of the Characteristics of the Aluminum Alloy Casting Material by Heat Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Syung Yul; Park, Dong Hyun; Won, Jong Pil; Kim, Yun Hae; Lee, Myung Hoon; Moon, Kyung Man; Jeong, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum is on active metal, but it is well known that its oxide film plays a role as protective barrier which is comparatively stable in air and neutral aqueous solution. Thus, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in architectural trim, cold and hot-water storage vessels and piping etc., furthermore, the aluminum alloy of AC8A have been widely used in mold casting material of engine piston because of its properties of temperature and wear resistance. In recent years, the oil price is getting higher and higher, thus the using of low quality oil has been significantly increased in engines of ship and vehicle. Therefore it is considered that evaluation of corrosion resistance as well as wear resistance of AC8A material is also important to improve its property and prolong its lifetime. In this study, the effect of solution and tempering heat treatment to corrosion and wear resistance is investigated with electrochemical method and measurement of hardness. The hardness decreased with solution heat treatment compared to mold casting condition, but its value increased with tempering heat treatment and exhibited the highest value of hardness with tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 24hrs. Furthermore, corrosion resistance increased with decreasing of the hardness, and decreased with increasing of the hardness reversely. As a result, it is suggested that the optimum heat treatment to improve both corrosion and wear resistance is tempering heat treatment temperature at 190 .deg. C for 16hrs

  2. Electrical Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma and Microwave Surface Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sangjin; Lee, Soonbo; Boo, Jinhyo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shrestha, Shankar Prasad [Tribhuvan Univ., Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2014-03-15

    The plasma and microwave surface treatments of carbon nanotubes that loaded on plastic substrates were carried out with expecting a change of carbon nanotube dispersion by increasing treatment time. The microwave treatment process was undergone by commercial microwave oven (800 W). The electrical property was measured by hall measurement and resistance was increased by increasing O{sub 2} flow rate of plasma, suggesting an improvement of carbon nanotube dispersion and a possibility of controlling the resistances of carbon nanotubes by plasma surface treatment. The resistance was increased in both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates by increasing O{sub 2} flow rate. Resistance changes only slightly with different O{sub 2} flow treatment in measure rho for all polyimide samples. Sheet resistance is lowest in polyimide substrate not due to high carbon nanotube loading but due to tendency to remain in elongated structure. O{sub 2} or N{sub 2} plasma treatments on both polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide substrates lead to increase in sheet resistance.

  3. Relating Therapist Characteristics to Client Engagement and the Therapeutic Alliance in an Adolescent Custodial Group Substance Misuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Rachael Anne; Holdsworth, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo

    2017-07-29

    Client engagement in substance misuse treatment programs is directly associated with positive treatment outcomes. The nature of these programs means there are often difficulties engaging and retaining clients, but authors have consistently found a strong therapeutic alliance is associated with client engagement. While research has focused on the association between the alliance and engagement, the factors that influence the therapeutic alliance have received less attention. To examine therapists' characteristics, namely therapists' stress and empathy levels, as potential predictors of client engagement and the therapeutic alliance, within an adolescent substance misuse group treatment program. The sample included 84 adolescent clients and 14 therapists from a Secure Training Centre in England. Client engagement in the treatment program was observed, while self-reporting measures assessed the therapeutic alliance (client and therapist-rated), and therapists' stress and empathy levels. Multiple regression analysis revealed that therapists' stress levels negatively influenced the therapeutic alliance and had a curvilinear relationship with client engagement, indicating that stress is not exclusively negatively related to engagement. Although stress was found to negatively impact both cognitive and affective empathy, neither cognitive nor affective empathy were significantly related to client engagement or the therapeutic alliance. This study demonstrates the importance of therapist characteristics on client engagement and the therapeutic alliance. Within practice stress can have a positive impact on clients' engagement. Nevertheless, therapists may need additional support to deal with stress effectively. Therapists' empathy may too be fundamental to client engagement, but only it if is perceived by clients.

  4. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James; Ruan, Su; Anastasio, Mark; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2016-08-01

    For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity coefficient (93.28%  ±  1

  5. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Victoria, James; Dempsey, James [ViewRay Incorporated, Inc., Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States); Ruan, Su [Laboratoire LITIS (EA 4108), Equipe Quantif, University of Rouen, Rouen 76183 (France); Anastasio, Mark [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Methods: Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity

  6. An integrated model-driven method for in-treatment upper airway motion tracking using cine MRI in head and neck radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Dolly, Steven; Li, Harold; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin; Mazur, Thomas; Gach, Michael; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Rodriguez, Vivian; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa; Victoria, James; Dempsey, James; Ruan, Su; Anastasio, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For the first time, MRI-guided radiation therapy systems can acquire cine images to dynamically monitor in-treatment internal organ motion. However, the complex head and neck (H&N) structures and low-contrast/resolution of on-board cine MRI images make automatic motion tracking a very challenging task. In this study, the authors proposed an integrated model-driven method to automatically track the in-treatment motion of the H&N upper airway, a complex and highly deformable region wherein internal motion often occurs in an either voluntary or involuntary manner, from cine MRI images for the analysis of H&N motion patterns. Methods: Considering the complex H&N structures and ensuring automatic and robust upper airway motion tracking, the authors firstly built a set of linked statistical shapes (including face, face-jaw, and face-jaw-palate) using principal component analysis from clinically approved contours delineated on a set of training data. The linked statistical shapes integrate explicit landmarks and implicit shape representation. Then, a hierarchical model-fitting algorithm was developed to align the linked shapes on the first image frame of a to-be-tracked cine sequence and to localize the upper airway region. Finally, a multifeature level set contour propagation scheme was performed to identify the upper airway shape change, frame-by-frame, on the entire image sequence. The multifeature fitting energy, including the information of intensity variations, edge saliency, curve geometry, and temporal shape continuity, was minimized to capture the details of moving airway boundaries. Sagittal cine MR image sequences acquired from three H&N cancer patients were utilized to demonstrate the performance of the proposed motion tracking method. Results: The tracking accuracy was validated by comparing the results to the average of two manual delineations in 50 randomly selected cine image frames from each patient. The resulting average dice similarity

  7. An e-health driven laboratory information system to support HIV treatment in Peru: E-quity for laboratory personnel, health providers and people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero N Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic with an estimated 76,000 people living with HIV (PLHIV. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART expanded between 2004-2006 and the Peruvian National Institute of Health was named by the Ministry of Health as the institution responsible for carrying out testing to monitor the effectiveness of HAART. However, a national public health laboratory information system did not exist. We describe the design and implementation of an e-health driven, web-based laboratory information system - NETLAB - to communicate laboratory results for monitoring HAART to laboratory personnel, health providers and PLHIV. Methods We carried out a needs assessment of the existing public health laboratory system, which included the generation and subsequent review of flowcharts of laboratory testing processes to generate better, more efficient streamlined processes, improving them and eliminating duplications. Next, we designed NETLAB as a modular system, integrating key security functions. The system was implemented and evaluated. Results The three main components of the NETLAB system, registration, reporting and education, began operating in early 2007. The number of PLHIV with recorded CD4 counts and viral loads increased by 1.5 times, to reach 18,907. Publication of test results with NETLAB took an average of 1 day, compared to a pre-NETLAB average of 60 days. NETLAB reached 2,037 users, including 944 PLHIV and 1,093 health providers, during its first year and a half. The percentage of overall PLHIV and health providers who were aware of NETLAB and had a NETLAB password has also increased substantially. Conclusion NETLAB is an effective laboratory management tool since it is directly integrated into the national laboratory system and streamlined existing processes at the local, regional and national levels. The system also represents the best possible source of timely laboratory information for

  8. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  9. Alcohol in Primary Care. Differential characteristics between alcohol-dependent patients who are receiving or not receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni

    2016-03-02

    primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD.

  10. The Pain System in Oesophageal Disorders: Mechanisms, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lottrup

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain is common in gastroenterology. This review aims at giving an overview of pain mechanisms, clinical features, and treatment options in oesophageal disorders. The oesophagus has sensory receptors specific for different stimuli. Painful stimuli are encoded by nociceptors and communicated via afferent nerves to the central nervous system. The pain stimulus is further processed and modulated in specific pain centres in the brain, which may undergo plastic alterations. Hence, tissue inflammation and long-term exposure to pain can cause sensitisation and hypersensitivity. Oesophageal sensitivity can be evaluated ,for example, with the oesophageal multimodal probe. Treatment should target the cause of the patient's symptoms. In gastro-oesophageal reflux diseases, proton pump inhibitors are the primary treatment option, surgery being reserved for patients with severe disease resistant to drug therapy. Functional oesophageal disorders are treated with analgesics, antidepressants, and psychological therapy. Lifestyle changes are another option with less documentation.

  11. [Chronic tics and Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents: diagnostic and treatment characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadenko, N N; Doronina, O B; Nesterovsky, Yu E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic tics (CT) are observed in 3-4% population, Tourette syndrome (TS) in 0.1-3.0%. In most cases, tic disorders start at age 2-15 years, but frequently they are diagnosed late. Clinical presentations of tics and comorbid disorders are various and depend on child's age. Difficulties in treatment of CT are associated with their persistence and those for TS with the fluctuating course of tics and probable onset of the disease in the form of behavioral disorders. Treatment of CT and TS is individual. Methods of behavioral and psychotherapy are recommended for a certain period of time if tics do not hamper everyday life. Increase in tick frequency and severity indicate the necessity of using pharmacological treatment. The European recommendations on pharmacotherapy of tic disorders and the drugs available in Russia are considered. Results of the studies on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs and tenoten children in CT and TS are presented.

  12. Do patient characteristics, disease, or treatment explain social inequality in survival from colorectal cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Osler, Merete; Harling, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between individually measured socioeconomic status (SES) and all-cause survival in colorectal cancer patients, and explores whether factors related to the patient, the disease, or the surgical treatment mediate the observed social gradient. The data were...... on comorbidity from previous hospitalizations and use of medication. Only patients with colorectal cancer as their first primary tumour and those born after 1920 were included. A total of 8763 patients were included in the study. Cox proportional hazard regression models revealed a positive social gradient......, while no evidence of a mediating effect was found for disease or surgical treatment factors. This indicates that the difference in survival among colorectal cancer patients from different social groups was probably not caused by unintentional differences in treatment factors related to surgery...

  13. Characteristics and use of treatment modalities of patients with binge-eating disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; DuVall, Scott L; Kamauu, Aaron W C; Supina, Dylan; Pawaskar, Manjiri; Babcock, Thomas; LaFleur, Joanne

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 binge-eating disorder (BED) was recognized as a formal diagnosis, but was historically included under the diagnosis code for eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). This study compared the characteristics and use of treatment modalities in BED patients to those with EDNOS without BED (EDNOS-only) and to matched-patients with no eating disorders (NED). Patients were identified for this study from electronic health records in the Department of Veterans Affairs from 2000 to 2011. Patients with BED were identified using natural language processing and patients with EDNOS-only were identified by ICD-9 code (307.50). First diagnosis defined index date for these groups. NED patients were frequency matched to BED patients up to 4:1, as available, on age, sex, BMI, depression, and index month encounter. Baseline characteristics and use of treatment modalities during the post-index year were compared using t-tests or chi-square tests. There were 593 BED, 1354 EDNOS-only, and 1895 matched-NED patients identified. Only 68 patients with BED had an EDNOS diagnosis. BED patients were younger (48.7 vs. 49.8years, p=0.04), more were male (72.2% vs. 62.8%, p<0.001) and obese (BMI 40.2 vs. 37.0, p<0.001) than EDNOS-only patients. In the follow-up period fewer BED (68.0%) than EDNOS-only patients (87.6%, p<0.001), but more BED than NED patients (51.9%, p<0.001) used at least one treatment modality. The characteristics of BED patients were different from those with EDNOS-only and NED as was their use of treatment modalities. These differences highlight the need for a separate identifier of BED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracheal Chondrosarcoma: Systematic Review of Tumor Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Treatment Outcomes with Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kutzner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge this is the first systematic review of tracheal chondrosarcoma treatment outcomes. Management insights are thoroughly discussed. Men constitute 93.8% of cases, and most of these occur in the distal trachea. The most common symptom, dyspnea, occurs in virtually all patients. Extratracheal extension had occurred in 78.6% of patients. Definitive treatment with tracheal resection showed no recurrences in 10 patients with mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be utilized for improving local control when open complete resection cannot be performed, but only after endoscopic excision of gross tumor.

  15. Clinical Characteristics and Current Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial degeneration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium. The societal impact is significant, with more than 2 million individuals in the United States alone affected by advanced stages of AMD. Recent progress in our understanding of this complex disease and parallel developments in therapeutics and imaging have translated into new management paradigms in recent years. However, there are many unanswered questions, and diagnostic and prognostic precision and treatment outcomes can still be improved. In this article, we discuss the clinical features of AMD, provide correlations with modern imaging and histopathology, and present an overview of treatment strategies. PMID:25280900

  16. Effect of treatment with adsorbent resin on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dutra Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased preference for healthy and functional foods could be an opportunity to increase the consumption of clarified cashew apple juice. Given its level of fructose, glucose, and vitamin C, it can be used as a base in blends. However, its characteristic odor can interfere with the acceptance of these formulations, especially by consumers who are not familiar with cashew aroma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with macroporous resins (FPA54, FPX66, XAD761, and XAD4 on the volatile profile and physicochemical characteristics of clarified cashew apple juice. After the treatment with the resins, the volatile profile was evaluated using solid-phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The physicochemical analyses performed were: pH, soluble solids (ºBrix, total titrable acidity, reducing sugars, and vitamin C. Gas chromatography analyses showed that XAD4 and FPX66 led to a reduction of the initial amount of volatile compounds to 14.05% and 15.72%, respectively. These two resins also did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the clarified cashew apple juice.

  17. Treatment of venous thromboembolism: focus on patient characteristics and bleeding complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, M.P.A.

    2018-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease with many manifestations. Despite the recent progress in VTE treatment, there remain knowledge gaps in the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in special patient populations and in the management and outcome of anticoagulant-related bleeding.

  18. Effect of T6 heat treatment on damping characteristics of Al/RHA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present work, effect of T6 heat treatment on the damping behaviour of aluminum/rice husk ash .... alloy-based composites, there is dearth of information on the damping ... fication. Using the process 4, 6 and 8% by weight, RHA.

  19. Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Treatment Practices of Known Adult Hypertensive Patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collected data was cheeked, computer fed, and analysed using SPSS V17. Results. Out of 4719 subjects (99.2% response, 542 (11.5% subjects were known hypertensives or detected by health workers in the past 12 months. Hypertension was significantly associated with age, gender, geographical location, education, employment, diabetes, physical inactivity, excess body weight, and ever smoking. Multiple logistic analysis controlling for age showed that significant predictors of hypertension were diabetes mellitus, ever smoking, obesity, and hypercholesteremia. Several treatment modalities and practices were significantly associated with gender, age, education, and occupation. About 74% were under prescribed treatment by physicians, 62% on dietary modification, 37% attempted weight reduction, 27% performed physical exercise, and less than 7% used herbs, consulted traditional healers or quitted smoking. Income was not significantly associated with any treatment modality or patient practices. Conclusion. Hypertension (known and undetected is a major chronic health problem among adults in Saudi Arabia. Many patients' practices need changes. A comprehensive approach is needed to prevent, early detect, and control the disease targeting, the risk factors, and predictors identified.

  20. [The post-discectomy syndrome: clinical and electroneuromyographic characteristics and methods of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaev, A V; Guseĭnova, S G; Musaeva, I R

    2008-01-01

    The data of the Azerbaijan Neurosurgical Center, including 2618 case-reports of patients operated on for low back discal hernia between 1997 and 2002, have been analyzed. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. The retrospective analysis of the data reveals that 26,4% of patients need further restorative treatment due to the presence of various neurological disturbances: pain syndromes of different intensity, motor deficits (pareses), sensory disorders and functional disorders of pelvic organs. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. Along with these data, the results of our own clinical and neurophysiological study of 110 patients have been summarized as well. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. A high effectiveness of electrostimulation and naphthalan therapy alone and in combination with massage and medical gymnastics has been revealed. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented. Electroneuromyographic data revealing the positive dynamics as a result of the treatment of patients with the post-discectomy syndrome are presented.

  1. Are pre-treatment psychological characteristics influenced by pre-surgical orthodontics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, S J; Gilthorpe, M S; Hunt, N P

    2001-12-01

    A number of investigations have looked at psychological changes occurring in association with orthognathic treatment. However, most of these studies have used a pre-surgery questionnaire as the baseline measurement. There is little data relating to the true baseline, i.e. that prior to any active treatment. Until this aspect is investigated, it is not possible to assume that pre-surgery is an acceptable baseline. This questionnaire based study aimed to assess changes in six psychological outcome measures between T1 (prior to any active treatment) and T2 (following pre-surgical orthodontics/prior to surgery). The outcome variables were: state anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, self-esteem, body image, and facial body image. Sixty-two patients (39 females and 23 males) completed both questionnaires. The results showed that intervention, in the form of orthodontic treatment, had a minimal effect on the chosen psychometric outcome variables. There was a significant reduction in satisfaction with body image amongst patients who initially reported mild to moderate dental/facial problems, whilst a moderate increase in satisfaction occurred in those patients reporting severe conditions initially. Also of note were significant increases in state anxiety amongst older patients whilst trait anxiety showed greater increases in females than males.

  2. Constipation in early childhood: patient characteristics, treatment, and longterm follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, V

    1993-10-01

    Little is known about chronic constipation in infants, toddlers, and preschool children and longterm outcome after treatment. The symptoms of 174 children milk of magnesia, and finally toilet training of the preschool child. Longterm outcome could be evaluated in 90 patients (52%) (mean (SD) 6.9 (2.7)) years after initial evaluation. Fifty seven children (63%) had recovered, defined as no soiling with > or = 3 bowel movements per week, while not receiving treatment. The recovery rate of children 2 to 4 years of age. Thirty three children (37%) had not recovered. Constipation recurred as soon as laxatives were discontinued in 31 (94%) of them. Laxatives were still used by 33% of the children who had not recovered, 39% had < 3 bowel movements per week, 48% had faecal soiling, 45% had stool withholding, 27% complained of abdominal pain, 73% passed large stools, and 45% still on occasions clogged the toilet with their large stools. Symptoms of chronic constipation persisted in one third of our patients, 3-12 years after initial evaluation and treatment. Children who had not recovered deserve continued follow up, to reinforce and adjust treatment and to prevent faecal soiling.

  3. Pre-treatment preferences and characteristics among patients seeking in vitro fertilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony Ph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe patient features before beginning fertility treatment, and to ascertain their perceptions relative to risk of twin pregnancy outcomes associated with such therapy. METHODS: Data on readiness for twin pregnancy outcome from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was gathered from men and women before initiating fertility treatment by anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 206 women and 204 men were sampled. Mean (+\\/- SD) age for women and men being 35.5 +\\/- 5 and 37.3 +\\/- 7 yrs, respectively. At least one IVF cycle had been attempted by 27.2% of patients and 33.9% of this subgroup had initiated >\\/=3 cycles, reflecting an increase in previous failed cycles over five years. Good agreement was noted between husbands and wives with respect to readiness for twins from IVF (77% agreement; Cohen\\'s K = 0.61; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.70). CONCLUSION: Most patients contemplating IVF already have ideas about particular outcomes even before treatment begins, and suggests that husbands & wives are in general agreement on their readiness for twin pregnancy from IVF. However, fertility patients now may represent a more refractory population and therefore carry a more guarded prognosis. Patient preferences identified before IVF remain important, but further studies comparing pre- and post-treatment perceptions are needed.

