WorldWideScience

Sample records for character recognition

  1. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  2. Public domain optical character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  3. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Kannada Character Recognition System A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Indira, K

    2010-01-01

    Intensive research has been done on optical character recognition ocr and a large number of articles have been published on this topic during the last few decades. Many commercial OCR systems are now available in the market, but most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters. There are no sufficient number of works on Indian language character recognition especially Kannada script among 12 major scripts in India. This paper presents a review of existing work on printed Kannada script and their results. The characteristics of Kannada script and Kannada Character Recognition System kcr are discussed in detail. Finally fusion at the classifier level is proposed to increase the recognition accuracy.

  5. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencharef, Omar; Chihab, Younes; Mousaid, Nouredine; Oujaoura, Mustapha

    2015-09-01

    The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode) [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character. PMID:26217753

  6. Data set for Tifinagh handwriting character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Bencharef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tifinagh alphabet-IRCAM is the official alphabet of the Amazigh language widely used in North Africa [1]. It includes thirty-one basic letter and two letters each composed of a base letter followed by the sign of labialization. Normalized only in 2003 (Unicode [2], ICRAM-Tifinagh is a young character repertoire. Which needs more work on all levels. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh characters composed of 1376 image; 43 Image For Each character. The dataset can be used to train a Tifinagh character recognition system, or to extract the meaning characteristics of each character.

  7. Character Recognition Using Genetically Trained Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, C.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    Computationally intelligent recognition of characters and symbols addresses a wide range of applications including foreign language translation and chemical formula identification. The combination of intelligent learning and optimization algorithms with layered neural structures offers powerful techniques for character recognition. These techniques were originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories for pattern and spectral analysis; however, their ability to optimize vast amounts of data make them ideal for character recognition. An adaptation of the Neural Network Designer soflsvare allows the user to create a neural network (NN_) trained by a genetic algorithm (GA) that correctly identifies multiple distinct characters. The initial successfid recognition of standard capital letters can be expanded to include chemical and mathematical symbols and alphabets of foreign languages, especially Arabic and Chinese. The FIN model constructed for this project uses a three layer feed-forward architecture. To facilitate the input of characters and symbols, a graphic user interface (GUI) has been developed to convert the traditional representation of each character or symbol to a bitmap. The 8 x 8 bitmap representations used for these tests are mapped onto the input nodes of the feed-forward neural network (FFNN) in a one-to-one correspondence. The input nodes feed forward into a hidden layer, and the hidden layer feeds into five output nodes correlated to possible character outcomes. During the training period the GA optimizes the weights of the NN until it can successfully recognize distinct characters. Systematic deviations from the base design test the network's range of applicability. Increasing capacity, the number of letters to be recognized, requires a nonlinear increase in the number of hidden layer neurodes. Optimal character recognition performance necessitates a minimum threshold for the number of cases when genetically training the net. And, the

  8. Chinese character recognition :history ,status and prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Ruwei; LIU Chenglin; XIAO Baihua

    2007-01-01

    Chinese character recognition (CCR) is an important branch of pattern recognition.It was considered as an extremely difficult problem due to the very large number of categories,complicated structures,similarity between characters,and the variability of fonts or writing styles.Because of its unique technical challenges and great social needs,the last four decades witnessed the intensive research in this field and a rapid increase of successful applications.However,higher recognition performance is continuously needed to improve the existing applications and to exploit new applications.This paper first provides an overview of Chinese character recognition and the properties of Chinese characters.Some important methods and successful results in the history of Chinese character recognition are then summarized.As for classification methods,this article pays special attention to the syntactic-semantic approach for online Chinese character recognition,as well as the metasynthesis approach for discipline crossing.Finally,the remaining problems and the possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Recognition of isolated handprinted characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    1996-01-01

    Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity and a common description of all alphabet symbols seems therefore unobtainable. However, letters which confuse human beings and man-made OCR systems usually have approximately the same appearance and may therefore be modeled jointly. We part the set...... is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by the use of a predictive code length or predictive error criterion...

  10. CHARACTER RECOGNITION APPROACH BASED ON ONTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Hacene Belhadef; Aicha Eutamene; Mohamed Khireddine Kholadi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general description of a new character recognition process based on ontology, semantically annotated by a domain expert. Such process is based essentially on a matching step between two ontologies, the first represents a domain ontology, containing the typographical description of different characters represent an alphabet of a well definite language (Latin for example), the second ontology, describes the document in question in the form of concepts where each conc...

  11. An Optical Character Recognition for Handwritten Devanagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti R. Zalke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition is process of recognition of character from scanned document and lots of OCR now available in the market. But most of these systems work for Roman, Chinese, Japanese and Arabic characters . There are no sufficient number of work on Indian language script like Devanagari so this paper present a review on optical character recognition on handwritten Devanagari script.

  12. ON­LINE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ADAPTIVELY CONTROLLED BY HANDWRITING QUALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamanaka, M.; Yamada, K.

    2004-01-01

    On­line character recognition which can adapt to handwriting quality is proposed. In character recognition, it is difficult to recognize both clearly and roughly written characters accurately. For Japanese characters, the number of strokes is often slightly varied when characters are written roughly

  13. Printed Arabic Character Recognition Using HMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas H.Hassin; Xiang-Long Tang; Jia-Feng Liu; Wei Zhao

    2004-01-01

    The Arabic Language has a very rich vocabulary.More than 200 million people speak this language as their native speaking,and over 1 billion people use it in several religion-related activities.In this paper a new technique is presented for recognizing printed Arabic characters.After a word is segmented,each character/word is entirely transformed into a feature vector.The features of printed Arabic characters include strokes and bays in various directions,endpoints,intersection points,loops,dots and zigzags.The word skeleton is decomposed into a number of links in orthographic order,and then it is transferred into a sequence of symbols using vector quantization.Single hidden Markov model has been used for recognizing the printed Arabic characters.Experimental results show that the high recognition rate depends on the number of states in each sample.

  14. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  15. Optical Character Recognition of Amharic Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Meshesha, Million; Jawahar, C. V.

    2007-01-01

    In Africa around 2,500 languages are spoken. Some of these languages have their own indigenous scripts. Accordingly, there is a bulk of printed documents available in libraries, information centers, museums and offices. Digitization of these documents enables to harness already available information technologies to local information needs and developments. This paper presents an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for converting digitized documents in local languages. An extensive lite...

  16. Character localization and recognition application for Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Charjan, R. V. Mante, P. N. Chatur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart Phones have Internet access anywhere. The automatic text localization and recognition of text within a natural image is very useful for many problems. Once identified, the text can be used for many purposes. User can get current information about the product, place or boards. More exciting applications can be developed over the text extraction method with a high performance while also being computationally inexpensive. There are various methods proposed for Text Localization, text area segmentation, sign recognition and translation, Optical Character Recognition. In this paper we have described these methods. We have also compared all methods on the basis of performance and accuracy. Finally we concluded some good methods for Smartphone OCR application.

  17. Contribution to automatic handwritten characters recognition. Application to optical moving characters recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a research work on computer aided vision relating to the design of a vision system which can recognize isolated handwritten characters written on a mobile support. We use a technique which consists in analyzing information contained in the contours of the polygon circumscribed to the character's shape. These contours are segmented and labelled to give a new set of features constituted by: - right and left 'profiles', - topological and algebraic unvarying properties. A new method of character's recognition induced from this representation based on a multilevel hierarchical technique is then described. In the primary level, we use a fuzzy classification with dynamic programming technique using 'profiles'. The other levels adjust the recognition by using topological and algebraic unvarying properties. Several results are presented and an accuracy of 99 pc was reached for handwritten numeral characters, thereby attesting the robustness of our algorithm. (author)

  18. Using Character Recognition for Plate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lama Hamandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the “character recognition” approach to recognizing a vehicle license plate is used for localizing Saudi license plates. The proposed algorithm filters out all possible objects from the license plate image and focuses on the resulting objects. The coordinates of the center point of the bounding box for these objects is calculated and then possible alignments between these objects are checked. After finding the aligned objects, the recognition algorithms are applied to differentiate the numbers from the letters in the plate.

  19. A novel approach for handwritten Devnagari character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a method for recognition of handwritten devanagari characters is described. Here, feature vector is constituted by accumulated directional gradient changes in different segments, number of intersections points for the character, type of spine present and type of shirorekha present in the character. One Multi-layer Perceptron with conjugate-gradient training is used to classify these feature vectors. This method is applied to a database with 1000 sample characters and the recognition rate obtained is 88.12%

  20. HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION IN MALAYALAM SCRIPTS – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Mary M.O. Chacko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is one of the most challenging and ongoing areas of research in the field of pattern recognition. HCR research is matured for foreign languages like Chinese and Japanese but the problem is much more complex for Indian languages. The problem becomes even more complicated for South Indian languages due to its large character set and the presence of vowels modifiers and compound characters. This paper provides an overview of important contributions and advances in offline as well as online handwritten character recognition of Malayalam scripts.

  1. Remarks on different reviews of Chinese character recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yuanyan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction and remarks on two review papers for Chinese character recognition.One review is made by Chinese authors,another is from American scientists.They investigate Chinese character from different language environments;they do the research from different points of view.Thus,a more comprehensive view on Chinese character recognition,which is an important branch of pattern recognition,can be provided to the readers.Meantime,one article pays attention to online process,and other paper deals with offiine recognition,which complement each other.

  2. Handwritten Character Recognition In Malayalam Scripts- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, Anitha Mary M. O.; Dhanya P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Handwritten character recognition is one of the most challenging and ongoing areas of research in the field of pattern recognition. HCR research is matured for foreign languages like Chinese and Japanese but the problem is much more complex for Indian languages. The problem becomes even more complicated for South Indian languages due to its large character set and the presence of vowels modifiers and compound characters. This paper provides an overview of important contributions a...

  3. Feature Point Method of Chinese Character Recognition and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张Xin中; 闫昌德; 等

    1990-01-01

    A new method for recognizing Chinese characters is proposed.It is based on the so-called feature points of Chinese characters.The feature points we use include those on the stroke of a character.i.e.,end points.turning points,fork points and cross points.and the key points on the background of character.This method differs from the previous ones for it combines the feature points on stroke with those on background and it uses feature points to recognize Chinese characters directly.A Chinese character recognition system based to top-down dynamical matching of feature point is developed.The system can recognize not only 6763 printed sample Song font Chinese characters of size 5.6×5.6mm2 with high recognition rate,but also the general printed books,magazines and documents with a satisfactory recognition rate and speed.

  4. Handwritten Tamil Character Recognition and Conversion using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Sureshkumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Hand written Tamil Character recognition refers to the process of conversion of handwritten Tamil character into Unicode Tamil character. The scanned image is segmented into paragraphs using spatial space detection technique, paragraphs into lines using vertical histogram, lines into words using horizontal histogram, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histogram. The extracted features considered for recognition are given to Support Vector Machine, Self Organizing Map, RCS, Fuzzy Neural Network and Radial Basis Network. Where the characters are classified using supervised learning algorithm. These classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts.This character recognition finds applications in document analysis where the handwritten document can be converted to editable printed document. This approach can be extended to recognition and reproduction of hand written documents in South Indian languages. In the training set, a recognition rate of 100% was achieved and in the test set the recognized speed for each character is 0.1sec and accuracy is 97%. Understandably, the training set produced much higher recognition rate than the test set. Structure analysis suggested that the proposed system of RCS with back propagation network is given higher recognition rate.

  5. Handwritten Farsi Character Recognition using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Ahangar, Reza Gharoie

    2009-01-01

    Neural Networks are being used for character recognition from last many years but most of the work was confined to English character recognition. Till date, a very little work has been reported for Handwritten Farsi Character recognition. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize handwritten Farsi characters by using a multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer. The error backpropagation algorithm has been used to train the MLP network. In addition, an analysis has been carried out to determine the number of hidden nodes to achieve high performance of backpropagation network in the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters. The system has been trained using several different forms of handwriting provided by both male and female participants of different age groups. Finally, this rigorous training results an automatic HCR system using MLP network. In this work, the experiments were carried out on two hundred fifty samples of five writers. The results showed that the MLP networks trained by the err...

  6. Recognition of handprinted characters for automated cartography A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybanon, M.; Brown, R. M.; Gronmeyer, L. K.

    1980-01-01

    A research program for developing handwritten character recognition techniques is reported. The generation of cartographic/hydrographic manuscripts is overviewed. The performance of hardware/software systems is discussed, along with future research problem areas and planned approaches.

  7. Machine Recognition of Hand Written Characters using Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Perwej, Yusuf; 10.5120/1819-2380

    2012-01-01

    Even today in Twenty First Century Handwritten communication has its own stand and most of the times, in daily life it is globally using as means of communication and recording the information like to be shared with others. Challenges in handwritten characters recognition wholly lie in the variation and distortion of handwritten characters, since different people may use different style of handwriting, and direction to draw the same shape of the characters of their known script. This paper demonstrates the nature of handwritten characters, conversion of handwritten data into electronic data, and the neural network approach to make machine capable of recognizing hand written characters.

  8. Optical Character Recognition System for Urdu Words in Nastaliq Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Shabbir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition (OCR has been an attractive research area for the last three decades and mature OCR systems reporting near to 100% recognition rates are available for many scripts/languages today. Despite these develop-ments, research on recognition of text in many languages is still in its early days, Urdu being one of them. The limited existing literature on Urdu OCR is either limited to isolated characters or considers limited vocabularies in fixed font sizes. This research presents a segmentation free and size invariant technique for recognition of Urdu words in Nastaliq font using ligatures as units of recognition. Ligatures, separated into primary ligatures and diacritics, are recognized using right-to-left HMMs. Diacritics are then associated with the main body using position information and the resulting ligatures are validated using a dictionary. The system evaluated on Urdu words realized promising recognition rates at ligature and word levels.

  9. Sunspot drawings handwritten character recognition method based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Lin, Ganghua; Zhao, Cui; Feng, Yongli; Tao, Jinping; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xiong, Li

    2016-05-01

    High accuracy scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition is an issue of critical importance to analyze sunspots movement and store them in the database. This paper presents a robust deep learning method for scanned sunspot drawings handwritten characters recognition. The convolution neural network (CNN) is one algorithm of deep learning which is truly successful in training of multi-layer network structure. CNN is used to train recognition model of handwritten character images which are extracted from the original sunspot drawings. We demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method on sunspot drawings provided by Chinese Academy Yunnan Observatory and obtain the daily full-disc sunspot numbers and sunspot areas from the sunspot drawings. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high recognition accurate rate.

  10. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. El Kessab

    2015-09-01

    In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region. The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand.

  11. Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  12. Farsi License Plate Detection and Recognition Based on Characters Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ghofrani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a license plate detection and recognition system for Iranian private cars is implemented. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on region elements analysis which works properly independent of distance (how far a vehicle is, rotation (angle between camera and vehicle, and contrast (being dirty, reflected, or deformed. In addition, more than one car may exist in the image. The proposed method extracts edges and then determines the candidate regions by applying window movement. The region elements analysis includes binarization, character analysis, character continuity analysis and character parallelism analysis. After detecting license plates, we estimate the rotation angle and try to compensate it. In order to identify a detected plate, every character should be recognized. For this purpose, we present 25 features and use them as the input to an artificial neural network classifier. The experimental results show that our proposed method achieves appropriate performance for both detection and recognition of the Iranian license plates.

  13. Recognition of Characters by Adaptive Combination of Classifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LI Zai-ming

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the visual feature space based on the long Horizontals, the long Verticals,and the radicals are given. An adaptive combination of classifiers, whose coefficients vary with the input pattern, is also proposed. Experiments show that the approach is promising for character recognition in video sequences.

  14. RECOGNITION METHOD FOR CURSIVE JAPANESE WORD WRITTEN IN LATIN CHARACTERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruyama, K.; Nakano, Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a recognition method for cursive Japanese words written in Latin characters. The method integrates multiple classifiers using duplicated can­ didates in multiple classifiers and orders of classifiers to improve the word recog­ nition rate combining their results. In experiments u

  15. Deep Learning in Character Recognition Considering Pattern Invariance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebade K. Oyedotun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Character recognition is a field of machine learning that has been under research for several decades. The particular success of neural networks in pattern recognition and therefore character recognition is laudable. Research has also long shown that a single hidden layer network has the capability to approximate any function; while, the problems associated with training deep networks therefore led to little attention given to it. Recently, the breakthrough in training deep networks through various pre-training schemes have led to the resurgence and massive interest in them, significantly outperforming shallow networks in several pattern recognition contests; moreover the more elaborate distributed representation of knowledge present in the different hidden layers concords with findings on the biological visual cortex. This research work reviews some of the most successful pre-training approaches to initializing deep networks such as stacked auto encoders, and deep belief networks based on achieved error rates. More importantly, this research also parallels investigating the performance of deep networks on some common problems associated with pattern recognition systems such as translational invariance, rotational invariance, scale mismatch, and noise. To achieve this, Yoruba vowel characters databases have been used in this research.

  16. Optical Character Recognition for printed Tamil text using Unicode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEETHALAKSHMI R.; SREERANJANI T.R.; BALACHANDAR T.; Abnikant Singh; Markandey Singh; Ritwaj Ratan; Sarvesh Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) refers to the process of converting printed Tamil text documents into software translated Unicode Tamil Text. The printed documents available in the form of books, papers, magazines, etc. are scanned using standard scanners which produce an image of the scanned document. As part of the preprocessing phase the image file is checked for skewing. Ifthe image is skewed, it is corrected by a simple rotation technique in the appropriate direction. Then the image is passed through a noise elimination phase and is binarized. The preprocessed image is segmented using an algorithm which decomposes the scanned text into paragraphs using special space detection technique and then the paragraphs into lines using vertical histograms, and lines into words using horizontal histograms, and words into character image glyphs using horizontal histograms.Each image glyph is comprised of 32x32 pixels. Thus a database of character image glyphs is created out of the segmentation phase. Then all the image glyphs are considered for recognition using Unicode mapping. Each image glyph is passed through various routines which extract the features of the glyph. The various features that are considered for classification are the character height, character width, the number of horizontal lines (long and short), the number of vertical lines (long and short), the horizontally oriented curves, the vertically oriented curves, the number of circles, number of slope lines, image centroid and special dots. The glyphs are now set ready for classification based on these features. The extracted features are passed to a Support Vector Machine (SVM) where the characters are classified by Supervised Learning Algorithm. These classes are mapped onto Unicode for recognition. Then the text is reconstructed using Unicode fonts.

  17. A hybrid recognition system for off-line handwritten characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Gauri; Mehfuz, Shabana

    2016-01-01

    Computer based pattern recognition is a process that involves several sub-processes, including pre-processing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. Feature extraction is the estimation of certain attributes of the target patterns. Selection of the right set of features is the most crucial and complex part of building a pattern recognition system. In this work we have combined multiple features extracted using seven different approaches. The novelty of this approach is to achieve better accuracy and reduced computational time for recognition of handwritten characters using Genetic Algorithm which optimizes the number of features along with a simple and adaptive Multi Layer Perceptron classifier. Experiments have been performed using standard database of CEDAR (Centre of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition) for English alphabet. The experimental results obtained on this database demonstrate the effectiveness of this system. PMID:27066370

  18. Selection of a Similar Writer for Personal Handwritten Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Takuya; Hattori, Masahiro; Tsuruoka, Shinji; Kawanaka, Hiroharu; Takase, Haruhiko; Miyake, Yasuji

    2011-01-01

    It becomes the diffusion period of a tablet (key-board less) computer for electronic book and electronic pub-lishing, and every business elite will bring a personal tablet computer. The usage of personal tablet computer includes taking memo using the touch panel display. The taking memo using the touch panel display is written by a finger or a pen. The memo includes a figure and a character written by his finger or pen. The user desires the handwritten character recognition. The useful handwr...

  19. Tifinagh Character Recognition Using Geodesic Distances, Decision Trees & Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.BENCHAREF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of Tifinagh characters cannot be perfectly carried out using the conventional methods which are based on the invariance, this is due to the similarity that exists between some characters which differ from each other only by size or rotation, hence the need to come up with new methods to remedy this shortage. In this paper we propose a direct method based on the calculation of what is called Geodesic Descriptors which have shown significant reliability vis-à-vis the change of scale, noise presence and geometric distortions. For classification, we have opted for a method based on the hybridization of decision trees and neural networks.

  20. Heuristic algorithm for optical character recognition of Arabic script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarman-Vural, Fatos T.; Atici, A.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper, a heuristic method is developed for segmentation, feature extraction and recognition of the Arabic script. The study is part of a large project for the transcription of the documents in Ottoman Archives. A geometrical and topological feature analysis method is developed for segmentation and feature extraction stages. Chain code transformation is applied to main strokes of the characters which are then classified by the hidden Markov model (HMM) in the recognition stage. Experimental results indicate that the performance of the proposed method is impressive, provided that the thinning process does not yield spurious branches.

  1. A Review of Research on Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Dongre, V J

    2011-01-01

    English Character Recognition (CR) has been extensively studied in the last half century and progressed to a level, sufficient to produce technology driven applications. But same is not the case for Indian languages which are complicated in terms of structure and computations. Rapidly growing computational power may enable the implementation of Indic CR methodologies. Digital document processing is gaining popularity for application to office and library automation, bank and postal services, publishing houses and communication technology. Devnagari being the national language of India, spoken by more than 500 million people, should be given special attention so that document retrieval and analysis of rich ancient and modern Indian literature can be effectively done. This article is intended to serve as a guide and update for the readers, working in the Devnagari Optical Character Recognition (DOCR) area. An overview of DOCR systems is presented and the available DOCR techniques are reviewed. The current statu...

  2. Improved Approach Based on SVM for License Plate Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WANG Xiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    An improved approach based on support vector machine (SVM) called the center distance ratio method is presented for license plate character recognition. First the support vectors are pre-extracted. A minimal set called the margin vector set, which contains all support vectors, is extracted. These margin vectors compose new training data and construct the classifier by using the general SVM optimized. The experimental results show that the improved SVM method does well at correct rate and training speed.

  3. The Optical Character Recognition for Cursive Script Using HMM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Saeeda Naz; Arif I. Umar; Syed H. Shirazi; Muhammad M. Ajmal; Salahuddin

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Character Recognition has wide variety of applications such as automatic postal mail sorting, number plate recognition and automatic form of reader and entering text from PDA's etc. Cursive script’s Automatic Character Recognition is a complex process facing unique issues unlike other scripts. Many solutions have been proposed in the literature to solve complexities of cursive scripts character recognition. This paper present a comprehensive literature review of the Optical Characte...

  4. Comparative Analysis of PSO and GA in Geom-Statistical Character Features Selection for Online Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenwa O.D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Online handwriting recognition today has special interest due to increased usage of the hand held devices and it has become a difficult problem because of the high variability and ambiguity in the character shapes written by individuals. One major problem encountered by researchers in developing character recognition system is selection of efficient features (optimal features. In this paper, a feature extraction technique for online character recognition system was developed using hybrid of geometrical and statistical (Geom-statistical features. Thus, through the integration of geometrical and statistical features, insights were gained into new character properties, since these types of features were considered to be complementary. Several optimization techniques have been used in literature for feature selection in character recognition such as; Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm (ACO, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Simulated Annealing but comparative analysis of GA and PSO in online character has not been carried out. In this paper, a comparative analysis of performance was made between the GA and PSO in optimizing the Geom-statistical features in online character recognition using Modified Optical Backpropagation (MOBP as classifier. Simulation of the system was done and carried out on Matlab 7.10a. The results generated show that PSO is a well-accepted optimization algorithm in selection of optimal features as it outperforms the GA in terms of number of features selected, training time and recognition accuracy.

  5. 7TH CENTURY ANCIENT TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION FROM TEMPLE WALL INSCRIPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar S.; Dr.Subbiah Bharathi V.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challeng...

  6. GENETIC ALGORITHM AND NEURAL NETWORK FOR OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Yeremia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer system has been able to recognize writing as human brain does. The method mostly used for character recognition is the backpropagation network. Backpropagation network has been known for its accuracy because it allows itself to learn and improving itself thus it can achieve higher accuracy. On the other hand, backpropagation was less to be used because of its time length needed to train the network to achieve the best result possible. In this study, backpropagation network algorithm is combined with genetic algorithm to achieve both accuracy and training swiftness for recognizing alphabets. Genetic algorithm is used to define the best initial values for the network’s architecture and synapses’ weight thus within a shorter period of time, the network could achieve the best accuracy. The optimized backpropagation network has better accuracy and less training time than the standard backpropagation network. The accuracy in recognizing character differ by 10, 77%, with a success rate of 90, 77% for the optimized backpropagation and 80% accuracy for the standard backpropagation network. The training time needed for backpropagation learning phase improved significantly from 03 h, 14 min and 40 sec, a standard backpropagation training time, to 02 h 18 min and 1 sec for the optimized backpropagation network.

  7. Online Handwritten Sanskrit Character Recognition Using Support Vector Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Sonal P.Patil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten recognition has been one of the active and challenging research areas in the field of image processing. In this Paper, we are going to analyses feature extraction technique to recognize online handwritten Sanskrit word using preprocessing, segmentation. However, most of the current work in these areas is limited to English and a few oriental languages. The lack of efficient solutions for Indic scripts and languages such as Sanskrit has disadvantaged information extraction from a large body of documents of cultural and historical importance. Here we use Freeman chain code (FCC as the representation technique of an image character. Chain code gives the boundary of a character image in which the codes represents the direction of where is the location of the next pixel. Randomized algorithm is used to generate the FCC. After that, features vector is built. The criterion of features toinput the classification is the chain code that converted to various features. And segmentation is applied to evaluate the possible segmentation zone. Accordingly, several generations are performed to evaluate the individuals with maximum fitness value. Support vector machine (SVM is chosen for the classification step.

  8. Interspecific aggression and character displacement of competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C. N; Grether, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    In zones of sympatry between closely related species, species recognition errors in a competitive context can cause character displacement in agonistic signals and competitor recognition functions, just as species recognition errors in a mating context can cause character displacement in mating signals and mate recognition. These two processes are difficult to distinguish because the same traits can serve as both agonistic and mating signals. One solution is to test for sympatric shifts in re...

  9. Experimental Analysis on Character Recognition using Singular Value Decomposition and Random Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha K.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Character recognition, a specific problem in the area of pattern recognition is a sub-process in most of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR systems. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is one of the promising and efficient dimensionality reduction methods, which is already applied and proved in the area of character recognition. Random Projection (RP is a recently evolved dimension reduction algorithm which can scale with large dataset. In this paper, we have applied SVD and RP as feature extraction technique for character recognition and experimented with k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN and Support Vector Machine (SVM classifiers. Our experiments are conducted on MNIST handwritten digit database and Malayalam character image database. On both databases SVD features could achieve lower misclassification rate than RP based features. SVD features with SVM classifier using RBF kernel could achieve a misclassification rate of 2.53% on MNIST database and 2.87% on Malayalam character image database.

  10. The Optical Character Recognition for Cursive Script Using HMM: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Character Recognition has wide variety of applications such as automatic postal mail sorting, number plate recognition and automatic form of reader and entering text from PDA's etc. Cursive script’s Automatic Character Recognition is a complex process facing unique issues unlike other scripts. Many solutions have been proposed in the literature to solve complexities of cursive scripts character recognition. This paper present a comprehensive literature review of the Optical Character Recognition (OCR for off-line and on-line character recognition for Urdu, Arabic and Persian languages, based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM. We surveyed all most all significant approaches proposed and concluded future directions of OCR for cursive languages.

  11. Handwritten Bangla Basic and Compound character recognition using MLP and SVM classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Sarkar, Ram; Basu, Subhadip; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach for recognition of handwritten compound Bangla characters, along with the Basic characters of Bangla alphabet, is presented here. Compared to English like Roman script, one of the major stumbling blocks in Optical Character Recognition (OCR) of handwritten Bangla script is the large number of complex shaped character classes of Bangla alphabet. In addition to 50 basic character classes, there are nearly 160 complex shaped compound character classes in Bangla alphabet. Dealing with such a large varieties of handwritten characters with a suitably designed feature set is a challenging problem. Uncertainty and imprecision are inherent in handwritten script. Moreover, such a large varieties of complex shaped characters, some of which have close resemblance, makes the problem of OCR of handwritten Bangla characters more difficult. Considering the complexity of the problem, the present approach makes an attempt to identify compound character classes from most frequently to less frequently occurred o...

  12. Design of an Optical Character Recognition System for Camera-based Handheld Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Basu, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a complete Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for camera captured image/graphics embedded textual documents for handheld devices. At first, text regions are extracted and skew corrected. Then, these regions are binarized and segmented into lines and characters. Characters are passed into the recognition module. Experimenting with a set of 100 business card images, captured by cell phone camera, we have achieved a maximum recognition accuracy of 92.74%. Compared to Tesseract, an open source desktop-based powerful OCR engine, present recognition accuracy is worth contributing. Moreover, the developed technique is computationally efficient and consumes low memory so as to be applicable on handheld devices.

  13. Wavelet packet based feature extraction and recognition of license plate characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; LU Xiaobo; LING Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    To study the characteristics of license plate characters recognition, this paper proposes a method for feature extraction of license plate characters based on two-dimensional wavelet packet. We decompose license plate character images with two dimensional-wavelet packet and search for the optimal wavelet packet basis. This paper presents a criterion of searching for the optimal wavelet packet basis, and a practical algorithm. The obtained optimal wavelet packet basis is used as the feature of license plate character, and a BP neural network is used to classify the character.The testing results show that the proposed method achieved higher recognition rate than the traditional methods.

  14. An Online Character Recognition System to Convert Grantha Script to Malayalam

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeraj M; Sumam Mary Idicula

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to recognize Grantha, an ancient script in South India and converting it to Malayalam, a prevalent language in South India using online character recognition mechanism. The motivation behind this work owes its credit to (i) developing a mechanism to recognize Grantha script in this modern world and (ii) affirming the strong connection among Grantha and Malayalam. A framework for the recognition of Grantha script using online character recognition is design...

  15. A MULTISET APPROACH FOR RECOGNITION OF HANDWRITTEN CHARACTERS USING PUZZLE PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlin Deepa R.N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Image pattern matching is one of the most widely used techniques in character recognition. A pattern is the description of an object. Although a large number of papers have been reported on handwritten character recognition, it is still a very challenging problem. Recognition of characters is based on pattern classification. In this paper a hybrid approach is proposed using fuzzy technique and multiset comparison to recognize handwritten characters. Fuzzy technique is used to measure the variations in the features of handwritten numerals to form strings of character. Features are selected from the preprocessed image and the feature is labeled using fuzzy logic. Strings of a character are formed from these labeled primitives. Each string is divided into a multiset of puzzle pieces by repeatedly applying a mask which is comprised of all ones. The string is padded with anchors at the beginning and end. The mask is placed over the string, beginning at a certain character, and reading off all characters corresponding to 1 bit in the mask, thus producing one puzzle piece. To divide a string into multiset of puzzle pieces, the mask is applied at all shifts in the string starting at each character. Thus for each prototype character, we associate a multiset of puzzle pieces, which form the database. The multiset of puzzle pieces of an unknown character is constructed and compared with the same in the database, leading to the identification of the unknown character.

  16. A contour distance-based approach for multi-oriented and multi-sized character recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Pal; N Tripathy

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme towards the recognition of multi-oriented and multi-sized isolated characters of printed script. For recognition, at first, distances of the outer contour points from the centroid of the individual characters are calculated and these contour distances are then arranged in a particular order to get size and rotation invariant feature. Next, based on the arranged contour distances, the features are derived from different class of characters. Finally, we use these derived features of the characters to statistically compare the features of the input character for recognition. We have tested our scheme on printed Bangla and Devnagari multi-oriented characters and we obtained encouraging results.

  17. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments, which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string, and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration, and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped, broken, touched, loosely configured Chinese characters.

  18. An approach to offline handwritten Chinese character recognition based on segment evaluation of adaptive duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国宏; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for off-line handwritten Chinese character recognition based on mergence of consecutive segments of adaptive duration. The handwritten Chinese character string is partitioned into a sequence of consecutive segments,which are combined to implement dissimilarity evaluation within a sliding window whose durations are determined adaptively by the integration of shapes and context of evaluations. The average stroke width is estimated for the handwritten Chinese character string,and a set of candidate character segmentation boundaries is found by using the integration of pixel and stroke features. The final decisions on segmentation and recognition are made under minimal arithmetical mean dissimilarities. Experiments proved that the proposed approach of adaptive duration outperforms the method of fixed duration,and is very effective for the recognition of overlapped,broken,touched,loosely configured Chinese characters.

  19. Feature Dimension Reduction of NaXi Pictographs Characters Recognition based on LDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of pictographic character, Naxi pictographs character has received little academic attention. Proposing dimension reduction method of Naxi pictographs characters on the basis of LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis, this paper thus makes an in-depth study of feature dimension reduction, an important issue in the recognition of Naxi pictographs characters. By constructing a recognition sample library involving four features of grid feature, permeability number feature, moment invariant feature, and directional element feature (DEF, 50% of data are selected from sample library as training set and testing set respectively. Two dimension reduction methods of LDA and FA (Factor Analysis are applied to dimension reduction experiment of features of Naxi pictographs characters. The experiment result proves LDA method to be significantly superior to FA method, as LDA method could still maintain a 99% recognition precision when the dimension is reduced to 10% of the original dimension.

  20. 7TH CENTURY ANCIENT TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION FROM TEMPLE WALL INSCRIPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakumar S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challenge than other languages in respects to the similarity and complexity of characters that are composed of circles, holes, loops and curves. Hence ancient Tamil recognition requires more research to reach the ultimate goal of machine simulation of human reading. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize ancient Tamil characters by using SIFT features and presented anew and efficient approach based on bag-of key points representation. Collection of SIFT features are first extracted from local patches on the pre-processed images, and they are then quantized by K-means algorithm to form the bag-of-key points representation of the original images. These fixed-length feature vectors are used toclassify the characters. A recognition system consists of the activities, namely, digitization, pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. This system achieves a maximum recognition accuracy of 84% using SIFT features.

  1. Image segmentation as a preliminary step for character recognition in ancient printed documents

    OpenAIRE

    Bedini, Luigi; Tonazzini, Anna

    2001-01-01

    After analyzing and processing several ancient printed documents, we argued that the joint restoration and segmentation of images is the first fundamental step for character recognition, which usually relies on isolated characters. This step is particularly critic in the case of ancient printed documents where several degradation processes may cause the characters to touch and merge one another. In this paper we propose to to integrate techniques of image restoration with techniques of image ...

  2. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  3. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs

  4. Application of the ANNA neural network chip to high-speed character recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Säckinger, Eduard; Boser, Bernhard E.; Bromley, Jane M.; LeCun, Yann; Jackel, Larry D.

    1992-01-01

    A neural network with 136000 connections for recognition of handwritten digits has been implemented using a mixed analog/digital neural network chip. The neural network chip is capable of processing 1000 characters/s. The recognition system has essentially the same rate (5%) as a simulation of the network with 32-b floating-point precision

  5. A New Linguistic Decoding Method for Online Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志明; 王晓龙

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new linguistic decoding method for online handwritten Chinese character recognition. The method employs a hybrid language model which combines N-gram and linguistic rules by rule quantification technique.The linguistic decoding algorithm consists of three stages: word lattice construction,the optimal sentence hypothesis search and self-adaptive learning mechanism. The technique has been applied to palmtop computer's online handwritten Chinese character recognition. Samples containing millions of characters were used to test the linguistic decoder. In the open experiment, accuracy rate up to 92% is achieved, and the error rate is reduced by 68%.

  6. Performance Comparison of SVM and ANN for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Arora

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Classification methods based on learning from examples have been widely applied to character recognition from the 1990s and have brought forth significant improvements of recognition accuracies. This class of methods includes statistical methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVM, multiple classifier combination, etc. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the some classification methods that have been successfully applied to handwritten Devnagari character recognition and results of SVM and ANNs classification method, applied on Handwritten Devnagari characters. After preprocessing the character image, we extracted shadow features, chain code histogram features, view based features and longest run features. These features are then fed to Neural classifier and in support vector machine for classification. In neural classifier, we explored three ways of combining decisions of four MLP's, designed for four different features.

  7. Performance Comparison of SVM and ANN for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, L; Kundu, M; Basu, D K

    2010-01-01

    Classification methods based on learning from examples have been widely applied to character recognition from the 1990s and have brought forth significant improvements of recognition accuracies. This class of methods includes statistical methods, artificial neural networks, support vector machines (SVM), multiple classifier combination, etc. In this paper, we discuss the characteristics of the some classification methods that have been successfully applied to handwritten Devnagari character recognition and results of SVM and ANNs classification method, applied on Handwritten Devnagari characters. After preprocessing the character image, we extracted shadow features, chain code histogram features, view based features and longest run features. These features are then fed to Neural classifier and in support vector machine for classification. In neural classifier, we explored three ways of combining decisions of four MLP's designed for four different features.

  8. Multiple Classifier Combination for Off-line Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the application of weighted majority voting technique for combination of classification decision obtained from three Multi_Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifiers for Recognition of Handwritten Devnagari characters using three different feature sets. The features used are intersection, shadow feature and chain code histogram features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features and chain code histogram features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.16% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  9. Spectral Analysis of Projection Histogram for Enhancing Close matching character Recognition in Malayalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajilal Divakaran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The success rates of Optical Character Recognition (OCR systems for printed Malayalam documents is quite impressive with the state of the art accuracy levels in the range of 85-95% for various. However for real applications, further enhancement of this accuracy levels are required. One of the bottle necks in further enhancement of the accuracy is identified as close-matching characters. In this paper, we delineate the close matching characters in Malayalam and report the development of a specialised classifier for these close-matching characters. The output of a state of the art of OCR is taken and characters falling into the close-matching character set is further fed into this specialised classifier for enhancing the accuracy. The classifier is based on support vector machine algorithm and uses feature vectors derived out of spectral coefficients of projection histogram signals of close-matching characters.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Projection Histogram for Enhancing Close matching character Recognition in Malayalam

    CERN Document Server

    Divakaran, Sajilal

    2012-01-01

    The success rates of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems for printed Malayalam documents is quite impressive with the state of the art accuracy levels in the range of 85-95% for various. However for real applications, further enhancement of this accuracy levels are required. One of the bottle necks in further enhancement of the accuracy is identified as close-matching characters. In this paper, we delineate the close matching characters in Malayalam and report the development of a specialised classifier for these close-matching characters. The output of a state of the art of OCR is taken and characters falling into the close-matching character set is further fed into this specialised classifier for enhancing the accuracy. The classifier is based on support vector machine algorithm and uses feature vectors derived out of spectral coefficients of projection histogram signals of close-matching characters.

  11. Design of an Optical Character Recognition System for Camera-based Handheld Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatullah Faruk Mollah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete Optical Character Recognition (OCR system for camera captured image/graphics embedded textual documents for handheld devices. At first, text regions are extracted and skew corrected. Then, these regions are binarized and segmented into lines and characters. Characters are passed into the recognition module. Experimenting with a set of 100 business card images, captured by cell phone camera, we have achieved a maximum recognition accuracy of 92.74%. Compared to Tesseract, an open source desktop-based powerful OCR engine, present recognition accuracy is worth contributing. Moreover, the developed technique is computationally efficient and consumes low memory so as to be applicable on handheld devices.

  12. Beginning Students' Perceptions of Effective Activities for Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Leland, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what beginning learners of Chinese perceive as helpful in learning to recognize characters. Thirteen English-speaking participants in a beginning Chinese class answered journal questions and completed a survey over one semester at a large Midwestern university. Findings suggest that participants perceived the usefulness of…

  13. Handwritten Pattern Recognition Using Kohonen Neural Network Based on Pixel Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu C. Munggaran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting is the human way in communicating each other using written media. By the advancement in technology and development of science, there are a lot of changes of technology in terms of communication with computer through handwriting. Therefore, it is needed computer able to receive input in the form of handwriting data and able to recognize the handwriting input. Therefore, this research focuses on handwritten character recognition using Kohonen neural network. The purpose of this research is to find handwriting recognition algorithm which can receive handwriting input and recognize handwritten character directly inputted in computer using Kohonen neural network. This method studies the distribution of a set of patterns without any class information. The basic idea of this technique is understood from how human brain stores images/patterns that have been recognized through eyes, and then able to reveal the images/patterns back. This research has been successful in developing an application to recognize handwritten characters using Kohonen neural network method, and it has been tested. The application is personal computer based and using a canvas as input media. The recognition process consist of 3 stages layer: Input layer, Training Layer and Hidden Layer. The Kohonen neural network method on handwritten character recognition application has good similarity level of character patterns in character mapping process.

  14. Inhibitory stroke neighbour priming in character recognition and reading in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxin; Tian, Jing; Han, Weijin; Liversedge, Simon P; Paterson, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, prior exposure to a target word's orthographic neighbour influences word recognition in masked priming experiments and the process of word identification that occurs during normal reading. We investigated whether similar neighbour priming effects are observed in Chinese in 4 masked priming experiments (employing a forward mask and 33-ms, 50-ms, and 67-ms prime durations) and in an experiment that measured eye movements while reading. In these experiments, the stroke neighbour of a Chinese character was defined as any character that differed by the addition, deletion, or substitution of one or two strokes. Prime characters were either stroke neighbours or stroke non-neighbours of the target character, and each prime character had either a higher or a lower frequency of occurrence in the language than its corresponding target character. Frequency effects were observed in all experiments, demonstrating that the manipulation of character frequency was successful. In addition, a robust inhibitory priming effect was observed in response times for target characters in the masked priming experiments and in eye fixation durations for target characters in the reading experiment. This stroke neighbour priming was not modulated by the relative frequency of the prime and target characters. The present findings therefore provide a novel demonstration that inhibitory neighbour priming shown previously for alphabetic languages is also observed for nonalphabetic languages, and that neighbour priming (based on stroke overlap) occurs at the level of the character in Chinese.

  15. Two-tier architecture for unconstrained handwritten character recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Prema; N V Subba Reddy

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach that combines the unsupervised and supervised learning techniques for unconstrained handwritten numeral recognition. This approach uses the Kohonen self-organizing neural network for data classification in the first stage and the learning vector quantization (LVQ) model in the second stage to improve classification accuracy. The combined architecture performs better than the Kohonen self-organizing map alone. In the proposed approach, the collection of centroids at different phases of training plays a vital role in the performance of the recognition system. Four experiments have been conducted and experimental results show that the collection of centroids in the middle of the training gives high performance in terms of speed and accuracy. The systems developed also resolve the confusion between handwritten numerals.

  16. Learning Stochastic Edit Distance: application in handwritten character recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Oncina, Jose; Sebban, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Many pattern recognition algorithms are based on the nearest neighbour search and use the well known edit distance, for which the primitive edit costs are usually fixed in advance. In this article, we aim at learning an unbiased stochastic edit distance in the form of a finite-state transducer from a corpus of (input,output) pairs of strings. Contrary to the other standard methods, which generally use the Expectation Maximisation algorithm, our algorithm learns a transducer independently on t...

  17. Multifont Arabic Characters Recognition Using HoughTransform and HMM/ANN Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ben Amor

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical Characters Recognition (OCR has been an active subject of research since the early days of computers. Despite the age of the subject, it remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of research in computer science. In recent years it has grown into a mature discipline, producing a huge body of work. Arabic character recognition has been one of the last major languages to receive attention. This is due, in part, to the cursive nature of the task since even printed Arabic characters are in cursive form. This paper describes the performance of combining Hough transform and Hidden Markov Models in a multifont Arabic OCR system. Experimental tests have been carried out on a set of 85.000 samples of characters corresponding to 5 different fonts from the most commonly used in Arabic writing. Some promising experimental results are reported.

  18. Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    1992-01-01

    Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

  19. Multifont Arabic Characters Recognition Using HoughTransform and HMM/ANN Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Ben Amor; Najoua Essoukri Ben Amara

    2006-01-01

    Optical Characters Recognition (OCR) has been an active subject of research since the early days of computers. Despite the age of the subject, it remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of research in computer science. In recent years it has grown into a mature discipline, producing a huge body of work. Arabic character recognition has been one of the last major languages to receive attention. This is due, in part, to the cursive nature of the task since even printed Arabic cha...

  20. An Online Character Recognition System to Convert Grantha Script to Malayalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeraj M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to recognize Grantha, an ancient script in South India and converting it to Malayalam, a prevalent language in South India using online character recognition mechanism. The motivation behind this work owes its credit to (i developing a mechanism to recognize Grantha script in this modern world and (ii affirming the strong connection among Grantha and Malayalam. A framework for the recognition of Grantha script using online character recognition is designed and implemented. The features extracted from the Grantha script comprises mainly of time-domain features based on writing direction and curvature. The recognized characters are mapped to corresponding Malayalam characters. The framework was tested on a bed of medium length manuscripts containing 9-12 sample lines and printed pages of a book titled Soundarya Lahari writtenin Grantha by Sri Adi Shankara to recognize the words and sentences. The manuscript recognition rates with the system are for Grantha as 92.11%, Old Malayalam 90.82% and for new Malayalam script 89.56%. The recognition rates of pages of the printed book are for Grantha as 96.16%, Old Malayalam script 95.22% and new Malayalam script as 92.32% respectively. These results show the efficiency of the developed system

  1. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  2. Deep Self-Taught Learning for Handwritten Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bastien, Frédéric; Bergeron, Arnaud; Boulanger-Lewandowski, Nicolas; Breuel, Thomas; Chherawala, Youssouf; Cisse, Moustapha; Côté, Myriam; Erhan, Dumitru; Eustache, Jeremy; Glorot, Xavier; Muller, Xavier; Lebeuf, Sylvain Pannetier; Pascanu, Razvan; Rifai, Salah; Savard, Francois; Sicard, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work in statistical machine learning has demonstrated the importance of learning algorithms for deep architectures, i.e., function classes obtained by composing multiple non-linear transformations. Self-taught learning (exploiting unlabeled examples or examples from other distributions) has already been applied to deep learners, but mostly to show the advantage of unlabeled examples. Here we explore the advantage brought by {\\em out-of-distribution examples}. For this purpose we developed a powerful generator of stochastic variations and noise processes for character images, including not only affine transformations but also slant, local elastic deformations, changes in thickness, background images, grey level changes, contrast, occlusion, and various types of noise. The out-of-distribution examples are obtained from these highly distorted images or by including examples of object classes different from those in the target test set. We show that {\\em deep learners benefit more...

  3. Pattern Association For Character Recognition By Back-Propagation Algorithm Using Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Kosbatwar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial neural network in applications can dramatically simplify the code and improve quality of recognition while achieving good performance. Another benefit of using neural network in application is extensibility of the system – ability to recognize more character sets than initially defined. Most of traditional systems are not extensible enough. In this paper recognition ofcharacters is possible by using neural network back propagation algorithm.

  4. Hemispheric lateralisation of the word length effect in Chinese character recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Yu-Ju; Shillcock, Richard

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers of hemispheric superiority have become increasingly interested in the length effect in word recognition in alphabetic languages. But little has been known about ideographic languages like traditional Chinese. The primary aim of this study is to investigate hemispheric laterality and the word length effect in Chinese script recognition. Different-length words consisting of two-, three- and five-characters were presented unilaterally in a lexical decision task. T...

  5. Interspecific aggression and character displacement of competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher N; Grether, Gregory F

    2010-02-22

    In zones of sympatry between closely related species, species recognition errors in a competitive context can cause character displacement in agonistic signals and competitor recognition functions, just as species recognition errors in a mating context can cause character displacement in mating signals and mate recognition. These two processes are difficult to distinguish because the same traits can serve as both agonistic and mating signals. One solution is to test for sympatric shifts in recognition functions. We studied competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies by challenging territory holders with live tethered conspecific and heterospecific intruders. Heterospecific intruders elicited less aggression than conspecific intruders in species pairs with dissimilar wing coloration (H. occisa/H. titia, H. americana/H. titia) but not in species pairs with similar wing coloration (H. occisa/H. cruentata, H. americana/H. cruentata). Natural variation in the area of black wing pigmentation on H. titia intruders correlated negatively with heterospecific aggression. To directly examine the role of wing coloration, we blackened the wings of H. occisa or H. americana intruders and measured responses of conspecific territory holders. This treatment reduced territorial aggression at multiple sites where H. titia is present, but not at allopatric sites. These results provide strong evidence for agonistic character displacement. PMID:19864290

  6. Optical Character Recognition System for Urdu (Naskh Font Using Pattern Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassam Nawaz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The offline optical character recognition (OCR for different languages has beendeveloped over the recent years. Since 1965, the US postal service has beenusing this system for automating their services. The range of the applicationsunder this area is increasing day by day, due to its utility in almost major areas ofgovernment as well as private sector. This technique has been very useful inmaking paper free environment in many major organizations as far as the backupof their previous file record is concerned. Our this system has been proposed forthe Offline Character Recognition for Isolated Characters of Urdu language, asUrdu language forms words by combining Isolated Characters. Urdu is a cursivelanguage, having connected characters making words. The major area of utilityfor Urdu OCR will be digitizing of a lot of literature related material alreadystocked in libraries. Urdu language is famous and spoken in more than 3 bigcountries including Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. A lot of work has been donein Urdu poetry and literature up to the recent century. Creation of OCR for Urdulanguage will make an important role in converting all those work from physicallibraries to electronic libraries. Most of the stuff already placed on internet is inthe form of images having text, which took a lot of space to transfer and evenread online. So the need of an Urdu OCR is a must. The system is of trainingsystem type. It consists of the image preprocessing, line and charactersegmentation, creation of xml file for training purpose. While Recognition systemincludes taking xml file, the image to be recognized, segment it and creation ofchain codes for character images and matching with already stored in xml file. The system has been implemented and it has 89% recognition accuracy with a15 char/sec recognition rate.

  7. A simple and efficient optical character recognition system for basic symbols in printed Kannada text

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sanjeev Kunte; R D Sudhaker Samuel

    2007-10-01

    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems have been effectively developed for the recognition of printed characters of non-Indian languages. Efforts are on the way for the development of efficient OCR systems for Indian languages, especially for Kannada, a popular South Indian language. We present in this paper an OCR system developed for the recognition of basic characters (vowels and consonants) in printed Kannada text, which can handle different font sizes and font types. Hu’s invariant moments and Zernike moments that have been progressively used in pattern recognition are used in our system to extract the features of printed Kannada characters. Neural classifiers have been effectively used for the classification of characters based on moment features. An encouraging recognition rate of 96·8% has been obtained. The system methodology can be extended for the recognition of other south Indian languages, especially for Telugu.

  8. Long-range optical character recognition for product ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Larry E.; Pertl, Franz A.; Rosenberry-Friend, Kimberly A.

    1998-10-01

    An automated product tag reading system based on CCD cameras and computer image processing has been developed by West Virginia University and demonstrated at the Weirton Steel Corporation. The system reads both a 50-mil barcode and a string of six numbers on a four-inch by six-inch tag fastened to the end of a steel slab. Feedback from the image is used to point and zoom the camera, making the system effective at ranges up to thirty feet, and in bright sunlight-situations where handheld barcode scanners are ineffective. A video camera is mounted on a pan/tilt head and connected to a personal computer through a frame grabber board. The whole system is mounted on a slab hauler--a huge wheeled machine for carrying 100 tons of steel slabs at a time. The slab hauler backs into position and presses `start' on a touchscreen operator interface. A wide-angle image is grabbed, and the computer analyzes the images to find product ID tags in scene. The camera is then zoomed and pointed one-by-one at the tags for closeup images. Geometric warping is done on the closeup images to correct for viewing angle distortion, and both the barcode and the alphanumeric code are read by the software and reported to the inventory management system via radio modern. This paper discusses the neural network-based system for reading the characters on the tag. The camera pointing system and barcode reader are discussed in a companion paper.

  9. Optical character recognition of camera-captured images based on phase features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Escobar, Julia; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays most of digital information is obtained using mobile devices specially smartphones. In particular, it brings the opportunity for optical character recognition in camera-captured images. For this reason many recognition applications have been recently developed such as recognition of license plates, business cards, receipts and street signal; document classification, augmented reality, language translator and so on. Camera-captured images are usually affected by geometric distortions, nonuniform illumination, shadow, noise, which make difficult the recognition task with existing systems. It is well known that the Fourier phase contains a lot of important information regardless of the Fourier magnitude. So, in this work we propose a phase-based recognition system exploiting phase-congruency features for illumination/scale invariance. The performance of the proposed system is tested in terms of miss classifications and false alarms with the help of computer simulation.

  10. Electrophysiological evidence of inhibited orthographic regularity effect on the recognition of real Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiqi; Fan, Cong; Ren, Jie; Liu, Tiantian; Zhang, Mingming; Luo, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Orthographic regularity is important for processing Chinese characters. However, the issues how orthographic regularity influences the visual recognition of real Chinese characters and whether common processes related to the potential effect exist between successive (SUCC) and concurrent (CONC) conditions with asynchronous presentation of S1 and S2 are still unclear. In the current study, event-related potential (ERP) technique was adopted to investigate electrophysiological correlates of the orthographic regularity effect. Behaviorally, we found fewer errors and shorter response times for SUCC and CONC conditions compared to simultaneous (SIM) condition with synchronous presentation and disappearance of S1 and S2, which demonstrates similarities between SUCC and CONC and their differences from SIM. We found bilaterally smaller N170 responses for real Chinese characters preceded by false characters compared to real characters, demonstrating that orthographic regularity may inhibit the recognition of real Chinese characters. Additionally, the inhibition effect was present in SUCC and CONC rather than SIM, which shows that smaller N170 responses may have been due to asynchronous presentations of S1 and S2 and common inhibition processes in the SUCC and CONC conditions. PMID:27006190

  11. 26 CFR 1.741-1 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange. 1.741-1 Section 1.741-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange. (a) The sale or exchange of an interest in...

  12. Effect of Hidden Layer Neurons on the Classification of Optical Character Recognition Typed Arabic Numerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal F. Shilbayeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer and number of iterations are important factors in the recognition rate. In this paper, a novel and effective criterion based on Cross Pruning (CP algorithm is proposed to optimize number of hidden neurons and number of iterations in Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP neural based recognition system. Our technique uses rule-based and neural network pattern recognition methods in an integrated system in order to perform learning and recognition of dynamically printed numerals Approach: The study investigates the effect of varying the size of the network hidden layers (pruning and number of iterations (epochs on the classification and performance of the used MLP. The optimum number of hidden neurons and epochs is experimentally established through the use of our novel Cross Pruning (CP algorithm and via designing special neural based software. The designed software implements sigmoid as its shaping function. Results: Experimental results are presented on the classification accuracy and recognition. Significant recognition rate improvement is achieved using 1000 epochs and 25 hidden neurons in our MLP OCR numeral recognition system. Conclusions/Recommendations: Our approach has a significant improvement in learning and classification of any numeral, character MLP based recognition system.

  13. Automatic recognition of radar signals based on time-frequency image shape character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-dong zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar signal recognition is one of the key technologies of modern electronic surveillance systems. Time-frequency image provides a new way for recognizing the radar signal. In this paper, a series of image processing methods containing image enhancement, image threshold binarization and mathematical morphology is utilized to extract the shape character of smoothed pseudo wigner-ville time-frequency distribution of radar signal. And then the identification of radar signal is realized by the character. Simulation results of eight kinds of typical radar signal demonstrate that when signal noise ratio (SNR is greater than -3 dB, the Legendre moments shape character of the time-frequency image is very stable. Moreover, the recognition rate by the character is more than 90 per cent except for the FRANK code signal when SNR > -3 dB. Test also show that the proposed method can effectively recognize radar signal with less character dimension through compared with exitsing algorithms.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.308-314, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2404

  14. Optical Character Recognition for Isolated Offline Handwritten Devanagari Numerals Using Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Y. Tawde

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of recognition of isolated offline handwritten Devanagari numerals using wavelets and neural network classifier. This method of optical character recognition takes the handwritten numeral image as input. After pre-processing, it is subjected to single level wavelet decomposition using Daubechies-4 wavelet filter. This wavelet decomposition allows viewing the input numeral at multiple resolutions. The Low-Low band components are used as inputs to multilayer perceptron (MLP classifier. The feed forward back propagation algorithm is used for classification of the input numeral.

  15. Classification Of Gradient Change Features Using MLP For Handwritten Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    A novel, generic scheme for off-line handwritten English alphabets character images is proposed. The advantage of the technique is that it can be applied in a generic manner to different applications and is expected to perform better in uncertain and noisy environments. The recognition scheme is using a multilayer perceptron(MLP) neural networks. The system was trained and tested on a database of 300 samples of handwritten characters. For improved generalization and to avoid overtraining, the whole available dataset has been divided into two subsets: training set and test set. We achieved 99.10% and 94.15% correct recognition rates on training and test sets respectively. The purposed scheme is robust with respect to various writing styles and size as well as presence of considerable noise.

  16. Handwritten Pattern Recognition Using Kohonen Neural Network Based on Pixel Character

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu C. Munggaran; Suryarini Widodo; Cipta A.M; Nuryuliani

    2014-01-01

    Handwriting is the human way in communicating each other using written media. By the advancement in technology and development of science, there are a lot of changes of technology in terms of communication with computer through handwriting. Therefore, it is needed computer able to receive input in the form of handwriting data and able to recognize the handwriting input. Therefore, this research focuses on handwritten character recognition using Kohonen neural network. The purpose of this rese...

  17. Recognition of Non-Compound Handwritten Devnagari Characters using a Combination of MLP and Minimum Edit Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arora, D. Bhattacharjee, M. Nasipuri, D. K. Basu & M. Kundu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a new method for recognition of offline Handwritten noncompoundDevnagari Characters in two stages. It uses two well known andestablished pattern recognition techniques: one using neural networks and theother one using minimum edit distance. Each of these techniques is applied ondifferent sets of characters for recognition. In the first stage, two sets of featuresare computed and two classifiers are applied to get higher recognition accuracy.Two MLP’s are used separately to recognize the characters. For one of theMLP’s the characters are represented with their shadow features and for theother chain code histogram feature is used. The decision of both MLP’s iscombined using weighted majority scheme. Top three results produced bycombined MLP’s in the first stage are used to calculate the relative differencevalues. In the second stage, based on these relative differences character set isdivided into two. First set consists of the characters with distinct shapes andsecond set consists of confused characters, which appear very similar in shapes.Characters of distinct shapes of first set are classified using MLP. Confused characters in second set are classified using minimum edit distance method.Method of minimum edit distance makes use of corner detected in a characterimage using modified Harris corner detection technique. Experiment on thismethod is carried out on a database of 7154 samples. The overall recognition isfound to be 90.74%.

  18. An on-line free handwritten Chinese character recognition method based on component cascaded HMMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded Hidden Markov Model (HMM), which allows state's transition, skip and duration. The cascaded HMM extends the way of HMM pattern description of Handwritten Chinese Character (HCC) and depicts the behavior of handwritten curve more reliably in terms of the statistic probability. Hence character segmentation and labeling are unnecessary. Viterbi algorithm is integrated in the cascaded HMM after the whole sample sequence of a HCC is input. More than 26,000 component samples are used for training 407 handwritten component HMMs. At the improved training stage 94 models of 94 Chinese characters are gained by 32,000 samples. Compared with the Segment HMMs approach, the recognition rate of this model for the first candidate is 87.89% and the error rate could be reduced by 12.4%.