  4. Characteristics of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Released from Thermal Treatment and Open Burning of E-Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Yu; Zhou, Jun-Feng; Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2018-04-17

    Primitive processing of e-waste potentially releases abundant organic contaminants to the environment, but the magnitudes and mechanisms remain to be adequately addressed. We conducted thermal treatment and open burning of typical e-wastes, that is, plastics and printed circuit boards. Emission factors of the sum of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑ 39 PBDE) were 817-1.60 × 10 5 ng g -1 in thermal treatment and nondetected-9.14 × 10 4 ng g -1 , in open burning. Airborne particles (87%) were the main carriers of PBDEs, followed by residual ashes (13%) and gaseous constituents (0.3%), in thermal treatment, while they were 30%, 43% and 27% in open burning. The output-input mass ratios of ∑ 39 PBDE were 0.12-3.76 in thermal treatment and 0-0.16 in open burning. All PBDEs were largely affiliated with fine particles, with geometric mean diameters at 0.61-0.83 μm in thermal degradation and 0.57-1.16 μm in open burning from plastic casings, and 0.44-0.56 and nondetected- 0.55 μm, from printed circuit boards. Evaporation and reabsorption may be the main emission mechanisms for lightly brominated BDEs, but heavily brominated BDEs tend to affiliate with particles from heating or combustion. The different size distributions of particulate PBDEs in emission sources and adjacent air implicated a noteworthy redisposition process during atmospheric dispersal.

  5. Clinical and demographic characteristics associated with the receipt of chemotherapy treatment among 7951 elderly metastatic colon cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Emily S; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Hanna, Nader; Seal, Brian S; Mullins, C Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Among older individuals diagnosed with metastatic colon cancer (mCC) there is limited evidence available that describes the characteristics associated with advancing to second- and subsequent lines of treatment with chemotherapy/biologics. Our objective was to describe the trends and lines of treatment received among elderly mCC patients. Elderly beneficiaries diagnosed with mCC from 2003 to 2007 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare dataset. Beneficiaries were followed up until death or censoring. Treatment lines were classified in combinations of chemotherapies and biologics. Modified Poisson regression was used to predict receipt of lines of treatment. Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, gender, marital status, state buy-in during diagnosis year, SEER-registry site, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), poor performance indicators, surgery of primary site, and surgery of regional/distal sites. Among 7951 Medicare beneficiaries identified with mCC, 3266 initiated therapy. Of these, 1440 advanced to second-line treatment. Of these, 274 advanced to a subsequent-line treatment. Surgeries of the primary tumor site and of the regional/distal sites and marital status were the most significant variables associated with advancing through second- and subsequent-line treatments. Greater than 80 years of age, African American race, SEER-registry area, less than 6 months state buy-in assistance in mCC diagnosis year, and having poor performance indicators were inversely associated with receipt of second- or subsequent-line treatments. Among elderly individuals diagnosed with mCC, we identified demographic, clinical, and regional factors associated with receipt of second- and subsequent-line chemotherapy/biologics. Additional research is warranted to understand the role of physician versus patient preferences as well as geographic differences explaining why patients advance through lines of chemotherapy. © 2013 The Authors

  6. The need for endodontic treatment and systemic characteristics of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Diniz, Julia Mourão; Santa-Rosa, Caroline Christine; Martins, Renata de Castro; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza E; Vieira, Leda Quercia; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and the need for endodontic treatment. The subjects included 188 individuals enrolled in the dental care program for transplanted patients of the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, FO-UFMG) from March 2011 through March 2016. The patients were subjected to an HSCT conditioning dental regimen based on a thorough clinical and radiographic evaluation. Intraoral periapical and bite-wing X-rays were obtained, and after evaluation, specific dental treatment was planned and performed. The following demographic and clinical data were collected from the patients' medical records: age, gender, transplantation stage, primary disease, transplant type, medication used, complete blood count at the time of visit, and need for endodontic treatment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the chi-square tests were used. Leukemia (31.3%) and multiple myeloma (17.9%) were the most prevalent primary diseases. Most patients were subjected to allogeneic-related transplantation (83.6%). Most patients exhibited platelet counts and hemoglobin concentrations below the reference values in the pre-transplantation stage, while the neutrophil and platelet counts and the hemoglobin levels were within the reference ranges in the post-transplantation stage. The proportions of individuals requiring endodontic treatment were similar between the pre- and post-transplantation groups: 24.3% and 24.7%, respectively. The systemic conditions of the patients referred for dental treatment were compromised.

  7. The influence of cation exchange treatment on the final characteristics of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasanta, Cristina; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2013-06-01

    Ion exchange technology has been applied to adjust the pH of red wine and improve its tartaric and oxidative stability. Ion exchange appears to be a useful technique to achieve these objectives. Regarding the effect of ion exchange on organoleptic characteristics and the quality of the obtained wines, a slight decrease in both anthocyanin and tannin contents was observed along with a small drop in the aromatic content. However, the treated wines had lower hue and higher colour intensity and gave better punctuations in the sensory evaluation. These results confirm that ion exchange is an interesting technique for application in red winemaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristic appearances of fundus autofluorescence in treatment-naive and active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: a retrospective study of 170 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Xia, Song; Chen, Youxin

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the characteristic appearances of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) in patients with treatment-naive and active polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Cases with the diagnosis of treatment-naive and active PCV from November 2012 to May 2017 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. Autofluorescence (AF) findings were described at the retinal sites of the corresponding lesions identified and diagnosed using indocyanine green angiography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. One hundred seventy patients with 192 affected eyes were included. The logMAR BCVA of the patients were 0.53 ± 0.28. The six AF patterns of 243 polypoidal lesions were confluent hypo-AF with hyper-AF ring (49.8%), confluent hypo-AF (22.6%), hyper-AF with hypo-AF ring (3.7%), granular hypo-AF (7.0%), blocked hypo-AF due to hemorrhage (8.6%), and polyps without apparent AF changes (8.2%). For 146 branching vascular networks (BVNs), 97.3% were granular hypo-AF, and others were blocked hypo-AF due to hemorrhage. In eyes with treatment-naive and active PCV, the polypoidal lesions and BVNs induce characteristic FAF changes. FAF images provide reliable adjunct reference for the diagnosis of PCV.

  9. Effect of ultrasound treatment on the morpho-structural and luminescent characteristics of cerium doped yttrium silicate phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muresan, L.E., E-mail: laura_muresan2003@yahoo.com [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cadis, A.I.; Perhaita, I. [“Raluca Ripan” Institute for Research in Chemistry, Babeş Bolyai University, Fântânele 30, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Silipas, D.T. [National Institute for R& D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tudoran, L. Barbu [Electronic Microscopy Centre, Babeş Bolyai University, Clinicilor 37, 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce is prepared by gel combustion in ultrasound conditions (US). • Morpho-structural characteristics are revealed based on FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET. • Incorporation of Ce{sup 3+} in X1/X2 type centers depends on preparative conditions. • US treatment increases the luminescent performances up to 151%. - Abstract: Cerium activated yttrium silicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce) phosphors were prepared by gel-combustion, using yttrium–cerium nitrate as oxidizer, aspartic acid as fuel and TEOS as source of silicon. Two modalities for samples preparation were approached namely: the classical gel-combustion and sonication gel-combustion. The ultrasound treatment during the gelling stage has a positive effect on the structural and luminescent characteristics of the final product. Therefore, a well crystallized single X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phase phosphor was obtained at 1200 °C. Based on FT-IR and XRD investigations, conversion of X1 to X2–Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} phases is observed as the firing temperature is varied (1100 °C, 1200 °C, 1300 °C 1400 °C). The ultrasound treatment leads to smaller particle size and enhances the luminescent performances up to 151% in comparison with samples prepared by classical way.

  10. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased.

  11. Assessment of Surface Area Characteristics of Dental Implants with Gradual Bioactive Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czan, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Miklos, Matej; Záušková, Lucia; Mezencevová, Viktória

    2017-10-01

    Since most of the implant surface is in direct contact with bone tissue, shape and integrity of said surface has great influence on successful osseointegration. Among other characteristics that predetermine titanium of different grades of pureness as ideal biomaterial, titanium shows high mechanical strength making precise miniature machining increasingly difficult. Current titanium-based implants are often anodized due to colour coding. This anodized layer has important functional properties for right usage and also bio-compatibility of dental implants. Physical method of anodizing and usage of anodizing mediums has a significant influence on the surface quality and itself functionality. However, basic requirement of the dental implant with satisfactory properties is quality of machined surface before anodizing. Roughness, for example, is factor affecting of time length of anodizing operation and so whole productivity. The paper is focused on monitoring of surface and area characteristics, such as roughness or surface integrity after different cutting conditions of miniature machining of dental implants and their impact on suitability for creation of satisfactory anodized layer with the correct biocompatible functional properties.

  12. Characteristic of betel nuts activated carbon and its application to Jumputan wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, L.; Sari, K. F.; Anggraini, L.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater from Jumputan production contains synthetic dye which is harmful to the environment. The contaminant can be reduced by adsorption process using activated carbon. The activated carbon was prepared from betel nuts with carbonization temperature of 500°C and 0.5 M HCl as an activator. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effect of various factors, such as the size particle of adsorbent, the dosage of adsorbent, and the contact time on Jumputan’s dye adsorption. The volume of treated solution was 200 mL. This solution agitated using a Jar Test at 150 rpm. The objectives of this work were to analyze the characteristic of the betel nuts, to analyze the characteristic of the activated carbon and to determine adsorbent’s ability to dye adsorption. Betel nuts compositions were analyzed with proximate analysis method. The adsorbents were carried out by SEM-EDS analysis. The dye adsorptions were analyzed with a portable spectrophotometer. The result shows betel nuts contains 60.86% carbohydrate, 32.56% water, 2.17% fat, 3.35% protein, and 1.06% ash. The major component of the activated carbon is carbon (C) of 86.27%, and the rest is Oxygen (9.18%) and Aurum (4.55%). The best condition is the adsorbent that has a particle size of 250 pm (60 mesh), the dosage of 20 grams, and the contact time of 15 minutes with dye removal of 76.4%.

  13. The Structure Characteristics and Air Permeability of PA and PES Plain and Plated Knits Influenced of Antimicrobial Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne MICKEVIČIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile materials are usually exposed to thermal, physical and mechanical effects during treatment processes. These influence the changes of material dimensions. Designing knitted products it is important to predict direction and rate of dimensions change, because this can affect physical properties such as air permeability of knits. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of antimicrobial treatment conditions on the structure characteristics, thickness and air permeability of plain and plaited knits. The investigations were carried out with two groups of plain and plated single jersey knits. The face yarns of these groups were cotton, bamboo viscose yarn and polyester (Dacron® thread. 10 tex × 2 textured polyamide (PA and 20 tex textured polyester (PES threads were used as the base threads in plated knits. Knitted samples were treated with antimicrobial material Isys AG and organic-inorganic binder Isys MTX (CHT, Germany. It was established that blank and antimicrobial treated knits changed structure parameters, thickness and air permeability. The changes of structure parameters, thickness and air permeability were more associated with conditions of treatment (temperature, treatment in solution, mechanical action rather than with antimicrobial and sol-gel substances used in treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.3196

  14. Effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the directed energy deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Seok; Lee, Min-Gyu; Cho, Yong-Jae; Sung, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Myeong-Sik; Lee, Sang-Kon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-01-01

    The directed energy deposition process has been mainly applied to re-work and the restoration of damaged steel. Differences in material properties between the base and the newly deposited materials are unavoidable, which may affect the mechanical properties and durability of the part. We investigated the effect of heat treatment on the characteristics of tool steel deposited by the DED process. We prepared general tool steel materials of H13 and D2 that were deposited onto heat-treated substrates of H13 and D2, respectively, using a direct metal tooling process. The hardness and microstructure of the deposited steel before and after heat treatment were investigated. The hardness of the deposited H13 steel was higher than that of wrought H13 steel substrate, while that of the deposited D2 was lower than that of wrought D2. The evolution of the microstructures by deposition and heat treatment varied depending on the materials. In particular, the microstructure of the deposited D2 steel after heat treatment consisted of fine carbides in tempered martensite and it is expected that the deposited D2 steel will have isotropic properties and high hardness after heat treatment.

  15. A retrospective study of the clinical characteristics and post-treatment hearing outcome in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and document hearing recovery in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL. 122 patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL, from March 2009 to December 2014, were treated with oral steroids and pentoxifylline. Hearing change was evaluated by comparing pre-treatment and post-treatment pure-tone average (PTA (500, 1K, and 2K Hz, and categorized into complete, partial, and no recovery of hearing. T-test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and Regression analysis were employed to analyze the statistical significance. Of the 122 patients, seventy-one (58% had complete recovery and 34 (28% had partial recovery. The average pre-treatment PTA was 78.3 ± 16.9 dB whereas post-treatment average was 47.0 ± 20.8 dB, showing statistically significant improvement (t=24.89, P≤0.001. The factors such as presence of tinnitus (P=0.005 and initial milder hearing loss (P=0.005 were found to be significant predictors for hearing recovery. Conventional steroid regimes produced a recovery rate in ISSNHL, which exceeds the spontaneous recovery rate. The current study results highlight the importance of medical treatment in the management of ISSNHL.

  16. Characteristics of failure to thrive in a referral population: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Alev; McCord, Mary

    2012-03-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) in children is an important pediatric problem. Environmental and behavioral causes predominate, and detrimental effects on neurocognitive development are well documented. Multidisciplinary clinics designed to identify and treat FTT are effective but have not been widely adopted. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients with FTT seen at the authors' large inner-city children's hospital over a 40-month period, including those referred to a new multidisciplinary clinic. Over 40 months, only 75 children were referred and only 20 had moderate or severe FTT (z-score <-2.0). Nutritional status improved with treatment, but the small number of referrals who were severely affected led to the closing of the clinic. Recommendations for evaluating and treating children with mild FTT in primary care settings and a standardized definition of FTT that warrants more intensive treatment would help ensure that children were referred and treated appropriately.

  17. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed

  18. [Characteristics of clinical effects of paxil in the treatment of endogenous depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleeva, G P; Korenev, A N; Khananashvili, M M; Oleĭchik, I V; Kaleda, V G

    1998-01-01

    47 patients with endogenous depressions were treated with paxil (paroxetine) during 4 weeks in the daily dose of 30-40 mg. Improvement of psychical state was observed in 89.3% of the patients; improvement was significant in 78.7%. Severity of the depression reduced from 28.9 to 6.0 scores according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Antidepressive activity of paxil was observed at the third day of the therapy. Symptoms of depression disappeared completely in 46.7% of the patients 2 weeks after the beginning of treatment and in 62.8% of the cases in 4 weeks. Thymoleptic and sedative-anxiolytic effects prevailed in the spectrum of antidepressive activity of paxil; while its stimulating effect was expressed smaller. Mentioned peculiarities of paxil action, its small toxicity and positive subjective attitude of the patients towards the drug make this preparation quite valuable, especially in the treatment of classic melancholic and anxious depressions.

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment of chronic urticaria and angioedema : Dwelling on swelling, dealing with whealing

    OpenAIRE

    van den Elzen, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of wheals, angioedema or both for at least 6 weeks is diagnosed as chronic spontaneous urticaria in (inter) national guidelines - after excluding other illnesses. The underlying mechanism of angioedema without wheals is not entirely known. The objective of this thesis is to increase insight in the treatment of adult patients with angioedema with or without urticaria, and with urticaria with or without angioedema. We first studied patients with angioedema: we show that bradykini...

  20. Effect of the chemical treatments on the characteristics of natural cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosiati, H., E-mail: hsosiati@ugm.ac.id [Nanomaterials Research Group, Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Muhaimin, M.; Abdilah, P.; Wijayanti, D. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural of Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Harsojo; Triyana, K. [Nanomaterials Research Group, Integrated Research and Testing Laboratory (LPPT), Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia and Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural of Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In order to characterize the morphology and size distribution of the cellulose fibers, natural cellulose from kenaf bast fibers was extracted using two chemical treatments; (1) alkali-bleaching-ultrasonic treatment and (2) alkali-bleaching-hydrolysis. Solutions of NaOH, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were used for alkalization, bleaching and hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolyzed fibers were centrifuged at a rotation speed of 10000 rpm for 10 min to separate the nanofibers from the microfibers. The separation was repeated in 7 steps by controlling pH of the solution in each step until neutrality was reached. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on the fibers at the final step of each treatment: i.e. either ultrasonic treated- or hydrolyzed microfibers. Their FTIR spectra were compared with FTIR spectrum of a reference commercial α-cellulose. Changes in morphology and size distribution of the treated fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of ultrasonic treated- and hydrolyzed microfibers nearly coincided with the FTIR spectrum of commercial α-cellulose, suggesting successful extraction of cellulose. Ultrasonic treatment for 6 h resulted in a specific morphology in which cellulose nanofibers (≥100 nm) were distributed across the entire surface of cellulose microfibers (∼5 μm). Constant magnetic stirring combined with acid hydrolysis resulted in an inhomogeneous size distribution of both cellulose rods (500 nm-3 μm length, 100–200 nm diameter) and particles 100–200 nm in size. Changes in morphology of the cellulose fibers depended upon the stirring time; longer stirring time resulted in shorter fiber lengths.

  1. Effect of the chemical treatments on the characteristics of natural cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosiati, H.; Muhaimin, M.; Abdilah, P.; Wijayanti, D. A.; Harsojo; Triyana, K.

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize the morphology and size distribution of the cellulose fibers, natural cellulose from kenaf bast fibers was extracted using two chemical treatments; (1) alkali-bleaching-ultrasonic treatment and (2) alkali-bleaching-hydrolysis. Solutions of NaOH, H 2 O 2 and H 2 SO 4 were used for alkalization, bleaching and hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolyzed fibers were centrifuged at a rotation speed of 10000 rpm for 10 min to separate the nanofibers from the microfibers. The separation was repeated in 7 steps by controlling pH of the solution in each step until neutrality was reached. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed on the fibers at the final step of each treatment: i.e. either ultrasonic treated- or hydrolyzed microfibers. Their FTIR spectra were compared with FTIR spectrum of a reference commercial α-cellulose. Changes in morphology and size distribution of the treated fibers were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of ultrasonic treated- and hydrolyzed microfibers nearly coincided with the FTIR spectrum of commercial α-cellulose, suggesting successful extraction of cellulose. Ultrasonic treatment for 6 h resulted in a specific morphology in which cellulose nanofibers (≥100 nm) were distributed across the entire surface of cellulose microfibers (∼5 μm). Constant magnetic stirring combined with acid hydrolysis resulted in an inhomogeneous size distribution of both cellulose rods (500 nm-3 μm length, 100–200 nm diameter) and particles 100–200 nm in size. Changes in morphology of the cellulose fibers depended upon the stirring time; longer stirring time resulted in shorter fiber lengths

  2. Headache in recent onset hypothyroidism: Prevalence, characteristics and outcome after treatment with levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Carvalho, Marise de Farias; de Medeiros, Josian Silva; Valença, Marcelo Moraes

    2017-09-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to analyze the features of headache attributed to hypothyroidism (HAH), evaluate the differences between groups with and without HAH, between "overt" and "subclinical" hypothyroidism groups, and evaluate outcomes after levothyroxine treatment. Methods Patients with hypothyroidism were selected in a cross-sectional study, followed prospectively for 12 months, and classified as subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. The patients were divided into two groups: with and without HAH. Results HAH was reported by 73/213 (34%) patients, involving the following areas: fronto-orbital (49%), temporal (37%), and posterior part of the head (15%). The HAH features were as follows: pulsatile (63%), four to 72 hours' duration (78%), unilateral (47%), nausea/vomiting (60%), and moderate-severe intensity (72%). Hypothyroidism symptomatology was similar in both groups, except for a greater frequency of hoarseness in the group with HAH. Migraine history was more frequent in the patients with HAH (53% vs 38%, p hypothyroidism. After levothyroxine treatment 78% reported a decrease in HAH frequency. Subclinical and overt hypothyroid patients reported a similar alleviation of their headaches. Conclusion Patients with HAH may present with unilateral, pulsatile, episodic pattern, and nausea/vomiting, which is at odds with the criteria for HAH established by ICHD 3 beta. Not all individuals responded to levothyroxine, and patients with the subclinical form of hypothyroidism benefit from this treatment.