  19. A novel handwritten character recognition system using gradient based features and run length count

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Raju; Bindu S Moni; Madhu S Nair

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel hand written character recognition systemusing a combination of gradient-based features and run length count (GBF–RLC). The performance of the proposed method has been tested on Malayalam script, a South Indian language. The gradient of image is the intensity at each point, giving the direction of the largest possible increase from light to dark and the rate of change in that direction. RLC is the count of contiguous group of 1’s encountered in a left to right/top to bottom scan of a character image or block of an image. Classification was carried out with a Simplified Quadratic Classifier (SQDF) and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP). A database containing 19,800 isolated handwritten characters pertaining to 44 classes was used for the study. The feature vector is augmented by including aspect ratio, position of centroid and ratio of pixels on the vertical halves of a character image. The recognition accuracy of 99.78% was achieved with minimum computational and storage requirement.

  20. The modulation of stimulus structure on visual field asymmetry effects: the case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cheng, Liao

    2013-09-01

    Recent research suggests that visual field (VF) asymmetry effects in visual recognition may be influenced by information distribution within the stimuli for the recognition task in addition to hemispheric processing differences: Stimuli with more information on the left have a right VF (RVF) advantage because the left part is closer to the centre, where the highest visual acuity is obtained. It remains unclear whether visual complexity distribution of the stimuli also has similar modulation effects. Here we used Chinese characters with contrasting structures-left-heavy, symmetric, and right-heavy, in terms of either visual complexity of components or information distribution defined by location of the phonetic component-and examined participants' naming performance. We found that left-heavy characters had the largest RVF advantage, followed by symmetric and right-heavy characters; this effect was only observed in characters that contrasted in information distribution, in which information for pronunciation was skewed to the phonetic component, but not in those that contrasted only in visual complexity distribution and had no phonetic component. This result provides strong evidence for the influence of information distribution within the stimuli on VF asymmetry effects; in contrast, visual complexity distribution within the stimuli does not have similar modulation effects.

  1. Off-Line Hand Written Character Recognition Using Radial Basis Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.ASHOK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting has continued to persist as a means of communication and recording information in day-to-day life even with the introduction of new technologies. Given its ubiquity in human transactions, machine recognition of handwriting has practical significance, as in reading handwritten notes in a personal Digital Assistant (PDA, in postal addresses on envelopes, in amounts in bank checks, in handwritten fields, in forms etc. To solve the problem of writer identification with intermediate classes (writers and objects (characters , it is a good way to extract the features with clear physical meanings. The extracted features are in variant under translation scaling and stroke width.The off-line (which pertains to scanned images is considered. Algorithms of preprocessing, character and word recognition, and performance with practical system are indicated. The recognition rate of Radial Basis Function (RBF is found to be better compared to that of Back Propagation Network (BPN. The recognition rate in the proposed system lies between 90% to 100%.

  2. Encoding and Recognition Processing of Chinese Characters: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinlong; Shu, Siyun; Wang, Bin; Tian, Xiangyang; Bao, Xinmin; Wu, Yongming; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cao, Xiangyang; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the conceptual memory processes that underlie encoding and recognition processing of Chinese characters. Healthy participants (n = 14) performed a semantic-relatedness paradigm using categorically related logogram pairs from four different categories (fruit, animal, tool, and clothing). During intentional encoding, subjects were instructed to make semantic judgments and select category-correlated features to bind and memorize logogram pairs. During recognition, subjects were asked to recognize the memorized items. The MATLAB software and spatial clustering analysis were used for image data processing. Compared with baseline, encoding mainly activated BA13, with significant effects in BA6/8/9/46/45/47, BA24, BA7/39/40, BA37/20, and BA18/19; meanwhile, recognition mainly activated BA6/8/9/10/13/45/46/47, BA31, BA7/40, and BA18/19. Compared with recognition, encoding activated BA18/19/37/20/36 with a peak activation area in BA18. Compared with encoding, recognition significantly activated BA7, BA31/32, and BA10. In conclusion, distributed networks of discrete cortical regions with distinct roles are active during semantic processing of logograms. The ventral occipitotemporal and inferior frontal regions display increased levels of encoding-related activity. The dorsal medial brain regions, including the superior frontal gyrus and occipitoparietal regions, are associated with recognition-related activity. PMID:26881222

  3. Printed Text Character Analysis Version-II: Optimized optical character recognition for noisy images with the new user training and background detection mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyaki Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system performs the task of analysing snapshots of written text and creating fully customizable text files using Optical Character Recognition (OCR technology. It is known that new font styles and writing formats are introduced everyday but the existing systems find it increasingly difficult to incorporate the newly emerging font styles. The authors have already proposed a system which gives the user complete liberty to effortlessly train the system to handle new fonts using the character dictionary and user training mechanism. The present version makes the process of character recognition more accurate and effective by introducing optimization in the recognition process, a mechanism to handle noisy text images and also a background detection mechanism to differentiate the written symbol from the image background.

  4. Priming effects in Chinese character recognition for Chinese children with developmental dyslexia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuliang Zou; Jing Wang; Hanrong Wu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Dyslexic children exhibit reading ability unmatched to age,although they possess normal intelligence and are well educated.OBJECTIVE:To examine the performance of dyslexic children in Chinese characters visual recognition tasks and to investigate the relationship between priming effect in character recognition and dyslexia.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A case-control study was performed at the Department of Children and Adolescent Health and Maternal Care,School of Public Health,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology between March and June 2007.PARTICIPANTS:A total of 75 primary school students in grades 3 and 5 were selected from two primary schools in Wuhan City,Hubei province,China,and were assigned to three groups.(1) Reading disability (RD,n=25);(2) chronological age (CA) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and age-matched to the RD group);(3) reading level (RL) group (n=25 normal readers that were intelligence quotient and RL-matched to the RD group).All children were right-handed and had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.METHODS:Recognition of target characters was performed in each child using a masked prime paradigm.Recognition speed and accuracy of graphic,phonological,and semantic characters were examined.Simultaneously,data,with respect to response time for each target character and error rate,were recorded to calculate facilitation values (unrelated RT-related RT).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response time,facilitation,and error rate in Chinese character recognition task were calculated.RESULTS:The baseline-adjusted facilitation of graphic,phonological,and semantic priming for dyslexic children was -0.010,-0.010,and 0.001,respectively.Dyslexic children displayed inhibition in graphic and phonological prime conditions.Facilitations under the three prime conditions were 0.026,0.026,and 0.022 for the CA group.In the RL group,results were 0.062,0.058,and 0.031 respectively.The differences of baseline

  5. An Effect of Noise in Printed Character Recognition System Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHITA, S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the implementation of a neural network model trained with a high noise level using a backpropagation algorithm and the experimental results for printed character recognition, based on the idea of using the primary information by reorganising it in a different format. The values obtained at the outputs of each network are processed by using analysis algorithms designed for this purpose. The suggested model is made up of two neural networks and two analysis modules. In M1 Module we designed a value analysis algorithm for all the outputs of the two neural networks in order to select the best values provided by the networks. The M2 Module also contains a designed algorithm, which assesses the data based on the fact that the highest values are directly correlated with the probability of correctly identifying the characters entered into the networks. Results are obtained for noise of up to 50% applied to the input data. The values obtained at the outputs of the two modules emphasises the increase of the printed character recognition level up to 89.1% for the M1 module and up to 89.8% for the M2 module, the number of errors decreasing vis-a-vis the RNA2 network response from 12.5% to 10.9%, and 10.2%, respectively. In order to set up the hidden layer of 90 neurons, a value of 92% was obtained at the output of the M2 analysis module.The performed model increased the printed character recognition rate by using the same primary information in a different manner. The validity and functionality of the suggested model are confirmed by experimental results.

  6. Super-resolution Image Created from a Sequence of Images with Application of Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution techniques allow combine multiple images of the same scene to obtain an image with increased geometric and radiometric resolution, called super-resolution image. In this image are enhanced features allowing to recover important details and information. The objective of this work is to develop efficient algorithm, robust and automated fusion image frames to obtain a super-resolution image. Image registration is a fundamental step in combining several images that make up the scene. Our research is based on the determination and extraction of characteristics defined by the SIFT and RANSAC algorithms for automatic image registration. We use images containing characters and perform recognition of these characters to validate and show the effectiveness of our proposed method. The distinction of this work is the way to get the matching and merging of images because it occurs dynamically between elements common images that are stored in a dynamic matrix.

  7. Optimizing Statistical Character Recognition Using Evolutionary Strategies to Recognize Aircraft Tail Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Berlanga

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of statistical classification systems for optical character recognition (OCR is a cumbersome task. This paper proposes a method using evolutionary strategies (ES to evolve and upgrade the set of parameters in an OCR system. This OCR is applied to identify the tail number of aircrafts moving on the airport. The proposed approach is discussed and some results are obtained using a benchmark data set. This research demonstrates the successful application of ES to a difficult, noisy, and real-world problem.

  8. APPLYING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON AND SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuat Thanh Tung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition plays an important role in data storage and data mining when the number of documents stored as images is increasing. It is expected to find the ways to convert images of typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text effectively in order to support for the process of information handling effectively. In this paper, therefore, the techniques which are being used to convert image into editable text in the computer such as principal component analysis, multilayer perceptron network, self-organizing maps, and improved multilayer neural network using principal component analysis are experimented. The obtained results indicated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  9. A survey on optical character recognition for Bangla and Devanagari scripts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Bag; Gaurav Harit

    2013-02-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an intensive research on optical character recognition (OCR) for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese scripts. A lot of work has been also reported on OCR efforts for various Indian scripts, like Devanagari, Bangla, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, etc. In this paper, we present a review of OCR work on Indian scripts, mainly on Bangla and Devanagari—the two most popular scripts in India. We have summarized most of the published papers on this topic and have also analysed the various methodologies and their reported results. Future directions of research in OCR for Indian scripts have been also given.

  10. Synthesis of Common Arabic Handwritings to Aid Optical Character Recognition Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laslo Dinges

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Document analysis tasks such as pattern recognition, word spotting or segmentation, require comprehensive databases for training and validation. Not only variations in writing style but also the used list of words is of importance in the case that training samples should reflect the input of a specific area of application. However, generation of training samples is expensive in the sense of manpower and time, particularly if complete text pages including complex ground truth are required. This is why there is a lack of such databases, especially for Arabic, the second most popular language. However, Arabic handwriting recognition involves different preprocessing, segmentation and recognition methods. Each requires particular ground truth or samples to enable optimal training and validation, which are often not covered by the currently available databases. To overcome this issue, we propose a system that synthesizes Arabic handwritten words and text pages and generates corresponding detailed ground truth. We use these syntheses to validate a new, segmentation based system that recognizes handwritten Arabic words. We found that a modification of an Active Shape Model based character classifiers—that we proposed earlier—improves the word recognition accuracy. Further improvements are achieved, by using a vocabulary of the 50,000 most common Arabic words for error correction.

  11. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  12. Character recognition using min-max classifiers designed via an LMS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping-Fai; Maragos, Petros

    1992-11-01

    In this paper we propose a Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm for the practical training of the class of min-max classifiers. These are lattice-theoretic generalization of Boolean functions and are also related to feed-forward neural networks and morphological signal operators. We applied the LMS algorithm to the problem of handwritten character recognition. The database consists of segmented and cleaned digits. Features that were extracted from the digits include Fourier descriptors and morphological shape-size histograms. Experimental results using the LMS algorithm for handwritten character recognition are promising. In our initial experimentation, we applied the min-max classifier to binary classification of '0' and '1' digits. By preprocessing the feature vectors, we were able to achieve an error rate of 1.75% for a training set of size 1200 (600 of each digit); and an error rate of 4.5% on a test set of size 400 (200 of each). These figures are comparable to those obtained by 2-layer neural nets trained using back propagation. The major advantage of min-max classifiers compared to neural networks is their simplicity and the faster convergence of their training algorithm.

  13. Visual Similarity of Words Alone Can Modulate Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Modeling Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Cheung, Kit

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese orthography, the most common character structure consists of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); the minority, opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). Recent studies showed that SP character processing is more left hemisphere (LH) lateralized than PS character processing.…

  14. A Bayesian computational model for online character recognition and disability assessment during cursive eye writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDiard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research involves a novel apparatus, in which the user is presented with an illusion inducing visual stimulus. The user perceives illusory movement that can be followed by the eye, so that smooth pursuit eye movements can be sustained in arbitrary directions. Thus, free-flow trajectories of any shape can be traced. In other words, coupled with an eye-tracking device, this apparatus enables "eye writing", which appears to be an original object of study. We adapt a previous model of reading and writing to this context. We describe a probabilistic model called the Bayesian Action-Perception for Eye On-Line model (BAP-EOL. It encodes probabilistic knowledge about isolated letter trajectories, their size, high-frequency components of the produced trajectory, and pupil diameter. We show how Bayesian inference, in this single model, can be used to solve several tasks, like letter recognition and novelty detection (i.e., recognizing when a presented character is not part of the learned database. We are interested in the potential use of the eye writing apparatus by motor impaired patients: the final task we solve by Bayesian inference is disability assessment (i.e., measuring and tracking the evolution of motor characteristics of produced trajectories. Preliminary experimental results are presented, which illustrate the method, showing the feasibility of character recognition in the context of eye writing. We then show experimentally how a model of the unknown character can be used to detect trajectories that are likely to be new symbols, and how disability assessment can be performed by opportunistically observing characteristics of fine motor control, as letter are being traced. Experimental analyses also help identify specificities of eye writing, as compared to handwriting, and the resulting technical challenges.

  15. Recognition of Non-Compound Handwritten Devnagari Characters using a Combination of MLP and Minimum Edit Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, D K; Kundu, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a new method for recognition of offline Handwritten non-compound Devnagari Characters in two stages. It uses two well known and established pattern recognition techniques: one using neural networks and the other one using minimum edit distance. Each of these techniques is applied on different sets of characters for recognition. In the first stage, two sets of features are computed and two classifiers are applied to get higher recognition accuracy. Two MLP's are used separately to recognize the characters. For one of the MLP's the characters are represented with their shadow features and for the other chain code histogram feature is used. The decision of both MLP's is combined using weighted majority scheme. Top three results produced by combined MLP's in the first stage are used to calculate the relative difference values. In the second stage, based on these relative differences character set is divided into two. First set consists of the characters with distinct shapes and second set co...

  16. Arabic Cursive Characters Distributed Recognition using the DTW Algorithm on BOINC: Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied TRIFA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer computing or volunteer grid computing constitute a very promising infrastructure which provides enough computing and storage powers without any prior cost or investment. Indeed, such infrastructures are the result of the federation of several, geographically dispersed, computers or/and LAN computers over the Internet. Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC is considered the most well known volunteer computing infrastructure. In this paper, we are interested, rather, by the distribution of the Arabic OCR (Optical Character Recognition based on the DTW (Dynamic Time Warping algorithm on the BOINC, in order, to prove again that volunteer computing provides very interesting and promising infrastructures to speed up, at will, several greedy algorithms or applications, especially, the Arabic OCR based on the DTW algorithm. What makes very attractive the Arabic OCR based on the DTW algorithm is the following, first, its ability to recognize, properly, words or sub words, without any prior segmentation, from within a reference library of isolated characters. Second, its good immunity against a wide range of noises. Obtained first results confirm, indeed, that the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing constitutes an interesting and promising framework to speed up the Arabic OCR based on the DTW algorithm.

  17. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Drinkwater

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed.When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  18. DSP字符识别实验设计%Experiment design of character recognition over DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修国; 张世秀

    2012-01-01

    以字符识别作为DSP课程实验的内容,设计面向应用的综合性实验,工程完整,难度适宜,有助于学生对所学知识的理解和创新能力的培养.学生在独立完成该实验及相关的一系列实验后,可以进入开方式DSP实验室.%DSP course is very practical in experimental teaching. Experimental teaching has an important position in DSP teaching. Students should be encouraged to do more comprehensive experiment after completing the basic experiment. Character recognition experiment is the main content of DSP course. It is designed for the application of a comprehensive experiment. It is intended for helping students to understand the knowledge and cultivate innovative ability. If students independently complete the experiment and the related series of experiments, they can enter the opened DSP laboratory.

  19. Chinese Character Recognition Based on ART Neural Network%基于ART神经网络的汉字识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 戴凤智; 于春雨; 李玢瑶; 张峻霞

    2013-01-01

    针对汉字的多样性和相似性不同于西方字母,识别相对困难的问题,提出了基于 ART 神经网络的汉字识别方法。在识别前,利用 OpenCV(开源计算机视觉库)将汉字进行图像处理,为后续识别提供输入数据;然后经 ART 神经网络对输入数据进行训练识别。采用8组相似度较高的汉字作为样本进行实验,证明了方法的有效性。%Ouring to the differences between Chinese and western words and the difficulty in recognition,a Chinese charac-ter recognition model based on the ART neural network is proposed. Before recognition,the Chinese characters are processed by OpenCV(open source computer vision library),which provides input data for the following recognition procedure. Then, the input data are trained and recognized by ART neural network. In the experiment,eight groups of similar Chinese charac-ters were used as samples for the sake of making the results universal. The results show that the recognition of the shape-changed Chinese characters among the provided samples is reliable and accurate.

  20. Performance evaluation of MLP and RBF feed forward neural network for the recognition of off-line handwritten characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Rahul; Choudhary, Amit; Singh, Ravinder; Dhaka, Vijaypal Singh; Ahlawat, Savita; Rao, Mukta

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we propose a system for classification problem of handwritten text. The system is composed of preprocessing module, supervised learning module and recognition module on a very broad level. The preprocessing module digitizes the documents and extracts features (tangent values) for each character. The radial basis function network is used in the learning and recognition modules. The objective is to analyze and improve the performance of Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) using RBF transfer functions over Logarithmic Sigmoid Function. The results of 35 experiments indicate that the Feed Forward MLP performs accurately and exhaustively with RBF. With the change in weight update mechanism and feature-drawn preprocessing module, the proposed system is competent with good recognition show.

  1. Using Singular Value Decomposition to Investigate Degraded Chinese Character Recognition: Evidence from Eye Movements during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Angele, Bernhard; Yang, Jinmian; Simovici, Dan; Pomplun, Marc; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that removing initial strokes from Chinese characters makes them harder to read than removing final or internal ones. In the present study, we examined the contribution of important components to character configuration via singular value decomposition. The results indicated that when the least important segments, which…

  2. Effect of Hidden Layer Neurons on the Classification of Optical Character Recognition Typed Arabic Numerals

    OpenAIRE

    Nidal F. Shilbayeh; MAHMOUD Z. ISKANDARANI

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: The effect of varying the number of nodes in the hidden layer and number of iterations are important factors in the recognition rate. In this paper, a novel and effective criterion based on Cross Pruning (CP) algorithm is proposed to optimize number of hidden neurons and number of iterations in Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural based recognition system. Our technique uses rule-based and neural network pattern recognition methods in an integrated system in order to perform...

  3. Feature Selection Method Based on Neighborhood Relationships: Applications in EEG Signal Identification and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chou, Chien-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new feature selection algorithm, the neighborhood-relationship feature selection (NRFS) algorithm, is proposed for identifying rat electroencephalogram signals and recognizing Chinese characters. In these two applications, dependent relationships exist among the feature vectors and their neighboring feature vectors. Therefore, the proposed NRFS algorithm was designed for solving this problem. By applying the NRFS algorithm, unselected feature vectors have a high priority of being added into the feature subset if the neighboring feature vectors have been selected. In addition, selected feature vectors have a high priority of being eliminated if the neighboring feature vectors are not selected. In the experiments conducted in this study, the NRFS algorithm was compared with two feature algorithms. The experimental results indicated that the NRFS algorithm can extract the crucial frequency bands for identifying rat vigilance states and identifying crucial character regions for recognizing Chinese characters. PMID:27314346

  4. Evaluating Barten image metric for predicting character recognition in people with low vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Schoessow, OTD, OTR/L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices with small visual displays (SVDs are often inaccessible to the millions of Americans with vision loss. The Barten square root integral (SQRI is an image quality metric that has been shown to predict whether people with normal vision can see images on a cathode ray tube monitor. The present proof-of-concept study begins to explore whether the same metric could predict the ability of users with low vision to see images on SVDs. In a sample population of 33 adults with low vision, the Barten SQRI was the best predictor of the ability to recognize low-contrast single digits on a screen (r2 = 0.80, p < 0.01, followed by the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Chart (r2 = 0.69, p < 0.01. Visual acuity was not significantly predictive of the ability to read low-contrast characters on a display. Further work will explore whether the Barten SQRI remains predictive of the ability of people with low vision to use actual devices that have SVDs.

  5. 基于结构化识别码的朝鲜文识别策略%A strategy of Korean character recognition based on structured identification code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荣一

    2000-01-01

    从文字识别的角度讨论了朝鲜文字母和文字的组成规则,采用字母结构化识别码分析了字母的基本要素与组成规律,并通过文字生成图和文字结构图分析了文字的时空特征.同时还讨论了文字复杂性的来源以及off-line手写体朝鲜文字识别的一种策略.%This paper discusses the combination rules of Korean grapheme and character from the point of view of character recognition. The essential components and combination rules of Korean grapheme are analyzed by adopting the structured identification code (ID-code), and the time-spece characteristics are analyzed with character generation diagram(CGD) and character structure diagram (CSD). The source of character complexity and a strategy of off-line handwritten Korean character recognition are also discussed.

  6. Radiation Dose-Rate Extraction from the Camera Image of Quince 2 Robot System using Optical Character Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the case of the Japanese Quince 2 robot system, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras were used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. The Quince 2 robot measured radiation in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The CCD camera with wide field-of-view (fisheye) lens reads indicator of the dosimeter loaded on the Quince 2 robot, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation. The camera image with gamma ray dose-rate information is transmitted to the remote control site via VDSL communication line. At the remote control site, the radiation information in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor can be perceived by monitoring the camera image. To make up the radiation profile in the surveyed refueling floor, the gamma ray dose-rate information in the image should be converted to numerical value. In this paper, we extract the gamma ray dose-rate value in the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor using optical character recognition method

  7. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT. For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed.

  8. Functional Anatomy of Recognition of Chinese Multi-Character Words: Convergent Evidence from Effects of Transposable Nonwords, Lexicality, and Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Yu, Xi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    This fMRI study aimed to identify the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of Chinese multi-character words by partialling out the confounding effect of reaction time (RT). For this purpose, a special type of nonword-transposable nonword-was created by reversing the character orders of real words. These nonwords were included in a lexical decision task along with regular (non-transposable) nonwords and real words. Through conjunction analysis on the contrasts of transposable nonwords versus regular nonwords and words versus regular nonwords, the confounding effect of RT was eliminated, and the regions involved in word recognition were reliably identified. The word-frequency effect was also examined in emerged regions to further assess their functional roles in word processing. Results showed significant conjunctional effect and positive word-frequency effect in the bilateral inferior parietal lobules and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas only conjunctional effect was found in the anterior cingulate cortex. The roles of these brain regions in recognition of Chinese multi-character words were discussed. PMID:26901644

  9. Identification of the Patterns of Chinese Character Recognition in Students with Learning Disabilities Requiring Tier-2 Support: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Yan, Zi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the Chinese reading patterns of students with learning disabilities (LD). The performances of students with LD in reading the three categories of Chinese characters were particularly analysed: regular, irregular, and pseudo-characters. Fifty-three students with LD in reading and 44 students without LD of Year 4 were…

  10. 对人脸识别特征数据降维算法的优化%Optimization of Dimension Reduction Algorithm for Face Recognition Character Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉平; 向华

    2012-01-01

    在模式识别领域,人脸特征数据相对庞大,为了提取人脸主要的特征数据,提高识别系统的运行效率,对特征数据的降维是必须的操作。针对现有降维算法对识别率有较大影响的问题,本文总结了各类降维算法,提出了一种优化的降维算法。%In the field of pattern recognition,facial character data is relatively large,and therefore it is necessary to reduce the dimension of the character data in order to extract the primary facial main data and improve the efficiency of the recognition system.For the existing dimension reduction algorithm has some negative effect on the recognition rate,this article sums up various kinds of dimension reduction algorithms and brings forward a better algorithm.

  11. ERP effects of Radical Combinability in Chinese Character Recognition%汉字识别中部件结合率的作用:ERP研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岩; 王协顺; 陈烜之

    2015-01-01

    以汉字为实验材料,实验操纵两种部件结合率:携带位置信息的部件结合率(position-specific radical combinability, SRC)和不携带位置信息的部件结合率(position-general radical combinability, GRC)。实验中要求被试进行方位判断的同时记录被试脑电的变化。其中,实验1以假字作为填充刺激,结果发现 SRC 的变化引发P200效应,而GRC的变化引发了大脑半球右侧化偏向的N400效应。实验2以简单几何图形作为填充刺激,结果发现SRC所引发的P200效应消失了,但GRC所引发的大脑半球右侧化偏向的N400效应保持稳定。结果说明部件结合率可以在汉字加工中产生作用,但是携带位置信息的部件结合率在汉字加工中容易受到假字所引发的注意偏向的影响;而不携带位置信息的部件结合率在汉字加工中的作用相对稳定。%Prior research on sublexical processing in Chinese character recognition has almost consistently found that radicals were involved in lexical access. However, it is still controversial about the question of how radicals were accessed. For example, it remained unclear that whether sublexical processing relied on radical position information. Close examination to previous studies, we found material compositions might be an important factor that accounted for the different effects of radical positions in lexical access. For example, studies in which illegal characters were used as fillers showed strong positional effects. In contrast, studies in which illegal characters were not employed demonstrated the significant effects of position-general radicals instead of position-specific radicals. Following this argument, the present study was conducted with two purposes. First, by manipulating radical combinability, we aimed to investigate the roles of position-general and position-specific radicals in Chinese character recognition. Second, we examined the question of whether the existence of

  12. Influence of Introducing an Additional Hidden Layer on the Character Recognition Capability of a BP Neural Network having One Hidden Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaypal Singh Dhaka,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to study the character recognition capability of feed-forward back-propagation algorithm using more than one hidden layer. This analysis was conducted on 182 different letters from English alphabet. After binarization, these characters were clubbed together to form training patterns for the neural network. Network was trained to learn its behavior by adjusting the connection strengths on every iteration. The conjugate gradient descent of each presented training pattern was calculated to identify the minima on the error surface for each training pattern. xperiments were performed by using one and two hidden layers and the results revealed that as the number of hidden layers is increased, a lower final mean square error is achieved in large number of epochsand the performance of the neural network was observed to be more accurate.

  13. Large pattern online handwriting character recognition based on multi-convolution neural network%基于多重卷积神经网络的大模式联机手写文字识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛明涛; 王小丽; 潘立武

    2014-01-01

    Online handwriting character recognition is an important field in the research of pattern recognition. The tradi-tional recognition method is based on the common convolutional neural networks(CNNs)technology. It has an efficient recogni-tion rate for the small pattern character set online handwriting characters,but has low recognition rate for the large pattern character set recognition. A recognition method based on multi-convolutional neural networks(MCNNs)is presented in this pa-per to overcome the situation that the previous methods have the low recognition rate for large pattern character set and improve the recognition rate for the large pattern handwriting character set recognition. The stochastic diagonal Levenbert-Marquardt meth-od is used in the system for training optimization. The experimental results show that the proposed method has the recognition rate of 89% and has a good prospect for online handwriting character recognition for large scale pattern.%联机手写识别在日常生产生活中有着广阔的应用,模式识别也一直把其作为研究的重点。传统的识别方法是利用普通卷积神经网络技术,该方法在对小规模字符集联机手写文字识别时有着较高识别率,总体性能高,但在对大规模字符集识别时,识别率则大大降低。提出一种基于多重卷积神经网络的识别方法,旨在克服以往方法对大规模字符集识别时识别效率不高的问题,提高大规模字符集联机手写文字的识别率。系统使用随机对角Levenberg-Marquardt方法来优化训练,通过使用UNIPEN训练集测试该方法识别准确率可达89%,是一个有良好前景的联机手写识别方法。

  14. Recognition of multi-fontstyle characters based on convolutional neural network%基于卷积神经网络的多字体字符识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕刚

    2011-01-01

    By using the stochastic diagonal Levenberg-Marquardt method into convolutional network presented by Simard, it was analysed the relations between sample class number, global learning rate and network's convergence speed. Simard network was then extended to multi-fontstyle little character set such as Baidu CAP-TCHA. A recognition rate 98.4% in single Baidu CAPTCHA character, and 93. 5% as whole was reached. Experimental results confirmed that Simard network could be used in recogniton of mutli-fontstyle little character set.%采用随机对角Levenberg-Marquardt算法有效改进了Simard卷积网络的收敛速度,分析了样本类别数、全局学习率对网络收敛速度的影响,并成功地把Simard网络推广到对百度验证码等多字体小字符集的识别,达到98.4%的单字符识别率和93.5%的整体识别率.实验表明:改进后的Simard网络具有前期预处理少、泛化能力强、收敛速度较快的优点,可以胜任多字体小字符集的识别工作.

  15. 基于多特征集成分类器的脱机满文识别方法%Off-line Manchu character recognition based on multi-classifier ensemble with combination features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏巍; 郭晨

    2012-01-01

    为提高脱机满文手写字体的识别率,提出了基于BP网络的多特征集成分类器识别方法.对扫描成图像的手写满文进行预处理,切分出满文字元;分别提取满文字元的投影特征、链码特征以及端点和交叉点特征,并对这三类特征及其相互组合进行分类识别;通过隐马尔科夫算法对识别结果进行后处理,进一步提高识别的精度.实验结果表明,集成分类器的识别率要比单个特征的识别率要高,同时集成分类器中的特征类别越多,识别效果越好.%To improve the off-line Manchu handwritten character recognition rate, a method of recognition based on the multi-classifier of back propagation neural network ensemble with combination features is presented. Firstly, the preprocessing is performed to segment the Manchu character units aiming at Manchu character image. Secondly, it is implemented to recognize the projection feature, chain code one and begin and end point and cross point one of Manchu character unit and the combination features of these ones. Finally, the post processing of Manchu character recognition result is done by the method of hidden Markov model and the recognition rate further is improved. The result of the experiment shows that the recognition rate of the multi-classifier ensemble is higher than the single one and the more features, the better in the multi-classifier ensemble.

  16. 基于权系数标识符矩阵的车牌字符识别方法%License plate character recognition based on weight coefficient identifier matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志敏; 籍美苹; 薛平; 戴高; 谢仙宝

    2013-01-01

    为了提高对车牌字符的准确识别能力,提出了一种基于权系数标识符矩阵的模板匹配车牌字符识别方法。具体方法是在进行字符识别前为每一个车牌字符制定一个标准化的模板,再将每一个模板字符的像素依据像素区域、像素边缘区域和非像素及非像素边缘区域等标记成不同的区域,并依此为基准生成一个模板矩阵。根据车牌字符闭合区域个数及字符二值图像中间行、中间列黑白跳变次数,可将字符分为10类。进行字符识别时,首先判定待识别字符属于哪一类,然后与所在类的每一个字符的标准模板进行匹配,统计待识别字符落在每一个标准模板矩阵的不同区域的像素数,并根据不同区域的不同权值计算相似度值,相似度值最大的即为识别结果。该方法采用两级分类法对车牌字符图像进行分类,再采用基于权系数标识符矩阵的模板匹配法对车牌字符进行识别。实验结果表明,该方法提高了识别结果的准确度,对于存在字符断裂以及形状相似而容易混淆的字符有较好的识别效果。%In order to improve the accuracy of license plate recognition,a license plate character recognition method matching with a template based on weight coefficient identifier matrix is proposed. The specific method is to develop a standardized tem-plate for each license plate character before character recognition. Each standard template character is divided into three parts:pixel area,pixel edge region,non pixel and non-pixel edge region,which is taken as a criterion to generate a template matrix. According to the black-to-white jump times of number and character binary image in the middle row and middle line,the quanti-ty of pixles which drops down on different areas of each standardized template matrix from characters under recognition is count-ed. The similarity value depends on the weights on the area is

  17. Research on Wooden Blocked Tibetan Character Recognition Based on BP Network%基于BP网络的木刻藏文经书文字识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵栋材

    2012-01-01

    The woodcut blocked Tibetan text by book characters between adhesion,fracture, serious block to create great difficulties for the identification. The character segmentation, feature extraction and character recognition method on the basis of an increase based on BP neural network training methods, through the training woodcut Tibetan scriptures character, correction data, the convergence of the identification results, experimental results show that this method the woodcut Tibetan help to improve recognitionaccuracy by the text of the book.%木刻藏文经书文中出现字符间粘连、断裂、遮挡现象严重,为识别带来极大的困难.在字符切分、特征提取等文字识别方法基础上,增加了基于BP网络的训练方法,通过对大量的木刻藏文经书字符的训练,修正了数据,收敛了识别结果.实验结果显示,此方法有助于提高木刻藏文经书的文字识别正确率.

  18. Recognition of Similar Handwritten Chinese Characters Based on CNN and Random Elastic Deformation%基于CNN和随机弹性形变的相似手写汉字识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学; 王有旺

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize similar handwritten Chinese characters effectively,a convolutional neural network (CNN)model is proposed,and the topology of the network model is presented.Then,the sample set is extended by introducing a stochastic elastic deformation to enhance the generalization performance of the model.Experimen-tal results indicate that the recognition accuracy of the proposed CNN model is 1.66%higher than that of the tradi-tional CNN model,especially,for distorted handwritten Chinese characters,the recognition accuracy increases by 12.85%;moreover,as compared with the traditional recognition methods,the proposed CNN model reduces the recognition error rate by 36.47%.It is thus concluded that the proposed method is effective.%针对手写汉字中相似汉字的识别问题,构建了一种卷积神经网络(CNN)模型,并给出了其网络拓扑结构,通过随机弹性形变对样本集进行扩展,以提高模型的泛化性能.相似手写汉字的识别实验结果表明:相对于常规的CNN模型,文中CNN模型的手写汉字识别正确率提高1.66%,特别是对于变形的手写汉字,识别正确率提高12.85%;相对于传统的手写汉字识别方法,文中方法的识别错误率降低36.47%,从而验证了文中识别方法的有效性.

  19. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  20. Differential characters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Providing a systematic introduction to differential characters as introduced by Cheeger and Simons, this text describes important concepts such as fiber integration, higher dimensional holonomy, transgression, and the product structure in a geometric manner. Differential characters form a model of what is nowadays called differential cohomology, which is the mathematical structure behind the higher gauge theories in physics.  

  1. Research on a phased license plate character recognition algorithm based on neural network%基于神经网络的分阶车牌字符识别算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珊珊; 李一民; 郭真真

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the license plate recognition rate and recognition speed in complex en-vironments, a phased license plate recognition algorithm based on BP neural network and convolution neural network( CNN) is proposed. This method BP neural network used to recognize license plate charac-ters, non-similar letters and numbers in the first stage;and improved CNN used to identify similar license plate letters and numbers in the second stage. Finally through the experimental results of vertical and hor-izontal comparison, the advantage of this method is obtained. Experimental results show that compared with other algorithms such as BP neural network, this method has improved the recognition rate while the recognition time is reduced.%为了提高复杂环境下车牌字符的识别率和识别速度,提出了一种基于BP神经网络和卷积神经网络( CNN)的分阶车牌字符识别算法。该算法第一阶段采用BP神经网络对车牌中的汉字、非相似字符进行识别;并在第二阶段用改进的CNN对车牌中的相似字符进行识别。最后通过实验横向、纵向对比,验证了该神经网络算法的有效性。实验结果表明,相对于传统的BP神经网络算法,明显提高了车牌字符的识别率,同时减少了车牌的识别时间。

  2. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  3. Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Printed Code Characters Recognition%卷积神经网络在喷码字符识别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南阳; 白瑞林; 李新

    2015-01-01

    为实现易拉罐灌装过程中喷码字符实时检测,提出了一种基于卷积神经网络的实时检测方法。该方法首先对采集的图像进行直方图均衡化和OSTU处理,然后对图像进行形态学膨胀操作,通过连通域面积法提取出喷码字符区域并进行旋转矫正,再采用投影法将字符区域分割为单个字符,在离线状态下采用卷积神经网络对字符进行训练,从而在在线检测时进行识别。实验表明,该方法检测一帧图像平均时间为46 ms,准确率达98.97%,实时性和准确性较高,可以满足工业易拉罐喷码字符在线实时检测要求。%In order to achieve the real-time detection of Coding characters in the process of filling cans, a real-time detection method based on convolutional neural network is proposed. This method initially adopts the histogram equalization and OSTU to deal with the images and then operates the images by the morphological inflation method. Besides, the region of the printed code characters is extracted by the area method of connected domain and then rotates and corrects this region. By using the projection method, the region is divided into single characters which will be trained by the convolutional neural network under the offline state. All above procedures are done in order to recognize the characters while doing the online detection. Experiments show that the average time of every detected image is 46 ms and its accuracy achieves 98.97%which show high instantaneity and accuracy. Thus, it can meet the demand of the real-time detection of industrial cans characters.

  4. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  5. Believable Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nasr, Magy Seif; Bishko, Leslie; Zammitto, Veronica; Nixon, Michael; Vasiliakos, Athanasios V.; Wei, Huaxin

    The interactive entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. In 1996, the U.S. entertainment software industry reported 2.6 billion in sales revenue, this figure has more than tripled in 2007 yielding 9.5 billion in revenues [1]. In addition, gamers, the target market for interactive entertainment products, are now reaching beyond the traditional 8-34 year old male to include women, Hispanics, and African Americans [2]. This trend has been observed in several markets, including Japan, China, Korea, and India, who has just published their first international AAA title (defined as high quality games with high budget), a 3D third person action game: Ghajini - The Game [3]. The topic of believable characters is becoming a central issue when designing and developing games for today's game industry. While narrative and character were considered secondary to game mechanics, games are currently evolving to integrate characters, narrative, and drama as part of their design. One can see this pattern through the emergence of games like Assassin's Creed (published by Ubisoft 2008), Hotel Dusk (published by Nintendo 2007), and Prince of Persia series (published by Ubisoft), which emphasized character and narrative as part of their design.

  6. 深度学习在手写汉字识别中的应用综述%Applications of Deep Learning for Handwritten Chinese Character Recognition:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金连文; 钟卓耀; 杨钊; 杨维信; 谢泽澄; 孙俊

    2016-01-01

    手写汉字识别(Handwritten Chinese character recognition, HCCR)是模式识别的一个重要研究领域,最近几十年来得到了广泛的研究与关注,随着深度学习新技术的出现,近年来基于深度学习的手写汉字识别在方法和性能上得到了突破性的进展。本文综述了深度学习在手写汉字识别领域的研究进展及具体应用。首先介绍了手写汉字识别的研究背景与现状。其次简要概述了深度学习的几种典型结构模型并介绍了一些主流的开源工具,在此基础上详细综述了基于深度学习的联机和脱机手写汉字识别的方法,阐述了相关方法的原理、技术细节、性能指标等现状情况,最后进行了分析与总结,指出了手写汉字识别领域仍需要解决的问题及未来的研究方向。%Handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR) is an important research filed of pattern recognition, which has attracted extensive studies during the past decades. With the emergence of deep learning, new breakthrough progresses of HCCR have been obtained in recent years. In this paper, we review the applications of deep learning models in the field of HCCR. First, the research background and current state-of-the-art HCCR technologies are introduced. Then, we provide a brief overview of several typical deep learning models, and introduce some widely used open source tools for deep learning. The approaches of online HCCR and offline HCCR based on deep learning are surveyed, with the summaries of the related methods, technical details, and performance analysis. Finally, further research directions are discussed.

  7. License plate character recognition based on stacked denoising autoencoder%基于栈式降噪自编码神经网络的车牌字符识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文其; 李明; 朱美强; 王军

    2016-01-01

    To solve problem of the license plate characters under complex natural scenes affected by noise and etc .,a method of the license plate characters recognition based on a stacked denoising autoencoder was proposed .Relevant features based on the reconstruction theory of denoising autoencoder were automatically extracted ,and unsupervised greedy layer‐wise pre‐training and supervised fine‐tuning were utilized to train the deep autoencoder network ,so that it had good robust performance on obtaining the license plate characters with low quality in the complex environment .Compared with the shallow machine learning algo‐rithms ,the traditional stacked autoencoder and convolutional neural network ,stacked denoising autoencoder is superior in recog‐nition .Results of experiments of the license plate image test set collected by electronic police at the actual crossing verified the ef‐fectiveness of the application method .%为解决复杂自然场景下车牌字符受噪声等影响识别困难的问题,提出一种基于栈式降噪自编码神经网络的车牌识别方法。基于降噪自编码模型重构思想自动提取相关特征,通过使用无监督逐层贪婪预训练和有监督微调的方法对深度自编码神经网络进行训练,对复杂环境下低质量的车牌字符图像具有较好的鲁棒性能。与浅层的机器学习算法、传统栈式自编码神经网络和卷积神经网络相比,栈式降噪自编码神经网络有较好的字符识别性能。基于实际道口电子警察采集的车牌图像测试集的实验结果验证了该方法的有效性。

  8. Vehicle License Plate Character Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Sen Pan; Jun-Biao Yan; Zheng-Hong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) character segmentation is an important part of the vehicle license plate recognition system (VLPRS). This paper proposes a least square method (LSM) to treat horizontal tilt and vertical tilt in VLP images. Auxiliary lines are added into the image (or the tilt-corrected image) to make the separated parts of each Chinese character to be an interconnected region. The noise regions will be eliminated after two fusing images are merged according to the minimum principle of gray values.Then, the characters are segmented by projection method (PM) and the final character images are obtained. The experimental results show that this method features fast processing and good performance in segmentation.

  9. Role of Familiarity of Semantic Radicals in the Recognition of Lowly Familiar Chinese Characters%义符熟悉性对低频形声字词汇通达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新葵; 张积家

    2012-01-01

    Chinese characters are logograms, with semantic radicals playing the dominating role in conveying meaning through form. Though fruitful results have been achieved in semantic radical's studies, providing evidence to support that semantic radical embodies the pictographic, ideographic and grammar function. The tasks applied in those studies are mostly outline, much less inline. The latter method mainly regards frequency as a balance-matching factor, while the matching method is likely to hide the difference in processing characters with different frequencies; this is probably one important reason why no concordant conclusion has been made in current semantic radical's studies. This study, referring to the Chen Xinkui and Zhang Jijias' research on the influence of the familiarity of semantic radicals on the recognition of high frequency Chinese characters, and applying the same research paradigm, I.e., by matching components of high frequency words and low frequency words like word frequency, number of strokes, details, contextual requisitions, probed into the impact of low frequency phonograms as initiate words on target words under three different SOA conditions, thus analyze systematically and thoroughly the impact of familiarity of semantic radicals on the understanding of phonograms. The results showed that when SOA = 43ms, the target latencies following R+S-primes were slower than the R - S - controls under the highly familiar semantic radical condition; however, this was not the case under the less familiar condition. When SOA = 72ms, the target latencies following R+S- primes were slowed relative to R - S - controls under both highly familiar and less familiar semantic radical conditions. Further, when SOA= 243ms, facilitation effects of R-S+ and inhibition effects of R+S- Primes were observed under both highly and lowly familiar semantic radicals conditions, with a inhibition effects found in the highly familiar one. The results indicated a dynamic

  10. 动车组显控界面字符行距对司机识别效率的影响性研究%Influence of Line Spacing of Characters on EMU Display and Control Interface on Recognition Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭孜政; 李永建; 盛金根; 钱丙益; 宋炜

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study was made to investigate the influence of the information density shown on the EMU control interface on the visual recognition efficiency (RE) of EMU drivers. Taking Song Type face Character 2 as the research object and the reaction time as the RE index, the RE of several groups of texts of different styles were examined. The groups were combined randomly with 5 different types of column spacing and 5 different types of line spacing (LS) . The inter-group RE differences were analyzed by means of repeated variance tests. The relation between LS and RE was examined by regression analysis. The minimum threshold of the display and control interface LS was calculated with the normal reading speed as the critical value. The experiment results show as follows: LS of characters has significant influence on RE; LS and RE are proved to be of nonlinear and positive relationship; the minimum threshold of LS is set as 2 mm.%针对动车组显控界面设计中,字符行距对动车司机视觉识别效率影响性问题进行实验研究.以动车显控界面中普遍采用的2号宋体字为研究对象,以简单反应时为识别效率指标,在5种列距情况下,进行字符行距对识别效率的影响性实验研究.对于实验数据,采用方差检验进行组间差异性分析,应用回归分析研究字符行距与识别效率间的相关关系,并以正常识读速度为临界值,对显控界面字符行距最小阈值进行计算.结果表明:字符行距对识别效率影响性显著,识别效率与字符行距呈非线性正相关关系,显控界面字符行距最小设置阈值为2mm.

  11. LabeI Character Recognition Based on Image Composition of DoubIe Light Sources%基于双光源图像合成法的标牌字符识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林笃盛; 吕海堂; 洪涛; 周明华

    2014-01-01

    在电能表标牌 OCR 的识别过程中,标牌上的透明薄膜经常出现皱褶,使得待识别字符极易受到反射光遮挡,从而增加了 OCR 的识别难度和识别错误率。提出一种位置对称的双光源图像合成法,用该方法检测了多个贴有皱褶薄膜层的电能表标牌,经实例验证,相较于单光源的识别错误率大幅度降低,这有效解决了电能表标牌 OCR 中薄膜反光干扰问题。%The Watt-hour meter sign of transparent fiIm often appears corrugated surface during the OCR process,which makes waiting characters are screened by refIected Iight easiIy,increases the difficuIty of OCR recognition and discriminating error rate.This paper presents a symmetricaI site of doubIe Iight sources image composition method,which is used to identify the number of watt-hour meter signs with corrugated surface.It has been verified by exampIes that compared with singIe Iight source reduced greatIy the discriminating error rate,and soIved effectiveIy the watt-hour meter sign OCR of refIective fiIm interference probIem.

  12. Nearest Neighbor Algorithm in Handwritten Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Deshmukh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character Contour. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set is then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked. There was an attempt made to develop a system that used the methods that humans use to perceive handwritten characters. Hence a system that recognizes handwritten characters using Pattern recognition was developed. Here the data generated by comparing two images was stored in excel format and then that data was called as an individual input for generation of Simulink diagram. Pattern recognition can be used to model human perception. The mathematics that Pattern recognition requires is extremely fundamental. Any algorithm developed using Pattern recognition would require relatively simple and not so lengthy calculations. Due to simplicity of calculations, they can be implemented on any hardware or software platform without worrying about the computing power. In this paper first part is about introduction to character Recognition. The second part deals with the short introduction to neural network implementation for image processing using MATLAB

  13. Recognition without cued recall (RWCR) phenomenon in Chinese characters: Effects of restudying and testing%汉字的无线索回忆再认效应:重复学习和重复测验的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永萍; 周楚; 李林; 郭秀艳

    2016-01-01

    characters learning, and used RWCR to examine the effectiveness of testing and restudying in recognition. In Experiment 1, the final recognition test was taken immediately after the learning phase. A total of 60 college students were engaged in a 2 (Study Status: studied vs. nonstudied) × 2 (Study Strategy Type: testing vs. repeated study) mixed design experiment, to study different influences of testing and restudying on effectiveness of recollection and familiarity. In Experiment 2, 41 college students participated in a mixed design experiment. The procedure was identical to that of experiment 1, except that the final recognition test was taken one week after learning. The results showed that (1) when the final test was taken immediately after the study phase, both restudying and testing lead to better recollection performance than the studying-once encoding did, and there was an advantage of restudy encoding over test encoding. (2) Restudy encoding led to better familiarity performance relative to testing and study-once encoding, and there was no difference between test encoding and studying-once encoding. (3) When the final test was delayed for one week, there was no difference in the recollection performance after either restudy encoding or test encoding. (4) Familiarity performance in restudy encoding condition declined faster than that in the test encoding condition. (5) The semantics of Chinese could elicit the RWCR effect. The results demonstrated that the initial testing increased recollection relative to studying words once, whereas it did not affect familiarity. In addition, recognition tasks showed better familiarity on restudied words than on tested words, and test could enhance long-term retention of the tested material. Further, the semantics of word would also elicit the RWCR effect in logographically scripted language (i.e., Chinese).

  14. Extraction of inclined Character Strings from Unformed Document Images Using the Confidence Value of a Character Recognizer

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, Kei; Arita, Daisaku; Minoh, Michihiko; Ikeda, Katsuo

    1994-01-01

    A method for extracting and recognizing character strings from unformed document images, which have inclined character strings and have no structure at all, is described. To process such kinds of unformed documents, previous schemes, which are intended only to deal with documents containing nothing but horizontal or vertical strings of characters, do not work well. Our method is based on the idea that the processes of recognition and extraction of character patterns should operate together, a...

  15. Text Recognition from an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath Janvalkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high speed in data processing it is necessary to convert the analog data into digital data. Storage of hard copy of any document occupies large space and retrieving of information from that document is time consuming. Optical character recognition system is an effective way in recognition of printed character. It provides an easy way to recognize and convert the printed text on image into the editable text. It also increases the speed of data retrieval from the image. The image which contains characters can be scanned through scanner and then recognition engine of the OCR system interpret the images and convert images of printed characters into machine-readable characters [8].It improving the interface between man and machine in many applications

  16. Characters with personality!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Brandenburgh, A.; Muller, T.J.; Heuvelink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Serious games offer an opportunity for learning communication skills by practicing conversations with one or more virtual characters, provided that the character(s) behave in accordance with their assigned properties and strate-gies. This paper presents an approach for developing virtual characters

  17. Offline Handwritten Devanagari Script Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash Agnihotri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten Devanagari script recognition system using neural network is presented in this paper. Diagonal based feature extraction is used for extracting features of the handwritten Devanagari script. After that these feature of each character image is converted into chromosome bit string of length 378. More than 1000 sample is used for training and testing purpose in this proposed work. It is attempted to use the power of genetic algorithm to recognize the character. In step-I preprocessing on the character image, then image suitable for feature extraction as here is used. Diagonal based feature extraction method to extract 54 features to each character. In the next step character recognize image in which extracted feature in converted into Chromosome bit string of size 378. In recognition step using fitness function in which find the Chromosome difference between unknown character and Chromosome which are store in data base.

  18. Actor/Character Dualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  19. A Proposed Hybrid Technique for Recognizing Arabic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Bahgat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical character recognition systems improve human-machine interaction and are urgently required for many governmental and commercial departments. A considerable progress in the recognition techniques of Latin and Chinese characters has been achieved. By contrast, Arabic Optical Character Recognition (AOCR is still lagging although the interest and research in this area is becoming more intensive than before. This is because the Arabic is a cursive language, written from right to left, each character has two to four different forms according to its position in the word, and most characters are associated with complementary parts above, below, or inside the character. The process of Arabic character recognition passes through several stages; the most serious and error-prone of which are segmentation, and feature extraction & classification. This research focuses on the feature extraction and classification stage, being as important as the segmentation stage. Features can be classified into two categories; Local features, which are usually geometric, and Global features, which are either topological or statistical. Four approaches related to the statistical category are to be investigated, namely: Moment Invariants, Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Run Length Matrix, and Statistical Properties of Intensity Histogram. The paper aims at fusing the features of these methods to get the most representative feature vector that maximizes the recognition rate.

  20. Hierarchical Approximate Matching for Retrieval of Chinese Historical Calligraphy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-Fen Zhang; Yue-Ting Zhuang; Jiang-Qin Wu; Fei Wu

    2007-01-01

    As historical Chinese calligraphy works are being digitized, the problem of retrieval becomes a new challenge. But, currently no OCR technique can convert calligraphy character images into text, nor can the existing Handwriting Character Recognition approach does not work for it. This paper proposes a novel approach to efficiently retrieving Chinese calligraphy characters on the basis of similarity: calligraphy character image is represented by a collection of discriminative features, and high retrieval speed with reasonable effectiveness is achieved. First, calligraphy characters that have no possibility similar to the query are filtered out step by step by comparing the character complexity, stroke density and stroke protrusion. Then, similar calligraphy characters are retrieved and ranked according to their matching cost produced by approximate shape match. In order to speed up the retrieval, we employed high dimensional data structure-PK-tree. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by a preliminary experiment with 3012 calligraphy character images.

  1. Making and consuming characters

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Masae; Hara, Yoritoshi; Kobayashi, Hajime; Takemura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    This paper shall introduce a new phenomenon about consumption. This is related to consumption of characters like Mickey Mouse and Hello, Kitty. The phenomenon appears prominently in Japan. In order to examine consumption of characters and the strategies for creating characters, we conducted a case study on a set of marketing strategies of a toy manufacturer in Japan. Traditionally, consumption research is asserted using the uni-methodological paradigm. The uni-methodological paradigm here mea...

  2. The positioning algorithm based on feature variance of billet character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jiansong; Hong, Hanyu; Shi, Yu; Chen, Hongyang

    2015-12-01

    In the process of steel billets recognition on the production line, the key problem is how to determine the position of the billet from complex scenes. To solve this problem, this paper presents a positioning algorithm based on the feature variance of billet character. Using the largest intra-cluster variance recursive method based on multilevel filtering, the billet characters are segmented completely from the complex scenes. There are three rows of characters on each steel billet, we are able to determine whether the connected regions, which satisfy the condition of the feature variance, are on a straight line. Then we can accurately locate the steel billet. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method in this paper is competitive to other methods in positioning the characters and it also reduce the running time. The algorithm can provide a better basis for the character recognition.

  3. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  4. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The character "力" li (strength) was originally written "(?)" The curving " (?) " indicates bulging muscles, while the "(?)" component represents skin. Despite its evolution over the centuries, "力" still symbolizes a strong arm.In combination with other characters "力" conveys the meaning "力量" liliang (strength), "力气"liqi (strength), "力求" liqiu (pursue) and "力争" lizheng (strive).

  5. Character in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2007-01-01

    Qualities of personal character would appear to play a significant role in the professional conduct of teachers. It is often said that we remember teachers as much for the kinds of people they were than for anything they may have taught us, and some kinds of professional expertise may best be understood as qualities of character. After (roughly)…

  6. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. PMID:26684059

  7. 集装箱编码图像的识别%Container Image ID Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秋煜; 韩锦成; 阚伟

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies a technique of container image ID recognition. In the image preprocessing phase, thresholdiong based on histogram and adaptive thresholding is used. In the character segmentation phase, a labeling method is used, which is based on connected region, location of character block, location of character line recovery of absent and fragmented characters. In the recognition phase, adaptive template match and multiple image results synthesis are used. A high recognition rate is obtained.

  8. 集装箱编码图像的识别%Container Image ID Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秋煜; 韩锦成; 阚伟

    2001-01-01

    The paper studies a technique of container image ID recognition. In the image preprocessing phase, thresholdiong based on histogram and adaptive thresholding is used. In the character segmentation phase, a labeling method is used, which is based on connected region, location of character block, location of character line recovery of absent and fragmented characters. In the recognition phase, adaptive template match and multiple image results synthesis are used. A high recognition rate is obtained.

  9. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  10. Madness in Shakespeare's Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with an introduction where the aims are explained: a psychopathological analysis of a Shakespearean character - Othello – followed by the discussion of the English dramatist’s importance in helping us understand madness in the emergent world of Renaissance. The main characteristics of Othello’s personality, which allowed the development of his jealousy delusion, are described. Finally, the conclusions underline the overlap of the symptoms developed by the character with the DSM-IV classification.

  11. Automatic Arabic Hand Written Text Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Jannoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the decent development of the pattern recognition science applications in the last decade of the twentieth century and this century, text recognition remains one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in the area of Arabic text recognition compared with those for Latin, Chins and Japanese text. The main difficulty encountered when dealing with Arabic text is the cursive nature of Arabic writing in both printed and handwritten forms. An Automatic Arabic Hand-Written Text Recognition (AHTR System is proposed. An efficient segmentation stage is required in order to divide a cursive word or sub-word into its constituting characters. After a word has been extracted from the scanned image, it is thinned and its base line is calculated by analysis of horizontal density histogram. The pattern is then followed through the base line and the segmentation points are detected. Thus after the segmentation stage, the cursive word is represented by a sequence of isolated characters. The recognition problem thus reduces to that of classifying each character. A set of features extracted from each individual characters. A minimum distance classifier is used. Some approaches are used for processing the characters and post processing added to enhance the results. Recognized characters will be appended directly to a word file which is editable form.

  12. Topographic Feature Extraction for Bengali and Hindi Character Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Soumen; 10.5121/sipij.2011.2215

    2011-01-01

    Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR) etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West). We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shape-based graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi...

  13. Reading Ancient Coin Legends: Object Recognition vs. OCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kavelar, Albert; Zambanini, Sebastian; Kampel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Standard OCR is a well-researched topic of computer vision and can be considered solved for machine-printed text. However, when applied to unconstrained images, the recognition rates drop drastically. Therefore, the employment of object recognition-based techniques has become state of the art in scene text recognition applications. This paper presents a scene text recognition method tailored to ancient coin legends and compares the results achieved in character and word recognition experiment...

  14. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  15. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  16. Character Development. Does Sport Affect Character Development in Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, George

    1998-01-01

    Examines the impact of sport on character development, noting that historically British and American schools have valued sports for helping develop social character and citizenship. The paper discusses research on sport as a character builder, suggesting that the effect of sport on character depends on the positive or negative social contextual…

  17. Cinematography and character depiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Francis Nicholson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera’s mode of perception. The outcome is an accessible and systematised foundation for film makers to consult as an entry point into understanding the relationship between character depiction and cinematography:
    “Cinematography captures and expresses what a character is
    feeling – their attitude towards the rest of the world, their interior state” Ian Gabriel, director of Forgiveness (2004 [personal interview 2009].

  18. Radical Knowledge and Character Learning among Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Languag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helen H. Shen

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of radical knowledge to recognition and production of novel phonetic-semantic compound characters among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. The subjects are 40 first- and second-year college students in Chinese classes. The result indicates that students' knowledge of radicals played an important role in their recognition of novel morphologically transparent compound characters, but not in morphologically opaque characters. The result also shows that students with good radical knowledge perform significantly better in production of novel morphological transparent characters than do students with poor radical knowledge.

  19. The typeface character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Research from the fields of neuroscience and psychology, shows that typefaces can carry different semantic associations. However, to be able to read a text, the reader can no longer focus on the character of the typeface, as the human mind is incapable of simultaneously giving full attention to...