  3. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  4. Distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysms: Retrospective review of characteristics and endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jin Wook; Jeong, Bae Woong; Seung, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome after treatment of distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms via endovascular approach. Eleven patients with 11 distal PCA aneurysms who were treated via endovascular approach in Inje University Busan Paik Hospital and Kosin University Gospel Hospital from December 2002 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 11 patients, there were 3 males (27.3%) and 8 females (72.7%). The mean age was 56.6 years (range 44 -72 years) and the mean aneurysm size was 8.45 mm (3 - 30 mm). Four (36.4%) aneurysms were located in the P2 segment, 6 (54.5%) in the P3 segment and 1 (9.1%) in the P1/2 junction. Seven (63.6%) aneurysms were treated with preservation of the parent artery; and the remaining 4 (36.4%) aneurysms were treated with parent artery occlusion. After treatment, the overall complication rate was 27% with the morbidity rate of 9.1% and the mortality rate of 18%. Endovascular treatment of distal PCA aneurysm might be used to minimize neurologic deficit, considering the diverse and rich collaterals of posterior cerebral artery

  5. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, K H; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2013-01-01

    .03-1.06, for each drug). Dementia (HR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.18-2.78), prior fracture (one: HR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.34; multiple: HR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.08-1.67), and ulcer disease (HR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.03) also increased the risk. Diabetes did not influence fracture risk, nor did rheumatic disorders. The risk was lower...... and associations may not be causal, it may be prudent to include dementia, ulcer disease, and Parkinson's disease to capture the risk of fractures on treatment. Lower risk in patients treated with glucocorticoids and in men probably reflects a lower treatment threshold related to guidelines.......Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population...

  6. Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, M; Dalahmeh, S; Sayed, M; Suleiman, W; Shareef, M; Mansour, M; Safi, M

    2008-09-01

    Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg/l, 1056mg/l and 845mg/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter; septic tank followed by wetlands; and UASB-hybrid reactor. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are presented. It was concluded that UASB-hybrid reactor would be the most suitable treatment option in terms of compactness and simplicity in operation. The volume of UASB-hybrid reactor was calculated to be 0.268m(3) with a surface area of 0.138m(2) for each house having 10 inhabitants on average. Produced effluent is expected to meet Jordanian standards set for reclaimed water reuse in irrigating fruit trees.

  7. Distal posterior cerebral artery aneurysms: Retrospective review of characteristics and endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Bae Woong [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Seung, Won Bae [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kosin University College of Medicine, Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to review the clinical outcome after treatment of distal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms via endovascular approach. Eleven patients with 11 distal PCA aneurysms who were treated via endovascular approach in Inje University Busan Paik Hospital and Kosin University Gospel Hospital from December 2002 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 11 patients, there were 3 males (27.3%) and 8 females (72.7%). The mean age was 56.6 years (range 44 -72 years) and the mean aneurysm size was 8.45 mm (3 - 30 mm). Four (36.4%) aneurysms were located in the P2 segment, 6 (54.5%) in the P3 segment and 1 (9.1%) in the P1/2 junction. Seven (63.6%) aneurysms were treated with preservation of the parent artery; and the remaining 4 (36.4%) aneurysms were treated with parent artery occlusion. After treatment, the overall complication rate was 27% with the morbidity rate of 9.1% and the mortality rate of 18%. Endovascular treatment of distal PCA aneurysm might be used to minimize neurologic deficit, considering the diverse and rich collaterals of posterior cerebral artery.

  8. Effect of alkali-treatment on the characteristics of natural zeolites with different compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ayten

    2018-08-01

    A series of natural zeolites with different compositions were modified by post-synthesis modification with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Natural and modified zeolites were characterized by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR, zeta potential and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD). The adsorption capacities of these samples were evaluated by the adsorption of manganese from aqueous solution. The treatment with NaOH led to a decrease in the surface area and microporosity of all natural zeolites as well as partly damage of the zeolite structure depending on zeolite composition. In addition, the amount of weak, medium and strong acid sites in the zeolites was changed significantly by NaOH treatment depending on zeolite composition. The NaOH treatment resulted in a four-fold improvement in adsorption capacity of natural zeolite originated from Bigadic and a twofold decrease in that of the natural zeolite originated from Manisa-Gordes. Although the improved adsorption capacity might be mainly due to modification of porosity in the zeolites and formation of hydroxysodalite, the reduced adsorption capacity of the zeolite might be mainly due to a significant deformation of the zeolite structure. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of manganese on all natural and modified zeolites fits well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do ictal EEG characteristics predict treatment outcomes in schizophrenic patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gulnihal Gokce; Zincir, Selma; Gulec, Huseyin; Eksioglu, Sevgin; Semiz, Umit Basar; Kurtulmus, Yasemin Sipka

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between features of electroencephalography (EEG), including seizure time, energy threshold level and post-ictal suppression time, and clinical variables, including treatment outcomes and side-effects, among schizophrenia inpatients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This is a naturalistic follow-up study on schizophrenia patients, diagnosed using DSM-IV-TR criteria, treated by a psychosis inpatient service. All participants completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and a Data Collection Form. Assessments were made before treatment, during ECT and after treatment. Statistically significant improvements in both clinical and cognitive outcome were noted after ECT in all patients. Predictors of improvement were sought by evaluating electrophysiological variables measured at three time points (after the third, fifth and seventh ECT sessions). Logistic regression analysis showed that clinical outcome/improvement did not differ by seizure duration, threshold energy level or post-ictal suppression time. We found that ictal EEG parameters measured at several ECT sessions did not predict clinical recovery/outcomes. This may be because our centre defensively engages in "very specific patient selection" when ECT is contemplated. ECT does not cause short-term cognitive functional impairment and indeed improves cognition, because symptoms of the schizophrenic episode are alleviated.

  10. Characteristics of microbial community functional structure of a biological coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds are key pollutants in coking wastewater; however, the functional potential of microbial communities for biodegradation of such contaminants during biological treatment is still elusive. Herein, a high throughput functional gene array (GeoChip 5.0) in combination with Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing was used to compare and characterize the microbial community functional structure in a long run (500days) bench scale bioreactor treating coking wastewater, with a control system treating synthetic wastewater. Despite the inhibitory toxic pollutants, GeoChip 5.0 detected almost all key functional gene (average 61,940 genes) categories in the coking wastewater sludge. With higher abundance, aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenase genes including multi ring1,2diox; one ring2,3diox; catechol represented significant functional potential for degradation of aromatic pollutants which was further confirmed by Illumina HiSeq2500 analysis results. Response ratio analysis revealed that three nitrogenous compound degrading genes- nbzA (nitro-aromatics), tdnB (aniline), and scnABC (thiocyanate) were unique for coking wastewater treatment, which might be strong cause to increase ammonia level during the aerobic process. Additionally, HiSeq2500 elucidated carbozole and isoquinoline degradation genes in the system. These findings expanded our understanding on functional potential of microbial communities to remove organic nitrogenous pollutants; hence it will be useful in optimization strategies for biological treatment of coking wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Clinical characteristics and abandonment and outcome of treatment in 67 Chinese children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yuan, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Ma-Wei; Wang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features and outcome of medulloblastoma in Chinese children. The authors analyze the reasons that treatment is abandoned and attempt to provide evidence-based recommendations for improving the prognosis of medulloblastoma in this population. METHODS A total of 67 pediatric cases of newly diagnosed medulloblastoma were included in this study. All of the children were treated at Xinhua Hospital between January 2007 and June 2013. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, treatment modalities, and outcome. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1, and the patients' median age at diagnosis was 51.96 months (range 3.96-168.24 months). The median duration of follow-up was 32 months (range 3-70 months). RESULTS At the most recent follow-up date, 31 patients (46%) were alive, 30 (45%) had died, and 6 (9%) had been lost to follow-up. The estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival, based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, were 55.1% ± 6.4% and 45.6% ± 6.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that standard-risk group (p = 0.009), postoperative radiotherapy (RT) combined with chemotherapy (p < 0.001), older age (≥ 3 years) at diagnosis (p = 0.010), gross-total resection (p = 0.012), annual family income higher than $3000 (p = 0.033), and living in urban areas (p = 0.008) were favorable prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative RT combined with chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor (p < 0.001). The treatment abandonment rate in this cohort was 31% (21 of 67 cases). CONCLUSIONS There was a large gap between the outcome of medulloblastoma in Chinese children and the outcome in Western children. Based on our data, treatment abandonment was the major cause of therapeutic failure. Parents' misunderstanding of medulloblastoma played a major role in abandonment, followed by financial and transportation difficulties. Establishment of multidisciplinary

  12. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  13. Successful treatment of suspected organizing pneumonia in a patient without typical imaging and pathological characteristic: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailing, Liu; Ning, Xu; Tao, Qu; Aijun, Li

    2017-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Diagnosis of OP needs the combination of clinical features, imaging and pathology. But it occurs often that there are no typical pathological features to support the diagnosis, which poses a challenge for clinicians' diagnosis and treatment. We diagnosed a case of OP without typical imaging and pathological characteristic and treated successfully. Finally we confirmed the pathological diagnosis. Not every OP case is supported by pathological evidence and typical imaging changes. It is important for us to judge and decide the diagnosis according to clinical experience.

  14. The impact of graves' disease and its treatment on handwriting characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Botti, Cristina; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are crucial for metabolism in all tissues in humans, including the nervous system and muscles, and could thus affect handwriting, which is the synthesis of complex and fine movements. Hyperthyroidism, characterized by symptoms such as tremor and weakness, could affect...... handwriting, although this has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate handwriting characteristics before and after therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (15 women, 7 men) with untreated GD (median age: 44 years; range: 20-70 years) were asked to write...... a "standard text" before and 12 months after being rendered euthyroid. The letters underwent a standardized detailed analysis by a handwriting expert, through inspection and stereoscopic microscope and magnifying glass. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated handwriting variations, perceptible even to direct...

  15. Dormant glioblastoma cells acquire stem cell characteristics and are differentially affected by Temozolomide and AT101 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Vivian; Hempelmann, Annika; Flüh, Charlotte; Lucius, Ralph; Synowitz, Michael; Hattermann, Kirsten; Held-Feindt, Janka

    2017-12-08

    Cellular dormancy is defined as a state in which cells enter quiescence driven by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, and striking parallels exist between the concept of cellular dormancy in malignancies and the cancer stem cell theory. We showed now that the proven dormancy markers insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5, ephrin receptor A5 and histone cluster 1 H2B family member K were expressed in human glioblastomas in situ , were located in single tumor cells, and could be co-stained with each other and with the stem cell markers krüppel-like factor 4, octamer binding transcription factor 4 and sex determining region Y-box 2. Human non-stem glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures were characterized by expression of individual, cell-type specific dormancy- and stemness-associated markers, which were (up)regulated and could be co-stained in a cell-type specific manner upon Temozolomide-induced dormancy in vitro . The induction patterns of dormancy- and stemness-associated markers were reflected by cell-type specific responses to Temozolomide-induced and combined Temozolomide/AT101-mediated cytotoxicity in different glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures in vitro , and accompanied by higher self-renewal capacity and lower TMZ-sensitivity of Temozolomide-pretreated cells. We postulate that a better understanding of the dormant state of tumor cells is essential to further improve efficiency of treatment.

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Pain: a Review of Current Evidence and Assessment Tools to Enhance Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rhondene M; Kaiser, Ronald S

    2018-03-14

    The complicated nature of chronic pain involves an interplay between psychological and physical factors, often resulting in increased emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This review is designed to help the medical practitioner who is working with chronic pain patients to be aware of psychological assessment techniques that can add to comprehensive patient understanding and more effectively guide treatment. Enhanced ability to assess and understand the emotional life of the chronic pain patient provides a basis for intervening and treating more successfully. There are a broad range of assessment techniques, some of which require a background in psychology and some that do not, that can identify psychological differences in chronic pain patients and serve to guide intervention strategies. Chronic pain is often comorbid with depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and various ineffective coping strategies. Some patients, however, have demonstrated more adaptive and effective strategies for cognitively and behaviorally coping with pain and normalizing their lives. Proper assessment enables the individualization of treatment to overcome and/or build upon each patient's psychological frame of mind to maximize the potential for effective functioning. The use of standardized and documented psychological assessment techniques can lead to a better understanding of chronic pain patients and contribute in ways that can enhance response to medical treatment and improve quality of life. It is recommended that certain psychological tools be included to supplement the medical assessment of patients who have chronic pain. A basic assessment can include a short psychological-based clinical interview along with brief measures of depression, anxiety, and coping strategies. It is also recommended that the pain physician have access to professional psychological practitioners as a resource for more complicated assessments and psychological intervention services.

  17. Lichen planopilaris: Demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deren Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Lichen planopilaris (LPP is a type of cicatricial alopecia characterized by autoreactive lymphocytic destruction of the hair follicle. We aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical and histopathological features, and treatment outcomes of patients with LPP. Materials and Methods: Medical reports of 25 patients, who have been diagnosed with LPP according to the clinical and histopathological findings between January 2006 and June 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. The transverse and vertical sections of scalp biopsy specimens were re-evaluated by a pathologist, and the findings were noted. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 were female and 7 were male, the mean age was 49.8±12.4 years. Eighteen patients had been diagnosed with classic LPP and 7 patients with frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA. The alopecia has begun in postmenopausal period in 5 patients with FFA. Alopecia was associated with pruritus, pain and/or burning in 19 patients. Extra-scalp involvement was observed in 11 patients. The most common clinical findings were follicular hyperkeratosis (92%, perifollicular erythema (48%, perifollicular lichenoid papules, and positive hair-pull test (44%. Dermatoscopic examination was performed in 14 patients, and most commonly, absence of follicular openings (100%, perifollicular scales (92.9% and perifollicular erythema (50% were noted. The most common diagnostic histopathological findingsmwere follicular vacuolar and lichenoid degeneration (88% and vacuolar and lichenoid interface changes (56%. Twenty-three patients who were started on treatment received topical, intramuscular and intralesional corticosteroids, topical minoxidil, oral tetracycline, cyclosporine A, and hydroxychloroquine either alone or in combination. Progression of alopecia was prevented and the symptoms and/or signs were reduced in 12 (75% of 16 patients whose follow-up data were available. Conclusion: LPP can be diagnosed accurately through a detailed

  18. Enhancing the ecological and operational characteristics of water treatment units at TPPs based on baromembrane technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Filimonova, A. A.; Saitov, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The innovative baromembrane technologies for water demineralization were introduced at Russian TPPs more than 25 years ago. While being used in the power engineering industry of Russia, these technologies demonstrated certain advantages over the traditional ion-exchange and thermal technologies of makeup water treatment for steam boilers. Water treatment units based on the baromembrane technology are compact, easy to operate, and highly automated. The experience gained from the use of these units shows that their reliability depends directly on preliminary water treatment. The popular water pretreatment technology with coagulation by aluminum oxychloride proved to be inefficient during the seasonal changes of source water quality that occurs at some stations. The use of aluminum coagulant at pH 8 and higher does not ensure the stable and qualitative pretreatment regime: soluble aluminum forms slip on membranes of the ultrafiltration unit, thereby causing pollution and intoxication as well as leading to structural damages or worsening of mechanical properties of the membranes. The problem of increased pH and seasonal changes of the source water quality can be solved by substitution of the traditional coagulant into a new one. To find the most successful coagulant for water pretreatment, experiments have been performed on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the content of natural organic matters in the Volga water and their structure. We have developed a software program and measured the concentrations of soluble aluminum and iron salts at different pH values of the source water. The analysis of the obtained results has indicated that iron sulfate at pH 6.0-10.2, in contrast to aluminum oxychloride, is not characterized by increased solubility. Thus, the basic process diagrams of water pretreatment based on baromembrane technologies with pretreatment through coagulation by iron salts and wastewater amount reducing from 60-40 to 5-2% have been introduced for

  19. A survey of Canadian cancer patients' perspectives on the characteristics and treatment of breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Gillian; Hawley, Philippa; Zhang, Liying; Slaven, Marissa; Gagnon, Pierre; Bisland, Stuart; Bennett, Margaret; Tardif, Francois; Chow, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Breakthrough pain is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs spontaneously or in response to a trigger despite stable and controlled background pain. The purpose of this study was to explore Canadian patients' awareness of and experience with breakthrough pain in cancer (BTPc). Four Canadian cancer centers participated in a non-interventional survey recruiting cancer patients who experienced breakthrough pain. These patients were asked about their pain, its impact on functioning, current management and interest in new treatments of BTPc. Ninety-four Canadian cancer patients participated in this study, with 96% stating that cancer pain impacted their daily living with over half unable to go to work or shopping. Fifty percent of patients said that an episode of BTPc lasted greater than 60 minutes, with the pain score being on average 7.8/10, impacting normal work (7.2/10) and general activity (7.1/10). Only 35% of patients were very satisfied with the speed of relief of their medications. Those who did not take their breakthrough pain medication for every episode stated that was because the pain was not always severe (37%), or they were afraid of becoming tolerant (23%) or addicted (12%). Patients stated that the most important features of a new treatment for BTPc were the ability to relieve pain completely (47%), and quickly (43%). Patients expressed willingness to try transmucosal products (80%) or nasal products (59%). Breakthrough cancer pain in Canadian cancer patients greatly impacts their daily lives. There is room for improvement in the management of BTPc, and the majority of patients would be willing to try new treatments.

  20. [Clinical characteristics of computer game and internet addiction in persons seeking treatment in an outpatient clinic for computer game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Hoch, Christina; Wölfling, Klaus; Müller, Kai W

    2011-01-01

    Since March 2008 we have offered outpatient treatment for computer game and internet addiction. This article presents the assessment and clinical characterization of the first cohort of one year. The reasons for seeking help (phone consultations, N=346) as well as sociodemographic and psychometric characteristics (N=131) (assessment of computer game addiction; SCL-90R) are presented. Consultation was initiated mainly by relatives--mostly the mothers (86%); 48% report achievement failure and social isolation, lack of control (38%) and conflicts within the family (33%). Two-thirds of the mainly male (96%) patients (N=131) with an average age of 22 (range 13-47) years met the criteria for pathological computer gaming, characterized by an excessive number of hours and preoccupation with gaming, high distress, and unemployment. Symptoms resemble those of other addiction disorders. The consequences for disorder-specific treatment concepts and research are discussed.

  1. Anxiety, splint treatment and clinical characteristics of patients with osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint and dental students – a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Badel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of splint treatment for therapy of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint, and to compare the level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory,STAI and clinical characteristics between 16 patients and 20 asymptomatic dental school students. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used for all subjects. Dental students showed a statistically signiicant higher capacity of mouth opening (p<0.05, and lower level of anxiety (p<0.05 for STAI 1, and p<0.001 for STAI 2 than patients. Patients who had suffered chronic pain before splint treatment had a higher value of anxiety by STAI 1 test (p<0.05.

  2. Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of the AMC, Prepared by P/M Route along with Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sambit Kumar; Maity, Kalipada; Bhuyan, Subrat Kumar; Prasad Satpathy, Mantra

    2018-03-01

    Thermo mechanical treatments have the ameliorated impacts on the mechanical and tribological properties of powder metallurgy components. In this investigation an aluminium matrix composite (AMC) {Al (92) + Mg (5) + Gr (1) + Ti (2)} has been prepared by following powder metallurgy technique, with double axial compaction and ulterior sintering. Secondary thermo-mechanical treatment i.e. hot extrusion through mathematical contoured cosine profiled die was considered. The die causes minimum velocity relative differences across the extrusion exit cross-section, which provides smooth material flow. Comparative result analysis for the mechanical and tribological characteristics of the specimen before and after extrusion was concentrated. Extrusion engenders significant amount of improvements of the properties those are attributed to excellent bond strength and uniform density distribution due to high compressive stress. Oxidative and delaminated wear mechanisms were found predominating type. To furnish the suitable explanation scanning electron microscopies have been performed for the wear surfaces.

  3. An investigation of the air dispersion characteristics of refinery land treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.R.; Zaizhong Wang; Lupo, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of air emission and dispersion of volatile organic waste constituents from the land treatment units (LTU's) of four refineries were performed using the ISCST model. Particular attention was given to benzene. In order to realistically model the area pollutant source, each LTU had to be subdivided into smaller cells and the cell concentrations summed. The emission rate of the waste from the LTU's, one of the key inputs to the dispersion model, was periodically adjusted to reflect the rapid decay in rate following waste application. Meteorological conditions were found to be significant in determining boundary concentrations. The specific meteorological conditions most favorable for dispersion were investigated. The results of these simulations showed that mixing height is only minimally important in the dispersion of wastes from LTU's as currently regulated by EPA. Wind speed and variation of wind direction were both more important in atmospheric mixing of the volatile waste. It was found that care should be exercised in attempting to correlate any single meteorological parameter with favorable periods for land treatment. In comparisons of the cases, the results suggest that differences in LTU geometry may also be important in the modeling of long-term pollutant concentrations. Model simulations were performed to ascertain the impact of LTU geometry on boundary concentration

  4. Weight changes and their associations with demographic and clinical characteristics in risperidone maintenance treatment for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Y-T; Wang, C-Y; Ungvari, G S; Kreyenbuhl, J A; Chiu, H F K; Lai, K Y C; Lee, E H M; Bo, Q-J; Dixon, L B

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize weight changes in schizophrenia patients taking risperidone as part of a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial. A total of 374 patients with schizophrenia who had been clinically stabilized following an acute episode were randomly assigned to a 'no-dose-reduction' group (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued throughout the study), a '4-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 4 weeks followed by a half dose reduction that was maintained until the end of the study) or a '26-week group' (initial optimal therapeutic doses continued for 26 weeks followed by a half dose reduction until the end of the study). Participants were assessed monthly using standardized assessment instruments during the first 6 months, and then every 2 months until the last recruited patient completed the 1-year follow-up. Weight gain was defined as gaining at least 7% of initial body weight, weight loss as losing at least 7% of initial body weight. A BMI weight loss compared to being normal weight. No correlation was found between weight change and dose reduction. Weight change is a common, long-term, but heterogeneous side effect in risperidone maintenance treatment for stable schizophrenia patients. Special attention should be paid to fluctuations in weight that may occur throughout the course of treatment with risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Paknejad, Farzad; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  6. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of 485 Patients with Nonfunctioning Pituitary Macroadenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Guadalupe; Ramirez, Claudia; Ferreira, Aldo; Espinosa, Etual; Mendoza, Victoria; Lopez-Felix, Blas; Mercado, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are the most common benign lesions of the pituitary gland. Objective. To describe our experience with the management of NFPA. Study Design and Methods. Retrospective evaluation of NFPA patients managed between 2008 and 2013. We analyzed data regarding clinical presentation, imaging diagnosis, hormonal status, surgical, radiotherapeutic, and pharmacological treatment, and outcome. Results. 485 patients (54% men, mean age 53 ± 14 years) were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Visual field abnormalities and headaches were the presenting complaints in 87% and 66%, respectively. The diagnosis of NFPA was made incidentally in 6.2%, and 8% presented with clinical evidence of apoplexy. All patients harbored macroadenomas, with a median volume of 10306 mm3; 57.9% had supra- or parasellar invasion and 19.6% had tumors larger than 4 cm. Central hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and hypocortisolism were present in 47.2%, 35.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. Surgical resection was performed at least once in 85.7%. Tumor persistence was documented in 27% and was related to the size and invasiveness of the lesion. In selected cases, radiotherapy proved to be effective in controlling or preventing tumor growth. Conclusions. The diagnosis and treatment of NFPA are complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25737722

  8. Effects of thermal treatment on the physicochemical characteristics of giant bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandivaldi Antonio Colla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite countless use possibilities for bamboo, this material has two major disadvantages. One drawback is the low natural durability of most bamboo species due to presence of starch in their parenchyma cells. The other equally important drawback is the tendency bamboo has to present dimensional variations if subjected to environmental change conditions. In an attempt to minimize these inconveniences, strips (laths of Dendrocalamus giganteus Munro were taken from different portions of the culm and subjected to several temperatures, namely 140 °C, 180 °C, 220 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C under laboratory conditions, at the ESALQ-USP college of agriculture. The thermal treatment process was conducted in noninert and inert atmospheres (with nitrogen, depending on temperature Specimens were then subjected to physicomechanical characterization tests in order to determine optimum thermal treatment conditions in which to preserve to the extent possible the original bamboo properties. Results revealed that there is an optimum temperature range, between 140 ° and 220 °C, whereby thermally treated bamboo does not significantly lose its mechanical properties while at the same time showing greater dimensional stability in the presence of moisture.

  9. Characteristics of MRI features in Alzheimer's disease patients predicting response to donepezil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuriko; Hanyu, Haruo; Sakurai, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Souichiro; Takasaki, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    We attempted to investigate whether morphological features as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) predict response to donepezil treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-three patients with AD were divided into responders (n=16) and non-responders (n=47) based on the changes in the mini mental state examinations (MMSE) score between baseline and endpoint. Atrophy of the substantia innominata was more pronounced in responders than non-responders. Although no significant difference in the medial temporal lobe atrophy between responders and non-responders was found, magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of the hippocampus and parahippocampus, indicators of structural damage, in the non-responder group were significantly reduced compared to those in the responder group. There were no significant differences in the severity of white matter lesions between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the overall discrimination rate was 81%, with 85% of non-responders and 69% of responders, through measurement of the thickness of the substantia innominata and MTR of the hippocampus and parahippocampus. These results suggest that AD patients who show more severe cholinergic dysfunction and less severe structural damage of the hippocampus and parahippocampus as shown on MRI are likely to respond to donepezil treatment. (author)

  10. Characteristics of a novel treatment system for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ning; Li, Haisen; Song, Kwang; Chin-Snyder, Karen; Qin, Yujiao; Kim, Jinkoo; Bellon, Maria; Gulam, Misbah; Gardner, Stephen; Doemer, Anthony; Devpura, Suneetha; Gordon, James; Chetty, Indrin; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ajlouni, Munther; Pompa, Robert; Hammoud, Zane; Simoff, Michael; Kalkanis, Steven; Movsas, Benjamin; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the dosimetric properties and accuracy of a novel treatment platform (Edge radiosurgery system) for localizing and treating patients with frameless, image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Initial measurements of various components of the system, such as a comprehensive assessment of the dosimetric properties of the flattening filter-free (FFF) beams for both high definition (HD120) MLC and conical cone-based treatment, positioning accuracy and beam attenuation of a six degree of freedom (6DoF) couch, treatment head leakage test, and integrated end-to-end accuracy tests, have been performed. The end-to-end test of the system was performed by CT imaging a phantom and registering hidden targets on the treatment couch to determine the localization accuracy of the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and MV imaging systems, as well as the radiation isocenter targeting accuracy. The deviations between the percent depth-dose curves acquired on the new linac-based system (Edge), and the previously published machine with FFF beams (TrueBeam) beyond D(max) were within 1.0% for both energies. The maximum deviation of output factors between the Edge and TrueBeam was 1.6%. The optimized dosimetric leaf gap values, which were fitted using Eclipse dose calculations and measurements based on representative spine radiosurgery plans, were 0.700 mm and 1.000 mm, respectively. For the conical cones, 6X FFF has sharper penumbra ranging from 1.2-1.8 mm (80%-20%) and 1.9-3.8 mm (90%-10%) relative to 10X FFF, which has 1.2-2.2mm and 2.3-5.1mm, respectively. The relative attenuation measurements of the couch for PA, PA (rails-in), oblique, oblique (rails-out), oblique (rails-in) were: -2.0%, -2.5%, -15.6%, -2.5%, -5.0% for 6X FFF and -1.4%, -1.5%, -12.2%, -2.5%, -5.0% for 10X FFF, respectively, with a slight decrease in attenuation versus field size. The systematic

  11. Sources of stress for breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating: examining associations with treatment characteristics and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadd, Valerie; Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to (1) identify common stressors faced by breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boating, (2) examine the conceptual and statistical factor groupings of the stressors, (3) identify differences in stressor factors based on treatment characteristics, and (4) examine the associations between stressor factors and two indicators of self-esteem. Survivors (n = 470) involved in dragon boating completed a survey assessing stressor frequency, stressor intensity, stressor valence, physical self-worth, and global self-esteem, along with demographic and cancer treatment information. An exploratory factor analyses (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with oblique rotation revealed a four-factor solution that included physical, emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors. Exercise-related stressors were reported more frequently and intensely but were appraised positively by most survivors. The physical, emotional, and social stressors were perceived predominantly as negative. Findings also revealed that physical and emotional stressors and exercise-related stressors were correlates of physical self-worth (R(2) = 0.26). Emotional, social, and exercise-related stressors were significant correlates of global self-esteem (R(2) = 0.11). Cancer treatments were also associated with the experience of stressors, with the strongest effects reported for chemotherapy treatment. Overall, the results demonstrate that participants experienced many stressors but that exercise-related stressors were viewed as more adaptive and were positive correlates of self-esteem processes.

  12. Revealing microstructural and mechanical characteristics of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires undergoing simulated galvanization treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Feng, E-mail: fangfeng@seu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Hu Xianjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Chen Shaohui [Jiangsu Sha-Steel Group, Zhangjiagang City, Jiangsu Province 215625 (China); Xie Zonghan [School of Engineering, Edith Cowen University, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Jiang Jianqing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing time on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn steel wires were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exothermic peak in cold-drawn wire was resulting from the spheroidization of lamellar cementite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spheroidization of lamellar cementite is the main effect for torsion property of wires after annealing. - Abstract: Spheroidization of lamellar cementite often occurs in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires during galvanizing treatment, leading to the degradation of mechanical properties. Therefore, it is important to understand effects of galvanization process on microstructure and mechanical properties of cold-drawn wires. In this paper, cold-drawn steel wires were fabricated by cold drawing pearlitic steel rods from 13 mm to 6.9 mm in diameter. Thermal annealing at 450 Degree-Sign C was used to simulate galvanizing treatment of steel wires. Tensile strength, elongation and torsion laps of steel rods and wires with, and without, annealing treatment were determined. Microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to probe the spheroidization temperature of cementite. Experimental results showed that tensile strength of wires increased from 1780 MPa to 1940 MPa for annealing <5 min, and then decreased. Tensile strength became constant for annealing >10 min. Elongation of wires decreased for annealing <2.5 min, and then recovered slightly. It approached a constant value for annealing >5 min. Tensile strength and elongation of wires were both influenced by the strain age hardening and static recovery processes. Notably, torsion laps of wires hardly changed when annealing time was less than 2.5 min, and then decreased rapidly. Its value became constant when the hold time is greater than 10 min. Lamellar cementite began to spheroidize at annealing >2.5 min

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Wheat, pretreated by {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Wheat, pretreated by 60 Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  15. Fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies of NF membranes for the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Junya; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies were investigated through a laboratory-scale NF fouling test treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent and MBR-granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent of an antibiotic production wastewater by DK and NF90 membranes, respectively. Results showed that organic fouling is the main NF membrane fouling for treating both the MBR effluent and MBR-GAC effluent. Soluble microbial by-product (SMP)-like and aromatic protein-like substances were the dominant components in the foulants, whereas humic-like substances had little contribution to the NF fouling. The fouling of DK was more severe than that of NF90. However, foulants respond by UV 254 were more easily to foul NF90 membrane. It could get satisfactory effect using combined cleaning of acid (HCl, pH 2.0∼2.5) and alkali (NaOH + 0.3 wt% NaDS, pH 10.0∼10.5). The favorable cleaning strategy is "acid + alkali" for treating MBR-GAC effluent, while it is "alkali + acid" for treating MBR effluent.

  16. Elutriation characteristics of fine particles from bubbling fluidized bed incineration for sludge cake treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Chou, Chih-Mei; Su, Kuo-Tung; Hung, Chao-Yang; Wu, Chao-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    In this study, measurements of elutriation rate were carried out in a bench scale bubbling fluidized bed incinerator, which was used to combust sludge cake. The particle size distribution and ignition loss were analyzed to study the elutriation characteristics of bubbling fluidized bed incineration. Drawn from the experimental data, the elutriation rate constant K(i)* for fine particles were obtained and correlated with parameters. It was found that most of the solid particles (about 95%) elutriated came from the fluidized medium (inorganic matters), but few came from unburned carbon particles or soot (about 5%). Finally, this paper lists a comparison of K(i)* between this study and the published prediction equations derived or studied in non-incineration modes of fluidized bed. A new and modified correlation is proposed here to estimate the elutriation rate of fine particles emitted from a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator. Primary operation variables (superficial gas velocity and incineration temperature) affecting the elutriation rate are also discussed in the paper.

  17. The impact of Graves' disease and its treatment on handwriting characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Giampaolo; Botti, Cristina; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for metabolism in all tissues in humans, including the nervous system and muscles, and could thus affect handwriting, which is the synthesis of complex and fine movements. Hyperthyroidism, characterized by symptoms such as tremor and weakness, could affect handwriting, although this has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate handwriting characteristics before and after therapy for hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD). Twenty-two patients (15 women, 7 men) with untreated GD (median age: 44 years; range: 20-70 years) were asked to write a "standard text" before and 12 months after being rendered euthyroid. The letters underwent a standardized detailed analysis by a handwriting expert, through inspection and stereoscopic microscope and magnifying glass. All patients demonstrated handwriting variations, perceptible even to direct observation. Graphological examination showed statistically significant changes after patients become euthyroid, in the following parameters: size of letters (4.5±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.3 mm; phandwriting in all patients. Following recovery from hyperthyroidism, a state of hypertrophic and contracted handwriting resulted in greater fluency and fluidity. Variations in handwriting should be included as signs/symptoms in GD.

  18. studies agronomic and technological characteristics of fiber and oil flax types induced by irradiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty three entries of flax (Linum usitatissimum L-) were tested in seven field trails representing seven environmental conditions the experiments were carried out at the Agric. Res . center, Fac. of agric., cairo univ., giza, egypt, the 33-entries consisted of thirty promosing mutants plus three local cultivars(i.e., giza 4, giza 5 and giza 6) . The mutants were outcome of gamma rays irradiated local cultivar giza 4 flax. the entries in M 4 and M 5 were arranged in a randomized complete block design in six environments. in the last environment, the entries in M 6 were arranged in an augmented complete block design to study yield responses and stability indices for the selected mutant lines produced via irradiation treatments

  19. Epidemiological characteristics and response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulot, D; Bourcier, V; Grando, V; Deny, P; Baazia, Y; Fontaine, H; Bailly, F; Castera, L; De Ledinghen, V; Marcellin, P; Poupon, R; Bourlière, M; Zarski, J P; Roudot-Thoraval, F

    2007-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4) infection is progressing in Europe, where epidemiology and sustained virological response (SVR) seem to be different than in the Middle East. We analysed epidemiological features and SVR rates in a retrospective study of 1532 HCV-4-infected patients, including 1056 patients infected in France, 227 immigrants infected in Egypt and 249 in sub-Saharan Africa. SVR rates were assessed in 242 naive patients of the 1532, who received peginterferon plus ribavirin for 48 weeks. HCV subtype 4a or 4d was the most common among patients infected in France, where the predominant route of transmission was intravenous drug abuse. The 4a subtype was largely predominant (93%) among patients infected in Egypt, where transmission was mostly because of parenteral treatment for schistosomiasis. More than seven different subtypes and no predominant route of infection were found in patients infected in sub-Saharan Africa. Liver fibrosis was significantly less severe in patients infected in France and Africa than in patients infected in Egypt. SVR rates were higher in patients infected in Egypt, compared with those infected in France or Africa (54.9%, 40.3% and 32.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). An overall better response was observed in patients infected with the 4a subtype. In multivariate analysis, two factors were associated independently with SVR: the Egyptian origin of transmission and the absence of severe fibrosis. In conclusion, the distribution of HCV-4 subtypes varies with the geographical origin of transmission and affects the SVR following antiviral treatment.

  20. [Characteristics of the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with and without diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Torres, Omar; Cazorla-Saravia, Patrick; Torres Sales, José William; Yhuri Carreazo, Nilton; De La Cruz Armijo, Frank Enrique

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether there are demographic, clinical and radiological differences among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and patients with TB and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 + TB). Observational retrospective cohort study. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients according to sex, age, time to sputum conversion to negative, presence of cavitation and the cure rate, duration of treatment and the proportion of change of treatment regimen, in patients with and without DM2 served by the Tuberculosis Control Program from 2010 to 2012 in the Rebagliati Healthcare Network of Lima, Peru. 31 patients with TB+DM2 and 144 patients with TB were included. Differences (p<0.05) in the diagnostic method, the average of symptoms and the resistance pattern of TB among patients with and without DM2 were found. The presence of cavitation was more frequent in patients with TB + DM2. Having TB + DM2 delayed the time to sputum smear conversion to negative (RRa 4.16, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) in the adjusted Cox regression analysis. There are differences in demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics in TB patients with and without DM2.The time to sputum conversion to negative is greater in patients with DM2.

  1. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  2. An investigation into the effects of conventional heat treatments on mechanical characteristics of new hot working tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, M. L.; Athmani, M.; Khelfaoui, Y.; Khettache, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effects of conventional heat treatments, i.e. quenching and tempering, on the mechanical characteristics of non standard hot work tool steel, close to either AISI-H11/H13 are investigated. The major elemental composition differences are in carbon, silicon and vanadium. The objective of the carried heat treatments is to obtain an efficient tool performance in terms of hardness, wear resistance and mechanical strength. Experimental results allow an explanation of the surface properties depending mainly on both chemical composition and optimised preheating parameters. After austenitizing at 1050 °C for 15 min, the as-quenched steel in oil bath exhibited the fully martensitic structure (without bainite) connected to a small fraction of retained austenite and complex carbides mainly of M23C6 type. Twice tempering at 500 °C and 600 °C resulted in initiating the precipitation processes and the secondary hardness effect. As a result, carbide content amounted to 3% while the retained austenite content decreased to 0%. Accordingly, the required mechanical properties in terms of hardness and wear are fulfilled and are adequately favourable in handling both shocks and pressures for the expected tool life. Induced microstructures are revealed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Phase compositions are assessed by means of X-ray diffraction technique while mechanical characteristics are investigated based on hardness and abrasive wear standard tests.