  20. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  1. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is perhaps a facet of human nature that makes a person want to beking, and to control others. The character "王" was originally"王",symbolizing the emerald prayer beads worn exclusively by the king. Inthe course of this character’s evolution, however, new connotations were

  2. Preparation of clenbuterol-imprinted material using surface-molecular imprinting method and its molecule recognition character%表面分子印迹法制备克仑特罗印迹材料及其分子识别特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨挺; 陈国; 吴银良; 赵健; 朱勇

    2012-01-01

    To synthesize the molecular imprinted polymer ( MIP) for clenbuterol and study the recognition property of the MIP, polymethylacrylic acid was grafted onto the surface of silica gel particles via the coupling effect of γ-Methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane, and the grafting particle was prepared. Then, the molecular imprinting towards the grafted particle was performed with clenbuterol as template molecule and ethylene glycol diglycidylether as crosslinking agent by using the surface-molecular imprinting technique established, and the clenbuterol molecule-imprinted material was prepared. The morphology of MIP was observed by scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) , and the chemical structure of MIP was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Static method was adopted to study the binding properties and molecule recognition character of MIP for clenbuterol. The experiment results showed that MIP had specific recognition selectivity, excellent binding affinity and elution property for clenbuterol.%为研究克仑特罗分子印迹材料的合成及识别特性,以3-(异丁烯酰氧)丙基三甲氧基硅烷为媒介,将聚甲基丙烯酸偶合接枝到硅胶微粒表面,形成接枝微粒,以克仑特罗为模板分子,乙二醇二缩水甘油醚为交联剂,对接枝在硅胶表面的聚甲基丙烯酸大分子链进行分子印迹,制备克仑特罗表面分子印迹材料.采用扫描电镜观察分子印迹材料表面,用红外光谱对分子印迹材料的化学结构进行了表征,采用静态法研究克仑特罗表面分子印迹材料对克仑特罗的结合性能与分子识别特性.研究表明,分子印迹材料对克仑特罗具有特异的识别选择性,优良的结合亲和性及洗脱性.

  3. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  4. An Efficient Character Segmentation Based on VNP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chitrakala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Character segmentation is an important preprocessing stage in image processing applications such as OCR, License Plate Recognition, electronic processing of checks in banks, form processing and, label and barcode recognition. It is essential to have an efficient character segmentation technique because it affects the performance of all the processes that follow and hence, the overall system accuracy. Vertical projection profile is the most common segmentation technique. However, the segmentation results are not always correct in cases where pixels of adjacent characters fall on the same scan line and a minimum threshold is not observed in the histogram to segment the respective adjacent characters. In this study, a character segmentation technique based on Visited Neighbor Pixel (VNP Algorithm is proposed, which is an improvement to the vertical projection profile technique. VNP Algorithm performs segmentation based on the connectedness of the pixels on the scan line with that of the previously visited pixels. Therefore, a clear line of separation is found even when the threshold between two adjacent characters is not minimal. The segmentation results of the traditional vertical projection profile and the proposed method are compared with respect to a few selected fonts and the latter, with an average accuracy of approximately 94%, has shown encouraging results.

  5. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbråten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  6. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  7. The interplay between agonistic character displacement and reproductive interference in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between species are common despite being relatively understudied. Agonistic character displacement (ACD) theory makes predictions about how selection should act on traits that mediate the occurrence of interspecific aggressive interactions. Previous research on rubyspot damseflies (Hetaerina spp.) documented several cases of divergent agonistic character displacement acting on wing coloration and competitor recognition to diminish wasteful interspecific aggression. How...

  8. The characteristics of event related potential in the cognitive course of individual Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshi, Wang; Hongqiang, Yu; Huisheng, Lu

    2005-01-01

    The difference between the Chinese and English character recognition process and the characteristics of Chinese character recognition process are investigated by analyzing the ERP difference between the matched and mismatched ending strokes of a single Chinese character. First, the P300 are observed in the mismatched ERP waveforms, which don't exist in the matched ERP waveforms (Ppictograph Chinese characters are not only affected by the semanteme, but also closely related to its image of the figure. Secondly, the amplitude of the N400 in the mismatched ending strokes of Chinese character is obviously higher than that in the matched groups (P<0.05). The N400 is distributed in the other areas except the right side of temporal lobe and is higher in the left side. However, the amplitude of N400 in the waveforms has no obvious distinction between the cerebral hemispheres, where the amplitude of N400 are obtained by distracting the ERP of the mismatched individual Chinese character by the ERP of the matched group. These results show that the difference between cerebral hemispheres is attributed to the formal and phonic processing, not due to the semantic processing, which verify that the left and right cerebral hemisphere are both used in the Chinese character recognition, which is very different from the English character recognition, where the left side cerebral hemisphere is used with high percentage.

  9. Plea for Recognition of Scientific Character of Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberg, Lawrence

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that journalism is a science, and that a properly qualified, responsible journalist is a practicing scientist. Deals with the implications of this conclusion for the training of journalists, for the future quality of journalism generally, and for future relations between scientists and journalists. (SR)

  10. Experimental Recognition of Loading Character of Transtibial Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Paloušek, David; Návrat, Tomáš; Rosický, Jiří; Krejčí, Petr; Houfek, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental simulation of mechanical properties of transtibial prosthesis. Artificial limb allows patient standing and moving without of using others supporting devices. Therefore, patient returns back to common and active life. Design and prosthesis properties decide about comfort, safeness and reliability of prosthesis. The article summarizes a conclusion of preliminary experiment, which was performed to measurement procedure of prosthesis strain (for real loading of ...

  11. Phoneme Based Speaker—Independent English Command Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲俊; 万旺根; 余小清

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm of phoneme based speaker-independent English command recognition and develop a speaker-independent English command recognition system. It accelerates the whole system development by using HTK (hide Markov toolkits) and Visual C + + based on the character' istics of speaker-independent speech recognition. In recognition phase we combine the confidence measures with incomplete matching, which considerably improve the quality of recognition. The recognition accuracyis increased by 4.8 % over complete matching without back-end processing when the sige of vocabulary is more than 10.

  12. New performance evaluation models for character detection in images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanWei; Ding, XiaoQing; Liu, ChangSong; Wang, Kongqiao

    2010-02-01

    Detection of characters regions is a meaningful research work for both highlighting region of interest and recognition for further information processing. A lot of researches have been performed on character localization and extraction and this leads to the great needs of performance evaluation scheme to inspect detection algorithms. In this paper, two probability models are established to accomplish evaluation tasks for different applications respectively. For highlighting region of interest, a Gaussian probability model, which simulates the property of a low-pass Gaussian filter of human vision system (HVS), was constructed to allocate different weights to different character parts. It reveals the greatest potential to describe the performance of detectors, especially, when the result detected is an incomplete character, where other methods cannot effectively work. For the recognition destination, we also introduced a weighted probability model to give an appropriate description for the contribution of detection results to final recognition results. The validity of performance evaluation models proposed in this paper are proved by experiments on web images and natural scene images. These models proposed in this paper may also be able to be applied in evaluating algorithms of locating other objects, like face detection and more wide experiments need to be done to examine the assumption.

  13. TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR BENGALI AND HINDI CHARACTER IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West. We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shapebased graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi character images. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

  14. Topographic Feature Extraction for Bengali and Hindi Character Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumen Bag

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection and extraction plays an important role in different classification based problems such as face recognition, signature verification, optical character recognition (OCR etc. The performance of OCR highly depends on the proper selection and extraction of feature set. In this paper, we present novel features based on the topography of a character as visible from different viewing directions on a 2D plane. By topography of a character we mean the structural features of the strokes and their spatial relations. In this work we develop topographic features of strokes visible with respect to views from different directions (e.g. North, South, East, and West. We consider three types of topographic features: closed region, convexity of strokes, and straight line strokes. These features are represented as a shapebased graph which acts as an invariant feature set for discriminating very similar type characters efficiently. We have tested the proposed method on printed and handwritten Bengali and Hindi character images. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.

  15. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  16. Fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Diefenderfer, Graig T.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biometrics is an evolving component in today's society. Fingerprint recognition continues to be one of the most widely used biometric systems. This thesis explores the various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input fingerprint image. This stage incorporates a variety of image pre-processing steps necessary for accurate minutiae extraction and includes two different methods of ridge thin...

  17. Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Artificial Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidan, A A; Jalab, Hamid A; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami

    2010-01-01

    The ambition of a character recognition system is to transform a text document typed on paper into a digital format that can be manipulated by word processor software Unlike other languages, Arabic has unique features, while other language doesn't have, from this language these are seven or eight language such as ordo, jewie and Persian writing, Arabic has twenty eight letters, each of which can be linked in three different ways or separated depending on the case. The difficulty of the Arabic handwriting recognition is that, the accuracy of the character recognition which affects on the accuracy of the word recognition, in additional there is also two or three from for each character, the suggested solution by using artificial neural network can solve the problem and overcome the difficulty of Arabic handwriting recognition.

  18. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  19. Preparation of BSA Molecule Surface-imprinted Material and Studies on its Macromolecule Recognition Characters%牛血清白蛋白分子表面印迹材料的制备及其大分子识别特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史楠; 高保娇; 陈涛

    2014-01-01

    -PDAC/CPVA were characterized by FTIR and SEM.On this basis,the macromolecule recognition character of MIP-PDAC/CPVA microspheres for BAS was examined in depth.The experimental results show that MIP-PDAC/CPVA microspheres possess excellent binding affinity and very high recognition selectivity.The binding capacity of BAS on MIP-PDAC/CPVA microspheres reaches up to 108 mg/g,and the coefficient of selectivity of MIP-PDAC/CPVA towards BAS relative to the constrast protein bovine hemoglobin (BHb) actually gets up to 60.2.

  20. Customer recognition and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka , Rune

    2011-01-01

    We introduce three types of consumer recognition: identity recognition, asymmetric preference recognition, and symmetric preference recognition. We characterize price equilibria and compare profits, consumer surplus, and total welfare. Asymmetric preference recognition enhances profits compared with identity recognition, but firms have no incentive to exchange information regarding customer-specific preferences (symmetric preference recognition). Consumers would benefit from a policy panning ...

  1. Status of pattern recognition with wavelet analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyan TANG

    2008-01-01

    Pattern recognition has become one of the fastest growing research topics in the fields of computer science and electrical and electronic engineering in the recent years.Advanced research and development in pattern recognition have found numerous applications in such areas as artificial intelligence,information security,biometrics,military science and technology,finance and economics,weather forecast,image processing,communication,biomedical engineering,document processing,robot vision,transportation,and endless other areas,with many encouraging results.The achievement of pattern recognition is most likely to benefit from some new developments of theoretical mathematics including wavelet analysis.This paper aims at a brief survey of pattern recognition with the wavelet theory.It contains the following respects:analysis and detection of singularities with wavelets;wavelet descriptors for shapes of the objects;invariant representation of patterns;handwritten and printed character recognition;texture analysis and classification;image indexing and retrieval;classification and clustering;document analysis with wavelets;iris pattern recognition;face recognition using wavelet transform;hand gestures classification;character processing with B-spline wavelet transform;wavelet-based image fusion,and others.

  2. Semi-structured document image matching and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Augereau, Olivier; Journet, Nicholas; Domenger, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    International audience This article presents a method to recognize and to localize semi-structured documents such as ID cards, tickets, invoices, etc. Object recognition methods based on interest points work well on natural images but fail on document images because of repetitive patterns like text. In this article, we propose an adaptation of object recognition for image documents. The advantages of our method is that it does not use character recognition or segmentation and it is robust ...

  3. Character theory of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacs, I Martin

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is a pleasure to read. There is no question but that it will become, and deserves to be, a widely used textbook and reference."" - Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.Character theory provides a powerful tool for proving theorems about finite groups. In addition to dealing with techniques for applying characters to ""pure"" group theory, a large part of this book is devoted to the properties of the characters themselves and how these properties reflect and are reflected in the structure of the group.Chapter I consists of ring theoretic preliminaries. Chapters 2 to 6 and 8

  4. Doing Justice to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Colish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional role of justice is to arbitrate where the good will of people is not enough, if even present, to settle a dispute between the concerned parties. It is a procedural approach that assumes a fractured relationship between those involved. Recognition, at first glance, would not seem to mirror these aspects of justice. Yet recognition is very much a subject of justice these days. The aim of this paper is to question the applicability of justice to the practice of recognition. The methodological orientation of this paper is a Kantian-style critique of the institution of justice, highlighting the limits of its reach and the dangers of overextension. The critique unfolds in the following three steps: 1 There is an immediate appeal to justice as a practice of recognition through its commitment to universality. This allure is shown to be deceptive in providing no prescription for the actual practice of this universality. 2 The interventionist character of justice is designed to address divided relationships. If recognition is only given expression through this channel, then we can only assume division as our starting ground. 3 The outcome of justice in respect to recognition is identification. This identification is left vulnerable to misrecognition itself, creating a cycle of injustice that demands recognition from anew. It seems to be well accepted that recognition is essentjustice, but less clear how to do justice to recognition. This paper is an effort in clarification. Le rôle traditionnel de la justice est celui d’arbitrer des situations où la bonne volonté ne suffit pas à régler un différend entre les parties concernées. Il s'agit d'une approche procédurale qui suppose une relation brisée entre les personnes impliquées. La reconnaissance, à première vue, ne semble pas refléter ces caractéristiques de la justice. Pourtant, elle est souvent présentée comme rétablissant une justice entre les parties concernés. Le

  5. Elementary Character Education: Local Perspectives, Echoed Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Pat; Field, Sherry L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents information based on a yearlong study of character education in an elementary school that was implementing "Kids with Character." Offers an analysis of the responses by students, teachers, and parents about character, development of character, and the program. Indicates that contemporary character education programs are similar to…

  6. Mining and modeling character networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, Anthony; Elenberg, Ethan R; Gleich, David F; Hou, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate social networks of characters found in cultural works such as novels and films. These character networks exhibit many of the properties of complex networks such as skewed degree distribution and community structure, but may be of relatively small order with a high multiplicity of edges. Building on recent work of beveridge, we consider graph extraction, visualization, and network statistics for three novels: Twilight by Stephanie Meyer, Steven King's The Stand, and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Coupling with 800 character networks from films found in the http://moviegalaxies.com/ database, we compare the data sets to simulations from various stochastic complex networks models including random graphs with given expected degrees (also known as the Chung-Lu model), the configuration model, and the preferential attachment model. Using machine learning techniques based on motif (or small subgraph) counts, we determine that the Chung-Lu model best fits character networks and we ...

  7. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  8. Recognition of Historical Records Using Gabor and Zonal Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the automation of the task of an epigraphist in reading and deciphering inscriptions. The automation steps include Pre-processing, Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Recognition. Preprocessing involves, enhancement of degraded ancient document images which is achieved through Spatial filtering methods, followed by binarization of the enhanced image. Segmentation is carried out using Drop Fall and Water Reservoir approaches, to obtain sampled characters. Next Gabor and Zonal features are extracted for the sampled characters, and stored as feature vectors for training. Artificial Neural Network (ANN is trained with these feature vectors and later used for classification of new test characters. Finally the classified characters are mapped to characters of modern form. The system showed good results when tested on the nearly 150 samples of ancient Kannada epigraphs from Ashoka and Hoysala periods. An average Recognition accuracy of 80.2% for Ashoka period and 75.6% for Hoysala period is achieved.

  9. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  10. Character Sums Over The Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    A few elementary estimates of a basic character sum over the prime numbers are derived here. These estimates are nontrivial for character sums modulo large q. In addition, an omega result for character sums over the primes is also included.

  11. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment. PMID:25133716

  12. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom))

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m = 3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m = 3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m = 4 Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N = 4 superconformal characters into SU(2) x SU(2) characters is discussed. (orig.)

  13. License Plate Recognition Algorithm for Passenger Cars in Chinese Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingning Niu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the license plate recognition problem in residential community administrations in China. License plate images are pre-processed through gradation, middle value filters and edge detection. In the license plate localization module the number of edge points, the length of license plate area and the number of each line of edge points are used for localization. In the recognition module, the paper applies a statistical character method combined with a structure character method to obtain the characters. In addition, more models and template library for the characters which have less difference between each other are built. A character classifier is designed and a fuzzy recognition method is proposed based on the fuzzy decision-making method. Experiments show that the recognition accuracy rate is up to 92%.

  14. Preparing Surface Anion-imprinted Material Based on Ion Exchange and Surface-initiated Graft-polymerization and Studies on Its Recognition Character%基于离子交换和表面引发接枝聚合制备阴离子表面印迹材料及其识别特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜俊玫; 高保娇; 黄小卫; 张永奇; 王明娟

    2012-01-01

    surfaces of silica gel particles.These free radicals initiated the monomer DMC and the crosslinker N,N’-methylene bisacrylamide(MBA) to be graft-copolymerized and crosslinked,and the surface-imprinting of phosphate ion was realized.After removing the template ions,PO43-ion surface-imprinted material IIP-PDMC/SiO2 was obtained.Both permanganate ion,4 MnO-ion,and PO43- ion are isoelectronic bodies.Their chemical structures are similar and their configurations are the same,but their sizes are different.In this work,4 MnO-ion was used as contrast ion,and both static and dynamic methods were adopted to study the binding properties and ion recognition character of IIP-PDMC/SiO2 for PO43-ion.The experiment results show that IIP-PDMC/SiO2 have specific recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for PO43-ion,and its selectivity selectivity coefficients for PO43- ion with respect of 4 MnO-ion is 9.58.Besides,IIP-PDMC/SiO2 has excellent elution property,with NaCl solution as eluent,the desorption ratio of PO43- ion reach 99.53% in 20 BV.

  15. Constructing Pairs of Compatible Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathias Kratzer

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite group X such that both the conjugacy of elements in X and the length of any conjugacy class in X can be decided/computed efficiently,the first algorithm described in this article constructs a uniquely determined sequence of representatives for all the conjugacy classes of X. In particular, based on this sequence, any two characters of different groups isomorphic to X become comparable against each other which is utilized by a second algorithm designed to construct so-called compatible characters of given finite groups G and H having isomorphic subgroups U ≤ G and V ≤ H, respectively.

  16. Introducing Character Animation with Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Introducing Character Animation with Blender, 2nd Edition is written in a friendly but professional tone, with clear descriptions and numerous illustrative screenshots. Throughout the book, tutorials focus on how to accomplish actual animation goals, while illustrating the necessary technical methods along the way. These are reinforced by clear descriptions of how each specific aspect of Blender works and fits together with the rest of the package. By following all the tutorials, the reader will gain all the skills necessary to build and animate a well-modeled, fully-rigged character of their

  17. Handwritten Arabic Numeral Recognition using a Multi Layer Perceptron

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Nibaran; Saha, Sudip; Haque, Syed Sahidul

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten numeral recognition is in general a benchmark problem of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence. Compared to the problem of printed numeral recognition, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is compounded due to variations in shapes and sizes of handwritten characters. Considering all these, the problem of handwritten numeral recognition is addressed under the present work in respect to handwritten Arabic numerals. Arabic is spoken throughout the Arab World and the fifth most popular language in the world slightly before Portuguese and Bengali. For the present work, we have developed a feature set of 88 features is designed to represent samples of handwritten Arabic numerals for this work. It includes 72 shadow and 16 octant features. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier is used here for recognition handwritten Arabic digits represented with the said feature set. On experimentation with a database of 3000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 94....

  18. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews and…

  19. Building Character through Literacy with Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerico, Gina M.

    2014-01-01

    Character education is described as curriculum specifically developed to teach children about the quality and traits of good character. One means in which children can learn about good character is through the pages of high quality children's literature. In this study, the author defines the characteristics of an effective character development…

  20. A Survey on Recognition of Devnagari Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnashil N Khobragade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification and matching techniques, which play very important role in the recognition of characters. Feature extraction provides us methods with the help of which we can identify characters uniquely and with high degree of accuracy. So many approaches have been proposed for pre-processing, feature extraction, learning/classification, and post-processing. The objective of this paper is to review these techniques, so that the set of these techniques can be appreciated.

  1. Hamlet and His Melancholy Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2007-01-01

    @@ What's the theme of hamlet?His tragedies often portray some noble hero who faces the injustice of human life and is caught in a difficult situation whose fate is closely connected with the fate of the whole nation.The heroes have some weaknesses in their characters,which finally lead to their tragic thin falls.

  2. Character Analysis of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis analyses Jane Eyre' s character. No matter what Jane met, no matter where she was, she always rebelled against that unfair society, she never gave up to try her best to get free, independent, fair life and true love. By unremitting efforts she finally got dignity, freedom and true love.

  3. Character Toys as Psychological Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Elena O.

    2011-01-01

    The main characteristic of children's play is its mental aspect--the fact that it is based on thoughts and feelings and not on objective reality. During imaginary play, children go beyond the limits of reality, and toys are tools that help them to do this. Children need character toys--toys that play the role of companion or partner--in the early…

  4. Moral Character and Student Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the creation of federal student financial aid programs through the Higher Education Act of 1965, the link between moral character and student financial aid programs is once again influencing the public policy debate. A careful look at the debate, though, shows that the nature of concerns has shifted. In the past, the question…

  5. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  6. Character Education: Developing Effective Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Annette Kusgen

    1998-01-01

    A literature review revealed what does not work in character education: lecturing, authoritative teaching styles, external codes of ethics, and lack of student participation in setting ethics agendas. What works are use of community context; enhanced school, family, and community environment; peer education; cooperative learning; and giving…

  7. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and citizenship, trustworthiness,…

  8. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  9. CHARACTERS THAT SUFFERED DUE TO SHORTAGE IN THE CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Feng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the theories about motif and type will be used for analyzing the very types ofcharacters that suffered because of the shortages. To begin with, the analyzing of the differences andsimilarities of the shortages of each character will be counted on the inside and outside parts of theirsufferings. Then the theories of Nietzsche’s and of some myths will be used for analyzing the furtherreason of the sufferings. At last, investigating the special value those sufferings have brought forliteratures and for TV series. Multi-angle perspective is useful for investigating the unique charms ofthe shortages of characters as well as for finding out new understandings for the types of sufferings.

  10. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  11. Generalized Hidden Markov Models To Handwritten Devanagari Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Pradeep Singh Thakur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hidden Markov Models (HMM have long been a popular choice for Western cursive handwriting recognition following their success in speech recognition. Even for the recognition of Oriental scripts such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean, Hidden Markov Models are increasingly being used to model substrokes of characters. However, when it comes to Indic script recognition, the published work employing HMMs is limited, and generally focused on isolated character recognition. In this effort, a data-driven HMM-based handwritten word recognition system for Hindi, an Indic script, is proposed. Though Devanagari is the script for Hindi, which is the official language of India, its character and word recognition pose great challenges due to large variety of symbols and their proximity in appearance. The accuracies obtained ranged from 30�0to 60�0with lexicon. These initial results are promising and warrant further research in this direction. The results are also encouraging to explore possibilities for adopting the approach to other Indic scripts as well.

  12. Improved Offline Connected Script Recognition Based on Hybrid Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Saba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In domain of analytic cursive word recognition, there are two main approaches: explicit segmentation based and implicit segmentation based. However, both approaches have their own shortcomings. To overcome individual weaknesses, this paper presents a hybrid strategy for recognition of strings of characters (words or numerals. In a two stage dynamic programming based, lexicon driven approach, first an explicit segmentation is applied to segment either cursive andwritten words or numeric strings. However, at this stage, segmentation points are not finalized. In the second verification stage, statistical features are extracted from each segmented area to recognize characters using a trained neural network. To enhance segmentation and recognition accuracy, lexicon is consulted using existing dynamic programming matching techniques. Accordingly, segmentation points are altered to decide true character boundaries byusing lexicon feedback. A rigorous experimental protocol shows high performance of the proposed method for cursive handwritten words and numeral strings.

  13. Automatic Vehicle License Recognition Based on Video Vehicular Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; CHEN Yang; HE Yinghua; WU Jun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of license character extraction cannot meet the requirements of recognition accuracy and speed rendered by the video vehicular detection system.Therefore, a license plate localization method based on multi-scale edge detection and a character segmentation algorithm based on Markov random field model is presented.Results of experiments demonstrate that the method yields more accurate license character extraction in contrast to traditional localization method based on edge detection by difference operator and character segmentation based on threshold.The accuracy increases from 90% to 94% under preferable illumination, while under poor condition, it increases more than 5%.When the two improved algorithms are used, the accuracy and speed of automatic license recognition meet the system's requirement even under the noisy circumstance or uneven illumination.

  14. Visualization of License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Ruan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The image of the license plate is located and segmented by some digital-image processing technologies such as gray-scale processing, gray-scale stretching and filtering, edge detection, morphological processing, Hough transformation etc. According to the characteristics of the license plate, binary matrix of character image sets the fuzzy matrix, and based on the principle of proximity computing space of closeness to get the fuzzy pattern recognition of characters. On the basis of the data of image pixels, the samples which are randomly selected under noisy condition and which are treated by morphological processing are randomly selected, and then the samples are used to test the simulation and identification of Back Propagation (BP Neural Networks. With the mathematical software-Matlab programming, the license plates are recognized. The aim is to develop the Visualization of user interface in License Plate Recognition System.  

  15. The Neural Correlates of the Interaction between Semantic and Phonological Processing for Chinese Character Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Rong; Zevin, Jason D.; Yang, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual word recognition involves mappings among orthographic, phonological, and semantic codes. In alphabetic languages, it is hard to disentangle the effects of these codes, because orthographically well-formed words are typically pronounceable, confounding orthographic and phonological processes, and orthographic cues to meaning are rare, and where they occur are morphological, confounding orthographic and semantic processes. In Chinese character recognition, it is possible to explore orthography to phonology (O-P) and orthography to semantics (O-S) processes independently by taking advantage of the distinct phonetic and semantic components in Chinese phonograms. We analyzed data from an fMRI experiment using lexical decision for Chinese characters to explore the sensitivity of areas associated with character recognition to orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. First, a correlation approach was used to identify regions associated with reaction time, frequency, consistency and visual complexity. Then, these ROIs were examined for their responses to stimuli with different types of information available. These results revealed two neural pathways, one for O-S processing relying on left middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, and the other for O-P processing relying on inferior frontal gyrus and insula. The two neural routes form a shared neural network both for real and pseudo-characters, and their cooperative division of labor reflects the neural basis for processing different types of characters. Results are broadly consistent with findings from alphabetic languages, as predicted by reading models that assume the same general architecture for logographic and alphabetic scripts. PMID:27445914

  16. The Neural Correlates of the Interaction between Semantic and Phonological Processing for Chinese Character Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Rong; Zevin, Jason D; Yang, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Visual word recognition involves mappings among orthographic, phonological, and semantic codes. In alphabetic languages, it is hard to disentangle the effects of these codes, because orthographically well-formed words are typically pronounceable, confounding orthographic and phonological processes, and orthographic cues to meaning are rare, and where they occur are morphological, confounding orthographic and semantic processes. In Chinese character recognition, it is possible to explore orthography to phonology (O-P) and orthography to semantics (O-S) processes independently by taking advantage of the distinct phonetic and semantic components in Chinese phonograms. We analyzed data from an fMRI experiment using lexical decision for Chinese characters to explore the sensitivity of areas associated with character recognition to orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing. First, a correlation approach was used to identify regions associated with reaction time, frequency, consistency and visual complexity. Then, these ROIs were examined for their responses to stimuli with different types of information available. These results revealed two neural pathways, one for O-S processing relying on left middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus, and the other for O-P processing relying on inferior frontal gyrus and insula. The two neural routes form a shared neural network both for real and pseudo-characters, and their cooperative division of labor reflects the neural basis for processing different types of characters. Results are broadly consistent with findings from alphabetic languages, as predicted by reading models that assume the same general architecture for logographic and alphabetic scripts. PMID:27445914

  17. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF FREIGHT CAR NUMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for character extraction on the basis of statistical and structural features of gray-level images,and proposes a dynamic local contrast threshold method accommodating to line width.Precise locating of character string is realized by exploiting horizontal projection and character arrangements of binary images in horizontal and vertical directions respectively.Also discussed is the method for segmentation of characters in binary images,which is based on projection taking stroke width and character sizes into account.A new method for character identification is explored,which is based on compound neural networks.A complex neural network consists of two sub-nets,the first sub-net performs self-association of patterns via 2-dimentional local-connected 3-order networks,the second sub-net,linking with a locally connected BP networks,performs classification.The reliability of the network recognition is reinforced by introducing conditions for identification denial.Experiments confirm that the proposed methods possess the advantages of impressive robustness,rapid processing and high accuracy of identification.

  18. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  19. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  20. Generalized Notion of Character Amenability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Bodaghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the investigation of the rst author begun in [1]. The hereditaryproperties of n-homomorphism amenability for Banach algebras are investigated and the relationsbetween n-homomorphism amenability of a Banach algebra and its ideals are found. Analogous tothe character amenability, it is shown that the tensor product of two unital Banach algebras is n-homomorphism amenable if and only if each one is n-homomorphism amenable.

  1. CHARACTER EDUCATION THROUGH ENGLISH MODALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Subur Wardoyo

    2010-01-01

    The spread of English in Indonesia carries an inherent philosophy with it. This essay will focus on how the view that ‘there is no absolute truth’ is ingrained in the linguistic modality of English. Furthermore it will show how this philosophy of modality may inevitably shape a student’s character since it allows people to create the shared truths they need or to downgrade the truths of others, with all the potential positive or negative consequences. Finally this essay will...

  2. Discrete Meyer Wavelet Transform Features For online Hangul Script Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online hangul script recognition is important when writers input characters into computer and communication apparatus (such as PDA, Mobile Phone. In this study, a Wavelet Transform Features-based method for performance improvement of online handwritten hangul character recognition is proposed. The main idea is applying the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT spectral analysis to the recognition of online hangul script. This method is based on the fact that online scripts offer space and time information. Locations of sample points belonging to a script give only space information and the order of occurrences of sample points provides time information. Given an online handwritten character sample, after a series of preprocessing, we obtain a 64×64 normalized online hangul handwritten script with the time information. The order of sample points can be the index of sequences. One sequence is the vertical coordinate of sample points. The second sequence is the horizontal coordinate of sample points. The third sequence is the product of the vertical coordinate and horizontal coordinate of sample points. The fourth sequence is the ratio between the vertical coordinate difference and horizontal coordinate difference of two sample points. The four sequences are combined as a vector whose size is 512. The vector is convoluted with the Meyer Wavelet and its dimension is reduced from 512 to 128 by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA scheme. Modified Quadratic Discriminant Functions (MQDF is utilized as the classifier for charter recognition. The Experiment results demonstrate that the method can improve the accuracy of character recognition.

  3. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  4. New identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    1994-10-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels m=3, 4, 5 are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and the tricritical Ising models since the m=3 Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of m=4 Virasoro characters. The second identity given the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m=5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of N=4 superconformal characters intoSwidehat{U(2)} × Swidehat{U(2)} characters is discussed.

  5. New Identities between Unitary Minimal Virasoro Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Taormina, A

    1994-01-01

    Two sets of identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at levels $m=3,4,5$ are presented and proven. The first identity suggests a connection between the Ising and tricritical Ising models since the $m=3$ Virasoro characters are obtained as bilinears of $m=4$ Virasoro characters. The second identity gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of $m=5$ Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. The implication of these identities on the study of the branching rules of $N=4$ superconformal characters into $\\widehat{SU(2)} \\times \\widehat{SU(2)}$ characters is discussed.

  6. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreBolinas.zip,"...

  7. Character Balance in MOBA Games

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor, Norén; Emanuel, Palm

    2015-01-01

    As live streaming of video games has become easier, electronic sports have grown quickly and they are still increasing as tournaments grow in viewers and prizes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory Metagame Bounds by applying it to League of Legends and Dota 2, to see if it is a valid way of looking at character balance in the Multiplayer Online Battle Arena game genre. The main mode of both games consist of matches played on a map where a team of five players is up against ano...

  8. A Note on Generalized Characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt; H V Dedania

    2005-11-01

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set $H(G)$ of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and $H(G)=\\hat{G}$ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel’fand space of the commutative convolution algebra $C_c(G)$ equipped with the inductive limit topology is topologically homeomorphic to $H(G)$.

  9. Digital Animation Character Creation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the proper method for Chinese digital animation character design on the foundation of certain cultural elements. The method used in this study is known as comparative analysis of Disney and Japanese animation styles in action, appearance, facial expression and voice design. These dynamic factors are the best carrier of the animation spirit and native culture, so it is important to take the dynamic factors into account when producing the digital animation, and it will be an excellent starting point to innovate Chinese digital animation.

  10. Speaker recognition by voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarauskas, Juozas

    2009-01-01

    Questions of speaker’s recognition by voice are investigated in this dissertation. Speaker recognition systems, their evolution, problems of recognition, systems of features, questions of speaker modeling and matching used in text-independent and text-dependent speaker recognition are considered too. The text-independent speaker recognition system has been developed during this work. The Gaussian mixture model approach was used for speaker modeling and pattern matching. The automatic m...

  11. Iris Recognition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Mei

    2006-01-01

    The demand on security is increasing greatly in these years and biometric recognition gradually becomes a hot field of research. Iris recognition is a new branch of biometric recognition, which is regarded as the most stable, safe and accurate biometric recognition method. In these years, much progress in this field has been made by scholars and experts of different countries. In this paper, some successful iris recognition methods are listed and their performance are compared. Furthermore, the existing problems and challenges are discussed.

  12. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  13. 门牌识别系统中的鲁棒性分割方法%Robust Segmentation Method for Doorplate Recognition System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪义平; 易建强; 赵冬斌

    2005-01-01

    Robot navigation based on character recognition is an effective vision method for compensating the disadvantage of ultrasonic and infrared sensors. A typical example of character recognition for mobile robot navigation is the doorplate recognition system. The captured doorplate images contain unexpected noise from irregular illumination conditions, various imaging angles, different imaging distances, etc. The unexpected noise may still exist after segmentation step. In this paper, a robust segmentation method based on speculating the candidates of the characters and feeding back the classification result to the segmentation process is presented. If the candidates of doorplate characters cannot be determined at the segmentation step, a speculation according to known knowledge is executed. The threshold for character extraction from candidates is adjusted when the corresponding character is rejected after classification. The experimental results indicate that the recognition results are effectively improved with the proposed segmentation method.

  14. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  15. Character animation fundamentals developing skills for 2D and 3D character animation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Expand your animation toolkit and remain competitive in the industry with this leading resource for 2D and 3D character animation techniques. Apply the industry's best practices to your own workflows and develop 2D, 3D and hybrid characters with ease. With side by side comparisons of 2D and 3D character design, improve your character animation and master traditional principles and processes including weight and balance, timing and walks. Develop characters inspired by humans, birds, fish, snakes and four legged animals. Breathe life into your character and develop a characters personality w

  16. Automatic recognition of printed Oriya script

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Chaudhuri; U Pal; M Mitra

    2002-02-01

    This paper deals with an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system for printed Oriya script. The development of OCR for this script is difficult because a large number of character shapes in the script have to be recognized. In the proposed system, the document image is first captured using a flat-bed scanner and then passed through different preprocessing modules like skew correction, line segmentation, zone detection, word and character segmentation etc. These modules have been developed by combining some conventional techniques with some newly proposed ones. Next, individual characters are recognized using a combination of stroke and run-number based features, along with features obtained from the concept of water overflow from a reservoir. The feature detection methods are simple and robust, and do not require preprocessing steps like thinning and pruning. A prototype of the system has been tested on a variety of printed Oriya material, and currently achieves 96.3% character level accuracy on average.

  17. DIFFERENCE FEATURE NEURAL NETWORK IN RECOGNITION OF HUMAN FACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gang; Qi Feihu

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses vision recognition process and finds out that human recognizes objects not by their isolated features, but by their main difference features which people get by contrasting them. According to the resolving character of difference features for vision recognition, the difference feature neural network(DFNN) which is the improved auto-associative neural network is proposed.Using ORL database, the comparative experiment for face recognition with face images and the ones added Gaussian noise is performed, and the result shows that DFNN is better than the auto-associative neural network and it proves DFNN is more efficient.

  18. Character design for soccer commmentary

    CERN Document Server

    Binsted, K

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present early work on an animated talking head commentary system called {\\bf Byrne}\\footnote{David Byrne is the lead singer of the Talking Heads.}. The goal of this project is to develop a system which can take the output from the RoboCup soccer simulator, and generate appropriate affective speech and facial expressions, based on the character's personality, emotional state, and the state of play. Here we describe a system which takes pre-analysed simulator output as input, and which generates text marked-up for use by a speech generator and a face animation system. We make heavy use of inter-system standards, so that future versions of Byrne will be able to take advantage of advances in the technologies that it incorporates.

  19. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  20. The Contingent Character of Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent criticisms raised against Hegel has to do with the totalizing aspect of his system, which determines what is as absolutely necessary. The Science of Logic, being the conceptual edifice upon which his whole system is built, is the appropriate place to determine the specific meaning of the Hegelian concepts. The following paper offers a detailed analysis on the chapter on Actuality (Wirklichkeit in the Science of Logic, in order to show how the concept of absolute necessity not only includes within it, but also contains as a structural element, the concept of contingency. In this manner a deflationary interpretation is generated in which the absolutely necessary character of actuality should not be understood as grounded on a pre-established end that inexorably determines actuality, but rather as an interpretive movement, in recollection, of its process.

  1. Type-2 fuzzy graphical models for pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Jia

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses how to combine type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models to solve a range of real-world pattern recognition problems such as speech recognition, handwritten Chinese character recognition, topic modeling as well as human action recognition. It covers these recent developments while also providing a comprehensive introduction to the fields of type-2 fuzzy sets and graphical models. Though primarily intended for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in fuzzy logic and pattern recognition, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers without any previous knowledge of these fields. Dr. Jia Zeng is a Professor at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, China. Dr. Zhi-Qiang Liu is a Professor at the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong, China.

  2. USE OF JPEG ALGORITHM IN HANDWRITTEN DEVNAGRI NUMERAL RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan Birajdar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of handwritten Devnagri numerals is a difficult task in pattern recognition. It hasnumerous applications including those in postal sorting and bank cheque processing. In this paper, a fastand effective method is proposed for recognition of isolated handwritten Devnagri numerals based onJPEG image compression algorithm, which is less time consuming as compared to artificial neuralnetwork based recognition systems. In JPEG image compression, which has high compression ratio, aunique vector which helps to identify each character is generated. By using this unique vector, theproposed system has recognized the input numeral after measuring the Euclidean distance between thevector corresponding to the numeral and the vectors in the codebook as well as the length of vector. Thenthe shortest distance pointed to the corresponding letter is obtained. The result was considerably high interms of recognition rate.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Module of Convolutional Neural Network for Handwritten Digits Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, E. A.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    Optical character recognition is one of the important issues in the field of pattern recognition. This paper presents a method for recognizing handwritten digits based on the modeling of convolutional neural network. The integrated fuzzy logic module based on a structural approach was developed. Used system architecture adjusted the output of the neural network to improve quality of symbol identification. It was shown that proposed algorithm was flexible and high recognition rate of 99.23% was achieved.

  4. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whole ANPR system depends on number plate extraction phase as character segmentation and character recognition phases are also depend on the output of this phase. Further the accuracy of Number Plate Extraction phase depends on the quality of captured vehicle image. Higher be the quality of captured input vehicle image more will be the chances of proper extraction of vehicle number plate area. The existing methods of ANPR works well for dark and bright/light categories image but it does not work well for Low Contrast, Blurred and Noisy images and the detection of exact number plate area by using the existing ANPR approach is not successful even after applying existing filtering and enhancement technique for these types of images. Due to wrong extraction of number plate area, the character segmentation and character recognition are also not successful in this case by using the existing method. To overcome these drawbacks I proposed an efficient approach for ANPR in which the input vehicle image is pre-processed firstly by iterative bilateral filtering , adaptive histogram equalization and number plate is extracted from pre-processed vehicle image using morphological operations, image subtraction, image binarization/thresholding, sobel vertical edge detection and by boundary box analysis. Sometimes the extracted plate area also contains noise, bolts, frames etc. So the extracted plate area is enhanced by using morphological operations to improve the quality of

  5. Diagonal Based Feature Extraction for Handwritten Alphabets Recognition System Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Pradeep

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An off-line handwritten alphabetical character recognition system using multilayer feed forward neuralnetwork is described in the paper. A new method, called, diagonal based feature extraction is introducedfor extracting the features of the handwritten alphabets. Fifty data sets, each containing 26 alphabetswritten by various people, are used for training the neural network and 570 different handwrittenalphabetical characters are used for testing. The proposed recognition system performs quite wellyielding higher levels of recognition accuracy compared to the systems employing the conventionalhorizontal and vertical methods of feature extraction. This system will be suitable for convertinghandwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.

  6. Diagonal Based Feature Extraction for Handwritten Alphabets Recognition System using Neural Network

    CERN Document Server

    Pradeep, J; Himavathi, S; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3103

    2011-01-01

    An off-line handwritten alphabetical character recognition system using multilayer feed forward neural network is described in the paper. A new method, called, diagonal based feature extraction is introduced for extracting the features of the handwritten alphabets. Fifty data sets, each containing 26 alphabets written by various people, are used for training the neural network and 570 different handwritten alphabetical characters are used for testing. The proposed recognition system performs quite well yielding higher levels of recognition accuracy compared to the systems employing the conventional horizontal and vertical methods of feature extraction. This system will be suitable for converting handwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.

  7. Computer-Mediated Materials for Chinese Character Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Mei; Gao, Liwei

    2002-01-01

    Reviews four sets of computer-mediated materials for Chinese character learning. These include the following: Write Chinese, Chinese Characters Primer, Animated Chinese Characters, and USC Chinese Character Page. (Author/VWL)

  8. RECOGNITION OF CONTESTED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nanna; Ben-Ahmed, Michele; Bom, Thomas Falk; Ching, Rune Kieran; Steffensen, Lars Schmidt; Funningsstovu, Janus Hanusarson í

    2012-01-01

    Contested states have existed in many decades and been on the political agenda worldwide. A small group of entities in the world are aspiring for recognition and independence, while some entities gained recognition relatively smoothly. This project accounts for UN’s recognition process and investigates entities prospects of influencing the process for obtaining recognition. Based on theories of liberalism and constructivism as well as the opposing theories of international relations, re...

  9. The spatial character of sensor technology

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Stuart; Pridmore, Tony; Crabtree, Andy; Green, Jonathan; Benford, Steve; O'Malley, Claire

    2006-01-01

    By considering the spatial character of sensor-based interactive systems, this paper investigates how discussions of seams and seamlessness in ubiquitous computing neglect the complex spatial character that is constructed as a side-effect of deploying sensor technology within a space. Through a study of a torch (`flashlight') based interface, we develop a framework for analysing this spatial character generated by sensor technology. This framework is then used to analyse and compare a range o...

  10. Recognition and Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Fichtner, K. -H.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study a possible function of brain, in particular, we try to describe several aspects of the process of recognition. In order to understand the fundamental parts of the recognition process, the quantum teleportation scheme seems to be useful. We consider a channel expression of the teleportation process that serves for a simplified description of the recognition process in brain.

  11. Face Detection and Face Recognition of Cartoon Characters using Feature Extraction and its Application to Cartoon Characters Search

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    報告番号: ; 学位授与年月日: 2013-03-25 ; 学位の種別: 修士 ; 学位の種類: 修士(科学) ; 学位記番号: 修創域第4637号 ; 研究科・専攻: 新領域創成科学研究科基盤科学研究系複雑理工学専攻

  12. Complex root networks of Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Han; Chen, Jia-Ling; Wang, Po-Cheng; Chi, Ting-Ting; Xiao, Zhi-Ren; Jhang, Zih-Jian; Yeh, Yeong-Nan; Chen, Yih-Yuh; Hu, Chin-Kun

    There are several sets of Chinese characters still available today, including Oracle Bone Inscriptions (OBI) in Shang Dynasty, Chu characters (CC) used in Chu of Warring State Period, Small Seal Script in dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (SJ) in Eastern Han Dynasty, and Kangxi Dictionary (KD) in Qing Dynasty. Such as Chinese characters were all constructed via combinations of meaningful patterns, called roots. Our studies for the complex networks of all roots indicate that the roots of the characters in OBI, CC, SJ and KD have characteristics of small world networks and scale-free networks.

  13. On the Character of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  14. On the Character of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, Arto

    2016-01-01

    The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together, or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature's hierarchy. PMID:27065819

  15. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  16. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  17. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  18. Developing Individual and Team Character in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stacey A.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…

  19. Character Education, K-12, in Uniondale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Seinik, Cynthia; McCarthy, Margaret; Nadal, Kathleen; Pfeiffer, Deborah; Tella, Adeola; Wagner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    The Uniondale, New York School District and community believe that their character education program creates a safe and positive environment for their students. Through character education, they are increasing students' social competence and reducing students' aggressive behaviors. Their school district's goal is to build a district and school…

  20. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters.  Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  1. Character, Civility, and the Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    As the educational community works together to improve academic achievement, the importance of character traits such as honesty, trustworthiness, self discipline, kindness, empathy, respect, responsibility, and courage must not be neglected. This guide has been designed to help educators and families in Massachusetts link character development and…

  2. Children Characters in Rumi’s Masnavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the stories of Masnavi in which the children have the main role. The aim is to consider children’s attitudes as the elements of the story. The subjects we are going to work on are as follows: To consider carefully the apparent, spiritual, mental and environmental connections, to identify the static and dynamic character, and the protagonist and antagonist of mentioned children. Rumi has selected child character in 26 stories in Masnavi. All children are described based on gender, name, age and social class. The characters in Masnavi can be divided in two groups as human (men, women, and children and non-human (God, angels, fairies, animals and etc. characters. Almost all of the characters in Rumi’s stories do not have a special name and they are called with words that determine their gender or age. Gender is an important feature in characters especially in babies. Of course spiritual and mental features and the environment where they have been grown are mentioned and the words are coordinated with mental and social levels. Rumi’s skill is consistency between characters and environment. Babies’ character has consistency with their environment. All these factors will show the mature period, and need behaviors. There descriptions help the reader for deep understanding.

  3. Keys to Chinese Character Writing. Step-by-Step Directions to Writing Characters Quickly and Easily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing Heng Sheng

    The most interesting and challenging aspect of studying Chinese is writing Chinese characters. Unfortunately, the learning of Chinese characters receives only marginal attention in a typical classroom. Given that vocabularies in textbooks are based on spoken language rather than the principles of character formation, and also given the pressures…

  4. Phenotypic character gradient variation of Melia azedarach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shiming; GU Wanchun

    2007-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was applied on the research data of five geographical-climatic factors and 18 phenotypic characters of 729 trees of 24 populations of Melia azedarach distributed in China.The eigenvalue of the first canonical variable is 0.997 9 (significant at 0.01 level),accounting for 78% of all eigenvalues.A study on the principal component analysis (PCA) was done,taking the first canonical variable coordinate values as the phenotypic character gradient axes (PCGA).The isogram of the PCGA was drawn out with 0.2 contours,which showed a geographical model with a northeast-southwest variation trend of the phenotypic characters of M.azedarach.Meanwhile,the path analysis results show the direct and indirect effects of phenotypic characters with phenotypic character gradient values,which prove that the propagative organs,are steadily changing.

  5. Character Education and Students Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu A. Kamaruddin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In an educational environment, in the form of character education program has been done both formally and informally. It's intended as one of the supporting ideas for follow-up in the form of design activities. Character education should basically refers to the vision and mission of the institution concerned. It shows the orientation of the two things in the character of the students are: aspects of human character and individual learners hallmark institution. In this paper, these two aspects is the author trying to ideas by referring to some other writings. The end result, the authors expect the birth of a design patent as early referral to spearhead a character development program learners.

  6. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K

    2016-04-01

    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system. PMID:26620688

  7. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  8. Phonetic Alphabet for Speech Recognition of Czech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uhlir

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce and discuss an alphabet that has been proposed for phonemicly oriented automatic speech recognition. The alphabet, denoted as a PAC (Phonetic Alphabet for Czech consists of 48 basic symbols that allow for distinguishing all major events occurring in spoken Czech language. The symbols can be used both for phonetic transcription of Czech texts as well as for labeling recorded speech signals. From practical reasons, the alphabet occurs in two versions; one utilizes Czech native characters and the other employs symbols similar to those used for English in the DARPA and NIST alphabets.

  9. Multimodal Biometrics Recognition by Dimensionality Diminution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric system utilizes two or more character modalities, e.g., face, ear, and fingerprint, Signature, plamprint to improve the recognition accuracy of conventional unimodal methods. We propose a new dimensionality reduction method called Dimension Diminish Projection (DDP in this paper. DDP can not only preserve local information by capturing the intra-modal geometry, but also extract between-class relevant structures for classification effectively. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better than other algorithms including PCA, LDA and MFA.

  10. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  11. Video Game Characters. Theory and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schröter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay develops a method for the analysis of video game characters based on a theoretical understanding of their medium-specific representation and the mental processes involved in their intersubjective construction by video game players. We propose to distinguish, first, between narration, simulation, and communication as three modes of representation particularly salient for contemporary video games and the characters they represent, second, between narrative, ludic, and social experience as three ways in which players perceive video game characters and their representations, and, third, between three dimensions of video game characters as ‘intersubjective constructs’, which usually are to be analyzed not only as fictional beings with certain diegetic properties but also as game pieces with certain ludic properties and, in those cases in which they function as avatars in the social space of a multiplayer game, as representations of other players. Having established these basic distinctions, we proceed to analyze their realization and interrelation by reference to the character of Martin Walker from the third-person shooter Spec Ops: The Line (Yager Development 2012, the highly customizable player-controlled characters from the role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim (Bethesda 2011, and the complex multidimensional characters in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Wars: The Old Republic (BioWare 2011-2014.

  12. ANATOMY ON PATTERN RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    MAYANK PARASHER; SHRUTI SHARMA; A .K. SHARMA,; J.P.Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Pattern Recognition is the science of recognizing patterns by machines. This is very wide research area as of today, because every newresearch tries to make machine as intelligent as human for recognizing patterns. Pattern recognition is an active research and an importanttrait of ‘artificial intelligence’. This review paper introduces pattern recognition, its fundamental definitions, and provides understanding of related research work. This paper presents different types of algorithms, their...

  13. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  14. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  15. Teaching Virtual Characters to use Body Language

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Doron; Gillies, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Non-verbal communication, or “body language”, is a critical component in constructing believable virtual characters. Most often, body language is implemented by a set of ad-hoc rules.We propose a new method for authors to specify and refine their character’s body-language responses. Using our method, the author watches the character acting in a situation, and provides simple feedback on-line. The character then learns to use its body language to maximize the rewards, based on a reinforcement ...

  16. On Hemingway’s Literary Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Miruna Ciocoi-Pop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a brief outline of Hemingway’s characters and the way in which they correspond to the author himself. It is known for a fact that Hemingway evinced a tendency to imitate his characters when they were coming to grips with diverse situations. Thus I have tried to briefly pinpoint the fading boundaries between reality and imagination in his work. By doing so, I have focused on both male and female characters, underlining the major dissimilarities between these two categories, as well as their main features.

  17. Printed Persian Subword Recognition Using Wavelet Packet Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Nasrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition.

  18. Neural substrates of Hanja (Logogram) and Hangul (Phonogram) character readings by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Nambeom; Bae, Sungbong; Chi, Je-Geun; Park, Chan-Woong; Ogawa, Seiji; Kim, Young-Bo

    2014-10-01

    The two basic scripts of the Korean writing system, Hanja (the logography of the traditional Korean character) and Hangul (the more newer Korean alphabet), have been used together since the 14th century. While Hanja character has its own morphemic base, Hangul being purely phonemic without morphemic base. These two, therefore, have substantially different outcomes as a language as well as different neural responses. Based on these linguistic differences between Hanja and Hangul, we have launched two studies; first was to find differences in cortical activation when it is stimulated by Hanja and Hangul reading to support the much discussed dual-route hypothesis of logographic and phonological routes in the brain by fMRI (Experiment 1). The second objective was to evaluate how Hanja and Hangul affect comprehension, therefore, recognition memory, specifically the effects of semantic transparency and morphemic clarity on memory consolidation and then related cortical activations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (Experiment 2). The first fMRI experiment indicated relatively large areas of the brain are activated by Hanja reading compared to Hangul reading. The second experiment, the recognition memory study, revealed two findings, that is there is only a small difference in recognition memory for semantic transparency, while for the morphemic clarity was much larger between Hanja and Hangul. That is the morphemic clarity has significantly more effect than semantic transparency on recognition memory when studies by fMRI in correlation with behavioral study. PMID:25368497

  19. Seafloor character--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 5, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster data file...

  20. Character Development: Renewing an Old Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Edward

    1986-01-01

    Growing public concern with student discipline, increases in student suicide rates, homicides, and high pregnancy rates of teenage girls are causing educators to give renewed attention to the concept of "character development" in public education. (MD)

  1. Brains with character: Reading and writing neuronarrative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F. Yaczo

    2015-01-01

    Brains with Character: Reading and Writing Neuronarrative tracks the concept of neuronarrative by analyzing the reciprocal and catalytic relationships between neuroscience and literary media. Crucial to understanding the contemporary stakes in these two cultural endeavors is how their relationships

  2. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali K Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is concluded that seed characters can be used for the characterization of accessions in T. cordifolia germplasm and these characters can be used in   DUS descriptors of the species.

  3. Seafloor character--Offshore of Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in "SFC_OffshorePacifica.zip," which is...

  4. Some Correlates of the Arab Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, John

    1983-01-01

    Describes cultural correlates of the Arab character in terms of family patterns, international relations, and implications for therapists and other human service personnel. Discusses the Bedouin influence and religious values and suggests that cultural stereotypes may restrict true understanding. (JAC)

  5. ECONOMIC ETHICS: APPLIED AND PROFESSIONAL CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  6. Multimodal recognition of emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis proposes algorithms and techniques to be used for automatic recognition of six prototypic emotion categories by computer programs, based on the recognition of facial expressions and emotion patterns in voice. Considering the applicability in real-life conditions, the research is carried

  7. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  8. Detection and recognition of analytes based on their crystallization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Victor; Bailey, Charles L.; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.; Elliott, Adam

    2008-05-06

    The invention contemplates a method for recognition of proteins and other biological molecules by imaging morphology, size and distribution of crystalline and amorphous dry residues in droplets (further referred to as "crystallization pattern") containing predetermined amount of certain crystal-forming organic compounds (reporters) to which protein to be analyzed is added. It has been shown that changes in the crystallization patterns of a number of amino-acids can be used as a "signature" of a protein added. It was also found that both the character of changer in the crystallization patter and the fact of such changes can be used as recognition elements in analysis of protein molecules.

  9. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Anne

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model.

  10. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  11. On Tuning the Bad-Character Rule: the Worst-Character Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Cantone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this note we present the worst-character rule, an efficient variation of the bad-character heuristic for the exact string matching problem, firstly introduced in the well-known Boyer-Moore algorithm. Our proposed rule selects a position relative to the current shift which yields the largest average advancement, according to the characters distribution in the text. Experimental results show that the worst-character rule achieves very good results especially in the case of long patterns or small alphabets in random texts and in the case of texts in natural languages.

  12. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  13. Phoneme Based Speaker-Independent English Command Recognition%基于音素的话者特定英语命令识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贲俊; 万旺根; 余小清

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new algorithm of phoneme based speaker-independent English command recognition and developa speaker-independent English command recognition system. It accelerates the whole system development by using HTK (hide Markovtoolkits) and Visual C + + based on the character'istics of speaker-independent speech recognition. In recognition phase we combinethe confidence measures with incomplete matching, which considerably improve the quality of recognition. The recognition accuracyis increased by 4.8% over complete matching without back-end processing when the sige of vocabulary is more than 10.

  14. A Study of Sindhi Related and Arabic Script Adapted languages Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hakro, Dil Nawaz; Talib, A. Z.; Bhatti, Zeeshan; Moja, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of publications are available for the Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Significant researches, as well as articles are present for the Latin, Chinese and Japanese scripts. Arabic script is also one of mature script from OCR perspective. The adaptive languages which share Arabic script or its extended characters; still lacking the OCRs for their language. In this paper we present the efforts of researchers on Arabic and its related and adapted languages. This survey is organ...

  15. PCA facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  16. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  17. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  18. CONFUCIANISM AND CHARACTER EDUCATION: A CHINESE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ju Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of Confucianism are founded on humaneness, righteousness, propriety, knowledge, integrity and filial piety. These principles have found their way to the Chinese culture since the days of Confucius. The study reviews the concept of Confucianism and its influence in Chinese context. Also, the relationship between Confucianism and character education is discussed. Character education is based on the transmission of values and within Chinese society and most of these values have been founded on the teachings of Confucius. Filial piety has strongly been conditioned within the principles of Confucianism and the respect of one’s elders. Character education has been promoted by teachers and elders who focus on the transmission of values from one generation to the next. Character education is supported by the theories and teachings set out by Confucius, mostly in relation to humaneness and integrity, as well as collectivism. The individualistic trends are discarded within character education, as the welfare of the society and the collective is prioritized.

  19. Facial Expressions recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The facial expression recognition is an ocular task that can be performed without human discomfort, is really a speedily growing on the computer research field. There are many applications and programs uses facial expression to evaluate human character, judgment, feelings, and viewpoint. The process of recognizing facial expression is a hard task due to the several circumstances such as facial occlusions, face shape, illumination, face colors, and etc. This paper present a PCA methodology to ...

  20. ID number recognition of X-ray films by a neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, K

    1994-05-01

    Results of ID number recognition of X-ray films using the neuro-computing technique implemented on a conventional engineering workstation are reported. The neural network was trained to identify the ten digits of arabic numerals and two roman letters printed on X-ray films. We used 22 sheets of films for the training set and 23 sheets for the test set. Each sheet of film contains 25 characters. A 99.5% recognition rate on the character base was achieved. PMID:7956138

  1. Transliterating non-ASCII characters with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bernstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This lesson shows how to use Python to transliterate automatically a list of words from a language with a non-Latin alphabet to a standardized format using the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII characters. It builds on readers’ understanding of Python from the lessons “Viewing HTML Files,” “Working with Web Pages,” “From HTML to List of Words (part 1” and “Intro to Beautiful Soup.” At the end of the lesson, we will use the transliteration dictionary to convert the names from a database of the Russian organization Memorial from Cyrillic into Latin characters. Although the example uses Cyrillic characters, the technique can be reproduced with other alphabets using Unicode.

  2. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  3. Detecting DNS Tunnels Using Character Frequency Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Kenton

    2010-01-01

    High-bandwidth covert channels pose significant risks to sensitive and proprietary information inside company networks. Domain Name System (DNS) tunnels provide a means to covertly infiltrate and exfiltrate large amounts of information passed network boundaries. This paper explores the possibility of detecting DNS tunnels by analyzing the unigram, bigram, and trigram character frequencies of domains in DNS queries and responses. It is empirically shown how domains follow Zipf's law in a similar pattern to natural languages, whereas tunneled traffic has more evenly distributed character frequencies. This approach allows tunnels to be detected across multiple domains, whereas previous methods typically concentrate on monitoring point to point systems. Anomalies are quickly discovered when tunneled traffic is compared to the character frequency fingerprint of legitimate domain traffic.

  4. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print.