  3. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain : Results of a theory-driven predictor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, Petra C.; Stuive, Ilse; Roorda, Leo D.; Vollebregt, Joke A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Lettinga, Ant T.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic

  4. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain: results of a theory-driven predictor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, P.C.; Stuive, I.; Roorda, L.D.; Vollebregt, J.A.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Lettinga, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic non-specific low back

  5. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  6. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  7. Effect of drying treatments and storage stability on quality characteristics of bael powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, V R; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Dehydration of bael pulp in to powder form is a challenging operation, mainly due to the sticky issue of bael pulp and caking of powder during handling and storage. To overcome on this problem maltodextrin MD (drying aid) and tricalcium phosphate, TCP (anti caking agent) were added to the bael pulp at four levels along with control and dried in a mechanical drier into thin layer at 58 ± 2 °C for 12 h, to obtain a moisture content of 4-5 % in dehydrated pulp. The dehydrated bael pulp was grounded in a laboratory powder mill and sieve with 30 mesh sieve. The powder was packed in 150gauge PP, 400gauge LDPE and 200gauge HDPE pouches and was stored at low temperature (7 °C) and ambient condition (18-35 °C) up to 6 months for storage study. The powder was evaluated for its quality characteristics in respect of acidity, sugars, antioxidant, phenol, ascorbic acid, non- enzymatic browning (NEB) before packaging and during storage. The amount of MD and TCP required to reduce powder stickiness and caking were optimized on the powder properties. The amount of MD (0.25 kg per kg dry bael solids) and TCP (0.15 kg per kg dry bael solids) with the values of degree of caking (19.24 %) and stickiness point temperature (45.4 °C) were found to be optimum for reducing the powder stickiness, caking and nutritional parameters. The adsorption isotherm of bael powder was found to be type-II sigmoid and 200 g HDPE as packaging material followed by storage at low temperature were selected as best process.

  8. Clinical characteristics and treatment responses in new-onset epilepsy in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Shouzaki, Taisaku; Toyota, Tomoko; Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that the incidence of epilepsy is the highest in the elderly population. Because the elderly constitutes the most rapidly growing population, epilepsy in this group is an important health issue worldwide. To identify the characteristics of epilepsy in the elderly, we reviewed our experience at a tertiary referral center in Japan. We searched all electronic medical records of the past 6 years at the epilepsy clinic of the hospital affiliated to our University-affiliated hospital. We defined an elderly person as an individual aged 65 years and above. All patients underwent history and physical examinations, 3T magnetic resonance imaging and/or computer tomography, and electroencephalogram (EEG). The diagnosis of epilepsy, age of onset, etiology, and antiepileptic medication were recorded. We identified 70 patients who developed epilepsy after the age of 65 years. The mean age of seizure onset was 73.1 years and 52.9% patients were males. Complex partial seizures (CPS) without secondarily generalization (n=33, 47.1%) were most frequent. The most frequent diagnosis was temporal lobe epilepsy (n=50, 71.4%). Etiological diagnosis was possible in nearly 50% patients, including those with cerebrovascular disease. A clear cause of epilepsy was not found (i.e., non-lesional epilepsy) in 52.8% patients. Interictal EEG revealed focal epileptiform discharges in 72.9% (n=51) patients. Of the 54 patients who were followed more than 1 year, 42 patients (77.8%) were on antiepileptic monotherapy and 52 patients (96.3%) had been seizure-free for more than 1 year. The most frequent diagnosis in our cohort of elderly persons with new-onset epilepsy was temporal lobe epilepsy. Non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy was not uncommon. Epileptogenecity was relatively low in elderly patients and they responded well to antiepileptic medication. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  10. Effect of Deficit Irrigation Treatments on Vegetative Characteristics and Quantity and Quality of Golden Delicious Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since Iran is located in arid and semi-arid region of the world, so consumption and saving of water must be taking into account. Water is often a valuable natural resource, thus proper application methods - for increase water efficiency can be very important. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI is one of the most important methods to increase water use efficiency and fruit quality. Apple is one of the most important fruit trees from economical point of view. Studies showed that regulated deficit irrigation led to growth reduction in apple trees and sometimes fruit quality increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect deficit irrigation on vegetative growth and fruit quantity and quality of Golden delicious apple trees in Gahvareh region of Kermanshah province. Materials and Methods: This experiment was conducted on 10 years old Golden delicious apple trees in a randomized complete block design with 5 irrigation treatments and three replications during 2006. Three apple trees assigned to each experimental unit. Irrigation treatments were: T1= early deficit irrigation (40% water requirement, T2= early deficit irrigation (60% water requirement, T3= late deficit irrigation (40% water requirement, T4=late deficit irrigation (60% water requirement, T5=control (C (100% water requirement. Early deficit irrigation starts 55 days after full bloom (15th Jun and continued 60 days (16th Aug, while late deficit irrigation starts 115 days after from full bloom (16th Aug and continued 40 days near to harvesting time (23th Sept. Control trees were full irrigated based on water requirement, which calculated based on national water document of Iran and irrigation amount was calculated based on the following formulas: Q=0.0184.L.H3/2 Where Q is volumetric flow rate (liter/Second, L is parshall flume crown length (cm and H is water height (cm. Irrigation time was calculated based on national water document of Iran and volumetric flow rate

  11. [Characteristics in treatment of the hip in patients with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlein, C-D; Schiel, M; Timmesfeld, N; Schofer, M D; Eberhardt, O; Wirth, T; Fernandez, F F

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of hip instability in patients with Down syndrome is challenging. We have performed different pelvic osteotomies and corrections at the proximal femur for this indication. This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of each intervention. All in all, 166 patients with Down syndrome were treated at our orthopaedic department in the observation period. Problems related to the hip joint were diagnosed in 63 of those patients. Only patients who underwent surgery were included in this study. The charts and X-rays of these 31 patients were evaluated with respect to the following parameters: incidence of the hip problem, concomitant diseases, temporal progress, kind of operation method and date, duration of stay in the hospital, after-care, follow-on surgery related to complications, AC angle, CE angle, ACM angle, CCD angle, index of migration according to Reimers, classification of Bauer and Kerschbauer and general morphology of the femoral head. The group was compared with an age-matched group of 21 patients with hip dysplasia. Those patients underwent the same sort of operation in the same year. In the Morbus Down group, we performed surgery for preservation of the hip in 49 cases. This included 13 osteotomies according to Chiari, 11 triple osteotomies according to Tönnis, 10 corrections by femoral varus derotation osteotomy, 8 pelvic osteotomies according to Pemberton, 5 pelvic osteotomies according to Salter and 2 open reductions of the hip. With respect to the moment of surgery, we detected three peaks of age. There was no difference in course of disease and quantity of complications between the groups. Satisfactory results concerning clinical and radiological outcome were achieved predominantly by complete redirectional acetabular osteotomies. Half of the patients who were solely treated by femoral varus derotation osteotomy needed follow-on surgery in the form of pelvic osteotomy. Comparison of

  12. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  13. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Gopalan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  14. Characteristics and heat treatment of cold-sprayed Al-Sn binary alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Xian-Jin; Kim, Jin-Hong; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Changhee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Al-Sn binary alloy coatings were prepared with Al-5 wt.% Sn (Al-5Sn) and Al-10 wt.% Sn (Al-10Sn) gas atomized powders by low pressure and high pressure cold spray process. The microstructure and microhardness of the coatings were characterized. To understand the coarsening of tin in the coating, the as-sprayed coatings were annealed at 150, 200, 250 and 300 o C for 1 h, respectively. The effect of annealing on microstructure and the bond strength of the coatings were investigated. The results show that Al-5Sn coating can be deposited by high pressure cold spray with nitrogen while Al-10Sn can only be deposited by low pressure cold spray with helium gas. Both Al-5Sn and Al-10Sn coatings present dense structures. The fraction of Sn in as-sprayed coatings is consistent with that in feed stock powders. The coarsening and/or migration of Sn phase in the coatings were observed when the annealing temperature exceeds 200 deg. C. Furthermore, the microhardness of the coatings decreased significantly at the annealing temperature of 250 deg. C. EDXA analysis shows that the heat treatment has no significant effect on fraction of Sn phase in Al-5Sn coatings. Bonding strength of as-sprayed Al-10Sn coating is slightly higher than that of Al-5Sn coating. Annealing at 200 o C can increase the bonding strength of Al-5Sn coatings.

  15. Intrusive images in psychological disorders: characteristics, neural mechanisms, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Gregory, James D; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy.

  16. Pyrolytic product characteristics of biosludge from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Ko, Ya-Wen; Shieh, Zhu-Xin; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-11-15

    Biosludge was produced from the wastewater treatment plant of a petrochemical industry. The element compositions of pyrolytic residues, CO, CO(2), NOx, SOx, total hydrocarbons and detailed volatile organic compounds of pyrolytic gas, and C, H, N, S content and compositions in biofuel were determined in this study. Generally, 75-80% water content in sludge cakes and about 65-70% weight of water vapor and volatile compounds were volatilized during the drying process. Propene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, isobutene, toluene and benzene were the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the pyrolytic gas, and the concentrations for most of the top 20 VOC species were greater than 5 ppm. C(5)-C(9) compounds contributed 60% by weight of biofuel; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone was the highest species, accounting for 28-53% of biofuel at various pyrolytic temperatures. Based on the dried residues, there was 8.5-13% weight in pyrolytic residues, 62-82% weight in liquid products (water and crude oil) and 5.8-30% weight in the gas phase after pyrolytic processing at 500-800 degrees C. Finally, 1.5-2.5 wt% liquid fuel was produced after the distillation process. The pyrolytic residues could be reused, the pyrolytic liquid product could be used as a fuel after distillation, and the pyrolytic gas could be recycled in the pyrolytic process to achieve non-toxic discharge and reduce the cost of sludge disposal.

  17. Occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants linked to wastewater characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, C; Beutel, S; Scheper, T; Rosenwinkel, K H; Nogueira, R

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of Legionella in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has often been reported. However, until now there is limited knowledge about the factors that promote Legionella's growth in such systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical wastewater parameters that might be correlated to the concentration of Legionella spp. in WWTP receiving industrial effluents. For this purpose, samples were collected at different processes in three WWTP. In 100 % of the samples taken from the activated sludge tanks Legionella spp. were detected at varying concentrations (4.8 to 5.6 log GU/mL) by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, but not by the culture method. Statistical analysis with various parameters yielded positive correlations of Legionella spp. concentration with particulate chemical oxygen demand, Kjeldahl nitrogen and protein concentration. Amino acids were quantified in wastewater and activated sludge samples at concentrations that may not support the growth of Legionella, suggesting that in activated sludge tanks this bacterium multiplied in protozoan hosts.

  18. Physician personal characteristics influencing long-term treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokova E.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify the peculiarities of a doctor personality, affecting long-term therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and methods: To determine the type of temperament, the presence and intensity of the syndrome of emotional burnout and capacity for empathy therapists and cardiologists were asked to fill in a number of questionnaires. Each doctor had a group of patients contacting by telephone for a year after the discharge from the hospital. During the telephone contact, the patients were asked about the continuation of their therapy recommended in the hospital, the regularity of therapy, the frequency of absence, and the assessment of a physician by the patients. Results: 35 questionnaires were suitable for interpretation. Through one year after the discharge from the hospital it was able to contact with 147 patients, 18.4% (27 of patients completely stopped the treatment by recommended drugs. Positive assessment of physicians was associated with the continuation of the therapy by recommended drugs and regularity of drug taking (p=0,03. Patients assessed physicians positively more often in cases of low level of emotional state, high level of depersonalization (cynicism and the reduction of personal accomplishment (feeling of professional inefficiency in a doctor. Conclusion: Assessment of physicians by patients is reliably and significantly influenced by continuation of long-term therapy and regularity of drug taking.

  19. [Characteristics of local human skeleton reactions to microgravity and drug treatment of osteoporosis in clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, V S; Skripnikova, I A; Novikov, V E; Bakulin, A V; Kabitskaia, O E; Murashko, L M

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the results of long-term investigations of bones in cosmonauts flown on the orbital station MIR and International space station (n = 80) was performed. Theoretically predicted (evolutionary predefined) change in mass of different skeleton bones was found to correlate (r = 0.904) with position relatively the Earth's gravity vector. Vector dependence of bone loss ensues from local specificity of expression of bone metabolism genes which reflects mechanic prehistory of skeleton structures in the evolution of Homo erectus. Genetic polymorphism is accountable for high individual variability of bone loss attested by the dependence of bone loss rate on polymorphism of certain bone metabolism markers. Parameters of one and the other orbital vehicle did not modulate individual-specific stability of the bone loss ratio in different segments of the skeleton. This fact is considered as a phenotype fingerprint of local metabolism in the form of a locus-unique spatial structure of distribution of noncollagenous proteins responsible for position regulation of endosteal metabolism. Drug treatment of osteoporosis (n = 107) evidences that recovery rate depends on bone location; the most likely reason is different effectiveness of local osteotrophic intervention into areas of bustling resorption.

  20. Study of coagulant development and the characteristics for the treatment of tire remanufacturing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, E.S.; Yoon, I.M. [School of Natural Sciences, Honam Univ., Gwangju (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to test the performance of various combinations of coagulants for effective wastewater treatment of the tire recycling industry. From the jar-test results, two kinds of coagulants, namely AlSi-1 and PASi-1, were found to be effective in decreasing BOD and COD{sub Cr} values from the polluted wastewater among various combinations of coagulants. In comparison to Al-based or Si-based singular salts, the Si-Al combined salts (PASi-1) exhibited a higher removal efficiency of 90% turbidity, 93% SS, 70 {proportional_to} 85% BOD{sub 5} and 85 {proportional_to} 91% COD{sub Cr} at 15 {+-} 2 C, pH7.5 {proportional_to} 9.5 and 2.0 mM of coagulant dosage. At 30 {+-} 2 C of tire recycling effluents, the combination effect was clearly shown in the removal of COD{sub Cr} over a wider range of pH. The reaction mechanisms of AlSi-1 and PASi-1 were also schematically studied. (orig.)

  1. Use of Telemedicine in Addiction Treatment: Current Practices and Organizational Implementation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Molfenter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine applications offer innovative approaches for treating and reducing the effects of substance use disorders (SUDs. This analysis assessed the interest in and use of 11 telemedicine applications in a sample of 363 SUD organizations in the United States of America. Fifty percent of the organizations expressed high rates of interest in seven of the telemedicine applications, demonstrating the appeal of telemedicine within this field. The top three self-reported telemedicine applications being used were (1 computerized screening/assessments (44.6%, (2 telephone-based recovery supports (29.5%, and (3 telephone-based therapy (28.37%. The greatest gaps between interest and use were for (1 texting appointment reminders (55.2% differential, (2 mobile apps for posttreatment recovery (46.6% differential, and (3 recovery support chats (46.6% differential. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA of the organizations’ telemedicine use behavior identified three groupings: “Innovators” that were using a range of technologies (n=27, 7.4%; “Technology Traditionalists” that limited their use to telephone, video, and web portal technologies (n=101, 27.8%; and “Low Tech” that had low overall technology use (n=235, 64.7%. Future studies should build on how telemedicine could be applied in SUD settings, organizational behaviors towards its adoption, and telemedicine’s effect on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes.

  2. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  3. High-Pressure Treatment of Non-Hydrated Flour Affects Structural Characteristics and Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jakobi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15% by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0–600 MPa, 10 min and pressurization time depending (0–20 min, 450 MPa alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68.3 ± 2.0% to 59.7 ± 1.5% (linearly, R2 = 0.83 and 59.6 ± 0.7% (sigmoidal, respectively. Thereby, detectable total amount of starch decreased from 77.7 ± 0.8% linearly to 67.6 ± 1.7%, and sigmoidal, to 69.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. Increase in pressure caused a linear decrease in gelatinization enthalpy of 33.2 ± 5.6%, and linear increase in hydration properties by 11.0 ± 0.6%. The study revealed structural and technological relevant alterations of starch-based food matrices with low moisture content by HPT, which must be taken into consideration during processing and preservation of food.

  4. Investigation of Current Driven Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage an......” woofer where a copper ring in the pole piece has not been implemented to compensate for eddy currents. However the drive method seems to be irrelevant for a 5” woofer where the compliance, force factor as well as the voice coil inductance has been optimized for linearity.......Current driven loudspeakers have previously been investigated but the literature is limited and the advantages and disadvantages are yet to be fully identified. This paper makes use of a non-linear loudspeaker model to analyse loudspeakers with distinct non-linear characteristics under voltage...

  5. SU-E-T-755: Timing Characteristics of Proton and Carbon Ion Treatments Using a Synchrotron and Modulated Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Li, Y; Huang, Z; Deng, Y; Sun, L; Moyers, M; Hsi, W; Wu, X

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The time required to deliver a treatment impacts not only the number of patients that can be treated each day but also the accuracy of delivery due to potential movements of patient tissues. Both macroscopic and microscopic timing characteristics of a beam delivery system were studied to examine their impacts on patient treatments. Methods: 35 patients were treated during a clinical trial to demonstrate safety and efficacy of a Siemens Iontris system prior to receiving approval from the Chinese Food and Drug Administration. The system has a variable cycle time and can provide proton beams from 48 to 221 MeV/n and carbon ions from 86 to 430 MeV/n. A modulated scanning beam delivery technique is used where the beam remains stationary at each spot aiming location and is not turned off while the spot quickly moves from one aiming location to the next. The treatment log files for 28 of the trial patients were analyzed to determine several timing characteristics. Results: The average portal time per target dose was 172.5 s/Gy for protons and 150.7 s/Gy for carbon ions. The maximum delivery time for any portal was less than 300 s. The average dwell time per spot was 12 ms for protons and 3.0 ms for carbon ions. The number of aiming positions per energy layer varied from 1 to 258 for protons and 1 to 621 for carbon ions. The average spill time and cycle time per energy layer were 1.20 and 2.68 s for protons and 0.95 and 4.73 s for carbon ions respectively. For 3 of the patients, the beam was gated on and off to reduce the effects of respiration. Conclusion: For a typical target volume of 153 cc as used in this clinical trial, the portal delivery times were acceptable

  6. Breast Cancer Disparities: A Multicenter Comparison of Tumor Diagnosis, Characteristics, and Surgical Treatment in China and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Priya G; Zhang, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jennifer S; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of and mortality rates for breast cancer continue to rise in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in characteristics of breast malignancies between China and the U.S. Data from 384,262 breast cancer patients registered in the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2000 to 2010 were compared with 4,211 Chinese breast cancer patients registered in a Chinese database from 1999 to 2008. Outcomes included age, race, histology, tumor and node staging, laterality, surgical treatment method, and reconstruction. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare rates. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy in the U.S. and China. The mean number of positive lymph nodes was higher in China (2.59 vs. 1.31, p China (stage IIA vs. I, p China (32.63 vs. 21.57 mm). Mean age at diagnosis was lower in China (48.28 vs. 61.29 years, p China, and 0.02% in China underwent reconstructive surgery. Chinese women were diagnosed at younger ages with higher stage and larger tumors and underwent more aggressive surgical treatment. Prospective trials should be conducted to address screening, surgical, and tumor discrepancies between China and the U.S. Breast cancer patients in China are diagnosed at later stages than those in America, which might contribute to different clinical management and lower 5-year survival rate. This phenomenon suggests that an earlier detection and treatment program should be widely implemented in China. By comparing the characteristics of Chinese and Chinese-American patients, we found significant differences in tumor size, lymph nodes metastasis, and age at diagnosis. These consequences indicated that patients with similar genetic backgrounds may have different prognoses due to the influence of environment and social economic determinates. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. In search of patient characteristics that may guide empirically based treatment selection for personality disorder patients-a concept map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, J G; Kamphuis, J H; Goossensen, A; Timman, R; Busschbach, J J V; Verheul, R

    2012-08-01

    Using the concept map method, this study aimed to summarize and describe patient characteristics pertinent to treatment selection for patients with personality disorders (PDs). Initial patient characteristics were derived from the research literature and a survey among Dutch expert clinicians. Concept mapping is a formalized conceptualization procedure that describes the underlying cognitive structures people use in complex tasks, such as treatment allocation. Based on expert opinions of 29 Dutch clinicians, a concept map was generated that yielded eight domains of patient characteristics, i.e., Severity of symptoms, Severity of personality pathology, Ego-adaptive capacities, Motivation and working alliance, Social context, Social demographic characteristics, Trauma, and Treatment history and medical condition. These domains can be ordered along two bipolar axes, running from internal to external concepts and from vulnerability to strength concepts, respectively. Our findings may serve as input for the delineation of algorithms for patient-treatment matching research in PD.