  5. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  6. Character Education in Print: Content Analysis of Character Education in Introduction to Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Babette Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Albert Einstein is credited with saying that the most important component of education is the development of students' character. While debate exists as to the delivery of character education in the public schools, it must be recognized that not all students have a support system outside of the schoolhouse. Consequently, when character…

  7. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  8. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  9. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  10. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  11. Automatic Licenses Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronak P Patel; Narendra M Patel; Keyur Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollboothfor automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automatedsystem could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges ortunnels, etc. This paper contains new algorithm for recognition number plate using Morphological operation,Thresholding operation, Edge detection, Bounding box analysis for number plate extract...

  12. Human Emotion Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc..). Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I hav...

  13. Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Negi; Varun Sharma

    2012-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  14. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  15. THE RECOGNITION OF SPOKEN MONO-MORPHEMIC COMPOUNDS IN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-da Lai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the auditory lexical access of mono-morphemic compounds in Chinese as a way of understanding the role of orthography in the recognition of spoken words. In traditional Chinese linguistics, a compound is a word written with two or more characters whether or not they are morphemic. A monomorphemic compound may either be a binding word, written with characters that only appear in this one word, or a non-binding word, written with characters that are chosen for their pronunciation but that also appear in other words. Our goal was to determine if this purely orthographic difference affects auditory lexical access by conducting a series of four experiments with materials matched by whole-word frequency, syllable frequency, cross-syllable predictability, cohort size, and acoustic duration, but differing in binding. An auditory lexical decision task (LDT found an orthographic effect: binding words were recognized more quickly than non-binding words. However, this effect disappeared in an auditory repetition and in a visual LDT with the same materials, implying that the orthographic effect during auditory lexical access was localized to the decision component and involved the influence of cross-character predictability without the activation of orthographic representations. This claim was further confirmed by overall faster recognition of spoken binding words in a cross-modal LDT with different types of visual interference. The theoretical and practical consequences of these findings are discussed.

  16. Variability in seed characters of Tinospora cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anjali K.; Geetha K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia, commonly known as Guduchi is a glabrous, deciduous climber which belongs to family Menispermaceae. Fruit is drupe,   ovoid, glossy and red. Investigation was carried out to know the extent of variability in  seed characters of 22 female accessions of T. cordifolia. Based on two years observations it was found wide  variability   of seed shape, seed surface pattern, seed size and condyle size existed among the accessions and these characters were found stable. Hence it is...

  17. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  18. Design of a novel convex hull based feature set for recognition of isolated handwritten Roman numerals

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Nibaran; Pramanik, Sandip; Basu, Subhadip; Saha, Punam Kumar; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, convex hull based features are used for recognition of isolated Roman numerals using a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier. Experiments of convex hull based features for handwritten character recognition are few in numbers. Convex hull of a pattern and the centroid of the convex hull both are affine invariant attributes. In this work, 25 features are extracted based on different bays attributes of the convex hull of the digit patterns. Then these patterns are divided ...

  19. CD Spectroscopic Study on the Molecular Recognition of Chiral Salen-Metal Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 阮文娟; 南晶; 朱志昂

    2003-01-01

    The molecular recognition behavior of the chiral salen-metal complexes towards guest molecules, such as imidazole derivatives and amino-acid ester, was systematically investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The coordination numbers of the host-guest complexes as well as the recognition capability of the salen-metal complexes were explained by character and intensity analyses of the CD spectra.

  20. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J P; Grether, G F

    2014-12-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  1. Honesty, Cheating, and Character in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Most college faculty care about the characters of their students, especially when it comes to questions of honesty. But can students today be trusted not to cheat when completing papers and exams, and not to do so for the right reasons? In section one of this article, the author reviews some of the leading research on cheating behavior, and in…

  2. Seafloor character--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for the seafloor-character map (see sheet 7, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster data file is...

  3. Partners in Character: Building a Moral Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, Maria; Dinovi, Raymond; Gehringer, Christine; Tonia, Rachael; Wuillermin, Monica

    This paper describes the professional partnership between Rowan University, New Jersey, and Radix Elementary School, emphasizing the building of a moral culture in the learning community. The partnership is a driving force behind the movement to promote character education within the school community. This is being accomplished by facilitating…

  4. Educating for Character in the Sexual Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Changes in American sexual behavior brought about by the sexual revolution have been linked to the breakdown of the family and other social ills. Because sex has profound consequences for self, others, and society, sex education is an important part of character education. Sexual abstinence before marriage is associated with better physical and…

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of Cannabaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, M.Q.; Velzen, van R.; Bakker, F.T.; Sattarian, A.; Li, D.Z.; Yi, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabaceae includes ten genera that are widely distributed in tropical to temperate regions of the world. Because of limited taxon and character sampling in previous studies, intergeneric phylogenetic relationships within this family have been poorly resolved. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic

  6. The Attractive Character of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车婧瑜; 郭文睿

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre,written by Charlotte Bront(e),is a story of the heroine's struggle for independent personality and perfect love.Viewed as a classic work of English literature,the author of Jane Eyre makes it valuable and popular by creating a kind of Hew imagination.This paper argues for Jane's attractive character through her life experience.

  7. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  8. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  9. Cyberethics: Envisioning Character Education in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, David B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents theory and research forming the framework of a graduate course in cyberethics education. The course content includes theory and research on the psychology of the Internet, moral development, and character education. Discussion includes application of these constructs to issues such as empathy, privacy, and other issues as…

  10. Interactive Character Deformation Using Simplified Elastic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of our research into realistic skin and model deformation methods aimed at the field of character deformation and animation. The main contributions lie in the properties of our deformation scheme. Our approach preserves the volume of the deformed object while retain

  11. Computer animation for articulated 3D characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.

    2002-01-01

    We present a review of the computer animation literature, mainly concentrating on articulated characters and at least some degree of interactivity or real time simulation. Advances in dierent techniques such as key-frame, motion capture (also known as mocap), dynamics, inverse kinematics (IK), contr

  12. Using Storybooks as a Character Education Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Fethi; Ulutas, Ilkay

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the views and implementations of preschool teachers in "giving character education through picture storybooks." Descriptive review method was used in the research and supported with focus group interviews. For this reason data were took from two study groups (for the descriptive study group n = 245, for the…

  13. Character Education: A Relationship with Building Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between the use of character education programming and school health. Measuring and improving school health is a process that supports social, emotional, ethical and civic education. Hoy, Tarter, and Kottkamp define this concept as a healthy school is one in which the institutional,…

  14. Delineating the Character of the Entrepreneurial University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Burton R.

    2004-01-01

    We gain insight into the emerging character of the entrepreneurial university by pursuing empirical answers to two questions: How are such universities initially formed? And how do they sustain themselves? My 1998 book, "Creating Entrepreneurial Universities," used European cases to conceptualize five "pathways of transformation." My 2004 book,…

  15. Computational Design of Animated Mechanical Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coros, Stelian; Thomaszewski, Bernhard; DRZ Team Team

    2014-03-01

    A factor key to the appeal of modern CG movies and video-games is that the virtual worlds they portray place no bounds on what can be imagined. Rapid manufacturing devices hold the promise of bringing this type of freedom to our own world, by enabling the fabrication of physical objects whose appearance, deformation behaviors and motions can be precisely specified. In order to unleash the full potential of this technology however, computational design methods that create digital content suitable for fabrication need to be developed. In recent work, we presented a computational design system that allows casual users to create animated mechanical characters. Given an articulated character as input, the user designs the animated character by sketching motion curves indicating how they should move. For each motion curve, our framework creates an optimized mechanism that reproduces it as closely as possible. The resulting mechanisms are attached to the character and then connected to each other using gear trains, which are created in a semi-automated fashion. The mechanical assemblies generated with our system can be driven with a single input driver, such as a hand-operated crank or an electric motor, and they can be fabricated using rapid prototyping devices.

  16. Temperament and Character in Psychosomatic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yazici Gulec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Personality takes an important role in etiology of psychosomatic disorders. The studies conducted with Temperament and Character Inventory which investigates the personality according to psychobiological model is considered to have a major role in understanding the relationship between personality and psychosomatic disorders. In order to emphasize the previous studies on this subject, we have done database search in Pubmed and Turk Psikiyatri Dizini (Turkish Psychiatry Directory for the time period between 1991 and 2009 to determine and evaluate the articles conducted among somatization, dermatologic illness, headache, physical medicine, angina, irritable bowel syndrome and asthma patients using Temperament and Character Inventory. The most significant consistent result of these studies was elevated harm avoid-ance scores. Harm avoidance scores still remain high even after controlling for the effect of depression and anxiety. Thus this temperament dimension is possibly an important state and trait feature for development of psychosomatic illnesses. These findings also confirmed that serotonergic systems get involved in the process of psychosomatic organization. In many studies, the mean scores of self direction sub-dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory which has been considered as the fundamental dimension to achieve mature personality, was found to be lower in psychosomatic patient groups than normal healthy control. This result hence supports the notion that process of illness affects the personality among these patients. Detailed evaluation of temparement and character profiles of psychosomatic patients would contribute much into understanding the etiology of these disorders.

  17. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms. PMID:27483739

  18. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  19. 基于Sherlock的光学字符识别%Optical Character Recognition Based on Sherlock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻伟林; 郑苹

    2005-01-01

    产品外包装上印刷字符的自动识别是自动化生产线的一项重要功能,能够大幅度提高检测的自动化水平,提高生产效率.本文介绍基于Sherlock的光学字符识别系统的构成,说明Sherlock软件中的光学字符识别模块的功能,并结合实例说明在识别产品外包装上的点阵列和分段字符以及退化字符等方面的应用.

  20. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  1. Automatic Recognition of Chinese Personal Name Using Conditional Random Fields and Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the features of Chinese personal name, we present an approach for Chinese personal name recognition based on conditional random fields (CRF and knowledge base in this paper. The method builds multiple features of CRF model by adopting Chinese character as processing unit, selects useful features based on selection algorithm of knowledge base and incremental feature template, and finally implements the automatic recognition of Chinese personal name from Chinese document. The experimental results on open real corpus demonstrated the effectiveness of our method and obtained high accuracy rate and high recall rate of recognition.

  2. Analysis of Hamlet's Complex Character By Hamlet's Relationship with Other Major Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2002-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reveal the complexity of the character of Hamlet in Shakespeare's tragedy-Hamlet and the importance of the role that his pretense of lunacy plays in the plot. The different sides of his personality are revealed by the analysis of some of Hamlet's behavior. The argument is also established that the hero's pretense of lunacy is a device in the plot which allows the full display of the character's complexity.

  3. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  4. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke;

    2014-01-01

    meaningful benefits; these centred on reducing isolation and being met on their own terms regarding language and logistics. Most importantly, they remembered when treated with attention and respect by professionals and the mutual acknowledgement between participants. We use Axel Honneth’s notions of rights......-based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  5. Analysis of photonic crystal fiber sensor character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xuan; LIU Feng; BI Wei-hong

    2007-01-01

    The special character of a PCF which is used as a gas or liquid sensor is discussed. The field distribution is analyzed when the solid core PCF is injected with different medium that has different relative dielectric constant (or refractive index). And the experiential formulas of the relation between refractive index of some kinds of liquid and their concentration are given,in order to measure the concentration of the relative liquid. At the same time, the effect of propagation constant on PCF sensor character is also discussed. Furthermore, the photonic band-gap (PBG) ofPCF (PBG-PCF) is calculated at different medium relative dielectric constant, when it is injected with different medium. That is the principle basis for this kind of PCF sensors.

  6. THE CHARACTER, ORGANIZATION CHANGE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Wijaya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of building an integrated information system is an expectation of every company management to achieve effective and efficient working system. However, in the real business practices, not a few companies failed in building an integrated information system caused by the absence of several factors: strong commitment, hard work and smart effort conducted by a team. The team determines the success level in building an integrated information system. A factor of intelligence and mental maturity of users in running a new information system that has not been known is also another key to success. Therefore, it takes a good users character supported by a management decision to make management changes to achieve the building success level. This study aims to address the role of character and organization changes in achieving a success building an integrated information system.

  7. The character of the supersymmetric Casimir energy

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric Casimir energy $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ field theories with an R-symmetry, defined on rigid supersymmetric backgrounds $S^1\\times M_3$, using a Hamiltonian formalism. These backgrounds admit an ambi-Hermitian geometry, and we show that the net contributions to $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ arise from certain twisted holomorphic modes on $\\mathbb{R}\\times M_3$, with respect to both complex structures. The supersymmetric Casimir energy may then be identified as a limit of an index-character that counts these modes. In particular this explains a recent observation relating $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ on $S^1\\times S^3$ to the anomaly polynomial. As further applications we compute $E_\\mathrm{susy}$ for certain secondary Hopf surfaces, and discuss how the index-character may also be used to compute generalized supersymmetric indices.

  8. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, D.; Williams, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha) and body centred cubic (bita) phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist...

  9. Mathieu twining characters for K3

    CERN Document Server

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The analogue of the McKay-Thompson series for the proposed Mathieu group action on the elliptic genus of K3 is analysed. The corresponding NS-sector twining characters have good modular properties and satisfy remarkable replication identities. These observations provide strong support for the conjecture that the elliptic genus of K3 carries indeed an action of the Mathieu group M24.

  10. Australian National Character and Australian English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝米娜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Language and culture have very intimate relationship.From the perspective of sociolinguistics,language is the verbal expression of culture,for a culture’s language contains everything its speakers can think about and every way they have of thinking about things.In other words,there are always cultural elements behind the language phenomenon.National character,the concept

  11. Dyslexia and Configural Perception of Character Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Houpt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable nonword, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient - words and pseudowords were processed at supercapacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across conditions. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four conditions and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia.

  12. Out of character: debating Dutchness, narrating citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Reekum, van, R.

    2014-01-01

    This is an inquiry into the public and political debates over Dutchness and citizenship in the Netherlands (1972-2008). It demonstrates how disagreements over nationhood and citizenship were deliberately transformed from disputes about character into debates about identity and its particular problems. As debates about Dutchness and belonging grew in intensity and political significance, national identity debates came to involve narratives and performative repertoires that were markedly differ...

  13. The pedagogical character of Janez Kuhar

    OpenAIRE

    Mohar, Jožica

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis attempts to provide theoretical and empirical evidence that the pedagogical character of a teacher and his/her attitude towards music education represents, in addition to motivation, an important factor in comprehensive development of the pupil/student. The theoretical part of the thesis includes a detailed description of the teacher and his/her personality and education structure. This involves in particular the teacher’s pedagogical instinct and systematic planning of mus...

  14. Dyslexia and configural perception of character sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Joseph W; Sussman, Bethany L; Townsend, James T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a complex and heterogeneous disorder characterized by unexpected difficulty in learning to read. Although it is considered to be biologically based, the degree of variation has made the nature and locus of dyslexia difficult to ascertain. Hypotheses regarding the cause have ranged from low-level perceptual deficits to higher order cognitive deficits, such as phonological processing and visual-spatial attention. We applied the capacity coefficient, a measure obtained from a mathematical cognitive model of response times to measure how efficiently participants processed different classes of stimuli. The capacity coefficient was used to test the extent to which individuals with dyslexia can be distinguished from normal reading individuals based on their ability to take advantage of word, pronounceable non-word, consonant sequence or unfamiliar context when categorizing character strings. Within subject variability of the capacity coefficient across character string types was fairly regular across normal reading adults and consistent with a previous study of word perception with the capacity coefficient-words and pseudowords were processed at super-capacity and unfamiliar characters strings at limited-capacity. Two distinct patterns were observed in individuals with dyslexia. One group had a profile similar to the normal reading adults while the other group showed very little variation in capacity across string-type. It is possible that these individuals used a similar strategy for all four string-types and were able to generalize this strategy when processing unfamiliar characters. This difference across dyslexia groups may be used to identify sub-types of the disorder and suggest significant differences in word level processing among these subtypes. Therefore, this approach may be useful in further delineating among types of dyslexia, which in turn may lead to better understanding of the etiologies of dyslexia. PMID:25954234

  15. On the Necessarily Public Character of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper asks whether and how modern law may be understood as necessarily public in character. It begins by looking at the two main ways - doctrinal and disciplinary - in which law is understood as only selectively and contingently public. In both these cases law's public quality is counterposed to its private quality. However, publicness can also be conceived of as the juridical master category embracing the public and the private in the disciplinary and doctrinal senses. This conception o...

  16. A Fuzzy Quantum Neural Network and Its Application in Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOFuyou; XIONGYan; CHENHuanhuan; WANGXingfu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy quantum neural network model combining quantum neural network and fuzzy logic, which applies the fuzzy logic to design the collapse rules of the quantum neural network, and solves the character recognition problem. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that fuzzy quantum neural network improves recognizing veracity than the traditional neural network and quantum neural network.

  17. Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taormina, A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Non linear identities between unitary minimal Virasoro characters at low levels (m = 3, 4, 5) are presented as well as a sketch of some proofs. The first identity gives the Ising model characters (m = 3) as bilinears in tricritical Ising model characters (m = 4), while the second one gives the tricritical Ising model characters as bilinears in the Ising model characters and the six combinations of m = 5 Virasoro characters which do not appear in the spectrum of the three state Potts model. (orig.)

  18. The Binary Perfect Phylogeny with Persistent characters

    CERN Document Server

    Braghin, Chiara; Trucco, Gabriella; Bonizzoni, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The near-perfect phylogeny over binary set of characters has been proposed as an extension of the too restrictive model of the perfect phylogeny in order to model biological events such as homoplasy. However the model appears to be too general to model some situations and is computationally inefficient on some instances. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a near-perfect phylogeny where only a type of homoplasy is allowed in the tree: we consider back mutations according to notion of {\\em persistency}, that is characters can be gained and lost at most once. The notion of persistency leads to the problem of the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny (referred as P-PPH). By exploring combinatorial properties of the problem we develop an exact algorithm for solving the P-PPH problem that in the worst case runs in time that is exponential in the number of characters, but is polynomial in the number of species. Indeed, we show that the P-PPH problem can be restated as a special case of the Incomplete Per...

  19. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  20. Rank-frequency relation for Chinese characters

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, W B; Li, B; Wang, Q A

    2013-01-01

    The Zipf's law states that the ordered frequencies $f_1>f_2> ...$ of different words in a text hold $f_r\\propto r^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx 1$ and rank $r$. The law applies to many languages with alphabetical writing systems, but was so far found to be absent for the rank-frequency relation of the Chinese characters, the main (and oldest) example of the logographic writing system. Here we show that the Zipf's law for Chinese characters perfectly holds for sufficiently short texts (few thousand different characters). The scenario of its validity is similar to the Zipf's law for words in short English texts. We focus on short texts, since for the sake of the rank-frequency analysis, long texts are just mixtures of shorter, thematically homogenous pieces. For long texts (or for mixtures of short texts), the Zipf's law holds for a relatively small range of ranks, but it is still important, since for all Chinese texts (we studied) it carries out $simeq 40%$ of the overall frequency. The previous results on th...

  1. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  2. Wavelets and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelets have been successfully used in image processing. Their ability to capture localized spatial-frequency information of image motivates their use for feature extraction. We give an overview of using wavelets in the face recognition technology. Due to limit of space the use of Gabor wavelets is not covered in this survey. Interested readers are referred to section 8.3 for references.

  3. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems i

  4. FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    SONMEZ, Öznur Sinem; OZTAS, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a minutiae-based fingerprint recognition system is implemented which includes normalization, enhancement, thinning, extraction of minutiae, elimination of false minutiae, orientation estimation, core point detection, finding reference points and matching processes. Accordingly, the effects of enhancement and elimination of false minutiae processes, methods of reference point determination and low quality fingerprint images on system performance are analyzed using two different ...

  5. Pattern recognition in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Dick; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2013-09-01

    Pattern recognition is concerned with the development of systems that learn to solve a given problem using a set of example instances, each represented by a number of features. These problems include clustering, the grouping of similar instances; classification, the task of assigning a discrete label to a given instance; and dimensionality reduction, combining or selecting features to arrive at a more useful representation. The use of statistical pattern recognition algorithms in bioinformatics is pervasive. Classification and clustering are often applied to high-throughput measurement data arising from microarray, mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing experiments for selecting markers, predicting phenotype and grouping objects or genes. Less explicitly, classification is at the core of a wide range of tools such as predictors of genes, protein function, functional or genetic interactions, etc., and used extensively in systems biology. A course on pattern recognition (or machine learning) should therefore be at the core of any bioinformatics education program. In this review, we discuss the main elements of a pattern recognition course, based on material developed for courses taught at the BSc, MSc and PhD levels to an audience of bioinformaticians, computer scientists and life scientists. We pay attention to common problems and pitfalls encountered in applications and in interpretation of the results obtained.

  6. A Support Vector Machine-Based Dynamic Network for Visual Speech Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gordan

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Visual speech recognition is an emerging research field. In this paper, we examine the suitability of support vector machines for visual speech recognition. Each word is modeled as a temporal sequence of visemes corresponding to the different phones realized. One support vector machine is trained to recognize each viseme and its output is converted to a posterior probability through a sigmoidal mapping. To model the temporal character of speech, the support vector machines are integrated as nodes into a Viterbi lattice. We test the performance of the proposed approach on a small visual speech recognition task, namely the recognition of the first four digits in English. The word recognition rate obtained is at the level of the previous best reported rates.

  7. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static (Stud

  8. Comparison of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qinglin; Tu, Shen; Yu, Caiyun; Qiu, Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Most Chinese characters are composed of a semantic radical on the left and a phonetic radical on the right. The semantic radical provides the semantic information; the phonetic radical provides information concerning the pronunciation of the whole character. The pseudo-characters in the study consisted of different sub-lexical parts of real Chinese characters and consequently they also had the semantic radical and the phonetic radical. But they were not readable and had no actual meaning. In order to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical activation patterns underlying the orthographic, phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters, we used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to explore the processing of Chinese characters and pseudo-characters when 14 healthy Chinese college students viewed the characters passively. Results showed that both Chinese characters and pseudo-characters elicited an evident negative potential peaking around 120 ms (N120), which appeared to reflect initial orthographic distinction and evaluation. Then, Chinese pseudo-characters elicited a more positive ERP deflection (P220) than did Chinese characters 200-250 ms after onset of the stimuli. It was similar to the recognition potential (RP) and might reflect the integration processes of phonological and semantic processing on the basis of early orthographic information. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (pseudo-characters minus characters) indicated that a generator localized in the left temporal-occipital junction contributed to this effect, which was possibly related to phonological and perceptual-semantic information integration. Between 350-450 ms, a greater negativity (N360) in pseudo-characters as compared to characters was found over midline fronto-central scalp regions. Dipole analysis localized the generator of N360 in the right parahippocampal cortex. Therefore, the N360 might be an N400 component and reflect the higher-level semantic activation on the

  9. RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT IN ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA FLORIN CONSTANTIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition and assessment of the component elements of the annual financial statements’ structures is crucial in order that the information released by them fulfils the qualitative characteristics and the reflected image is a “true and fair view”. Therefore, our approach takes into consideration the recognition and assessment methods for the component elements of the financial statements’ structures, as well as certain possible risks arising from the erroneous recognition or non-recognition of some of these elements.

  10. Brief Analysis on Jean Eyre’s Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-nan

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bronte creates a new woman image-Jean Eyre in Jean Eyre. Analyzing briefly Jean’s characters makes us know why the characer has eternal vitality. The character of Jean Eyre is still of great practical significance.

  11. Higher Dirac cohomology of modules with generalized infinitesimal character

    OpenAIRE

    Pandžić, Pavle; Somberg, Petr

    2013-01-01

    We modify the definition of Dirac cohomology in such a way that the standard properties of the usual Dirac cohomology, valid for modules with infinitesimal character, become valid also for modules with only generalized infinitesimal character.

  12. Seafloor character--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Fort Ross, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_OffshoreFortRoss.zip,"...

  13. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  14. Seafloor character--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Bodega Head, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_BodegaHead.zip,"...

  15. The activation of segmental and tonal information in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min; Jiang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account. PMID:23400856

  16. Supporting Quality Teachers with Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Value has been found in providing recognition and awards programs for excellent teachers. Research has also found a major lack of these programs in both the USA and in Australia. Teachers receiving recognition and awards for their teaching have praised recognition programs as providing motivation for them to continue high-level instruction.…

  17. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  18. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  19. IRIS Based Human Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb, Vinod Kumar Khera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores iris recognition for personal identification and verification. In this paper a newiris recognition technique is proposed using (Scale Invariant Feature Transform SIFT. Imageprocessingalgorithms have been validated on noised real iris image database. The proposedinnovative technique is computationally effective as well as reliable in terms of recognition rates.

  20. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    out Galeotti's justification for recognition as a requirement of liberal justice in detail and asks in what sense the policies supported by Galeotti are policies of recognition. It is argued that Jones misrepresents Galeotti's theory, insofar as this sense of recognition actually is compatible...

  1. Handwritten Digits Recognition Using Neural Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Enăchescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for the recognition of handwritten digits and a practical implementation of this method for real-time recognition. A theoretical framework for the neural networks used to classify the handwritten digits is also presented.The classification task is performed using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN. CNN is a special type of multy-layer neural network, being trained with an optimized version of the back-propagation learning algorithm.CNN is designed to recognize visual patterns directly from pixel images with minimal preprocessing, being capable to recognize patterns with extreme variability (such as handwritten characters, and with robustness to distortions and simple geometric transformations.The main contributions of this paper are related to theoriginal methods for increasing the efficiency of the learning algorithm by preprocessing the images before the learning process and a method for increasing the precision and performance for real-time applications, by removing the non useful information from the background.By combining these strategies we have obtained an accuracy of 96.76%, using as training set the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology database.

  2. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sandhya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita; malik, Latesh

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight li...

  3. Investigation of Shapes and Colours as Elements of Character Design

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelström, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Character design is applied widely both in the game and movie industry. For character designers, it is essential to design intuitively and to avoid repeated and unfulfilling designs. To understand certain methodologies used in design, this degree project investigates if there are further limitations or considerations that need more attention when designing purposeful characters. To get an overview if culture, age and gender affect the choice of shapes and colour schemes of characters, as a me...

  4. License Plate Recognition System based on Image Processing Using Labview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeepak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A License plate recognition (LPR system is one kind of an intelligent transport system and is of considerable interest because of its potential applications in highway electronic toll collection and traffic monitoring systems. A lot of work has been done regarding LPR systems for Korean, Chinese, European and US license plates that generated many commercial products. However, little work has been done for Indian license plate recognition systems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a real time application which recognizes license plates from cars at a gate, for example at the entrance of a parking area or a border crossing. The system, based on regular PC with video camera, catches video frames which include a visible car license plate and processes them. Once a license plate is detected, its digits are recognized, displayed on the user interface or checked against a database. The focus is on the design of algorithms used for extracting the license plate from a single image, isolating the characters of the plate and identifying the individual characters. The proposed system has been implemented using Vision Assistant 8.2.1 & Labview 11.0 the recognition of about 98% vehicles shows that the system is quite efficient.

  5. Educating Moral People: A Caring Alternative to Character Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    An alternative to character education is care ethics. The ethics of care can be seen as fundamentally relational, not individual-agent-based in the way of virtue ethics, and the ethics of care is more indirect than character education. After an introductory chapter that outlines the similarities and differences between character education and care…

  6. Picture This: Visual Literacy as a Pathway to Character Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Lori Ann; Willson, Angeli; Martinez, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    The literary element of character is critical to literary meaning-making, and in picturebooks images provide information important to understanding characters. This manuscript shares results of an investigation that explored the kinds of pictorial information young children use to gain insights into the characters and provide practical ways…

  7. Once Upon a Time: A Grimm Approach to Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Many school districts have implemented "packaged" programs designed to teach character education. Millions of dollars have been spent on these programs, yet society continues to produce more "characters" than students "with character." This article describes a shift from the "programmatic" mindset to a solution that is not packaged or purchased.…

  8. Culture or Disability? Examining Deaf Characters in Children's Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golos, Debbie B.; Moses, Annie M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Picture books can influence how children perceive those from backgrounds and cultures different from their own. Studies have been conducted examining how the text of children's literature portrays multicultural characters or characters with disabilities. However, few have looked specifically at the portrayal of characters through illustrations,…

  9. How Character Complexity Modulates Eye Movement Control in Chinese Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Li, Xingshan

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with…

  10. Applying Adult Learning Theory through a Character Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of a character, Celie, in a movie, 'The Color Purple," through the lens of two adult learning theorists to determine the relationships the character has with each theory. The development and portrayal of characters in movies can be explained and understood by the analysis of adult learning…

  11. 12 CFR 925.12 - Character of management requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Character of management requirement. 925.12... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Eligibility Requirements § 925.12 Character of management requirement. An applicant shall be deemed to be in compliance with the character of management requirement of section...

  12. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  13. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  14. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  15. Character Migration: the Case of Sherlock Holmes

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s famous character Sherlock Holmes continues to re-appear in novels right up to our own day. Some of these authors in the course of their stories also try to explain Holmes’s eccentric psychology at the same time. Others concentrate on introducing those modern social sensibilities felt to be lacking in some of the original stories. A third group speculates what might have happened to Holmes in old age while a fourth takes the opportunity to criticise both Holmes and his...