  8. Effect of the ionic strength of pulsed electric field treatment medium on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qian; Roginski, Hubert; Williams, Roderick P W; Wooster, Tim J; Versteeg, Cornelis; Wan, Jason

    2010-11-24

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (35 kV cm(-1) for 19.2 μs using bipolar 2 μs pulses) was conducted on bovine lactoferrin (LF; 0.4 mg mL(-1)) prepared in simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF), at concentrations between 0.2× and 2× normal strength, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.17 to 1.04 S m(-1). The physicochemical and structural characteristics (LF content by a spectrophotometric and an ELISA method, surface hydrophobicity, electrophoretic mobility, far-UV circular dichroism spectra, and tryptophan fluorescence) of LF dissolved in SMUF of all strengths tested were not changed after PEF treatment. The PEF treatment of LF in 0.2 strength SMUF did not cause the release of LF-bound ferric ion into the aqueous phase, with a concentration of LF-bound iron being the same as that of the untreated LF control (174 μg L(-1)). However, in treatment media with higher ionic strengths, ferric ion was released from the LF molecule into the aqueous phase. The concentration of LF-bound iron decreased from 174 μg L(-1) for the LF treated in 0.2 strength SMUF to 80 μg L(-1) for that treated in double-strength SMUF. The results suggest that the PEF-induced iron depletion of LF does not appear to cause an appreciable conformational change in LF molecules. PEF treatment could be developed as a novel physical way to produce iron-depleted LF, as an alternative to the existing chemical method.

  9. Potential evolution of neurosurgical treatment paradigms for craniopharyngioma based on genomic and transcriptomic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie C; Santagata, Sandro; Hankinson, Todd C

    2016-12-01

    The recent genomic and transcriptomic characterization of human craniopharyngiomas has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of these tumors and supports that these tumor types are distinct entities. Critically, the insights provided by these data offer the potential for the introduction of novel therapies and surgical treatment paradigms for these tumors, which are associated with high morbidity rates and morbid conditions. Mutations in the CTNNB1 gene are primary drivers of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and lead to the accumulation of β-catenin protein in a subset of the nuclei within the neoplastic epithelium of these tumors. Dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in ACP suggest that paracrine oncogenic mechanisms may underlie ACP growth and implicate these signaling pathways as potential targets for therapeutic intervention using directed therapies. Recent work shows that ACP cells have primary cilia, further supporting the potential importance of SHH signaling in the pathogenesis of these tumors. While further preclinical data are needed, directed therapies could defer, or replace, the need for radiation therapy and/or allow for less aggressive surgical interventions. Furthermore, the prospect for reliable control of cystic disease without the need for surgery now exists. Studies of papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) are more clinically advanced than those for ACP. The vast majority of PCPs harbor the BRAF v600e mutation. There are now 2 reports of patients with PCP that had dramatic therapeutic responses to targeted agents. Ongoing clinical and research studies promise to not only advance our understanding of these challenging tumors but to offer new approaches for patient management.

  10. Intractable occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics, surgical treatment, and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fan; Jia, Yan-Zeng; Lin, Qiao; Mei, Zhen; Chen, Zi-Qian; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Pei, Jia-Sheng; Tian, Jun; Zhong, Zhong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We reported our experience in the surgical treatment of a relatively large cohort of patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE). We also carried out a systematic review of the literature on OLE. Thirty-five consecutive patients who underwent occipital resection for epilepsy were included. Diagnoses were made following presurgical evaluations, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), scalp video-electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring, and intracranial EEG monitoring. At last follow-up, seizure outcome was classified using the Engel classification scheme. Twenty-five of 35 patients experienced/had experienced ≥1 type of aura before the seizure. Invasive recordings were used to define the epileptogenic area in 30 of 35 patients (85.7 %). All patients underwent occipital lesionectomies or topectomies. Histopathology revealed: cortical dysplasias, gliosis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, and tuberous sclerosis. After a mean follow-up of 44 months, 25 patients (71.4 %) were seizure free (Engel class I), 3 (8.6 %) rarely had seizures (Engel class II), 5 (14.3 %) improved more than 75 % (Engel class III), and 2 (5.7 %) had no significant improvement (Engel class IV). Preoperatively, 12 of 33 patients (36.4 %) had visual field deficits. Postoperatively, 25 patients (75.8 %) had new or aggravated visual field deficits. The management of OLE has been aided greatly by the availability of high-resolution diagnosis. Postoperative visual field deficits occur in a significant proportion of patients. Comprehensive intracranial EEG coverage of all occipital surfaces helps to define the epileptogenic area and preserve visual function, especially in cases of focal cortical dysplasia undetectable by MRI.

  11. Sorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon Obtained from Rice Husks by Treatment with Lime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnin Nwe Aye; Aye Aye Maw; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The sorption studies of rice husk char prepared by carbonization and activation with lime, caustic soda and sulphuric acid have been investigated. Prior to impregnation with the lime; on a micro processing scale the pre-carbonization temperature of rice husk were determined by using TG-DTA thermal analysis. The impregnation with chemical was made after carbonization and the impregnated chars were subjected to activation at appropriate temperatures of about 300 C to 500 C depending on the impregnated chars. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared chars were tested by conventional and modern techniques. Sorption capacities with respect to colored dyes were determined for each of the char. These sorption capacities are indicative of the decolorizing nature and the acid or basic nature. The sorption capacities of the prepared chars towards the uptake of metals such as copper, iron, lead and cadmium were also studied and the lime activated char exhibits high adsorptive capacities for all the metals compared to other prepared chars as well as the commercial wood char. The evaluation of the sorption capacities of this chars were made on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir monolayer coverage equations. Thus, based on batch dosage method and breakthrough flow method, the uptake of the metals were found to be in following order for the lime activated rice husk char; Cu > Fe > Pb > Cd. From this investigation, it can be inferred that a rice husk char impregnated with 20% technical grade CaO has the potential effect to be used as an effective metal adsorbent particularly for the uptake of toxic heavy metals in the secondary stage of water treatment processes.

  12. A comparison of behavioral and psychological characteristics of patients opting for surgical and conservative treatment for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; Bergh, Irmelin; von Soest, Tilmann; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Johnsen, Tina Avantis; Martinsen, Egil W; Mala, Tom; Kristinsson, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychological prerequisites for weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. A first step in investigating whether existing knowledge of conservative weight loss treatment is applicable for lifestyle interventions postoperatively is to compare specific psychological characteristics at baseline. The aim of this study was to compare patients scheduled for bariatric surgery with patients receiving conservative treatment for morbid obesity on measures of behavioral and psychosocial characteristics considered predictors of their adoption of and adherence to long-term lifestyle recommendations. Baseline clinical and questionnaire data from the prospective "Oslo Bariatric Surgery Study" were used to examine potential differences between bariatric surgery patients (n = 301) and patients receiving conservative weight loss treatment (n = 261). The surgical group was characterized by their younger age (43.8 vs. 46.2 years, p changing their eating behaviors (OR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.93). The surgical patients were also less ready to change physical activity levels (OR = 0.59, 95 % CI 0.48, 0.73), had tried more types of unhealthy weight loss methods in the past (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.33), drank soda more frequently (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.50), had fewer binge eating episodes (OR = 0.38, 95 % CI 0.20, 0.71), and had more depressive symptoms (OR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.09, 1.29). Patients opting for bariatric surgery had more positive expectations of the treatment outcomes and stronger beliefs in their ability to achieve these outcomes. Those starting conservative treatment had stronger beliefs in readiness to change physical activity levels. Future studies should explore the effect of interventions for bariatric surgery patients, promoting postoperative physical activity and stress realistic outcome expectations. The potential effects of incorporating this knowledge in intervention strategies remain to be

  13. Characteristics of Au/PZT/TiO2/Nitride/Si structure capacitors with ICP nitride treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hyung Seob; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Chang Bae; Lee, Jae Gab; Kim, Ji Young

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of PZT/TiO 2 ferroelectric gate stack capacitors with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) nitridation were investigated for field effect transistor (FET)-type Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM) applications. If a high accumulation capacitance is to be had, the ICP nitridation time needs to be optimized. While a short ICP treatment time results in thermal oxide growth due to lack of nitrogen, a long nitridation time causes a nitride layer which is too thick. Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Nitride/Si (MeFINS) structure capacitors show a memory window (ΔV) of 1.6 V under ±3-V operation while Au/PZT(200 nm)/TiO 2 (40 nm)/Si (MeFIS) capacitors without nitride treatment exhibit a small memory window of 0.6 V. At the same time, the capacitance of the MeFINS device is almost twice that of the MeFIS capacitor. This result implies that the ICP nitride treatment suppresses the formation of a low dielectric constant interfacial SiO x layer and alleviates the series capacitance problem

  14. Best Candidates for Cognitive Treatment of Illness Perceptions in Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of A Theory-Driven Predictor Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemonsma, P.C.; Stuive, I.; Roorda, L.D.; Vollebregt, J.A.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Lettinga, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify treatmentspecific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic

  15. Characteristics Associated With Antihypertensive Treatment and Blood Pressure Control: A Population-Based Follow-Up Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Loayza, J Alfredo; Benziger, Catherine Pastorius; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's adult population has hypertension, yet achieving adequate treatment or control targets remains a challenge. This study sought to identify, longitudinally, characteristics associated with antihypertensive treatment and blood pressure (BP) control among individuals with hypertension. Data from individuals enrolled in the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study (adults ≥35 years, living in 4 different rural/urban and coastal/high-altitude Peruvian settings) with hypertension at baseline were used. Antihypertensive treatment and BP control were assessed at baseline and at 15 months. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of factors associated with antihypertensive treatment and BP control at follow-up. At baseline, among 717 individuals with hypertension (53% women, mean age 61.5 ± 12.4 years), 28% were unaware of their hypertension status, 30% were aware but untreated, 16% were treated but uncontrolled, and 26% were treated and controlled. At follow-up, 89% of unaware and 82% of untreated individuals persisted untreated, and only 58% of controlled individuals remained controlled. Positive predictors of receiving treatment and being controlled at follow-up included age (RRR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91 for every 5 years) and family history of a chronic disease (RRR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.92 vs. no history); whereas Puno rural site (RRR: 16.51; 95% CI: 1.90 to 143.56 vs. Lima) and male sex (RRR: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.54 to 4.36) were risk factors. Systolic BP at baseline (RRR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.39 for every 5 mm Hg) and male sex (RRR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.98) were risk factors for being treated but uncontrolled at follow-up. Large gaps in treatment of hypertension were observed. Targeting specific populations such as men, younger individuals, or those without family history of disease may increase coverage of antihypertensive treatment. Also, targeting

  16. Effects of treatment with vermicompost on the some morphological and physiological characteristics of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, effects of vermicompost treatment tried to be determined on some morphological and physiological seedling quality characteristics of one – year Scots pines. Experiments were set according to random plots experimental design including 14 trials with 3 repetitions. With this aim, seeds obtained from seven different sites (origins of mixed Scots pine stands which naturally grow in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey were used in the experiments. At the end of the vegetation period, important physiologic and morphologic parameters of seedlings in the plots, SH, RCD, TDW, RDW and total N rate were detected. After that, RI, V and QI rates, each of which is also important rational indicator in seedlings for height, root collar diameter and weight balance, were calculated with the help of morphological data. Effects of VC treatment were found to be statistically significant on all the development parameters measured in seedlings in seven origin groups. It was determined in all morphologic parameters that the best development rate was observed in Goktepe originating seedlings in both VC treatment and control groups while Geyikgolu originating seedlings showed the least development performance. It was observed from the correlation analysis that there is a positive relation between morphologic and physiologic quality criteria. It was also determined according to the results of multivariable regression analysis that elevation of the sites where seedlings were picked up was more effective on the development of seedling development than the aspect of the sites. Results of the study were found to be convenient with the related literature and showed that VC treatment contributed positively to the development of Scots pine seedlings taken from seven different origins.

  17. Characteristics of pellet-type adsorbents prepared from water treatment sludge and their effect on trimethylamine removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Junghyun; Park, Nayoung; Kim, Goun; Lee, Choul Ho; Jeon, Jong-Ki [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We optimized the preparation method of pellet-type adsorbents based on alum sludge with the aim of developing a high-performance material for the adsorption of gaseous trimethylamine. Effects of calcination temperature on physical and chemical properties of pellet-type adsorbents were investigated. The porous structure and surface characteristics of the adsorbents were studied using N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia, and infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine. The adsorbents obtained from the water treatment sludge are microporous materials with well-developed mesoporosity. The pellet-type adsorbent calcined at 500 .deg. C had the highest percentage of micropore volume and the smallest average pore diameter. The highest adsorption capacity in trimethylamine removal attained over the pellet-type adsorbent calcined at 500 .deg. C can be attributed to the highest number of acid sites as well as the well-developed microporosity.

  18. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (> 19°, P = 0.02) and younger age at surgery (< 4 months, P = 0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery. PMID:25477542

  19. Evaluation of the water related characteristics of diverse Spanish stones after the application of different protective treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, L.

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics related to water absorption of some important stones very used in the southern of Spain were tested before and after the application of diverse commercial protective treatments, including the application of diverse dilutions and the correlative application of two complementary products. Some considerations about the adequation of the pair product/stone have been realized.

    Las características relacionadas con la absorción de agua de algunas de las más importantes piedras usadas en el sur de España han sido estudiadas antes y tras la aplicación ^e diversos tratamientos de protección comerciales, incluyendo la aplicación con diluciones diversas y la aplicación sucesiva de dos productos complementarios. Se exponen diversas consideraciones acerca de la adecuación de los pares producto/piedra.

  20. Effect of certain production parameters and post-production treatments on the etching characteristics of CR-39 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Toth-Szilagyi, M.; Hunyadi, I.; Hafez, A.-F.

    1986-01-01

    There is a permanent need in producing track recording detectors of well defined behaviour from CR-39 monomer. Therefore, more studies on the role of production parameters determining the stability of main etching characteristics (bulk etch rate, Vsub(B);etch rate ratio, Vsub(T)/Vsub(B);opaqueness after longer etching periods) are highly required. In our studies we have examined different commercial CR-39 sheets (Homalite, Pershore, MA-ND) to compare their registration sensitivity to selected alpha and proton energies. In addition, we have investigated the main etching parameters of CR-39 sheets manufactured under different casting conditions varying the concentration of initiator and certain additives. Finally, the effect of some post-production treatments, annealing and storage in vacuum, on the Vsub(B) and Vsub(T)/Vsub(B) values is studied.

  1. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women—A Featured Population: Results from the NORA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pronzato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000–2002, patients (>3500 were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged ≤50 years (=1013 were stratified into age groups (≤35, 36–40, 41–45, and 46–50 years. The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(2=7.07; =.008, HER2 amplification (2=5.76; =.01, and high (≥10% Ki67 labelling index (2=9.53; =.002. Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (40 versus ≤40, <.0001, resp.. At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, =.0021. Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per sè is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial.

  2. Effect of CHF3 Plasma Treatment on the Characteristics of SiCOH Low-k Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhenyu; Ye Chao; Yuan Jing; Xu Yijun; Ning Zhaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of SiCOH low dielectric constant film treated by a trifluromethane (CHF 3 ) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was investigated. The flat-band voltage V FB and leakage current of the Cu/SiCOH/Si structure, and the hydrophobic property of the SiCOH film were obtained by the measurements of capacitance-voltage, current-voltage and water contact angle. The structures of the SiCOH film were also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The CHF 3 plasma treatment of the SiCOH film led to a reduction in both the flat-band voltage V FB shift and leakage current of the Cu/SiCOH/Si structure, a decrease in surface roughness, and a deterioration of the hydrophobic property. The changes in the film's characteristics were related to the formation of Si-F bond, the increase in Si-OH bond, and the C:F deposition at the surface of the SiCOH film.

  3. Characteristics of microbial community involved in early biofilms formation under the influence of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuke; Li, Jie; Lu, Junling; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2018-04-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) containing microorganisms and residual nutrients can influence the biofilm formation. Although the process and mechanism of bacterial biofilm formation have been well characterized, little is known about the characteristics and interaction of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the early colonization, especially under the influence of WWTP effluent. The aim of this study was to characterize the important bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species in the early stage of biofilm formation downstream of the WWTP outlet. Water and biofilm samples were collected 24 and 48hr after the deposition of bio-cords in the stream. Illumina Miseq sequencing of the 16S and 18S rDNA showed that, among the three domains, the bacterial biofilm community had the largest alpha and beta diversity. The early bacterial colonizers appeared to be "biofilm-specific", with only a few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared between the biofilm and the ambient water environment. Alpha-proteobacteria and Ciliophora tended to dominate the bacterial and eukaryotic communities, respectively, of the early biofilm already at 24hr, whereas archaea played only a minor role during the early stage of colonization. The network analysis showed that the three domains of microbial community connected highly during the early colonization and it might be a characteristic of the microbial communities in the biofilm formation process where co-occurrence relationships could drive coexistence and diversity maintenance within the microbial communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women-A Featured Population: Results from the Nora Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronzato, P.; Mustacchi, G.; De Matteis, A.; Di Costanzo, F.; Rulli, E.; Floriani, I; Cazzaniga, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000-2002, patients (N>3500) were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged =50 years (N=1013) were stratified into age groups (=35, 36-40, 41-45, and 46-50 years). The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(x 2 =7.07; P=.008), HER2 amplification (x 2 =5.76; P=.01), and high (≤10%) Ki67 labelling index (x 2 =9.53; P=.002). Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (P 40 versus =40, P<.0001, resp.). At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, P=.0021). Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per se is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial. human epidermal growth factor receptor

  5. Actinic keratosis: a cross-sectional study of disease characteristics and treatment patterns in Danish dermatology clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Egekvist, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik F; Philipsen, Peter A; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Stender, Ida M; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists. A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. Three dermatology hospital departments and seven private dermatology clinics enrolled eligible AK patients consecutively during one week. A total of 312 patients were included. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was previously reported in 51.0% of patients and currently suspected in 9.4% of AK-affected anatomical regions. Lesions of AK were located primarily on the face (38.6%), scalp (12.8%), and hands (11.2%). Actinic keratosis commonly presented with multiple AK lesions (38.6%) and field cancerization (38.5%). The treatments used most frequently were cryotherapy (57.7%) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (17.1%) and imiquimod (11.2%). The likelihood of receiving cryotherapy was higher for men (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.47) and increased with age (2.2% per year, 0.4-4.0%). PDT represented the most frequently applied treatment for severe actinic damage and was more likely to be prescribed to women (OR 4.08, 95% CI 2.22-7.47) and young patients (OR 0.97 per year, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The prevalence of severe actinic damage (17.3% versus 9.6%) and intake of immunosuppressive medication (29.0 versus 2.0) were higher among hospital patients compared with those treated in private practices (P AK patients in Danish dermatology clinics have a history of skin cancer, and NMSC is suspected in almost 10% of AK-affected regions. Cryotherapy is the most frequently used treatment overall, except in instances of severe actinic damage, in which PDT is the first-choice treatment. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Best candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions in chronic low back pain: results of a theory-driven predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemonsma, Petra C; Stuvie, Ilse; Roorda, Leo D; Vollebregt, Joke A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Lettinga, Ant T

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify treatment-specific predictors of the effectiveness of a method of evidence-based treatment: cognitive treatment of illness perceptions. This study focuses on what treatment works for whom, whereas most prognostic studies focusing on chronic non-specific low back pain rehabilitation aim to reduce the heterogeneity of the population of patients who are suitable for rehabilitation treatment in general. Three treatment-specific predictors were studied in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain receiving cognitive treatment of illness perceptions: a rational approach to problem-solving, discussion skills and verbal skills. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to assess their predictive value. Short-term changes in physical activity, measured with the Patient-Specific Functioning List, were the outcome measure for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions effect. A total of 156 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain participated in the study. Rational problem-solving was found to be a significant predictor for the change in physical activity. Discussion skills and verbal skills were non-significant. Rational problem-solving explained 3.9% of the total variance. The rational problem-solving scale results are encouraging, because chronic non-specific low back pain problems are complex by nature and can be influenced by a variety of factors. A minimum score of 44 points on the rational problem-solving scale may assist clinicians in selecting the most appropriate candidates for cognitive treatment of illness perceptions.

  7. Characteristics of epoxy resin/SiO2 nanocomposite insulation: effects of plasma surface treatment on the nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Phung, B T; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2013-05-01

    The present study compares the effects of two different material processing techniques on modifying hydrophilic SiO2 nanoparticles. In one method, the nanoparticles undergo plasma treatment by using a custom-developed atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma reactor. With the other method, they undergo chemical treatment which grafts silane groups onto their surface and turns them into hydrophobic. The treated nanoparticles are then used to synthesize epoxy resin-based nanocomposites for electrical insulation applications. Their characteristics are investigated and compared with the pure epoxy resin and nanocomposite fabricated with unmodified nanofillers counterparts. The dispersion features of the nanoparticles in the epoxy resin matrix are examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. All samples show evidence that the agglomerations are smaller than 30 nm in their diameters. This indicates good dispersion uniformity. The Weibull plot of breakdown strength and the recorded partial discharge (PD) events of the epoxy resin/plasma-treated hydrophilic SiO2 nanocomposite (ER/PTI) suggest that the plasma-treated specimen yields higher breakdown strength and lower PD magnitude as compared to the untreated ones. In contrast, surprisingly, lower breakdown strength is found for the nanocomposite made by the chemically treated hydrophobic particles, whereas the PD magnitude and PD numbers remain at a similar level as the plasma-treated ones.

  8. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer who develop brain metastasis: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountzilas, Christos; Chang, Katherine; Hernandez, Brian; Michalek, Joel; Crownover, Richard; Floyd, John; Mahalingam, Devalingam

    2017-02-01

    The development of brain metastasis (BM) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare and late event. We sought to investigate the clinical characteristics, disease course and safety using biologic agents in our patients with CRC who develop brain metastases. A retrospective review of patients with CRC with brain metastases treated at our institution from 01/2005-01/2015 was performed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Forty patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 55.5 years, 67.5% were males, and 28% had a KRAS mutation. Twenty-four percent were treatment-naive at the time of BM diagnosis. Patients had a median of two brain lesions. Sixty-five percent of the patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 22.5% had both surgical resection and brain radiotherapy. Median overall survival was 3.2 months after development of BM. Overall survival was longer in patients who received combined modality local therapy compared to patients treated with surgical resection or radiotherapy alone. Patients who received systemic treatment incorporating biologics following development of BM had a median overall survival of 18.6 months. Overall, the administration of biologic agents was safe and well tolerated. In summary, BM is an uncommon and late event in the natural history of metastatic CRC. The ability to deliver combined-modality local brain therapy as well as availability of more systemic therapy options appear to lead to improved outcomes.

  9. Scoliosis detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment in the absence of a screening program in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adobor Raphael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis allows for observation and timely initiation of brace treatment in order to halt progression. School scoliosis screening programs were abolished in Norway in 1994 for lack of evidence that the programs improved outcome and for the costs involved. The consequences of this decision are discussed. Objectives To describe the detection, patient characteristics, referral patterns and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis at a scoliosis clinic during the period 2003–2011, when there was no screening and to compare treatment modalities to the period 1976–1988 when screening was performed. Methods Patient demographics, age at detection, family history, clinical and radiological charts of consecutive patients referred for scoliosis evaluation during the period 2003–2011, were prospectively registered. Patients were recruited from a catchment area of about 500000 teenagers. Maturity was estimated according to Risser sign and menarcheal status. Severity of pain was recorded by a verbal 5-point scale from no pain to pain at all times. Physical and neurological examinations were conducted. The detector and patient characteristics were recorded. Referral patterns of orthopedic surgeons at local hospitals and other health care providers were recorded. Patient data was obtained by spine surgeons. Treatment modalities in the current period were compared to the period 1976–1988. Results We registered 752 patients with late onset juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 2003–2011. There were 644 (86% girls and 108 (14% boys. Mean age at detection was 14.6 (7–19 years. Sixty percent had Risser sign ≥ 3, whilst 74% were post menarche with a mean age at menarche of 13.2 years. Thirty-one percent had a family history of scoliosis. The mean major curve at first consultation at our clinic was 38° (10°-95°. About 40% had a major curve >40°. Seventy-one percent were detected by patients

  10. Analysis of clinical characteristics and treatment of immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis: A retrospective cohort study of 39 IAC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianchun; Xu, Peiran; Li, Binglu; Hong, Tao; Liu, Wei; He, Xiaodong; Zheng, Chaoji; Zhao, Yupei

    2018-02-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is one of the common organ manifestations of IgG4-related systemic disease (ISD). IAC and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) may mimic sclerosing cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma, or pancreatic carcinoma. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological, and histological findings.To study the clinical presentation of and treatment strategy for IAC, we reviewed clinical, serologic, and imaging characteristics, as well as treatment response, in 39 patients with IAC. The majority of patients were men (82%). Clinical features on presentation included obstructive jaundice in 26 patients (67%) and abdominal pain in 20 (51%). Positive IgG4 immunostaining was seen in 27 patients. The median serum IgG4 level before treatment was 769.4 mg/dL (range, 309.1-1229.7 mg/dL). After the steroid therapy, the median serum IgG4 level in 23 patients was 247.0 mg/dL (range, 139.0-355.0 mg/dL). Cholangiograms were available in 36 (92%) patients. Stenosis of the lower part of the common bile duct was found in 26 of 39 patients. Stenosis was diffusely distributed in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts in 14 of 39 patients. Additionally, strictures of the bile duct were detected in the hilar hepatic lesions in 27 of 39 patients. AIP was the most frequent comorbidity (35/39 in this study) of IAC. Other affected organs included eyes (n = 6), salivary glands (sialadenitis, n = 10), lymph nodes (mediastinal and axillary, n = 3), kidneys (n = 2), and the retroperitoneum (retroperitoneal fibrosis, n = 2).Regarding treatment, 29 patients were treated with steroids, of whom one underwent pancreatoduodenectomy, and one underwent choledochojejunostomy. Eight patients were treated with biliary stents. The remaining 19 patients took prednisolone alone. Eight patients achieved spontaneous resolution. Four patients with suspected pancreatic cancer or cholangiocarcinoma underwent surgery, including 2

  11. Improving Nanofiber Membrane Characteristics and Membrane Distillation Performance of Heat-Pressed Membranes via Annealing Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwei Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun membranes are gaining interest for use in membrane distillation (MD due to their high porosity and interconnected pore structure; however, they are still susceptible to wetting during MD operation because of their relatively low liquid entry pressure (LEP. In this study, post-treatment had been applied to improve the LEP, as well as its permeation and salt rejection efficiency. The post-treatment included two continuous procedures: heat-pressing and annealing. In this study, annealing was applied on the membranes that had been heat-pressed. It was found that annealing improved the MD performance as the average flux reached 35 L/m2·h or LMH (>10% improvement of the ones without annealing while still maintaining 99.99% salt rejection. Further tests on LEP, contact angle, and pore size distribution explain the improvement due to annealing well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the membranes showed that there was an increase in the crystallinity of the polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP membrane; also, peaks indicating the α phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF became noticeable after annealing, indicating some β and amorphous states of polymer were converted into the α phase. The changes were favorable for membrane distillation as the non-polar α phase of PVDF reduces the dipolar attraction force between the membrane and water molecules, and the increase in crystallinity would result in higher thermal stability. The present results indicate the positive effect of the heat-press followed by an annealing post-treatment on the membrane characteristics and MD performance.

  12. Characteristic Uptake Pattern of Bone Scintigraphy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Following Treatment with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Waihan; Ho, Waiyin; Lai, Andrew S. H.; Wong, Kwongkuen; Law, Martin [Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam (Hong Kong)

    2013-12-15

    This study retrospectively reviews the characteristic bone scintigraphic findings in 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following treatment with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A potential complication of HIFU is damage to the tissues along the path of the ultrasound beam and structures superficial to the lesion of interest. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent a bone scan between 1st December 2005 and 31st December 2011 were considered for this study. Among these patients, only those who had bone scans after the HIFU treatment were included. The time between HIFU treatment and bone scans, HIFU energy, HCC sites, tumour sizes and related radiological findings were evaluated. In total, 20 bone scans of 18 patients were reviewed. Of these scans, two patients were normal; three patients showed decreased uptake, four patients showed increased uptake and nine patients showed mixed uptakes of the bony tracer in their rib cages. The defects were located in the anterior, lateral, anterolateral or posterolateral aspects of the rib cage. The majority of those cold defects were in the right anterior rib cages. SPECT/CT was used to localise the decreased uptake in ribs. The magnetic resonance imaging in individual patients invariably showed ill-defined rim enhancement along the right chest wall, signifying chest wall injury. The results showed that tissue ablation using HIFU caused tissue injury along the pathway of high-intensity ultrasound beams. The harm to tissues is presented as photopenic area on the rib cages due to necrosis or hot spots due to rib fractures in the bone scan. Since these cold defects are subtle, they are easily overlooked or mistaken as aggressive bony metastasis.

  13. Evaluation of operating characteristics for a chabazite zeolite system for treatment of process wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Perona, J.J.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing were performed for development and design of a chabazite zeolite ion-exchange system to replace existing treatment systems at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process wastewater treatment systems at ORNL need upgrading to improve efficiency, reduce waste generation, and remove greater quantities of contaminants from the wastewater. Previous study indicated that replacement of the existing PWTP systems with an ion-exchange system using chabazite zeolite will satisfy these upgrade objectives. Pilot-scale testing of the zeolite system was performed using a commercially available ion-exchange system to evaluate physical operating characteristics and to validate smaller-scale column test results. Results of this test program indicate that (1) spent zeolite can be sluiced easily and completely from a commercially designed vessel, (2) clarification followed by granular anthracite prefilters is adequate pretreatment for the zeolite system, and (3) the length of the mass transfer zone was comparable with that obtained in smaller-scale column tests. Laboratory studies were performed to determine the loading capacity of the zeolite for selected heavy metals. These test results indicated fairly effective removal of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc from simple water solutions. Heavy-metals data collected during pilot-scale testing of actual wastewater indicated marginal removal of iron, copper, and zinc. Reduced effectiveness for other heavy metals during pilot testing can be attributed to the presence of interfering cations and the relatively short zeolite/wastewater contact time. Flocculating agents (polyelectrolytes) were tested for pretreatment of wastewater prior to the zeolite flow-through column system. Several commercially available polyelectrolytes were effective in flocculation and settling of suspended solids in process wastewater

  14. Implementation, recruitment and baseline characteristics: A randomized trial of combined treatments for smoking cessation and weight control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Bush

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two-thirds of treatment-seeking smokers are obese or overweight. Most smokers are concerned about gaining weight after quitting. The average smoker experiences modest post-quit weight gain which discourages many smokers from quitting. Although evidence suggests that combined interventions to help smokers quit smoking and prevent weight gain can be helpful, studies have not been replicated in real world settings. Methods: This paper describes recruitment and participant characteristics of the Best Quit Study, a 3-arm randomized controlled trial testing tobacco cessation treatment alone or combined with simultaneous or sequential weight management. Study participants were recruited via tobacco quitlines from August 5, 2013 to December 15, 2014. Results: Statistical analysis on baseline data was conducted in 2015/2016. Among 5082 potentially eligible callers to a tobacco quitline, 2540 were randomized (50% of eligible. Compared with individuals eligible but not randomized, those randomized were significantly more likely to be female (65.7% vs 54.5%, p < 0.01, overweight or obese (76.3% vs 62.5%, p < 0.01, more confident in quitting (p < 0.01, more addicted (first cigarette within 5 min: 50.0% vs 44.4%, p < 0.01, and have a chronic disease (28.6% vs. 24.4%, p < 0.01. Randomized groups were not statistically significantly different on demographics, tobacco or weight variables. Two-thirds of participants were female and white with a mean age of 43. Conclusions: Adding weight management interventions to tobacco cessation quitlines was feasible and acceptable to smokers. If successful for cessation and weight outcomes, a combined intervention may provide a treatment approach for addressing weight gain with smoking cessation through tobacco quitlines. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01867983. Keywords: Smoking, Weight gain, Quitlines, Simultaneous, Sequential

  15. Concurrent inhibition of TGF-beta and mitogen driven signaling cascades in Dupuytren's disease - Non-surgical treatment strategies from a signaling point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, C.; Kloen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a benign progressive fibro-proliferative disorder of the fascia palmaris of the hand. Currently, treatment consists of surgical excision with a relatively high recurrence rate and risk of complications. To improve long-term outcome of DD treatment, research focus has

  16. Epidemiological composition, clinical and treatment characteristics of the patient cohort of the german competence network for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen K

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective As its central basis for research, the Competence Network for HIV/AIDS (KompNet established a nationwide cohort study on HIV-positive patients being in medical care in Germany. In this paper, we describe the epidemiological composition, and clinical as well as treatment characteristics of the KompNet cohort over time. Methods The KompNet cohort is an open, retrospective and prospective, multi-center, disease-specific and nationwide cohort study that started gathering data in June 2004. Semiannually, follow up visits of the patients are documented, covering a wide range of clinical and sociodemographic data. At enrolment and three years afterwards, an EDTA-sample is taken; a serum-sample is taken at every follow up. Results As of 20.10.2008, a total of 15,541 patients were enrolled by 44 documenting sites. In September 2007, the cohort size was reduced to ten outpatient clinics and fifteen private practitioners, covering a total of 9,410 patients. The documentation of these patients comprised 24,117 years of follow up-time since enrolment (mean: 2.6 years, 62,862 person years inclusive data documented retrospectively on course of HIV-infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean: 6.7 years. Due to the short period of recruitment till now, rates of death (0.3%-0.8% and losses to follow up (1.1%-5.5% were low. 84.9% of patients were men. Main risk of transmission was sex between men (MSM: 62.9%. Mean age was 45 years. About two third of patients were classified as CDC-stage B or C. Therapy regimens of currently treated patients complied with recent guidelines. Trends of mean CD4 cell count/μl regarding the initial therapy and concerning the population under treatment reflected the developments and the changing standards of antiretroviral therapy over time. Conclusion The KompNet cohort covers about a quarter of all patients estimated as being under treatment in Germany. Its composition can be accounted approximately

  17. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco; Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco; Leal, Antonio; Capote, Roberto; Lagares, Juan Ignacio; Perucha, Maria; Arrans, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm 2 electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm 2 field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm 2 open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R 50 , R 80 , R 100 , R p , E 0 ) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results proved the applicability of using MC

  18. Retrospective analysis of autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliary cirrhosis overlap syndrome in Korea: characteristics, treatments, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsang Park

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsOverlap syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC (AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is a rare disease that has not been clearly characterized in Korean patients. This study investigated the clinical features of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome compared with those of AIH and PBC alone.MethodsThis retrospective cohort study included 158 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as AIH (n=61, PBC (n=81, or AIH-PBC overlap syndrome (n=9 based on the Paris and the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG criteria from 2001 to 2011 in Korea. We compared the clinical features of these three groups retrospectively, including their biochemical characteristics, treatments, responses, and clinical outcomes.ResultsThe AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients exhibited biochemical characteristics of both AIH and PBC, and showed a similar response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA monotherapy as for the PBC patients. However, the response of AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients to UDCA and steroid combination therapy was worse than the response of AIH patients to steroid-based therapy (P=0.024. Liver cirrhosis developed more rapidly in AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients than in AIH patients group (P=0.013, but there was no difference between AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients and PBC patients. The rates of developing hepatic decompensation did not differ significantly between the groups.ConclusionsThe AIH-PBC overlap syndrome patients exhibited a worse response to UDCA and steroid combination therapy and a faster cirrhotic progression compared with AIH patients.