  16. DWT BASED IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYURI MEMANE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The iris recognition is an emerging technology widely used due to various characteristics such as uniqueness,universal, stable, independent of genetics, acceptable etc. The recognition is carried out using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. It includes collection of iris database, carrying out preprocessing (includes separation ofpupil, normalization and feature extraction. Normalization includes polar to rectangular conversion. After this area of interest is selected from which features are extracted using DWT. It generates approximate, horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficients. These are compared with the stored templates using hamming distance. If thetemplate is match with the stored one than the match ID is displayed. The unauthorized person is indicated by displaying ID equal to ‘00’

  17. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  18. Good character at school: Positive classroom behavior mediates the link between character strengths and school achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths have been found to be substantially related to children’s and adolescents’ well-being. Initial evidence suggests that they also matter for school success (e.g., Weber and Ruch, 2012. The present set of two studies aimed at replicating and extending these findings in two different age groups, primary school students (N = 179; mean age = 11.6 years and secondary school students (N = 199; mean age = 14.4 years. The students completed the VIA-Youth, a self-report measure of the 24 character strengths in the VIA classification. Their teachers rated the students’ positive behavior in the classroom. Additionally, school achievement was assessed: For the primary school students (Study 1, teachers rated the students’ overall school achievement and for the secondary school students (Study 2, we used their grades as a measure of school achievement. We found that several character strengths were associated with both positive classroom behavior and school achievement. Across both samples school achievement was correlated with love of learning, perseverance, zest, gratitude, hope, and perspective. The strongest correlations with positive classroom behavior were found for perseverance, self-regulation, prudence, social intelligence, and hope. For both samples, there were indirect effects of most of the character strengths on school achievement through teacher-rated positive classroom behavior. The converging findings from the two samples support the notion that character strengths contribute to positive classroom behavior, which in turn enhances school achievement. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and for school interventions based on character strengths.

  19. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  20. Automatic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Petheram, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a new method for the location, extraction and normalisation of discrete objects found in digital images. The extraction is by means of sub-pixcel contour following around the object. The normalisation obtains and removes the information concerning size, orientation and location of the object within an image. Analyses of the results are carried out to determine the confidence in recognition of patterns, and methods of cross correlation of object descriptions ...

  1. Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

  2. Recognition of Teaching Excellence*

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, a...

  3. Building corporate character. Interview by Nan Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, A

    1992-01-01

    Stride Rite is a good company by any definition: Keds, Sperry Top-Siders, and Stride Rite children's shoes are consumer favorites for their fit, quality, and comfort. Wall Street analysts praise the company's outstanding financial performance. Innovative programs such as the first corporate child-care center and public service scholarships support Stride Rite's reputation as one of the most responsible employers and corporate citizens in the United States. Behind Stride Rite's good performance are the building blocks of corporate character: a legacy of quality and service and a leader committed to keeping that legacy lively. When Stride Rite shipped its first children's shoes in 1919, they came with the company's commitment "to produce an honest quality product in an honest way and deliver it as promised." For Arnold Hiatt, that commitment has been the driving force behind the company's evolution from manufacturing into marketing and product development as well as the guiding principle in its relations with consumers, dealers, suppliers, and employees. But Stride Rite's corporate character is also a reflection of Hiatt himself. In his early 20s, Hiatt fled a management training program "designed to make carnivores" out of its new employees and bought Blue Star Shoes, a small manufacturing company that had gone into Chapter 11. Through experience and "stumbling around," he built Blue Star's sales to $5 million-and got a practical education in management, markets, and human nature that has proved equally useful in running Stride Rite.

  4. Polytope expansion of Lie characters and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The weight systems of finite-dimensional representations of complex, simple Lie algebras exhibit patterns beyond Weyl-group symmetry. These patterns occur because weight systems can be decomposed into lattice polytopes in a natural way. Since lattice polytopes are relatively simple, this decomposition is useful, in addition to being more economical than the decomposition into single weights. An expansion of characters into polytope sums follows from the polytope decomposition of weight systems. We study this polytope expansion here. A new, general formula is given for the polytope sums involved. The combinatorics of the polytope expansion are analyzed; we point out that they are reduced from those of the Weyl character formula (described by the Kostant partition function) in an optimal way. We also show that the weight multiplicities can be found easily from the polytope multiplicities, indicating explicitly the equivalence of the two descriptions. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the polytope expansion by showing how polytope multiplicities can be used in the calculation of tensor product decompositions, and subalgebra branching rules.

  5. The Deprofessionalisation Thesis, Accountability and Professional Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available It is said that the deprofessionalisation of social work and other welfare occupations reduces workers' professional discretion and autonomy, and thus their capacity to act in the best interests of their client. Without necessarily regarding the deprofessionalisation thesis as conclusive, this paper will ask how the state's control of the role and task of social workers impacts on their role-implicated obligations as professionals. If workers are reduced (as claimed to the status of mere functionaries in systems they neither approve of nor control, does this exonerate them from bad outcomes or service failures? How should we view the dramatic increase in formal regulation now seen in the UK - as professionalisation or deprofessionalisation? The paper will argue that whatever the drift of policy, workers remain in some measure personally accountable. Service failures imply faults of practical reason that are partly attributable to the moral and intellectual character of professionals as individuals. It is therefore up to professionals, and their organisations, to attend to the improvement of professional character.

  6. Plausibility Effects when Reading One- and Two-Character Words in Chinese: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinmian; Staub, Adrian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements of Chinese readers were monitored as they read sentences containing a critical character that was either a 1-character word or the initial character of a 2-character word. Due to manipulation of the verb prior to the target word, the 1-character target word (or the first character of the 2-character target word) was either plausible…

  7. Legibility of characters with different segmentations and colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, H. J.

    The legibility of electronically presented information, e.g., public transport timetables, was tested. The minimal and the optimal legibility conditions of short words in 5X7 dot matrix and 14 line segment characters were compared with the legibility of continuous characters. The words were presented by screen projection with decreasing size of characters with fixed distance to the subject (minimum legibility). Optimal legibility was determined subjectively. The size of characters of negative contrast has to be increased by 20 compared with positive contrast. The 5X7 dot matrix characters are as legible as continuous letters. The 14 line segment characters must be presented 1.3 times higher for the same legibility. White characters on blue background were preferred by most subjects.

  8. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments.

  9. The Incarnated Narrator as a Character in Middlemarch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航

    2014-01-01

    Sympathy is one of the essential themes that George Eliot discusses in her novels. She uses various effective narrative strategies for the emergence of that theme. This paper, based on a close reading on the passage from Middlemarch, explores one of them-the incarnation of the narrator as a character. In Middlemarch, the narrator, as a character, both shows sympathy to the characters and asks for sympathy from the readers. To show his sympathy to the characters, he provides his comprehensive analysis of the characters and authorizes his characters to present their opinions. To ask for the sympathy, he directly addresses to the read-ers, uses free indirect speech in the narration, and expresses his own emotions. By the strategy of incarnation of the narrator as a character, Eliot clearly presents the readers her purpose of writing.

  10. Consciousness and abilities of dream characters observed during lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholey, P

    1989-04-01

    A description of several phenomenological experiments is given. These were done to investigate of which cognitive accomplishments dream characters are capable in lucid dreams. Nine male experienced lucid dreamers participated as subjects. They were directed to set different tasks to dream characters they met while lucid dreaming. Dream characters were asked to draw or write, to name unknown words, to find rhyme words, to make verses, and to solve arithmetic problems. Part of the dream characters actually agreed to perform the tasks and were successful, although the arithmetic accomplishments were poor. From the phenomenological findings, nothing contradicts the assumption that dream characters have consciousness in a specific sense. Herefrom the conclusion was drawn, that in lucid dream therapy communication with dream characters should be handled as if they were rational beings. Finally, several possibilities of assessing the question, whether dream characters possess consciousness, can be examined with the aid of psychophysiological experiments. PMID:2717365

  11. The Case for Studying Character(s) in the Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Haberling, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In response to increased violence, bullying, and anti-social behavior among young people in our schools and on our streets (Akiba, M., LeTendre, G., Baker, D., & Goesling, B., 2002; Leming, 1996; Males, 2001; Pellegrini & Bartini, 2000; Smagorinsky, 2002; Tendero, 2000), advocates of character education have proposed and instituted a…

  12. An MLP based Approach for Recognition of Handwritten `Bangla' Numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Subhadip; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here involves the design of a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based pattern classifier for recognition of handwritten Bangla digits using a 76 element feature vector. Bangla is the second most popular script and language in the Indian subcontinent and the fifth most popular language in the world. The feature set developed for representing handwritten Bangla numerals here includes 24 shadow features, 16 centroid features and 36 longest-run features. On experimentation with a database of 6000 samples, the technique yields an average recognition rate of 96.67% evaluated after three-fold cross validation of results. It is useful for applications related to OCR of handwritten Bangla Digit and can also be extended to include OCR of handwritten characters of Bangla alphabet.

  13. Handwritten Bangla Alphabet Recognition using an MLP Based Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Subhadip; Sarkar, Ram; Kundu, Mahantapas; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The work presented here involves the design of a Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) based classifier for recognition of handwritten Bangla alphabet using a 76 element feature set Bangla is the second most popular script and language in the Indian subcontinent and the fifth most popular language in the world. The feature set developed for representing handwritten characters of Bangla alphabet includes 24 shadow features, 16 centroid features and 36 longest-run features. Recognition performances of the MLP designed to work with this feature set are experimentally observed as 86.46% and 75.05% on the samples of the training and the test sets respectively. The work has useful application in the development of a complete OCR system for handwritten Bangla text.

  14. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  15. A new model for discrete character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A; Ridley, M

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an explicit justification for the principle that a uniform taxon should contribute only one datapoint in comparative analyses with discrete variables. The justification is that phylogenetic patterns in variables unincluded in the proposed test vitiate the assumption of independence, both at the level of species and at the level of branch segments. The consequence is that a uniform taxon cannot safely be counted as more than one datapoint. The arguments use a branching discrete Markov process in continuous time, with the new feature that the tested variables are only a subset of the evolving characters. This model is proposed as a useful criterion for measuring the merit of proposed tests, and illustrates the necessity for models in evaluating comparative methods. PMID:9039396

  16. Microstructure and Slip Character in Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Banerjee

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of microstructures in titanium alloys on the basic parameters of deformation behaviour such as slip character, slip length and slip intensity have been explored. Commercial titanium alloys contain the hexagonal close packed (alpha and body centred cubic (bita phases. Slip in these individual phases is shown to be dependent on the nature of alloying elements through their effect on phase stability as related to decomposition into ordered or w structures. When alpha and bita coexist, their relative crystallographic orientations, size, shape and volume fraction, control the nature of slip. For a given composition, structure may be manipulated through appropriate thermomechanical treatment to obtain the desired deformation behaviour and therefore fracture mode.

  17. Advances in Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Neustein, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This volume is comprised of contributions from eminent leaders in the speech industry, and presents a comprehensive and in depth analysis of the progress of speech technology in the topical areas of mobile settings, healthcare and call centers. The material addresses the technical aspects of voice technology within the framework of societal needs, such as the use of speech recognition software to produce up-to-date electronic health records, not withstanding patients making changes to health plans and physicians. Included will be discussion of speech engineering, linguistics, human factors ana

  18. Visual affect recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Stathopoulou, I-O

    2010-01-01

    It is generally known that human faces, as well as body motions and gestures, provide a wealth of information about a person, such as age, race, sex and emotional state. This monograph primarily studies the perception of facial expression of emotion, and secondarily of motion and gestures, with the purpose of developing a fully automated visual affect recognition system for use in modes of human/computer interaction. The book begins with a survey of the literature on emotion perception, followed by a description of empirical studies conducted with human participants and the construction of a '

  19. Recognition Using Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale window scanning has been popular in object detection but it generalizes poorly to complex features (e.g. nonlinear SVM kernel), deformable objects (e.g. animals), and finer-grained tasks (e.g. segmentation). In contrast to that, regions are appealing as image primitives for recognition because: (1) they encode object shape and scale naturally; (2) they are only mildly affected by background clutter; and (3) they significantly reduce the set of possible object locations in images.I...

  20. Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

    2008-10-01

    The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

  1. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image.

  2. Liking them thin: adolescents' favorite television characters and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te'eni-Harari, Tali; Eyal, Keren

    2015-01-01

    Considering the alarming worldwide increases in eating disorders among adolescents, thought to be linked with body image, this study uses social cognitive theory as a framework to combine the examination of adolescent body image with the topic of mediated characters. The study places a new focus in this realm on favorite television characters, extending past research on general social comparison tendencies or comparisons with unfamiliar mediated models. A survey of 756 students in Grades 7-8 and 10-11 identified their favorite same-gender television characters as well as the adolescents' body image and social comparison with the characters. The survey was accompanied by a content analysis of the favorite characters and their body sizes. Adolescents' favorite television characters were mostly identified as thin or average in body size. The thinner the characters, the more adolescents self-compared with them. The discrepancy between the adolescents' body size and that of their favorite characters significantly and negatively predicted adolescents' body image both directly and indirectly through its relationship with social comparison with the character. The study finds that television characters are important references for adolescents and may serve as targets for social comparison in the context of body image. PMID:25832319

  3. Recent progress in fingerprint recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition has been increasingly used to realize personal identification in civilian's daily life, such as ID card, fingerprints hard disk and so on. Great improvement has been achieved in the on-line fingerprint sensing technology and automatic fingerprint recognition algorithms. Various fingerprint recognition techniques, including fingerprint acquisition, classification, enhancement and matching, are highly improved. This paper overviews recent advances in fingerprint recognition and summarizes the algorithm proposed for every step with special focuses on the enhancement of low-quality fingerprints and the matching of the distorted fingerprint images. Both issues are believed to be significant and challenging tasks. In addition, we also discuss the common evaluation for the fingerprint recognition algorithm of the Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004 (FVC2004) and the Fingerprint Vendor Technology Evaluation 2003 (FpVTE2003), based on which we could measure the performance of the recognition algorithm objectively and uniformly.

  4. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  5. Monocular SLAM Supported Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Sudeep; Leonard, John,

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a monocular SLAM-aware object recognition system that is able to achieve considerably stronger recognition performance, as compared to classical object recognition systems that function on a frame-by-frame basis. By incorporating several key ideas including multi-view object proposals and efficient feature encoding methods, our proposed system is able to detect and robustly recognize objects in its environment using a single RGB camera in near-constant time. Through e...

  6. Speech recognition in university classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Mike; Bain, Keith; Basson, Sara H

    2002-01-01

    The LIBERATED LEARNING PROJECT (LLP) is an applied research project studying two core questions: 1) Can speech recognition (SR) technology successfully digitize lectures to display spoken words as text in university classrooms? 2) Can speech recognition technology be used successfully as an alternative to traditional classroom notetaking for persons with disabilities? This paper addresses these intriguing questions and explores the underlying complex relationship between speech recognition te...

  7. Information theory and pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Daemi, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an account of an investigation into the use of information theory measures in pattern recognition problems. The objectives were firstly to determine the information content of the set of representations of an input image which are found at the output of an array of sensors; secondly to assess the information which may be used to allocate different patterns to appropriate classes in order to provide a means of recognition; and thirdly to assess the recognition capability o...

  8. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  9. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is the forensic experts‟ way of manual facial comparison. Then we review famous works in the domain of forensic face recognition. Some of these papers describe general trends in forensics [1], guidelin...

  10. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  12. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  13. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  14. Frequency-Based Fingerprint Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Gualberto; Sánchez, Gabriel; Toscano, Karina; Pérez, Héctor

    abstract Fingerprint recognition is one of the most popular methods used for identification with greater success degree. Fingerprint has unique characteristics called minutiae, which are points where a curve track ends, intersects, or branches off. In this chapter a fingerprint recognition method is proposed in which a combination of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gabor filters is used for image enhancement. A novel recognition stage using local features for recognition is also proposed. Also a verification stage is introduced to be used when the system output has more than one person.

  15. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.VINODINI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.

  16. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  17. Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xiao-Yong; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as...

  18. Anxiety upon Awakening and Attributes of Dream Characters

    OpenAIRE

    Saez-Uribarri, Iñigo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the attributes of dream characters related to anxiety upon awakening, and the possibility of using these attributes to construct a questionnaire administered to dreamers as an alternative to traditional methods of dream content coding via trained judges, such as those of Hall and Van de Castle and Gottschalk-Gleser. Method: A sample of 169 volunteers rated their dream characters with adjectives. Character attributes related to anxiety upon awakening were analysed through...

  19. Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol

    OpenAIRE

    HULCOVÁ, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis Sherlock Holmes: From literary character to pop culture symbol deals with the collection of sixty detective stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, the canon. The aim of the thesis is to highlight the aspects that contributed to the popularity of Sherlock Holmes and the series as such. The character of Sherlock Holmes became one of the most adapted literary characters, which is reflected in many areas of popular culture. Special attention is paid to the recent adaptations presentin...

  20. Character displacement in the fighting colours of Hetaerina damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, C. N; Grether, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression between species is a seldom-considered but potentially widespread mechanism of character displacement in secondary sexual characters. Based on previous research showing that similarity in wing coloration directly influences interspecific territorial aggression in Hetaerina damselflies, we predicted that wing coloration would show a pattern of character displacement (divergence in sympatry). A geographical survey of four Hetaerina damselfly species in Mexico and Texas showed evidenc...

  1. On Jordan Decomposition of Characters for SU(n,q)

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanes, Marc

    2011-01-01

    As shown by Bonnaf\\'e, a step in proving a Jordan decomposition of characters of finite special linear groups is the parametrization of unipotent characters of centralizers of semi-simple elements in projective linear groups. We show the same kind of result in the case of finite special unitary groups. The proof leads to a mild adaptation of Bonnaf\\'e's methods expounded in [B99]. The outcome is a Jordan decomposition of characters compatible with Lusztig's twisted induction.

  2. Attribute measure recognition approach and its applications to emitter recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xin; HE You; YI Xiao

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the emitter recognition problem. A new recognition method based on attribute measure for emitter recognition is put forward. The steps of the method are presented. The approach to determining the weight coefficient is also discussed. Moreover, considering the temporal redundancy of emitter information detected by multi-sensor system, this new recognition method is generalized to multi-sensor system. A method based on the combination of attribute measure and D-S evidence theory is proposed. The implementation of D-S reasoning is always restricted by basic probability assignment function. Constructing basic probability assignment function based on attribute measure is presented in multi-sensor recognition system. Examples of recognizing the emitter purpose and system are selected to demonstrate the method proposed. Experimental results show that the performance of this new method is accurate and effective.

  3. A Two Stage Classification Approach for Handwritten Devanagari Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Malik, Latesh

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two stage classification approach for handwritten devanagari characters The first stage is using structural properties like shirorekha, spine in character and second stage exploits some intersection features of characters which are fed to a feedforward neural network. Simple histogram based method does not work for finding shirorekha, vertical bar (Spine) in handwritten devnagari characters. So we designed a differential distance based technique to find a near straight line for shirorekha and spine. This approach has been tested for 50000 samples and we got 89.12% success

  4. The Character Construction of Simba in The Lion King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The Lion King(1994)told the story of little lion Simba who experienced growth,death,love and responsibility,and finally overcame himself and the enemy and got the throne of the king of the forest,and became the hero of lion herd.As the soul character of the movie,Simba plays a very important role to the whole story.This paper examines Simba’s personality features,through analyzing the function of character design and plot in construction of character,and attempts to explore how the heroic character Simba is constructed step by step.

  5. The Character Construction of Simba in The Lion King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2015-01-01

    The Lion King(1994)told the story of little lion Simba who experienced growth,death,love and responsibility,and finally overcame himself and the enemy and got the throne of the king of the forest,and became the hero of lion herd.As the soul character of the movie,Simba plays a very important role to the whole story.This paper examines Simba's personality features,through analyzing thefunction of character design and plot in construction of character,and attempts to explore how the heroic character Simba is constructed step by step.

  6. Supersymmetric QFT, Super Loop Spaces and Bismut-Chern Character

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we give a quantum interpretation of the Bismut-Chern character form (the loop space lifting of the Chern character form) as well as the Chern character form associated to a complex vector bundle with connection over a smooth manifold in the framework of supersymmetric quantum field theories developed by Stolz and Teichner \\cite{ST07}. We show that the Bismut-Chern character form comes up via a loop-deloop process when one goes from $1|1$D theory over a manifold down to a $0|1$D...

  7. Modeling the Semiotic Structure of Player-Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    from the fields of narratology and literary theory to highlight the double-layered ontology of character as both a possible individual and as a semiotic construction. Uri Margolin’s narratological model of character signification is used as the basis for developing a semiotic-structural model...... of the player-character that addresses its specific medialities and formal nature – a task which is performed through illustrative close examinations of the player-characters in The Last of Us (Naughty Dog 2013) and Gone Home (The Fullbright Company 2013)....

  8. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  9. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  10. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  11. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  12. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone d

  14. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  15. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  16. Recognition of emotion in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. Frijda

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that recognition of emotion had a simple basis and a highly complex edifice above it. Its basis is formed by catching intent from expressive and other emotional behavior, using elementary principles of perceptual integration. In intent recognition, mirror neurons under particular

  17. Fractal Character of China Bedrock Coastline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓华

    2004-01-01

    Fractal theory was applied to a preliminary discussion of the fractal character and formation mechanism of the coastline of the bedrock coast of China on the basis of GIS (Geographical Information System). Some significant conclusions were drawn:(1) The fractal dimensions of the coastline and linear structures of Liaodong Peninsula are 1.0093 and 1.0246 respectively, those of Shandong Peninsula are 1.019 and 1.021 respectively, etc.(2) The fractal dimensions of coastlines of Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, Zhejiang and Fujian-Guangdong tend to increase with the spatial change from north to south.(3)The regional linear structures(including faults)control the basic trends and fractal dimensions of coastlines as a whole in the regions of the bedrock coast of China:the more the controlling effect of linear structures, the smaller the fractal dimensions of coastlines.(4)The substantial constituents of coast and biologic function both play an important role in affecting the fractal dimensions of coastlines of Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, Zhejiang, Fujian-Guangdong and Taiwan Island.

  18. A simple way of finding linked and antagonistic characters by means of table of characters used in the dendrite method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a new methodical solution based on the table of characters used in taxonomic examinations by the dendrite method worked out for the species of Delia Dum., Spergula L. and Spergularia Presl. growing in Poland. This methodical solution shows a simple way to find conjugate and antagonistic characters in the examined species and to determine which characters are related to each other in different organs.

  19. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authors minimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  20. Pattern Recognition by Combined Invariants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Rongchun

    2001-01-01

    A feature-based recognition of objectsor patterns independent of their position, size, orien-tation and other variations has been the goal of muchrecent research. The existing approaches to invarianttwo-dimensional pattern recognition are useless whenpattern is blurred. In this paper, we present a novelpattern recognition system which can solve the prob-lem by using combined invariants as image features.The classification technique we choose for our systemis weighted normalized cross correlation. The mean ofthe intraclass standard deviations of the kth featureover the total number of prototypes for each class isused as a weighting factor during the classification pro-cess to improve recognition accuracy. The feasibilityof our pattern recognition system and the invarianceof the combined features with respect to translation,scaling, rotation and blurring are approved by numer-ical experiments on head images.

  1. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  2. Developing Character and Values for Global Citizens: Analysis of pre-service science teachers' moral reasoning on socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Chang, Hyunsook; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sung-Won; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2012-04-01

    Character and values are the essential driving forces that serve as general guides or points of reference for individuals to support decision-making and to act responsibly about global socioscientific issues (SSIs). Based on this assumption, we investigated to what extent pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of South Korea possess character and values as global citizens; these values include ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion. Eighteen PSTs participated in the SSI programs focusing on developing character and values through dialogical and reflective processes. SSIs were centered on the use of nuclear power generation, climate change, and embryonic stem cell research. The results indicated that PSTs showed three key elements of character and values, but failed to apply consistent moral principles on the issues and demonstrated limited global perspectives. While they tended to approach the issues with emotion and sympathy, they nonetheless failed to perceive themselves as major moral agents who are able to actively resolve large-scale societal issues. This study also suggests that the SSI programs can facilitate socioscientific reasoning to include abilities such as recognition of the complexity of SSIs, examine issues from multiple perspectives, and exhibit skepticism about information.

  3. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  4. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  5. Categorical membership modulates crowding: evidence from characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Josephine; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna

    2014-10-16

    Visual crowding is generally thought to affect recognition mostly or only at the level of feature combination. Calling this assertion into question, recent studies have shown that if a target object and its flankers belong to different categories crowding is weaker than if they belong to the same category. Nevertheless, these results can be explained in terms of featural differences between categories. The current study tests if category-level (i.e., high-level) interference in crowding occurs when featural differences are controlled for. First, replicating previous results, we found lower critical spacing for targets and flankers belonging to different categories. Second, we observed the same, albeit weaker, category-specific effect when objects in both categories had the exact same feature set, suggesting that category-specific effects persist even when featural differences are fully controlled for. Third, we manipulated the semantic content of the flankers while keeping their feature set constant, by using upright or rotated objects, and found that meaning modulated crowding. An exclusively feature-based account of crowding would predict no differences due to such changes in meaning. We conclude that crowding results from not only the well-documented feature-level interactions but also additional interactions at a level where objects are grouped by meaning.

  6. Dirichlet Expression for (1, ) with General Dirichlet Character

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Rane

    2010-02-01

    In the famous work of Dirichlet on class number formula, (, ) at =1 has been expressed as a finite sum, where (, ) is the Dirichlet -series of a real Dirichlet character. We show that this expression with obvious modification is valid for the general primitive Dirichlet character .

  7. Character, symptoms and relationship patterns before and after psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Background. In psychoanalytic theory, character is conceived as a regulating structure intended for life-long adaptation between inner needs and outer reality. If this adaptation fails, symptoms and dysfunctional relationship patterns might emerge, thus, implying a close association between symptoms, relationship patterns and underlying character. Furthermore, according to psychoanalytic theory decreased symptomatic suffering and more adaptive relations are regarded to be ...

  8. On the Tragic Character-Miss Havisham in Great Expectations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-lan

    2015-01-01

    Charles Dickens, as one of the greatest critical realistic writers in the 19th century, is renowned all around the world. Miss Havisham in Great Expectations is certainly one of the most strange and memorable characters. This paper tries to analyze dif⁃ferent aspects of Miss Havisham’s character to explore her tragic life.

  9. Sherlock Holmes Meets Othello: A MDS Analysis of Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G. W.; Lambert, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in college freshmen's perceptual organization of characters from "Othello" after three weeks of study and lecture were assessed using multidimensional scaling procedures. Sherlock Holmes experts also provided dissimilarity ratings of Conan Doyle's characters. Discussion centers on the extent to which the lectures on "Othello" effected…

  10. The Choice of Traditional vs. Simplified Characters in US Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Which form of Chinese characters should be taught in Chinese language classes: traditional or simplified? The results of a questionnaire distributed to sections at the University of Florida show the reasons for students' preferences for one or the other form. In view of the students' awareness that traditional characters are more beneficial to…

  11. Character Education and Media Literacy--Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Scott D.; Emmans, Cindy C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses curriculum development in the areas of character education and media literacy. Topics include what character education is and what it attempts to promote within a school setting; moral judgments; moral and ethical values; behavior; decision making; the role of mass media, including media violence; and adding media education to the…

  12. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  13. The Meaning of Role Modelling in Moral and Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Character education considers teachers to be role models, but it is unclear what this means in practice. Do teachers model admirable character traits? And do they do so effectively? In this article the relevant pedagogical and psychological literature is reviewed in order to shed light on these questions. First, the use of role modelling as a…

  14. Character combinations, convergence and diversification in ectoparasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Different lineages of organisms diversify over time at different rates, in part as a consequence of the characteristics of the species in these lineages. Certain suites of traits possessed by species within a clade may determine rates of diversification, with some particular combinations of characters acting synergistically to either limit or promote diversification; the most successful combinations may also emerge repeatedly in different clades via convergent evolution. Here, the association between species characters and diversification is investigated amongst 21 independent lineages of arthropods ectoparasitic on vertebrate hosts. Using nine characters (each with two to four states) that capture general life history strategy, transmission mode and host-parasite interaction, each lineage was described by the set of character states it possesses. The results show, firstly, that most possible pair-wise combinations of character states have been adopted at least once, sometimes several times independently by different lineages; thus, ectoparasitic arthropods have explored most of the life history character space available to them. Secondly, lineages possessing commonly observed combinations of character states are not necessarily the ones that have experienced the highest rates of diversification (measured as a clade's species-per-genus ratio). Thirdly, some specific traits are associated with higher rates of diversification. Using more than one host per generation, laying eggs away from the host and intermediate levels of fecundity are features that appear to have promoted diversification. These findings indicate that particular species characters may be evolutionary drivers of diversity, whose effects could also apply in other taxa.

  15. Analysis of Female Characters of Charles Dickens' Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2011-01-01

    By tagging different characters,Charles Dickens invented many distinct characters in his novels.Female charaters are a central of Charls Dickens literary works.They represent the unimportant and the weak in the British society in the 19th century.This ess

  16. From Aristotle to Angelou: Best Practices in Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovre, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    The modern character education movement emerged in the 1980s as a consequence of growing parental and public concern for moral drift, or what sociologist James Davison Hunter referred to as "the death of character." This public anomie was captured in these words from Sanford McDonnell, chairman emeritus of McDonnell Douglas and chair of the…

  17. Forgiveness as Character Education for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Neng; Enright, Robert; Klatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Forgiveness education has demonstrated psychological, social and academic benefits; however, it has not been discussed as a means of promoting character development for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss forgiveness as a moral concept and explain how forgiveness can contribute to current discussions of character education. After…

  18. Inculcating Character Education through EFL Teaching in Indonesian State Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qoyyimah, Uswatun

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia have implemented the recent character education policy within an era of school-based curriculum reform. The character education policy required all teachers, EFL teachers included, to instil certain values in every lesson whilst the school-based curriculum reform…

  19. The Implementation of Character Education through Scout Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislia; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Manda, Darman

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at describing the factors influencing the extracurricular activities especially scouting. This research also aims at describing the Scouts skills that can form the students' character. This research is also to describe the strategies for the formation of the students' character through scout activities. This research was a…

  20. 42 CFR 54a.5 - Religious character and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious character and independence. 54a.5 Section... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.5 Religious character and independence. A religious organization that participates in an applicable program will retain its independence from Federal, State,...