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics, laboratory parameters, treatment protocols, and outcomes of pancreatic cancer: a retrospective cohort study of 1433 patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuisheng Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prognosis of people with pancreatic cancer is extremely unfavorable. However, the prognostic factors remain largely undefined. We aimed to perform comprehensive analyses of clinicopathologic characteristics, laboratory parameters, and treatment protocols for exploring their role as prognostic factors of pancreatic cancer. Methods Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and hospitalized at the China National Cancer Center between April 2006 and May 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Clinicopathologic characteristics, laboratory parameters, and treatment protocols were compared among patients at different stages of the disease. The association between these factors and overall survival (OS was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model. Results The present study included 1,433 consecutive patients with pancreatic cancer. Median OS was 10.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8–11.3 months, with 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of 43.7%, 14.8%, and 8.8%, respectively. Cox multivariate analysis findings identified the following factors as independent predictors of OS: gender (female vs male, hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.54–0.95]; elevated total bilirubin (TBil; 1.82, 1.34–2.47; elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9; 1.72, 1.17–2.54; tumor being located in pancreatic body and tail (1.52, 1.10–2.10; advanced T stage (T3-4 vs T1-2, 1.62, 1.15–2.27; lymph node metastasis (1.57, 1.20–2.07; distant metastasis (1.59, 1.12–2.27; the presence of surgical resection (0.53, 0.34–0.81; and the presence of systemic chemotherapy (0.62, 0.45–0.82. Conclusions Being male, elevated TBil and carcinoembryonic antigen, tumor being located in pancreatic body and tail, advanced T stage, lymph node and distant metastasis, the absence of surgical resection, and the absence of systematic chemotherapy were associated with worse OS in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  20. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R; Kong, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity to different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more patients and demonstrated for

  1. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity to different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more

  2. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Process With Deterministic Disturbances: A Just-In-Time Learning Based Data Driven Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shen; Gao, Huijun; Qiu, Jianbin; Kaynak, Okyay

    2017-11-01

    Data-driven fault detection plays an important role in industrial systems due to its applicability in case of unknown physical models. In fault detection, disturbances must be taken into account as an inherent characteristic of processes. Nevertheless, fault detection for nonlinear processes with deterministic disturbances still receive little attention, especially in data-driven field. To solve this problem, a just-in-time learning-based data-driven (JITL-DD) fault detection method for nonlinear processes with deterministic disturbances is proposed in this paper. JITL-DD employs JITL scheme for process description with local model structures to cope with processes dynamics and nonlinearity. The proposed method provides a data-driven fault detection solution for nonlinear processes with deterministic disturbances, and owns inherent online adaptation and high accuracy of fault detection. Two nonlinear systems, i.e., a numerical example and a sewage treatment process benchmark, are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katarivas Levy, Galit [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ventura, Yvonne [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Goldman, Jeremy [Biomedical Engineering Department, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Aghion, Eli [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-05-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04 + DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells. - Highlights: • The effects of a diffusion coating (DC) with Nd on cell cytotoxicity is shown. • A novel EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca) magnesium alloy with DC was tested. • Cell viability, growth, and adhesion were reduced on the control vs. DC surface. • The DC alloy may introduce a good balance between biodegradation and cytotoxicity.

  4. Cytotoxic characteristics of biodegradable EW10X04 Mg alloy after Nd coating and subsequent heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katarivas Levy, Galit; Ventura, Yvonne; Goldman, Jeremy; Vago, Razi; Aghion, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Porous Mg scaffolds are considered as potential bone growth promoting materials. Unfortunately, the high rate of biocorrosion inherent to Mg alloys may cause a premature loss of mechanical strength, excessive evolution of hydrogen gas, and a rapidly shifting surface topography, all of which may hinder the ability of native cells to attach and grow on the implant surface. Here we investigated the cell cytotoxicity effects during corrosion of a novel magnesium alloy, EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca), following diffusion coating (DC) and heat treatment to reduce the corrosion rate. Cells were exposed either to corrosion products or to the corroding scaffold surface, in vitro. The microstructure characterization of the scaffold surface was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a Noran energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Phase analyses were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that cell viability, growth, and adhesion were all improved when cultured on the EW10X04 + DC surface or under corrosion product extracts due to lower corrosion rates relative to the EW10X04 control samples. It is therefore believed that the tested alloy after Nd coating and heat treatment may introduce a good balance between its biodegradation characteristics and cytotoxic effects towards cells. - Highlights: • The effects of a diffusion coating (DC) with Nd on cell cytotoxicity is shown. • A novel EW10X04 (Mg–1.2%Nd–0.5%Y–0.5%Zr–0.4%Ca) magnesium alloy with DC was tested. • Cell viability, growth, and adhesion were reduced on the control vs. DC surface. • The DC alloy may introduce a good balance between biodegradation and cytotoxicity.

  5. Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand: Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchai, Juthamas; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Euathrongchit, Juntima; Tajarernmuang, Pattraporn; Pothirat, Chaicharn

    2018-05-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) among healthcare workers (HCWs) highly affects morbidity and TB transmission in hospitals. A retrospective cohort study of TB among HCWs (HCW-TB) was conducted using a registered database from 2003 to 2016 at Chiang Mai University Hospital to determine clinical and microbiological characteristics and treatment outcomes of HCW-TB. A total of 76 patients comprising 54 nurses (71.1%), 12 physicians (15.8%), and 10 paramedics (13.2%) were diagnosed with TB disease. The men to women ratio was 25:51, with a mean age of 37.0±11.6 years, a median work duration of 12.0 years (5-20) and a body mass index of 19.4±2.5 kg/m 2 . Within the HCW-TB group, 28 (36.8%) worked in the Medical Department, 12 (15.8%) worked in the Outpatient Department/Emergency Room, and 9 (11.8%) worked in the Surgical Department. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was the most common manifestation of HCW-TB (92.1%). Sputum acid-fast stains were positive among 28 (40.0%) HCWs with PTB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures were positive in 26 (34.2%) patients. Drug susceptibility testing showed sensitivity to all first-line drugs (75.0%), resistance to any one first-line drug (20.8%), and multidrug-resistant TB comprised 4.2%. The end-of-treatment success rate was 100%. Therefore, TB control guidelines should be strictly implemented to prevent TB transmission in healthcare settings.

  6. Oilfield water treatment by electrocoagulation-reverse osmosis for agricultural use: effects on germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo S A; Cerqueira, Alexandre A; Rigo, Michelle M; de Paiva, Julieta L; Couto, Rafael S P; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel V; Marques, Monica R C

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of oilfield water (OW), treated by a hybrid process of electrocoagulation and reverse osmosis (EC-RO), on seed germination and early growth characteristics of sunflower (Heliantus annus L.). In the EC step, tests were conducted with 28.6 A m -2 current density and 4 min. reaction time. In the RO step, the system was operated with 1 L min -1 constant flow and 2 MPa, 2.5 MPa and 3 MPa feed pressures. In all feed pressures, RO polymeric membranes achieved very high removals of chemical oxygen demand (up to 89%) and oils and greases (100%) from EC-treated effluent. In best feed pressure (2.5 MPa), turbidity, total dissolved salts, electrical conductivity, salinity, toxic ions and sodium adsorption ratio values attained internationally recognized standards for irrigation water. Using EC-RO (feed pressure:2.5 MPa) treated OW, germinated sunflower seeds percentage (86 ± 6%), speed of germination (30 ± 2) and biomass production (49 ± 5 mg) were statistically similar to control (distilled water) results. Vigor index average values obtained using OW treated by EC-RO (3871)were higher than that obtained by OW water treated by EC (3300). The results of this study indicate that EC-RO seems to be a promising alternative for treatment of OW aiming sunflower crops irrigation, since the use of this treated effluent did not affect adversely seed germination and seedling development, and improved seedling vigor. Furthermore, OW treatment by EC-RO reduces sodium levels into acceptable standards values avoiding soil degradation.

  7. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs....... Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated from the response rates and compared among the trial eligibility criteria/patient baseline characteristics of interest. Comparisons are presented as the Ratio of Odds Ratios (ROR). RESULTS: Sixty-two trials (19,923 RA patients) were included in the primary analyses...... using ACR20 response. Overall, targeted therapies constituted an effective treatment (OR 3.96 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.41 to 4.60). The majority of the trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics did not modify treatment effect. The added benefit of targeted therapies was lower...

  8. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of central nervous system and lung driven by epstein barr virus proliferation: successful treatment with rituximab-containing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alvarez, Ruben; Gonzalez, Me; Fernandez, Almudena; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Ap; Sancho, Jm; Dominguez, Francisco; Fernandez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a very rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with fever and respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography showed multiple nodules in both lung fields. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for EBV was positive in bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy of lung node yielded a diagnosis of LYG, grade III. Shortly after initiation of treatment with agressive chemotherapy, neurological deterioration appeared. Neuroimaging findings revealed hydrocephalus and PCR analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for EBV. Treatment with intravenous rituximab led to rapid reduction of EBV load in CSF, along with clinical and radiological improvement. After completion of treatment with immunochemotherapy, an autologous stem cell transplantation was performed. Patient stays in remission 18 months after diagnosis.

  9. A retrospective analysis of the characteristics, treatment and follow-up of 26 odontomas in Greek children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatrou, I.; Vardas, E.; Theologie-Lygidakis, N.; Leventis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. Clinically, they are often associated with eruption failure of adjacent permanent teeth, and are classified as compound and complex. The aim of the present retrospective study was to present the characteristics, treatment approach and outcome of odontomas in Greek children, over a ten-year period. Twenty six patients, 2 to 14 years of age (mean 9.3 years), with odontomas treated during the years 1999-2008 at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of a Children's Hospital, were included in the study. Data from patients' files were retrieved and they were recalled for review. Odontomas were equally distributed in the maxilla and mandible and 42.3% of them were located in the anterior maxilla. Of the odontomas, 80.7% were related to disturbances in tooth eruption. Bone expansion was observed in 65.3% of the cases. All odontomas were surgically removed, and related impacted permanent teeth were either left to erupt spontaneously, orthodontically guided into occlusion or were removed. Orthodontic intervention appeared to be necessary in older children, while in younger children spontaneous eruption was frequent. In the present study, odontomas were associated with unerupted or impacted teeth. Radiographic examination was essential to verify the presence of the tumor and early removal prevented tooth eruption failure and disturbances in a majority of the cases. (author)

  10. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semimembranosus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2011-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of moisture enhancement with a salt/phosphate solution (ME), blade tenderization (BT), and enzyme injection with proteinases derived from Aspergillus oryzae or Bacillus subtilis on cooking properties, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory characteristics of beef semimembranosus were investigated. ME significantly (P < 0.01) reduced WBSF and increased (P < 0.05) sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness. BT increased (P < 0.05) initial and overall tenderness scores and made connective tissue less perceptible. BT combined with ME resulted in the highest initial and overall tenderness scores, however, combining ME with either proteinase was as effective for reducing WBSF and increasing tenderness, particularly at 20 (vs. 10) ppm enzyme inclusion. Tenderness of enzyme-injected steaks was increased without compromising other palatability attributes. All treatments increased the frequency of steaks rated slightly tender or higher, with the ME+BT combination, or ME with inclusion of 20 ppm of either proteinase, being most effective. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Patients with substance use and personality disorders: a comparison of patient characteristics, treatment process, and outcomes in Swiss and U.S. substance use disorder programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggi, Franz; Giovanoli, Anna; Buri, Caroline; Moos, Bernice S; Moos, Rudolf H

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons may increase our understanding of different models of substance use treatment and help identify consistent associations between patients' characteristics, treatment conditions, and outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare matched samples of substance use disorder (SUD) patients with personality disorders (PD) in Swiss and the United States (U.S.) residential SUD treatment programs and examine the relationship of program characteristics to 1-year outcomes. A prospective, naturalistic design was used to compare 132 demographically matched Swiss and U.S. male patients drawn from a sample of 10 Swiss and 15 U.S. public treatment programs. Patients completed comparable inventories at admission, discharge, and 1-year follow-up. Compared to Swiss SUD-PD patients, U.S. SUD-PD patients had more severe substance use and psychosocial problems at admission and follow-up. More intensive treatment and a stronger emphasis on patients' involvement were related to better outcomes for both Swiss and U.S. SUD-PD patients. There may be some cross-cultural consistency in the associations between treatment characteristics and SUD-PD patients' outcomes. Treatment evaluation findings from representative programs in one country may apply elsewhere and contribute to our overall knowledge about how to improve SUD-PD patients' outcomes.

  12. Data-Driven Assessment of the Association of Polymorphisms in 5-Fluorouracil Metabolism Genes with Outcome in Adjuvant Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan B.; Rasmussen, Christian H.; Afzal, Shoaib

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in the assessment of medicines, treatment options, etc., is to establish a framework for the comparison of risks and benefits of many different types and magnitudes, a framework that at the same time allows a clear distinction between the roles played by the statistical analyses...

  13. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  14. Evaluation of Respondent-Driven Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda Ndagire; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex-workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total-population data. Methods Total-population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household-heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, employing current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). Results We recruited 927 household-heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples under-represented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven-sampling statistical-inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven-sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Conclusions Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected non-hidden population. However, current respondent-driven-sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    peroxidase and at tillering stage Anatomical traits (mesophyll area, bundle sheet area, upper and lower epidermis cells layer and both length and area of xylem and phloem vesselswere measured using image analysis technique by Dino-eyeanalysis software. Data were analyzed based on experimental design model. Means comparison was performed based on LSD test (P≤0.05. All calculations were performed using SAS (version 9.1 software. Results and Discussion All studied parameters, anatomical, physiological and grain yield, of genotypes were significantly affected by priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide. Positive changes in anatomical and physiological traits in response to hydrogen peroxide increased grain yield in both experimental genotypes. Priming of seeds with hydrogen peroxide produced plants with higher relative water contents, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase comparing with non -primed seeds. Plants of hydrogen peroxide primed seeds produced higher leaf area, stomata length, fresh and dry weights, and lower rate of electrolyte leakage and leaf rolling comparing to non-primed seeds. Priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide increased mesophyll area, bundle sheet area, upper and lower epidermis cells layer and both length and area of xylem and phloem vessels. Anatomical changing due to hydrogen peroxide priming in enhanced growth and yield of both genotypes was positive since primed plants with hydrogen peroxide had produced higher grain yield compared to non-primed plants. Overall, priming seeds with hydrogen peroxide improved grain yield of both wheat genotypes, especially grain yield of bread wheat Cross Sabalan cultivar. Conclusions The anatomical and physiological characteristics improved in dry conditions and lack of available water to the plant is essential for achieving high yield. The results showed that the concentration of 80 Mm hydrogen peroxide as a pre-treatment seed

  16. Light-Driven Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonyuk, Boris P

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with influencing the properties of solids by light-driven electron transport. The theoretical basis of these effects, light-driven ordering and self-organisation, as well as optical motors are presented. With light as a tool, new ways to produce materials are opened.

  17. Real-World Characteristics and Treatment Patterns in Patients with Urticaria Initiating Omalizumab in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xuehua; Kavati, Abhishek; Wertz, Debra; Huang, Qing; Wang, Liya; Willey, Vincent J; Stephenson, Judith J; Ortiz, Benjamin; Paknis, Brandee; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beck, Lisa A

    2017-12-19

    Omalizumab is indicated for the management of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients aged 12 years or older with persistent hives that are not adequately controlled by H1 antihistamines. While its safety and efficacy in CIU patients have been evaluated in multiple clinical trials, real-world use of omalizaumab in CIU has not been well characterized. To assess demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment patterns of CIU patients who initiated omalizumab to better understand the usage of this agent in CIU management in the real world. This retrospective cohort study used medical and pharmacy claims data in the United States from the HealthCore Integrated Database to identify patients with CIU newly treated with omalizumab (≥ 4 omalizumab claims within 6 months of the initial claim) between March 21, 2014, and October 31, 2015 (study intake period). The index date was defined as the date of the first claim for omalizumab during the study intake period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were described for patients treated with omalizumab, as were treatment patterns associated with omalizumab and concomitant medications associated with CIU treatment. Descriptive and inferential statistics were reported. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to examine omalizumab treatment patterns. This study included 298 omalizumab-treated patients (mean [SD] age of 43.5 [13.64] years; 70.8% female); approximately 84% were seen by an allergist/immunologist. All patients had ≥ 12 months of continuous enrolment and a subset of 138 patients had ≥ 18 months of follow-up. For patients with ≥ 12 months of post-index follow-up, 12.1% (n = 36), 28.5% (n = 85), and 32.9% (n = 98) discontinued omalizumab within the 6-month, 12-month, and the entire post-index periods (mean 530 days), respectively; the mean number of days patients were continuously treated with omalizumab was 443.1 (95% CI = 425.0-461.3); the probabilities of continuous treatment (95% CI) were 0.879 (0

  18. [Actuals of the treatment for gender identity disorder at puberty: introducing the suppression of secondary sexual characteristics from psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jun

    2013-01-01

    for the secondary sexual characteristics with a GnRH agonist (gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist) is effective, although it has been little used in Japan, and a mentally balanced state has been maintained in cases we have been involved with. We consider it important to provide support which enables children who have gender dysphoria to overcome this crisis while extensively providing medical treatment.

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome in adults: A national retrospective strobe-compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Mathieu; Devilliers, Hervé; Perard, Laurent; Groh, Matthieu; Nefti, Habdelamid; Dussol, Bertrand; Trad, Salim; Touré, Fatouma; Abad, Sébastien; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frimat, Luc; Torner, Stéphane; Seidowsky, Alexandre; Massy, Ziad André; Saadoun, David; Rieu, Virginie; Schoindre, Yoland; Heron, Emmanuel; Frouget, Thierry; Lionet, Arnaud; Glowacki, François; Arnaud, Laurent; Mousson, Christiane; Besancenot, Jean-François; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Bielefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, defined by the association of idiopathic acute TINU. The aim of our work was to determine the characteristics of adult TINU syndrome in France, and to assess factors (including treatment) influencing medium-term prognosis.We conducted a nationwide study including 20 French hospitals. Clinical, laboratory, and renal histopathologic data of 41 biopsy-proven TINU syndromes were retrospectively collected. The patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 1, 2015.Twenty-five females and 16 males were included (F/M ratio: 1.6:1). The median age at disease onset was 46.8 years (range 16.8-77.4) with a median serum creatinine level at 207 μmol/L (range 100-1687) and a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 27 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 2-73). Twenty-nine patients (71%) had a bilateral anterior uveitis and 24 (59%) had deterioration in general health at presentation. Moderate proteinuria was found in 32 patients (78%) (median proteinuria 0.52 g/24 h; range 0.10-2.10), aseptic leukocyturia in 25/36 patients (70%). The evaluation of renal biopsies revealed 41 patients (100%) with an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 19/39 patients (49%) with light to moderate fibrosis and 5 patients (12%) with an acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-six patients (88%) were treated with oral corticosteroids. After 1 year of follow-up, the median eGFR was 76 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 17-119) and 32% of the patients suffered from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Serum creatinine (P uveitis relapses. The use of oral corticosteroids was not associated with a better kidney function but was associated with fewer uveitis relapses (P = 0.44 and 0.02, respectively).In our study, 32% of patients were suffering from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease after 1 year of follow-up, and 40% had uveitis relapses during this follow-up. This work also suggests that oral

  20. Pathologic Characteristics and Treatment Outcome of Patients with Malignant Brain Tumors: A Single Institutional Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central nervous system tumors account for 2%-5% of all malignancies in humans. These tumors account for 2% of all pediatric cancers. The worldwide incidence of primary central nervous system tumors is estimated at 3.9 (males and 3.2 (females per 100000 person-years. The incidence of brain tumor cases has been reported as 3.67% of all malignancies and 4% of all cancer mortalities in Iran. The five most common histological types of brain tumor in Iran according to different case studies are; meningioma, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, pituitary adenoma and ependymoma. The aim of this study is to determine the histopathological pattern and characteristics of patients with brain tumors who have referred to the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, Hamadan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, retrospective study was performed at the Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department, between 2005 and 2012. We included 220 patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Department with diagnoses of primary brain tumor in this study. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, we treated 220 new cases of primary brain tumor at Mahdieh Radiotherapy Department. The mean age at diagnosis was 39.95±15.48 years with a median age of 39 years. Patients' ages ranged from 4 to 75 years. Among the 220 patients, 138 were male and 82 were female with a male to female ratio of 1.68. For most tumors there was a male predominance, with the exception of meningioma (M/F: 0.23, ependymoma (M/F: 1 and pituitary adenoma (M/F: 0.6. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, high grade meningiomas and oligodendrogliomas were the four most common pathologies treated in this department. The best treatment results were achieved in patients with astrocytomas. Conclusion: The present study is a retrospective radiotherapy centre-based study designed in a pioneer radiotherapy centre in Western Iran, not a prospective population study. These data have provided a baseline for further epidemiological studies. Our encouraging results